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#20101015 AB, initial import in local hg repository

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+
+  <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1990
+  Ty Coon, President of Vice
+
+That's all there is to it!
+
+
+Candygram 1.0:
+    * No changes from beta 2.
+
+Candygram 1.0 beta 2:
+    * Changed behavior of list patterns to repeat last element.
+    * A single Receiver object may be used by multiple processes.
+    * Added Receiver.removeHandler() method.
+    * Can pass a Process subclass to spawn() and spawnLink().
+    * New wxProcess example class integrates Candygram with wxPython.
+    * Updated FAQ.
+
+Candygram 1.0 beta 1:
+    * Initial public release.
+include COPYING
+include ChangeLog
+recursive-include examples *.py
+recursive-include test *.py
+
+include doc/candygram/*
+include doc/*.tex
+include doc/about.dat
+include doc/mkhowto
+README
+
+Copyright (c) 2004 Michael Hobbs
+
+This file is part of Candygram.
+
+Candygram is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
+the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
+(at your option) any later version.
+
+Candygram is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
+
+You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+along with Candygram; if not, write to the Free Software
+Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+INSTALLATION
+
+To install Candygram simply run
+    $ python setup.py install
+from the directory which contains this README.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+DOCUMENTATION
+
+You can find documentation for the Candygram package in the doc/candygram
+directory, or online at http://candygram.sourceforge.net.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+FEEDBACK
+
+Please submit all bug reports, feature requests, etc. to the appropriate tracker
+at http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?group_id=114295.
+
+General discussion takes place on the candygram-discuss@lists.sourceforge.net
+mailing list. You can subscribe to this list by visiting
+http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/candygram-discuss.
+candygram
+candygram.pdf
+candygram.dvi
+candygram.ps
+candygram.txt
+sourceforge
+ \begin{center}
+
+       Version 1.2, November 2002
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+{\Large\bf 4. MODIFICATIONS}
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+\begin{center}
+{\Large\bf 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS}
+\end{center}
+
+
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+{\Large\bf 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS}
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+
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+{\Large\bf 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS}
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+{\Large\bf 8. TRANSLATION}
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+<p> This document was generated using the <a
+    href="http://saftsack.fs.uni-bayreuth.de/;SPMtilde;latex2ht/">
+    <strong>LaTeX</strong>2<tt>HTML</tt></a> translator.
+</p>
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+    href="http://saftsack.fs.uni-bayreuth.de/;SPMtilde;latex2ht/">
+    <strong>LaTeX</strong>2<tt>HTML</tt></a> is Copyright &copy;
+  1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, <a
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+    Drakos</a>, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of
+  Leeds, and Copyright &copy; 1997, 1998, <a
+    href="http://www.maths.mq.edu.au/;SPMtilde;ross/">Ross
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+    href="http://saftsack.fs.uni-bayreuth.de/;SPMtilde;latex2ht/">
+    <strong>LaTeX</strong>2<tt>HTML</tt></a> to the Python
+  documentation has been heavily tailored by Fred L. Drake,
+  Jr.  Original navigation icons were contributed by Christopher
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+    Isabella I</a>, Castille, Spain.
+</p>
+
+<p> No cats were confused during the production of this document.
+</p>

doc/candygram.pws

+personal_ws-1.1 en 40
+isinstance
+removeHandler
+isProcessAlive
+CPython
+cadnygram
+addHandlers
+funcWithArgs
+microthread
+args
+processClass
+AssertionError
+badarg
+py
+iter
+msg
+str
+len
+Pythonic
+Candygram
+candygram
+canydgram
+cd
+Erlangy
+isAlive
+microthreads
+setitem
+handlerReference
+func
+ExitError
+textrm
+noproc
+spawnLink
+Candygram's
+proc
+getitem
+mutexes
+SourceForge
+addHandler
+processFlag
+PDF

doc/candygram.tex

+\documentclass{howto}
+\title{Candygram}
+\makeindex
+\date{\today}
+\author{Michael Hobbs}
+\authoraddress{
+        Email: \email{mike@hobbshouse.org}
+}
+\release{1.0}
+\setshortversion{1.0}
+
+\newcommand{\Erlang}{\ulink{Erlang}{http://www.erlang.org/}}
+\newcommand{\erlangbook}{\citetitle[http://www.erlang.org/download/erlang-book-part1.pdf]{Concurrent Programming in Erlang}}
+
+% PDF output doesn't display some symbols well, unless it is in math mode.
+% The math mode graphics generated by latex2html, on the other hand, look awful.
+\ifpdf
+ 	\newcommand{\lessthan}[0]{\begin{math}<\end{math}}
+ 	\newcommand{\greaterthan}[0]{\begin{math}>\end{math}}
+ 	\newcommand{\pipe}[0]{\begin{math}|\end{math}}
+\else
+ 	\newcommand{\lessthan}[0]{<}
+ 	\newcommand{\greaterthan}[0]{>}
+ 	\newcommand{\pipe}[0]{|}
+\fi
+
+
+
+\begin{document}
+
+\maketitle
+
+Copyright \copyright\ 2004 Michael Hobbs.
+
+Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
+under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
+or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
+with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
+A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
+Free Documentation License''.
+
+\begin{abstract}
+\noindent
+Candygram is a Python implementation of \Erlang\ concurrency primitives. Erlang
+is widely respected for its elegant built-in facilities for concurrent
+programming. This package attempts to emulate those facilities as closely as
+possible in Python. With Candygram, developers can send and receive messages
+between threads using semantics nearly identical to those in the Erlang
+language.
+\end{abstract}
+
+\tableofcontents
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{Download And Install}
+
+You can download all available versions of Candygram from
+\ulink{SourceForge.net}
+	{http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=114295}. The current
+stable release, as of this writing, is \version. You can also download this
+document in PDF format from the link above.
+
+To install, uncompress the zip or tar file, \program{cd} into the directory, and
+run:
+\begin{verbatim}
+python setup.py install
+\end{verbatim}
+
+Windows users can just download the installer program and run it.
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{Overview}
+\label{overview}
+
+\begin{notice}[note]
+Erlang uses a peculiar terminology in respect to threads. In Erlang parlance,
+threads are called ``processes''. This terminology is due to a couple of
+reasons. First, the Erlang runtime environment is a virtual machine. Second,
+because Erlang is a functional language, no state is shared among its threads.
+Since the concurrent tasks in an Erlang system run as top-level peers within a
+single [virtual] machine and don't share state, they are therefore named
+``Processes''.
+
+To avoid confusion when using this document alongside the Erlang documentation,
+the remainder of this document uses the word ``process'' instead of ``thread''.
+You are free, however, to pronounce the word ``process'' however you wish.
+\end{notice}
+
+This package provides an implementation of the following \Erlang\ core
+functions:
+\begin{itemize}
+	\item \function{spawn()}
+	\item \function{send()}
+	\item \keyword{receive}
+	\item \function{link()}
+\end{itemize}
+
+These 4 functions form the core of Erlang's concurrency services. The
+\function{spawn()} function creates a new process, the \function{send()}
+function sends a message to another process, the \keyword{receive} statement
+specifies what to do with received messages, and the \function{link()} function
+allows one process to monitor the status of another process. In addition to
+these core functions, this package also provides implementations of several
+supplemental functions such as \function{spawn_link()} and \function{exit()}.
+
+The beauty of the Erlang system is that it is simple and yet powerful. To
+communicate with another process, you simply send a message to it. You do not
+need to worry about locks, semaphores, mutexes, etc. to share information among
+concurrent tasks. Developers mostly use message passing only to implement the
+producer/consumer model. When you combine message passing with the flexibility
+of the \keyword{receive} statement, however, it becomes much more powerful. For
+example, by using timeouts and receive patterns, a process may easily handle its
+messages as a state machine, or as a priority queue.
+
+For those who wish to become more familiar with Erlang, \erlangbook\ provides a
+very complete introduction. In particular, this package implements all of the
+functions described in chapter 5 and sections 7.2, 7.3, and 7.5 of that book.
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{Receiver Patterns}
+\label{patterns}
+\index{patterns}
+
+\newcommand{\addhandler}{\method{addHandler()}}
+
+Erlang provides pattern matching in its very syntax, which the \keyword{receive}
+statement uses to its advantage. Since Python does not provide pattern matching
+in its syntax, we must use a slightly different mechanism to match messages. The
+first argument passed to the \method{Receiver.addHandler()} method can be any
+Python value. The \addhandler\ method uses this value as a pattern and
+interprets it in the following way:
+\begin{enumerate}
+	\item If the value is the constant, \constant{candygram.Any}, then any message
+		will match.
+	\item If the value is a type object or a class, then any message that
+		\function{isinstance()} of the type or class will match.
+	\item If the value is \function{callable()}, then a message will match if the
+		function/method returns \constant{True} when called with the message.
+	\item If the value is a tuple, then a message will match only if it	is a tuple
+		of the same length. Also, each value in the tuple is used as a pattern and
+		the tuple as a whole will match only if every sub-pattern in the tuple
+		matches its associated value in the message.
+	\item If the value is a list, then the same rule for tuples applies, except
+		for the last sub-pattern. The last sub-pattern in the list can match zero or
+		more values in the message. That is, the length of the message may be
+		\greaterthan= len(pattern)-1 as long as all excess values match the last
+		sub-pattern.
+	\item If the value is a dictionary, then a message will match only if it
+		is a dictionary that contains all of the same keys as the pattern value.
+		Also, each value in the dictionary is used as a pattern and the
+		dictionary as a whole will match only if every pattern in the dictionary
+		matches its associated value in the message.
+	\item Lastly, \addhandler\ treats any other value as a literal pattern. That
+		is, a message will match if it is equal to the given value.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+\subsection{Examples}
+Let's illustrate these rules by example.\footnote
+{Do not use all of these patterns at home. These are highly trained stunt
+patterns and are displayed here for demonstration purposes only. Specifically,
+you should rarely ever use more than one sub-pattern in a list pattern, nor
+should you ever use more than one type of key in a single dictionary.}
+ In the table below, the first column contains a Python value that is used as a
+pattern. The second column contains Python values that match the pattern and the
+third column contains Python values that do not match the pattern.
+\begin{tableiii}{l|l|l}{textrm}{Pattern}{Matches}{Non-Matches}
+\lineiii{Any}
+	{'text', 13.7, (1, '', lambda: true)}
+	{}
+\lineiii{'land shark'}
+	{'land shark'}
+	{'dolphin', 42, []}
+\lineiii{13.7}
+	{13.7}
+	{'text', 13.6, \{'A': 14\}}
+\lineiii{int}
+	{13, 42, 0}
+	{'text', 13.7, []}
+\lineiii{str}
+	{'plumber', ''}
+	{42, 0.9, lambda: True}
+\lineiii{lambda x: x \greaterthan\ 20}
+	{42, 100, 67.7}
+	{13, 0, -67.7}
+\lineiii{(str, int)}
+	{('shark', 42), ('dolphin', 0)}
+	{['shark', 42], ('dolphin', 42, 0)}
+\lineiii{(str, 20, lambda x: x \lessthan\ 0)}
+	{('shark', 20, -54.76), ('dolphin', 20, -1)}
+	{('shark', 21, -6), (20, 20, -1), ('', 20)}
+\lineiii{['A', str, str]}
+	{['A', 'B', 'C', 'D'], ['A', 'B']}
+	{['C', 'B', 'A'], ['A']}
+\lineiii{[str, int]}
+	{['dolphin', 42, 0], ['shark']}
+	{[42, 0], ['dolphin', 42, 'shark']}
+\lineiii{[Any]}
+	{['dolphin', 42, 0.9], []}
+	{('dolphin', 42, 0.9), 'shark'}
+\lineiii{\{'S': int, 19: str\}}
+	{\{'S': 3, 19: 'foo'\}, \{'S': -65, 19: 'bar', 'T': 'me'\}}
+	{\{'S': 'Charlie', 19: 'foo'\}, \{'S': 3\}}
+\end{tableiii}
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{The \module{candygram} module}
+
+\declaremodule{extension}{candygram}
+\modulesynopsis{Erlang concurrency primitives}
+
+The \module{candygram} module exports the following functions, classes,
+constants, and exceptions. Since the name \module{candygram} is a bit long, you
+would typically import the module in one of the following ways:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> from candygram import *
+\end{verbatim}
+or
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> import candygram as cg
+\end{verbatim}
+
+
+
+% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+\subsection{Functions}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{spawn}{func\optional{, args\moreargs}\optional{, _processClass=Process}}
+Create a new concurrent process by calling the function \var{func} with the
+\var{args} argument list and return the resulting \class{Process} instance.
+When the function \var{func} returns, the process terminates. Raises a
+\code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{func} is not
+\function{callable()}.
+
+If you define a subclass of \class{Process}, you can instruct the
+\function{spawn()} function to create an instance of that class by passing
+the class with the optional \var{_processClass} keyword argument.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{link}{proc}
+Create a link to the process \var{proc}, if there is not such a link already. If
+a process attempts to create a link to itself, nothing is done. Raises a
+\code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{proc} is not a \class{Process}
+instance. Sends a \code{'noproc'} \code{'EXIT'} signal to calling process if the
+\var{proc} process is no longer alive.
+
+When a process terminates, it sends an \code{'EXIT'} signal is to all of its
+linked processes. If a process terminates normally, it sends a \code{'normal'}
+\code{'EXIT'} signal to its linked processes.
+
+All links are bidirectional. That is, if process A calls \code{link(B)}, then if
+process B terminates, it sends an \code{'EXIT'} signal to process A. Conversely,
+if process A terminates, it likewise sends an \code{'EXIT'} signal to process B.
+
+Refer to the \function{processFlag()} function for details about handling
+signals.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{spawnLink}{func\optional{, args\moreargs}\optional{, _processClass=Process}}
+This function is identical to the following code being evaluated in an atomic
+operation:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> proc = spawn(func, args...)
+>>> link(proc)
+\end{verbatim}
+This function is necessary since the process created might run immediately and
+fail before \function{link()} is called. Returns the \class{Process} instance of
+the newly created process. Raises a \code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if
+\var{func} is not \function{callable()}.
+
+If you define a subclass of \class{Process}, you can instruct the
+\function{spawnLink()} function to create an instance of that class by passing
+the class with the optional \var{_processClass} keyword argument.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{unlink}{proc}
+Remove the link, if there is one, from the calling process to another process
+given by the \var{proc} argument. The function does not fail if the calling
+process is not linked to \var{proc}, or if \var{proc} is not alive. Raises a
+\code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{proc} is not a \class{Process}
+instance.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{isProcessAlive}{proc}
+Return \constant{True} if the process is alive, i.e., has not terminated.
+Otherwise, return \constant{False}. Raises a \code{'badarg'}
+\exception{ExitError} if \var{proc} is not a \class{Process} instance.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{self}{}
+Return the \class{Process} instance of the calling process.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{self_}{}
+An alias for the \function{self()} function. You can use this function in class
+methods where \var{self} is already defined.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{processes}{}
+Return a list of all active processes.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{send}{proc, message}
+Send the \var{message} to the \var{proc} process and return \var{message}. This
+is the same as \var{proc}\code{.send(}\var{message}\code{)}. Raises a
+\code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{proc} is not a \class{Process}
+instance.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{exit}{\optional{proc, }reason}
+When the \var{proc} argument is not given, this function raises an
+\exception{ExitError} with the reason \var{reason}. \var{reason} can be any
+value.
+
+When the \var{proc} argument is given, this function sends an \code{'EXIT'}
+signal to the process \var{proc}. This is not necessarily the same as sending an
+\code{'EXIT'} message to \var{proc}. They are the same if \var{proc} is trapping
+exits. If \var{proc} is not trapping exits, however, the \var{proc} process
+terminates and propagates the \code{'EXIT'} signal in turn to its linked
+processes.
+
+If the \var{reason} is the string \code{'kill'}, an untrappable \code{'EXIT'}
+signal is sent to the process. In other words, the \var{proc} process is
+unconditionally killed.
+
+Refer to the \function{processFlag()} function for details about trapping exits.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+\begin{funcdesc}{processFlag}{flag, option}
+Set the given \var{flag} for the calling process. Returns the old value of the
+flag. Raises a \code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{flag} is not a
+recognized flag value, or if \var{option} is not a recognized value for
+\var{flag}.
+
+Currently, \code{'trap_exit'} is the only recognized flag value. When
+\code{'trap_exit'} is set to \constant{True}, \code{'EXIT'} signals arriving to
+a process are converted to \code{('EXIT', from, reason)} messages, which can be
+received as ordinary messages. If \code{'trap_exit'} is set to \constant{False},
+the process exits if it receives an \code{'EXIT'} signal other than
+\code{'normal'} and propagates the \code{'EXIT'} signal to its linked processes.
+Application processes should normally not trap exits.
+\end{funcdesc}
+
+
+
+% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+\subsection{Process Objects}
+
+\begin{classdesc}{Process}{}
+Represents a concurrent process. A \class{Process} is never created via its
+constructor. The \function{spawn()} and \function{spawnLink()} functions create
+all processes.
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{isProcessAlive}{}
+Return \constant{True} if the process is alive, i.e., has not terminated.
+Otherwise, return \constant{False}.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{isAlive}{}
+An alias for the \method{isProcessAlive()} method. (The word ``process'' is
+redundant in a method name when the method is a member of the \class{Process}
+class.)
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{send}{message}
+Send the \var{message} to this process and return \var{message}. A routine
+running in a separate process calls this method to place the given
+\var{message} into this process's mailbox. A \class{Receiver} that is operating
+in this process may then pick up the message.
+
+Sending a message is an asynchronous operation so the \method{send()} call does
+not wait for a \class{Receiver} to retrieve the message. Even if this process
+has already terminated, the system does not notify the sender. Messages are
+always delivered, and always in the same order they were sent.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{__or__}{message}
+\opindex{|}
+An alias for the \method{send()} method. The OR operator, `\pipe', is an alias
+to the \method{send()} method so that developers can use a more Erlangy syntax
+to send messages. In Erlang, the `!' primitive sends messages. For example:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> proc | ('knock-knock', 'candygram')
+\end{verbatim}
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\end{classdesc}
+
+
+
+% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+\subsection{Receiver Objects}
+\label{Receiver}
+
+\begin{classdesc}{Receiver}{}
+Retrieves messages from a process's mailbox. Every process maintains a mailbox,
+which contains messages that have been sent to it via the \method{send()}
+method. To retrieve the messages out of the mailbox, a process must use a
+\class{Receiver} object. Like the \keyword{receive} statement in Erlang, a
+\class{Receiver} object compares an incoming message against multiple patterns
+and invokes the callback function that is associated with the first matching
+pattern. Refer to section \ref{patterns} for details about how to specify
+message patterns.
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{addHandler}{pattern\optional{, func\optional{, args\moreargs}}}
+Register a handler function \var{func} for the \var{pattern}. The
+\method{receive()} method calls the \var{func} with the \var{args} argument
+list when it receives a message that matches \var{pattern}. When a handler
+function \var{func} is not specified, the \method{receive()} method removes any
+matching message from the mailbox and does nothing more with it. Refer to
+section \ref{patterns} for details about how to specify message patterns.
+Returns a handler reference that can be used with the \method{removeHandler()}
+method. Raises a \code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{func} is not
+\function{callable()}.
+
+If any of the \var{args} arguments is \constant{candygram.Message}, then the
+\method{receive()} method replaces that argument with the matching message when
+it invokes \var{func}.
+
+Refer to the \method{receive()} documentation for details about the
+mechanism by which it invokes the handlers.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{__setitem__}{pattern, funcWithArgs}
+\opindex{[]}
+An alias for the \method{addHandler()} method. If \var{funcWithArgs} is a tuple,
+then this method sends the first element in the tuple as the \var{func}
+parameter to \method{addHandler()} and the remaining as the \var{args}. If
+\var{funcWithArgs} is not a tuple, then this method assumes it to be a handler
+function and sends it as the \var{func} parameter to \method{addHandler()}.
+
+\method{__setitem__()} is an alias to the \method{addHandler()} method so that
+developers can use a more Erlangy syntax to specify handlers. In Erlang, the
+``\var{pattern} -\greaterthan\ \var{func}'' syntax specifies pattern guards. For
+example:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> r = Receiver()
+>>> r['knock-knock', 'candygram'] = answer, 'From whom?'
+\end{verbatim}
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{__getitem__}{pattern}
+\opindex{[]}
+An alias for the \method{addHandler()} method. This method calls
+\method{addHandler()} without a \var{func} parameter.
+
+\method{__getitem__()} is an alias to the \method{addHandler()} method so that
+developers can use a more Erlangy syntax to specify handlers. In Erlang, the
+``\var{pattern} -\greaterthan\ \var{func}'' syntax specifies pattern guards. For
+example:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> r = Receiver()
+>>> r['knock-knock', 'shark']  # ignore sharks
+\end{verbatim}
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{addHandlers}{receiver}
+Register all handler functions in \var{receiver} with this \class{Receiver}
+object. This method adds all of the patterns and handler functions that have
+been added to the given \var{receiver} to this receiver, in the same order. You
+can use this method to make copies of \class{Receiver} objects. Returns a list
+of handler references that can be used with the \method{removeHandler()} method.
+Raises a \code{'badarg'} \exception{ExitError} if \var{receiver} is not a
+\class{Receiver} instance.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{removeHandler}{handlerReference}
+Remove a handler function. The \var{handlerReference} must be a value returned
+by either the \method{addHandler()} or the \method{addHandlers()} method. Since
+all handler references are unique, this method removes exactly one handler
+function from the \class{Receiver}. Raises a \code{'badarg'}
+\exception{ExitError} if \var{handlerReference} is not a proper reference, or if
+it refers to a handler function that is not in the \class{Receiver}.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{after}{timeout\optional{, func\optional{, args\moreargs}}}
+Register a timeout handler function \var{func}. The \method{receive()} method
+calls the \var{func} with the \var{args} argument list when it does not receive
+a matching message within \var{timeout} milliseconds. Raises a \code{'badarg'}
+\exception{ExitError} if \var{func} is not \function{callable()} or if
+\var{timeout} is not an integer. Raises an \exception{AssertionError} if the
+\method{after()} method has already been invoked.
+
+If the \method{receive()} method does not find a matching message within
+\var{timeout} milliseconds, it invokes \var{func} with \var{args} and returns
+the result. When a handler function \var{func} is not specified, the
+\method{receive()} method returns \constant{None} if it times out.
+
+None of the \var{args} arguments should be \constant{candygram.Message}, since
+there is no message to pass when a timeout occurs.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{receive}{\optional{timeout\optional{, func\optional{, args\moreargs}}}}
+Find a matching message in the process's mailbox, invoke the related handler
+function, and return the result. The \class{Receiver} object compares the first
+message in the process's mailbox with each of its registered patterns, in the
+order that the patterns were added via the \method{addHandler()} method. If any
+pattern matches the message, this method removes the message from the mailbox,
+calls the associated handler function, and returns its result. If the matching
+pattern does not have a handler function associated with it, this method returns
+\constant{None}. If no pattern matches the message, this method leaves the
+message in the mailbox, skips to the next message in the mailbox, and compares
+it with each of the patterns. It continues on through each of the messages in
+the mailbox until a match is found.
+
+If no message matches any of the patterns, or if the mailbox is empty, this
+method blocks until the process receives a message that does match one of the
+patterns, or until the given \var{timeout} has elapsed. If no \var{timeout} is
+specified, this method blocks indefinitely. If a \var{timeout} is specified, it
+is equivalent to calling \method{after(\var{timeout}, \var{func}, \var{args})}
+just prior to \method{receive()}. Raises a \code{'badarg'}
+\exception{ExitError} if \var{func} is not \function{callable()} or if
+\var{timeout} is not an integer. Also raises an \exception{AssertionError} if a
+\var{timeout} is specified and the \method{after()} method has already been
+invoked.
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{__call__}{\optional{timeout\optional{, func\optional{, args\moreargs}}}}
+\opindex{()}
+An alias for the \method{receive()} method. \method{__call__()} is an alias to
+the \method{receive()} method so that developers can use a shortened, more
+Erlangy syntax with \class{Receiver}s. For example:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> def convert():
+...     r = Receiver()
+...     r['one'] = lambda: 1
+...     r['two'] = lambda: 2
+...     r['three'] = lambda: 3
+...     return r()
+\end{verbatim}
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\begin{methoddesc}{__iter__}{}
+Return an iterator that repeatedly invokes \method{receive()}. Candygram code
+often uses the following idiom:
+\begin{verbatim}
+... while True:
+...     result = receiver.receive()
+...     # do whatever with the result...
+\end{verbatim}
+With an iterator, you can spell the code above like this instead:
+\begin{verbatim}
+... for result in receiver:
+...     # do whatever with the result...
+\end{verbatim}
+\end{methoddesc}
+
+\end{classdesc}
+
+
+
+% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+\subsection{Constants}
+
+\begin{datadesc}{Any}
+When used in a pattern, the \constant{Any} constant will match any value.
+\end{datadesc}
+
+\begin{datadesc}{Message}
+When used as a function argument in \method{Receiver.addHandler()}, the
+\method{Receiver.receive()} method replaces the argument with the matching
+message when it invokes the handler function.
+\end{datadesc}
+
+
+
+% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+\subsection{Exceptions}
+
+\begin{excdesc}{ExitError}
+Represents \code{'EXIT'} errors from Erlang. If an Erlang function can
+cause a failure under certain circumstances, then the corresponding Candygram
+function raises an \exception{ExitError} under the same circumstances.
+
+A process also raises an \exception{ExitError} in all of its linked processes
+if it terminates for a reason other than \code{'normal'}.
+
+\begin{notice}[note]
+When a process terminates with a reason other than \code{'normal'}, it does not
+immediately raise an \exception{ExitError} in all linked processes. Candygram
+defers the \exception{ExitError} instead, and raises it the next time one of its
+functions or methods is called. (Python does not allow you to unconditionally
+interrupt a separate thread.)
+\end{notice}
+
+\begin{memberdesc}{reason}
+Specifies the reason why the \exception{ExitError} was raised. Can be any value.
+\end{memberdesc}
+
+\begin{memberdesc}{proc}
+The process that originally caused the \exception{ExitError}.
+\end{memberdesc}
+
+\end{excdesc}
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{Examples}
+There is a directory named \file{examples} within every distribution of
+Candygram. This directory contains the Candygram equivalents of all the sample
+programs found in chapter 5 and sections 7.2, 7.3, and 7.5 of \erlangbook. The
+files named \file{program_X.X.py} are direct translations of the Erlang
+programs. The files named \file{program_X.X_alt.py} are alternate, more liberal
+translations that use more Pythonic idioms. \note{Since the CPython interpreter
+does not perform tail-call optimization, the tail-recursive style of the direct
+translations is not a recommended practice.}
+
+The \file{examples} directory also contains a few other modules that demonstrate
+how you can use Candygram to perform some handy functions.
+
+If you are not already familiar with Erlang, the best way to become familiar
+with Candygram is to read chapter 5 in \erlangbook\ and follow along using the
+example programs located in the \file{examples} directory. If you are already
+familiar with Erlang, here are a few code snippets to give you a taste of
+Candygram.
+
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> from candygram import *
+>>> import time
+>>> def proc_func():
+...     r = Receiver()
+...     r['land shark'] = lambda m: 'Go Away ' + m, Message
+...     r['candygram'] = lambda m: 'Hello ' + m, Message
+...     for message in r:
+...         print message
+...
+>>> proc = spawn(proc_func)
+>>> proc | 'land shark'
+>>> proc | 'candygram'
+>>> # Give the proc a chance to print its messages before termination:
+... time.sleep(1)
+\end{verbatim}
+Running the code above produces the following output:
+\begin{verbatim}
+Go Away land shark
+Hello candygram
+\end{verbatim}
+
+\begin{notice}[note]
+If this code is run as a script, the Python interpreter will exit after the last
+line is evaluated, killing any spawned processes. That is why the last line is
+a call to the \function{sleep()} function, so that the spawned process has an
+opportunity to print its messages before the interpreter exits and kills it.
+\end{notice}
+
+The code above uses a rather Erlangy syntax. Here is a more Pythonic version
+that does the same:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> import candygram as cg
+>>> import time
+>>> def proc_func():
+...     r = cg.Receiver()
+...     r.addHandler('land shark', shut_door, cg.Message)
+...     r.addHandler('candygram', open_door, cg.Message)
+...     for message in r:
+...         print message
+...
+>>> def shut_door(name):
+...     return 'Go Away ' + name
+...
+>>> def open_door(name):
+...     return 'Hello ' + name
+...
+>>> proc = cg.spawn(proc_func)
+>>> proc.send('land shark')
+>>> proc.send('candygram')
+>>> # Give the proc a chance to print its messages before termination:
+... time.sleep(1)
+\end{verbatim}
+
+Lastly, here is an example with more elaborate patterns:
+\begin{verbatim}
+>>> from candygram import *
+>>> import time
+>>> def proc_func(name):
+...     r = Receiver()
+...     r['msg', Process, str] = print_string, name, Message
+...     r['msg', Process, str, Any] = print_any, name, Message
+...     r[Any]  # Ignore any other messages
+...     for result in r:
+...         pass
+...
+>>> def print_string(name, message):
+...     msg, process, string = message
+...     # 'msg' and 'process' are unused
+...     print '%s received: %s' % (name, string)
+...
+>>> def print_any(name, message):
+...     msg, process, prefix, value = message
+...     # 'msg' and 'process' are unused
+...     print '%s received: %s %s' % (name, prefix, value)
+...
+>>> a = spawn(proc_func, 'A')
+>>> b = spawn(proc_func, 'B')
+>>> a | ('msg', b, 'Girl Scout cookies')
+>>> a | 'plumber?'
+>>> a | ('msg', b, 'The meaning of life is:', 42)
+>>> # Give the proc a chance to print its messages before termination:
+... time.sleep(1)
+\end{verbatim}
+Running the code above produces the following output:
+\begin{verbatim}
+A received: Girl Scout cookies
+A received: The meaning of life is: 42
+\end{verbatim}
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{FAQ}
+
+\subsection{Why is the package named Candygram?}
+The name Candygram is actually an acronym for ``the Candygram Acronym Does Not
+Yield a Good Reference to Anything Meaningful.''
+
+\subsection{But wait, doesn't that spell {\sc cadnygram}?}
+Yes, you are quite observant. In order to form a compromise with the French
+acronym, which is {\sc canydgram}, the Candygram committee standardized the
+official acronym as {\sc Candygram}.
+
+\subsection{How do you pronounce Candygram?}
+This question produces an outrageous amount of heated debate. Some claim that
+you pronounce it with short A's, as in tomato, while others claim that you
+pronounce it with long A's, as in potato. Both sides, however, are completely
+wrong; the correct pronunciation for Candygram is ``throat warbler mangrove.''
+
+\subsection{Underneath it all, does the \function{spawn()} function create a
+process, a thread, or a microthread?}
+The short answer is that it creates a thread. In Erlang, the \function{spawn()}
+function creates a microthread but calls it a ``process''. Since Python does not
+yet support microthreads, the Candygram \function{spawn()} function creates a
+standard thread instead and likewise calls it a ``process''. Despite the
+terminology, no new operating system processes are ever created. Refer to the
+overview in section \ref{overview} for further explanation about the
+terminology.
+
+\subsection{How many processes can I \function{spawn()}?}
+Since Candygram's \function{spawn()} function creates a new thread, it depends
+on how many threads your operating system can reliably handle. Most operating
+systems can comfortably handle several dozen threads.
+
+Future versions of Candygram may support microthreads, which would allow you to
+spawn thousands of processes.
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\section{Feedback}
+
+Please submit all bug reports, feature requests, etc. to the appropriate tracker
+on \ulink{SourceForge.net}{http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?group_id=114295}.
+
+General discussion takes place on the
+\email{candygram-discuss@lists.sourceforge.net} mailing list. You can subscribe
+to this list by visiting \ulink{this page}
+	{http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/candygram-discuss}.
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\appendix
+\section{GNU Free Documentation License}
+\label{fdl}
+\input{LICENSE.tex}
+
+
+
+% ############################################################################
+\input{candygram.ind}
+\end{document}
+#!/bin/sh
+dir=candygram
+if [ "$1" = "sourceforge" ]; then
+	address=`cat sflogo.html`
+	dir=sourceforge
+	shift
+fi
+
+/usr/src/python-2.3.4-2/Doc/tools/mkhowto --about about.dat --split 4 --address "$address" --dir $dir $* candygram.tex
+<a href="http://sourceforge.net"><img src="http://sourceforge.net/sflogo.php?group_id=114295&amp;type=1" width="88" height="31" border="0" alt="SourceForge.net Logo" /></a>

examples/priority_receiver.py

+# I hereby disclaim all copyright to the contents of this file,
+# priority_receiver.py, and place it into the public domain.
+#   -- Michael Hobbs
+
+
+from candygram import *
+
+
+TIMEOUT = object
+
+
+def timeout():
+	return TIMEOUT
+
+
+class PriorityReceiver:
+	def __init__(self, receivers):
+		self.__receivers = []
+		prevReceiver = None
+		for receiver in receivers:
+			mergedReceiver = Receiver()
+			if prevReceiver is not None:
+				mergedReceiver.addHandlers(prevReceiver)
+			mergedReceiver.addHandlers(receiver)
+			self.__receivers.append(mergedReceiver)
+			prevReceiver = mergedReceiver
+		# end for
+
+	def receive(self, *args, **kwargs):
+		for receiver in self.__receivers[:-1]:
+			result = receiver.receive(0, timeout)
+			if result is not TIMEOUT:
+				return result
+			# end if
+		return self.__receivers[-1].receive(*args, **kwargs)
+
+	__call__ = receive
+	next = receive
+
+	def __iter__(self):
+		return self

examples/program_5.1.py

+# I hereby disclaim all copyright to the contents of this file,
+# program_5.1.py, and place it into the public domain.
+#   -- Michael Hobbs
+
+
+from candygram import *
+
+
+def start():
+	return spawn(loop, 0)
+
+
+def loop(val):
+	r = Receiver()
+	r['increment'] = loop, val + 1
+	return r()

examples/program_5.1_alt.py

+# I hereby disclaim all copyright to the contents of this file,
+# program_5.1_alt.py, and place it into the public domain.
+#   -- Michael Hobbs
+
+
+from candygram import *
+
+
+def start():
+	loop = Loop()
+	return spawn(loop.loop)
+
+
+class Loop:
+	def __init__(self):
+		self.val = 0
+
+	def increment(self):
+		self.val += 1
+
+	def loop(self):
+		r = Receiver()
+		r.addHandler('increment', self.increment)
+		for _ in r:
+			pass
+		# end for

examples/program_5.2.py

+# I hereby disclaim all copyright to the contents of this file,
+# program_5.2.py, and place it into the public domain.
+#   -- Michael Hobbs
+
+
+from candygram import *
+
+
+# First the interface functions.
+def start():
+	return spawn(loop, 0)
+
+
+def increment(counter):
+	return counter | 'increment'
+
+
+def value(counter):
+	counter | (self(),'value')
+	r = Receiver()
+	r[counter, int] = lambda msg: msg[1], Message
+	return r()
+
+
+def stop(counter):
+	return counter | 'stop'
+
+
+# The counter loop.
+def loop(val):
+	r = Receiver()
+	r['increment'] = loop, val + 1
+	def sendVal(msg):
+		from_, _ = msg
+		from_ | (self(),val)
+		return loop(val)
+	r[Process, 'value'] = sendVal, Message
+	r['stop'] = lambda: True  # No recursive call here
+	r[Any] = loop, val  # All other messages
+	return r()

examples/program_5.2_alt.py

+# I hereby disclaim all copyright to the contents of this file,
+# program_5.2_alt.py, and place it into the public domain.
+#   -- Michael Hobbs
+
+
+from candygram import *
+
+
+# First the interface functions.
+def start():
+	loop = Loop()
+	return spawn(loop.loop)
+
+
+def increment(counter):
+	return counter.send('increment')
+
+
+def value(counter):
+	counter.send((self(),'value'))
+	r = Receiver()
+	r.addHandler((counter, int), lambda msg: msg[1], Message)
+	return r.receive()
+
+
+def stop(counter):
+	return counter.send('stop')
+
+
+# The counter loop.
+class Loop:
+	def __init__(self):
+		self.val = 0
+		self.stop = False
+
+	def increment(self):
+		self.val += 1
+
+	def sendVal(self, msg):
+		from_, _ = msg
+		from_.send((self_(),self.val))
+
+	def stopFunc(self):
+		self.stop = True
+
+	def loop(self):
+		r = Receiver()
+		r.addHandler('increment', self.increment)
+		r.addHandler((Process, 'value'), self.sendVal, Message)
+		r.addHandler('stop', self.stopFunc)
+		r.addHandler(Any)  # All other messages
+		for _ in r:
+			if self.stop:
+				break
+			# end if
+		return True

examples/program_5.3.py