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Anonymous committed a3f5efc

Added README with more detailed documentation.
Items which are failed during session are presented again before the session ends.
Items which were failures at the last review session are presented first in the next session.
Added recognition of leech items, based on excessive number of failures.
Leeches can be skipped or warned about.
When reviewing an item, the prompt shows the number of items remaining.
When the session finishes, the minibuffer shows a brief report givisng statistics about total time spent reviewing, number of cards that
still need review, etc.
Fixed the regexp for cloze-deleted text.
Optional face for cloze text in org mode buffers.
New card type: twosided.

Comments (0)

Files changed (4)

+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+               "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
+lang="en" xml:lang="en">
+<head>
+<title>Org-Drill</title>
+<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"/>
+<meta name="generator" content="Org-mode"/>
+<meta name="generated" content="2010-08-22 09:45:05 NZST"/>
+<meta name="author" content="Paul Sexton"/>
+<meta name="description" content=""/>
+<meta name="keywords" content=""/>
+<style type="text/css">
+ <!--/*--><![CDATA[/*><!--*/
+  html { font-family: Times, serif; font-size: 12pt; }
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+	padding: 5pt;
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+        overflow:auto;
+  }
+  table { border-collapse: collapse; }
+  td, th { vertical-align: top; }
+  dt { font-weight: bold; }
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+  .org-info-js_search-highlight {background-color:#ffff00; color:#000000;
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+  /*]]>*/-->
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+<script type="text/javascript">
+<!--/*--><![CDATA[/*><!--*/
+ function CodeHighlightOn(elem, id)
+ {
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+/*]]>*///-->
+</script>
+</head>
+<body>
+<div id="content">
+
+<h1 class="title">Org-Drill</h1>
+
+
+<div id="table-of-contents">
+<h2>Table of Contents</h2>
+<div id="text-table-of-contents">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#sec-1">1 Synopsis </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-2">2 Installation </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-3">3 Demonstration </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-4">4 Writing the questions </a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#sec-4_1">4.1 Simple topics </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-4_2">4.2 Cloze deletion </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-4_3">4.3 Two-sided cards </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-4_4">4.4 Multi-sided cards </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-4_5">4.5 User-defined topic types </a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#sec-5">5 Running the drill session </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-6">6 Leeches </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-7">7 Incremental reading </a></li>
+<li><a href="#sec-8">8 Still to do </a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-1" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-1"><span class="section-number-2">1</span> Synopsis </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-1">
+
+
+
+<p>
+Org-Drill uses the spaced repetition algorithm in <code>org-learn</code> to conduct
+interactive "drill sessions", using org files as sources of facts to be
+memorised. The material to be remembered is presented to the student in random
+order. The student rates his or her recall of each item, and this information
+is fed back to <code>org-learn</code> to schedule the item for later revision.
+</p>
+<p>
+Each drill session can be restricted to topics in the current buffer
+(default), one or several files, all agenda files, or a subtree. A single
+topic can also be drilled.
+</p>
+<p>
+Different "topic types" can be defined, which present their information to the
+student in different ways.
+</p>
+<p>
+For more on the spaced repetition algorithm, and examples of other programs
+that use it, see:
+</p><ul>
+<li>
+<a href="http://supermemo.com/index.htm">SuperMemo</a> (the SM5 algorithm is discussed <a href="http://www.supermemo.com/english/ol/sm5.htm">here</a>)
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://ichi2.net/anki/">Anki</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="http://mnemosyne-proj.org/index.php">Mnemosyne</a>
+
+
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-2" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-2"><span class="section-number-2">2</span> Installation </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-2">
+
+
+
+<p>
+Put the following in your <code>.emacs</code>. You will also need to make sure that Org's
+"contrib/lisp" directory is in the emacs load-path.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="src src-emacs-lisp"><span style="color: #696969;">(</span><span style="color: #8b4789;">require</span> '<span style="color: #698b22; font-weight: bold;">org-drill</span><span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+I also recommend the following, so that items are always eventually retested,
+even when you remember them very well.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="src src-emacs-lisp"><span style="color: #696969;">(</span>setq org-learn-always-reschedule t<span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+If you want cloze-deleted text to show up in a special font within Org mode
+buffers, also add:
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="src src-emacs-lisp"><span style="color: #696969;">(</span>setq org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p t<span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+</pre>
+
+
+
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-3" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-3"><span class="section-number-2">3</span> Demonstration </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-3">
+
+
+
+<p>
+Load the file <a href="spanish.html">spanish.org</a>. Press <code>M-x</code> and run the function <code>org-drill</code>. Follow
+the prompts at the bottom of the screen.
+</p>
+<p>
+When the drill finishes, you can look at <code>spanish.org</code> to get some idea of how
+drill topics are written.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-4"><span class="section-number-2">4</span> Writing the questions </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-4">
+
+
+
+<p>
+Org-Drill uses org mode topics as 'drill items'. To be used as a drill item,
+the topic must have a tag that matches <code>org-drill-question-tag</code>. This is
+<code>:drill:</code> by default. Any other org topics will be ignored.
+</p>
+<p>
+You don't need to schedule the topics initially.  However <code>org-drill</code> <b>will</b>
+recognise items that have been scheduled previously with
+<code>org-learn</code>. Unscheduled items are considered to be 'new' and ready for
+memorisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+How should 'drill topics' be structured? Any org topic is a legal drill topic
+&ndash; it will simply be shown with subheadings collapsed. After pressing a
+key, any hidden subheadings will be revealed, and you will be asked to rate
+your "recall" of the item.
+</p>
+<p>
+This will be adequate for some items, but usually you will want to write items
+where you have more control over what information is hidden from the user for
+recall purposes.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4_1" class="outline-3">
+<h3 id="sec-4_1"><span class="section-number-3">4.1</span> Simple topics </h3>
+<div class="outline-text-3" id="text-4_1">
+
+
+<p>
+The simplest drill topic has no special structure. When such a topic is
+presented during a drill session, any subheadings are "collapsed" with their
+contents hidden. So, you could include the question as text beneath the main
+heading, and the answer within a subheading. For example:
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="example">* Item                                   :drill:
+What is the capital city of Estonia?
+
+** The Answer
+Tallinn.
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+When this item is presented for review, the text beneath the main heading will
+be visible, but the contents of the subheading ("The Answer") will be hidden.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4_2" class="outline-3">
+<h3 id="sec-4_2"><span class="section-number-3">4.2</span> Cloze deletion </h3>
+<div class="outline-text-3" id="text-4_2">
+
+
+<p>
+Cloze deletion can be used in any drill topic regardless of whether it is
+otherwise 'simple', or one of the specialised topic types discussed below. To
+use cloze deletion, part of the body of the topic is marked as <i>cloze text</i> by
+surrounding it with single square brackets, [like so]. When the topic is
+presented for review, the text within square brackets will be obscured. The
+text is then revealed after the user presses a key. For example:
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="example">* Item                                   :drill:
+The capital city of Estonia is [Tallinn].
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+During review, the user will see:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+
+<p>The capital city of Estonia is <font style="background-color: blue;" color="blue">
+XXXXXXX</font>.
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+When the user presses a key, the text "Tallinn" will become visible.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4_3" class="outline-3">
+<h3 id="sec-4_3"><span class="section-number-3">4.3</span> Two-sided cards </h3>
+<div class="outline-text-3" id="text-4_3">
+
+
+<p>
+The remaining topic types all use the topic property, <code>DRILL_CARD_TYPE</code>. This
+property tells <code>org-drill</code> which function to use to present the topic during
+review. If this property has the value <code>twosided</code> then the topic is treated as
+a "two sided card". When a two sided card is reviewed, <i>one of the first two</i>
+subheadings within the topic will be visible &ndash; all other
+subheadings will be hidden.
+</p>
+<p>
+Two-sided cards are meant to emulate the type of flipcard where either side is
+useful as test material (for example, a card with a word in a foreign language
+on one side, and its translation on the other).
+</p>
+<p>
+A two sided card can have more than 2 subheadings, but all subheadings after
+the first two are considered as "notes" and will always be hidden during topic
+review.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="example">* Noun                                               :drill:
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
+    :END:
+
+Translate this word.
+
+** Spanish
+la mujer
+
+** English
+the woman
+
+** Example sentence
+¿Quién fue esa mujer? 
+Who was that woman?
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+In this example, the user will be shown the main text &ndash; "Translate this word"
+&ndash; and either 'la mujer', <i>or</i> 'the woman', at random. The section 'Example
+sentence' will never be shown until after the user presses a key, because it is
+not one of the first two 'sides' of the topic.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4_4" class="outline-3">
+<h3 id="sec-4_4"><span class="section-number-3">4.4</span> Multi-sided cards </h3>
+<div class="outline-text-3" id="text-4_4">
+
+
+<p>
+The <code>multisided</code> card type is similar to <code>twosided</code>, except that any
+subheading has a chance of being presented during the topic review. One
+subheading is always shown and all others are always hidden. 
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="example">* Noun                                               :drill:
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: multisided
+    :END:
+
+Translate.
+
+** Spanish
+la mesa
+
+** English
+the table
+
+** Picture
+[[file:table.jpg][PICTURE]]
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+The user will be shown the main text and either 'la mujer', <i>or</i> 'the woman',
+<i>or</i> a picture of a table.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-4_5" class="outline-3">
+<h3 id="sec-4_5"><span class="section-number-3">4.5</span> User-defined topic types </h3>
+<div class="outline-text-3" id="text-4_5">
+
+
+<p>
+Finally, you can write your own elisp functions to define new kinds of
+topics. Any new topic type will need to be added to
+<code>org-drill-card-type-alist</code>, and cards using that topic type will need to have
+it as the value of their <code>DRILL_CARD_TYPE</code> property. For an example, see the
+function <code>org-drill-present-spanish-verb</code>, which defines the new topic type
+<code>spanish_verb</code>, used in 'spanish.org'.
+</p>
+<p>
+See the file <a href="spanish.html">spanish.org</a> for a full set of example material.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-5" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-5"><span class="section-number-2">5</span> Running the drill session </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-5">
+
+
+
+<p>
+Start a drill session with <code>M-x org-drill</code>. By default, this includes all
+non-hidden topics in the current buffer. <code>org-drill</code> takes an optional
+argument, SCOPE, which allows it to take drill items from other
+sources. Possible values for SCOPE are:
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>tree</dt><dd>
+The subtree starting with the entry at the cursor.
+</dd>
+<dt>file</dt><dd>
+The current buffer, including both hidden and non-hidden items.
+</dd>
+<dt>file-with-archives</dt><dd>
+The current buffer, and any archives associated with it.
+</dd>
+<dt>agenda</dt><dd>
+All agenda files.
+</dd>
+<dt>agenda-with-archives</dt><dd>
+All agenda files with any archive files associated
+with them.
+</dd>
+<dt>(file1 file2 &hellip;)</dt><dd>
+A list of filenames. All files in the list will be
+scanned.
+
+</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<p>During a drill session, you will be presented with each item, then asked to
+rate your recall of it by pressing a key between 0 and 5. The meaning of these
+numbers is (taken from <code>org-learn</code>):
+</p>
+<dl>
+<dt>0</dt><dd>
+Completely forgot. 
+</dd>
+<dt>1</dt><dd>
+Even after seeing the answer, it still took a bit to sink in. 
+</dd>
+<dt>2</dt><dd>
+After seeing the answer, you remembered it. 
+</dd>
+<dt>3</dt><dd>
+It took you awhile, but you finally remembered.
+</dd>
+<dt>4</dt><dd>
+After a little bit of thought you remembered.
+</dd>
+<dt>5</dt><dd>
+You remembered the item really easily.
+
+</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<p>You can press '?'  at the prompt if you have trouble remembering what the
+numbers 0&ndash;5 signify. At any time you can press 'q' to finish the drill early
+(your progress will be saved), or 'e' to finish the drill and jump to the
+current topic for editing (your progress up to that point will be saved).
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-6" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-6"><span class="section-number-2">6</span> Leeches </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-6">
+
+
+
+<p>
+From the Anki website, <a href="http://ichi2.net/anki/wiki/Leeches">http://ichi2.net/anki/wiki/Leeches</a>:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+
+<p>Leeches are cards that you keep on forgetting. Because they require so many
+reviews, they take up a lot more of your time than other cards.
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+Like Anki, Org-Drill defines leeches as cards that you have "failed" many
+times. The number of times an item must be failed before it is considered a
+leech is set by the variable <code>org-drill-leech-failure-threshold</code> (15 by
+default). When you fail to remember an item more than this many times, the item
+will be given the <code>:leech:</code> tag.
+</p>
+<p>
+Leech items can be handled in one of three ways. You can choose how Org-Drill
+handles leeches by setting the variable <code>org-drill-leech-method</code> to one of the
+following values:
+</p><dl>
+<dt>nil</dt><dd>
+Leech items are tagged with the <code>leech</code> tag, but otherwise treated the
+same as normal items.
+</dd>
+<dt>skip</dt><dd>
+Leech items are not included in drill sessions.
+</dd>
+<dt>warn</dt><dd>
+Leech items are still included in drill sessions, but a warning
+message is printed when each leech item is presented.
+
+</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<p>The best way to deal with a leech is either to delete it, or reformulate it so
+that it is easier to remember, for example by splitting it into more than one
+card. 
+</p>
+<p>
+See <a href="http://www.supermemo.com/help/leech.htm">the SuperMemo website</a> for more on leeches.
+</p>
+
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-7" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-7"><span class="section-number-2">7</span> Incremental reading </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-7">
+
+
+
+<p>
+An innovative feature of the program SuperMemo is so-called "incremental
+reading". This refers to the ability to quickly and easily make drill items
+from selected portions of text as you read an article (a web page for
+example). See <a href="http://www.supermemo.com/help/read.htm">the SuperMemo website</a> for more on incremental reading.
+</p>
+<p>
+Much of the infrastructure for incremental reading is already provided by Org
+Mode, with the help of some other emacs packages. You can provide yourself with
+an incremental reading facility by using 'org-capture' alongside a package that
+allows you to browse web pages in emacs &ndash; e.g. w3 or <a href="http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/emacs-w3m">emacs-w3m</a>. There is a
+large variety of bookmarking packages for emacs which allow you to save your
+place in webpages (another important component of incremental reading). See the
+<a href="http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/BookMarks">Emacs Wiki</a> for details.
+</p>
+<p>
+An example of using Org-Drill for incremental reading is given below. First,
+and most importantly, we need to define an <code>org-capture</code> template for captured
+facts:
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="src src-emacs-lisp"><span style="color: #696969;">(</span>setq org-capture-templates
+      `<span style="color: #696969;">((</span><span style="color: #008b00;">"f"</span> <span style="color: #008b00;">"Fact"</span> entry
+         <span style="color: #696969;">(</span>file+headline <span style="color: #008b00;">"my_new_facts.org"</span> <span style="color: #008b00;">"Incoming"</span><span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+         <span style="color: #696969;">(</span>concat <span style="color: #008b00;">"* Fact #%(format \"%s\" (float-time))        :"</span>
+                 org-drill-question-tag
+                 <span style="color: #008b00;">":%^g\n
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DATE_ADDED: %t
+    :SOURCE_URL: %a
+    :END:\n
+%i%?\n\n"</span><span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+         <span style="color: #4169e1;">:empty-lines</span> 1
+         <span style="color: #4169e1;">:immediate-finish</span> nil<span style="color: #696969;">)</span>
+        <span style="color: #db7093;">;; </span><span style="color: #db7093;">...other capture templates...
+</span>    <span style="color: #696969;">))</span>
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+Using this template, you can select a region of text which contains a fact you
+want to remember, for example while reading a web page. You then invoke the
+capture template above, and the selected text will be turned into a new fact
+and saved to whichever file and heading you nominate in the template. You will
+be given the opportunity to edit the fact &ndash; you should make sure that the fact
+makes sense independent of its context, as that is how it will be presented to
+you. The easiest way to turn the text into a 'question' is by cloze
+deletion. All you need to do is surround the 'hidden' parts of the text with
+square brackets. 
+</p>
+<p>
+Next, you start reading a web page within Emacs. For example, suppose you are
+reading the Wikipedia entry on tuberculosis <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis">here</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+You read the following:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+
+<p>The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged
+sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes
+a wide range of symptoms. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of
+multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in
+(extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening
+programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+You decide you want to remember that "Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine" is the
+name of the vaccine against tuberculosis. First, you select the relevant
+portion of the text as the active region:
+</p>
+<blockquote>
+
+<p>The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged
+sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes
+a wide range of symptoms. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of
+multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in
+(extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. 
+<font style="background-color: yellow;">Prevention relies
+on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
+vaccine.</font>
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+Then you press a key to "capture" this piece of text (whatever key you have
+bound to <code>org-capture</code>), followed by "f" to use the "Fact" template shown
+above. 
+</p>
+<p>
+A temporary buffer will be created, containing something like:
+</p>
+
+
+
+<pre class="example">** Fact #1282372386.671655                           :drill:
+
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DATE_ADDED: &lt;2010-08-21 Sat&gt;
+    :SOURCE_URL: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis][Tuberculosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]]
+    :END:
+
+Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus
+Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+Note that the fact's properties automatically contain the date of its creation,
+and a URL linking back to the origin of the fact &ndash; the web page you were
+browsing, in this case. Because fact "titles" are seldom necessary, the title
+of the fact contains a meaningless but unique number (the number of seconds
+elapsed since 1/1/1970).
+</p>
+<p>
+Next, you edit the sentence so that it makes sense when you are presented with
+it out of context, and you also mark the key fact you want to remember by
+surrounding it with single square brackets.
+</p>
+<pre class="example">
+Prevention of tuberculosis relies on screening programs and vaccination,
+usually with [Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine].
+</pre>
+
+
+<p>
+You then press <code>C-c C-c</code>, and the new fact is saved. You continue reading the
+web page, adding other facts if you wish.
+</p>
+<p>
+Points to note:
+</p><ul>
+<li>
+You can of course define several different "fact" templates, each of which
+might send its fact to a different file or subheading, or give it different
+tags or properties, for example.
+</li>
+<li>
+You don't have to use a web browser within Emacs. The "fact" template above
+will work if you do not have text selected &ndash; the new fact will be empty. You
+could read a web page (or PDF document, etc) in a program of your choice,
+copy some text to the clipboard, then switch to Emacs and paste it into a new
+empty fact.
+</li>
+<li>
+Alternatively, you could define a template that takes its text from the
+clipboard rather than from the selected region. You can do this by changing
+the <code>%i</code> in the fact template to <code>%x</code> or <code>%^C</code>. See the documentation for the
+variable <code>org-capture-templates</code> for more details.
+
+
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+
+</div>
+
+<div id="outline-container-8" class="outline-2">
+<h2 id="sec-8"><span class="section-number-2">8</span> Still to do </h2>
+<div class="outline-text-2" id="text-8">
+
+
+
+<ul>
+<li>
+hide drawers.
+</li>
+<li>
+<code>org-drill-question-tag</code> should use a tag match string, rather than a
+single tag
+</li>
+<li>
+progress indicator during drill session: cumulative time, time spent thinking
+about this card
+</li>
+<li>
+perhaps take account of item priorities, showing high priority items first
+
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="postamble">
+<p class="author"> Author: Paul Sexton
+</p>
+<p class="date"> Date: 2010-08-22 09:45:05 NZST</p>
+<p class="creator">HTML generated by org-mode 7.01trans in emacs 23</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>
+# -*- mode: org; coding: utf-8 -*-
+#+TITLE: Org-Drill
+#+AUTHOR: Paul Sexton
+
+* Synopsis
+
+
+Org-Drill uses the spaced repetition algorithm in =org-learn= to conduct
+interactive "drill sessions", using org files as sources of facts to be
+memorised. The material to be remembered is presented to the student in random
+order. The student rates his or her recall of each item, and this information
+is fed back to =org-learn= to schedule the item for later revision.
+
+Each drill session can be restricted to topics in the current buffer
+(default), one or several files, all agenda files, or a subtree. A single
+topic can also be drilled.
+
+Different "topic types" can be defined, which present their information to the
+student in different ways.
+
+For more on the spaced repetition algorithm, and examples of other programs
+that use it, see:
+- [[http://supermemo.com/index.htm][SuperMemo]] (the SM5 algorithm is discussed [[http://www.supermemo.com/english/ol/sm5.htm][here]])
+- [[http://ichi2.net/anki/][Anki]]
+- [[http://mnemosyne-proj.org/index.php][Mnemosyne]]
+
+
+* Installation
+
+
+Put the following in your =.emacs=. You will also need to make sure that Org's
+"contrib/lisp" directory is in the emacs load-path.
+
+#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp 
+(require 'org-drill)
+#+END_SRC
+
+I also recommend the following, so that items are always eventually retested,
+even when you remember them very well.
+
+#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp 
+(setq org-learn-always-reschedule t)
+#+END_SRC
+
+If you want cloze-deleted text to show up in a special font within Org mode
+buffers, also add:
+
+#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp 
+(setq org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p t)
+#+END_SRC
+
+
+* Demonstration
+
+
+Load the file [[file:spanish.org][spanish.org]]. Press =M-x= and run the function =org-drill=. Follow
+the prompts at the bottom of the screen.
+
+When the drill finishes, you can look at =spanish.org= to get some idea of how
+drill topics are written.
+
+
+* Writing the questions
+
+
+Org-Drill uses org mode topics as 'drill items'. To be used as a drill item,
+the topic must have a tag that matches =org-drill-question-tag=. This is
+=:drill:= by default. Any other org topics will be ignored.
+
+You don't need to schedule the topics initially.  However =org-drill= *will*
+recognise items that have been scheduled previously with
+=org-learn=. Unscheduled items are considered to be 'new' and ready for
+memorisation.
+
+How should 'drill topics' be structured? Any org topic is a legal drill topic
+-- it will simply be shown with subheadings collapsed. After pressing a
+key, any hidden subheadings will be revealed, and you will be asked to rate
+your "recall" of the item.
+
+This will be adequate for some items, but usually you will want to write items
+where you have more control over what information is hidden from the user for
+recall purposes.
+
+** Simple topics
+
+The simplest drill topic has no special structure. When such a topic is
+presented during a drill session, any subheadings are "collapsed" with their
+contents hidden. So, you could include the question as text beneath the main
+heading, and the answer within a subheading. For example:
+
+#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
+* Item                                   :drill:
+What is the capital city of Estonia?
+
+** The Answer
+Tallinn.
+#+END_EXAMPLE
+
+When this item is presented for review, the text beneath the main heading will
+be visible, but the contents of the subheading ("The Answer") will be hidden.
+
+
+** Cloze deletion
+
+Cloze deletion can be used in any drill topic regardless of whether it is
+otherwise 'simple', or one of the specialised topic types discussed below. To
+use cloze deletion, part of the body of the topic is marked as /cloze text/ by
+surrounding it with single square brackets, [like so]. When the topic is
+presented for review, the text within square brackets will be obscured. The
+text is then revealed after the user presses a key. For example:
+
+#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
+* Item                                   :drill:
+The capital city of Estonia is [Tallinn].
+#+END_EXAMPLE
+
+During review, the user will see:
+
+#+BEGIN_QUOTE
+The capital city of Estonia is @<font style="background-color: blue;" color="blue">
+XXXXXXX@</font>.
+#+END_QUOTE
+
+When the user presses a key, the text "Tallinn" will become visible.
+
+
+** Two-sided cards
+
+The remaining topic types all use the topic property, =DRILL_CARD_TYPE=. This
+property tells =org-drill= which function to use to present the topic during
+review. If this property has the value =twosided= then the topic is treated as
+a "two sided card". When a two sided card is reviewed, /one of the first two/
+subheadings within the topic will be visible -- all other
+subheadings will be hidden.
+
+Two-sided cards are meant to emulate the type of flipcard where either side is
+useful as test material (for example, a card with a word in a foreign language
+on one side, and its translation on the other).
+
+A two sided card can have more than 2 subheadings, but all subheadings after
+the first two are considered as "notes" and will always be hidden during topic
+review.
+
+#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
+* Noun                                               :drill:
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
+    :END:
+
+Translate this word.
+
+** Spanish
+la mujer
+
+** English
+the woman
+
+** Example sentence
+¿Quién fue esa mujer? 
+Who was that woman?
+#+END_EXAMPLE
+
+In this example, the user will be shown the main text -- "Translate this word"
+-- and either 'la mujer', /or/ 'the woman', at random. The section 'Example
+sentence' will never be shown until after the user presses a key, because it is
+not one of the first two 'sides' of the topic.
+
+
+** Multi-sided cards
+
+The =multisided= card type is similar to =twosided=, except that any
+subheading has a chance of being presented during the topic review. One
+subheading is always shown and all others are always hidden. 
+
+#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
+* Noun                                               :drill:
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: multisided
+    :END:
+
+Translate.
+
+** Spanish
+la mesa
+
+** English
+the table
+
+** Picture
+[[file:table.jpg][PICTURE]]
+#+END_EXAMPLE
+
+The user will be shown the main text and either 'la mujer', /or/ 'the woman',
+/or/ a picture of a table.
+
+
+** User-defined topic types
+
+Finally, you can write your own elisp functions to define new kinds of
+topics. Any new topic type will need to be added to
+=org-drill-card-type-alist=, and cards using that topic type will need to have
+it as the value of their =DRILL_CARD_TYPE= property. For an example, see the
+function =org-drill-present-spanish-verb=, which defines the new topic type
+=spanish_verb=, used in 'spanish.org'.
+
+See the file [[file:spanish.org][spanish.org]] for a full set of example material.
+
+
+* Running the drill session
+
+
+Start a drill session with =M-x org-drill=. By default, this includes all
+non-hidden topics in the current buffer. =org-drill= takes an optional
+argument, SCOPE, which allows it to take drill items from other
+sources. Possible values for SCOPE are:
+
+- tree :: The subtree starting with the entry at the cursor.
+- file :: The current buffer, including both hidden and non-hidden items.
+- file-with-archives :: The current buffer, and any archives associated with it.
+- agenda :: All agenda files.
+- agenda-with-archives :: All agenda files with any archive files associated
+     with them.
+- (file1 file2 ...) :: A list of filenames. All files in the list will be
+     scanned.
+
+During a drill session, you will be presented with each item, then asked to
+rate your recall of it by pressing a key between 0 and 5. The meaning of these
+numbers is (taken from =org-learn=):
+
+- 0 :: Completely forgot. 
+- 1 :: Even after seeing the answer, it still took a bit to sink in. 
+- 2 :: After seeing the answer, you remembered it. 
+- 3 :: It took you awhile, but you finally remembered.
+- 4 :: After a little bit of thought you remembered.
+- 5 :: You remembered the item really easily.
+
+You can press '?'  at the prompt if you have trouble remembering what the
+numbers 0--5 signify. At any time you can press 'q' to finish the drill early
+(your progress will be saved), or 'e' to finish the drill and jump to the
+current topic for editing (your progress up to that point will be saved).
+
+
+* Leeches
+
+
+From the Anki website, http://ichi2.net/anki/wiki/Leeches:
+
+#+BEGIN_QUOTE
+Leeches are cards that you keep on forgetting. Because they require so many
+reviews, they take up a lot more of your time than other cards.
+#+END_QUOTE
+
+Like Anki, Org-Drill defines leeches as cards that you have "failed" many
+times. The number of times an item must be failed before it is considered a
+leech is set by the variable =org-drill-leech-failure-threshold= (15 by
+default). When you fail to remember an item more than this many times, the item
+will be given the =:leech:= tag.
+
+Leech items can be handled in one of three ways. You can choose how Org-Drill
+handles leeches by setting the variable =org-drill-leech-method= to one of the
+following values:
+- nil :: Leech items are tagged with the =leech= tag, but otherwise treated the
+         same as normal items.
+- skip :: Leech items are not included in drill sessions.
+- warn :: Leech items are still included in drill sessions, but a warning
+  message is printed when each leech item is presented.
+
+The best way to deal with a leech is either to delete it, or reformulate it so
+that it is easier to remember, for example by splitting it into more than one
+card. 
+
+See [[http://www.supermemo.com/help/leech.htm][the SuperMemo website]] for more on leeches.
+
+
+* Incremental reading
+
+
+An innovative feature of the program SuperMemo is so-called "incremental
+reading". This refers to the ability to quickly and easily make drill items
+from selected portions of text as you read an article (a web page for
+example). See [[http://www.supermemo.com/help/read.htm][the SuperMemo website]] for more on incremental reading.
+
+Much of the infrastructure for incremental reading is already provided by Org
+Mode, with the help of some other emacs packages. You can provide yourself with
+an incremental reading facility by using 'org-capture' alongside a package that
+allows you to browse web pages in emacs -- e.g. w3 or [[http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/emacs-w3m][emacs-w3m]]. There is a
+large variety of bookmarking packages for emacs which allow you to save your
+place in webpages (another important component of incremental reading). See the
+[[http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/BookMarks][Emacs Wiki]] for details.
+
+An example of using Org-Drill for incremental reading is given below. First,
+and most importantly, we need to define an =org-capture= template for captured
+facts:
+
+#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp 
+(setq org-capture-templates
+      `(("f" "Fact" entry
+         (file+headline "my_new_facts.org" "Incoming")
+         (concat "* Fact #%(format \"%s\" (float-time))        :"
+                 org-drill-question-tag
+                 ":%^g\n
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DATE_ADDED: %t
+    :SOURCE_URL: %a
+    :END:\n
+%i%?\n\n")
+         :empty-lines 1
+         :immediate-finish nil)
+        ;; ...other capture templates...
+    ))
+#+END_SRC
+
+Using this template, you can select a region of text which contains a fact you
+want to remember, for example while reading a web page. You then invoke the
+capture template above, and the selected text will be turned into a new fact
+and saved to whichever file and heading you nominate in the template. You will
+be given the opportunity to edit the fact -- you should make sure that the fact
+makes sense independent of its context, as that is how it will be presented to
+you. The easiest way to turn the text into a 'question' is by cloze
+deletion. All you need to do is surround the 'hidden' parts of the text with
+square brackets. 
+
+Next, you start reading a web page within Emacs. For example, suppose you are
+reading the Wikipedia entry on tuberculosis [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis][here]].
+
+You read the following:
+
+#+BEGIN_QUOTE
+The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged
+sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes
+a wide range of symptoms. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of
+multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in
+(extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening
+programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
+#+END_QUOTE
+
+You decide you want to remember that "Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine" is the
+name of the vaccine against tuberculosis. First, you select the relevant
+portion of the text as the active region:
+
+#+BEGIN_QUOTE
+The classic symptoms of tuberculosis are a chronic cough with blood-tinged
+sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes
+a wide range of symptoms. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of
+multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in
+(extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. 
+@<font style="background-color: yellow;">Prevention relies
+on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
+vaccine.@</font>
+#+END_QUOTE
+
+Then you press a key to "capture" this piece of text (whatever key you have
+bound to =org-capture=), followed by "f" to use the "Fact" template shown
+above. 
+
+A temporary buffer will be created, containing something like:
+
+#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
+** Fact #1282372386.671655                           :drill:
+
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DATE_ADDED: <2010-08-21 Sat>
+    :SOURCE_URL: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis][Tuberculosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]]
+    :END:
+
+Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus
+Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
+#+END_EXAMPLE
+
+Note that the fact's properties automatically contain the date of its creation,
+and a URL linking back to the origin of the fact -- the web page you were
+browsing, in this case. Because fact "titles" are seldom necessary, the title
+of the fact contains a meaningless but unique number (the number of seconds
+elapsed since 1/1/1970).
+
+Next, you edit the sentence so that it makes sense when you are presented with
+it out of context, and you also mark the key fact you want to remember by
+surrounding it with single square brackets.
+
+: Prevention of tuberculosis relies on screening programs and vaccination,
+: usually with [Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine].
+
+You then press =C-c C-c=, and the new fact is saved. You continue reading the
+web page, adding other facts if you wish.
+
+Points to note:
+- You can of course define several different "fact" templates, each of which
+  might send its fact to a different file or subheading, or give it different
+  tags or properties, for example.
+- You don't have to use a web browser within Emacs. The "fact" template above
+  will work if you do not have text selected -- the new fact will be empty. You
+  could read a web page (or PDF document, etc) in a program of your choice,
+  copy some text to the clipboard, then switch to Emacs and paste it into a new
+  empty fact.
+- Alternatively, you could define a template that takes its text from the
+  clipboard rather than from the selected region. You can do this by changing
+  the =%i= in the fact template to =%x= or =%^C=. See the documentation for the
+  variable =org-capture-templates= for more details.
+
+
+* Still to do
+
+
+- hide drawers.
+- =org-drill-question-tag= should use a tag match string, rather than a
+  single tag
+- progress indicator during drill session: cumulative time, time spent thinking
+  about this card
+- perhaps take account of item priorities, showing high priority items first
+
 ;;; Different "card types" can be defined, which present their information to
 ;;; the student in different ways.
 ;;;
-;;;
-;;; Installation
-;;; ============
-;;;
-;;; Put the following in your .emacs:
-;;;
-;;; (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-drill/")
-;;; (require 'org-drill)
-;;;
-;;;
-;;; Writing the questions
-;;; =====================
-;;;
-;;; See the file "spanish.org" for an example set of material.
-;;;
-;;; Tag all items you want to be asked about with a tag that matches
-;;; `org-drill-question-tag'. This is :drill: by default.
-;;;
-;;; You don't need to schedule the topics initially.  However org-drill *will*
-;;; recognise items that have been scheduled previously with `org-learn'.
-;;;
-;;; Within each question, the answer can be included in the following ways:
-;;; 
-;;; - Question in the main body text, answer in subtopics. This is the
-;;;   default. All subtopics will be shown collapsed, while the text under
-;;;   the main heading will stay visible.
-;;;
-;;; - Each subtopic contains a piece of information related to the topic. ONE
-;;;   of these will revealed at random, and the others hidden. To define a
-;;;   topic of this type, give the topic a property `DRILL_CARD_TYPE' with
-;;;   value `multisided'.
-;;;
-;;; - Cloze deletion -- any pieces of text in the body of the card that are
-;;;   surrounded with [SINGLE square brackets] will be hidden when the card is
-;;;   presented to the user, and revealed once they press a key. Cloze deletion
-;;;   is automatically applied to all topics.
-;;; 
-;;; - No explicit answer -- the user judges whether they recalled the
-;;;   fact adequately.
-;;;
-;;; - Other methods of your own devising, provided you write a function to
-;;;   handle selective display of the topic. See the function
-;;;   `org-drill-present-spanish-verb', which handles topics of type "spanish_verb",
-;;;   for an example.
-;;;
-;;;
-;;; Running the drill session
-;;; =========================
-;;;
-;;; Start a drill session with `M-x org-drill'. This will include all eligible
-;;; topics in the current buffer. `org-drill' can also be targeted at a particular
-;;; subtree or particular files or sets of files; see the documentation of 
-;;; the function `org-drill' for details.
-;;;
-;;; During the drill session, you will be presented with each item, then asked
-;;; to rate your recall of it by pressing a key between 0 and 5. At any time you
-;;; can press 'q' to finish the drill early (your progress will be saved), or
-;;; 'e' to finish the drill and jump to the current topic for editing.
-;;;
-;;; 
-;;; TODO
-;;; ====
-;;;
-;;; - encourage org-learn to reschedule "4" and "5" items.
-;;; - nicer "cloze face" which does not hide the space preceding the cloze,
-;;;   and behaves more nicely across line breaks
-;;; - hide drawers.
-;;; - org-drill-question-tag should use a tag match string, rather than a
-;;;   single tag
-;;; - when finished, display a message showing how many items reviewed,
-;;;   how many still pending, numbers in each recall category
+;;; See the file README.org for more detailed documentation.
+
 
 (eval-when-compile (require 'cl))
 (eval-when-compile (require 'hi-lock))
   :type '(choice integer (const nil)))
 
 
+(defcustom org-drill-leech-failure-threshold
+  15
+  "If an item is forgotten more than this many times, it is tagged
+as a 'leech' item."
+  :group 'org-drill
+  :type '(choice integer (const nil)))
+
+
+(defcustom org-drill-leech-method
+  'skip
+  "How should 'leech items' be handled during drill sessions?
+Possible values:
+- nil :: Leech items are treated the same as normal items.
+- skip :: Leech items are not included in drill sessions.
+- warn :: Leech items are still included in drill sessions,
+  but a warning message is printed when each leech item is
+  presented."
+  :group 'org-drill
+  :type '(choice (const 'warn) (const 'skip) (const nil)))
+
+
+(defface org-drill-visible-cloze-face
+  '((t (:foreground "dark slate blue")))
+  "The face used to hide the contents of cloze phrases."
+  :group 'org-drill)
+
+
+(defcustom org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p
+  nil
+  "Use a special face to highlight cloze-deleted text in org mode
+buffers?"
+  :group 'org-drill
+  :type 'boolean)
+
+
 
 (defface org-drill-hidden-cloze-face
   '((t (:foreground "blue" :background "blue")))
 
 
 (defvar org-drill-cloze-regexp
-  "[^][]\\(\\[[^][][^]]*\\]\\)")
+  ;; old "[^][]\\(\\[[^][][^]]*\\]\\)"
+  "\\(\\[.*?\\]\\|^[^[[:cntrl:]]*?\\]\\|\\[.*?$\\)")
 
 
 (defcustom org-drill-card-type-alist
   '((nil . org-drill-present-simple-card)
     ("simple" . org-drill-present-simple-card)
+    ("twosided" . org-drill-present-two-sided-card)
     ("multisided" . org-drill-present-multi-sided-card)
     ("spanish_verb" . org-drill-present-spanish-verb))
   "Alist associating card types with presentation functions. Each entry in the
   :type '(alist :key-type (choice string (const nil)) :value-type function))
 
 
+(defvar *org-drill-done-entry-count* 0)
+(defvar *org-drill-pending-entry-count* 0)
+(defvar *org-drill-session-qualities* nil)
+(defvar *org-drill-start-time* 0)
+
 
 (defun shuffle-list (list)
   "Randomly permute the elements of LIST (all permutations equally likely)."
     
 
 
+(defun org-drill-entry-p ()
+  "Is the current entry a 'drill item'?"
+  (or (assoc "LEARN_DATA" (org-entry-properties nil))
+      (member org-drill-question-tag (org-get-local-tags))))
+
+
+(defun org-drill-entry-leech-p ()
+  "Is the current entry a 'leech item'?"
+  (and (org-drill-entry-p)
+       (member "leech" (org-get-local-tags))))
+
+
 (defun org-drill-entry-due-p ()
   (let ((item-time (org-get-scheduled-time (point))))
-    (and (or (assoc "LEARN_DATA" (org-entry-properties nil))
-             (member org-drill-question-tag (org-get-local-tags)))
+    (and (org-drill-entry-p)
+         (or (not (eql 'skip org-drill-leech-method))
+             (not (org-drill-entry-leech-p)))
          (or (null item-time)
-             (not (minusp               ; scheduled for today/in
-                                        ; future
+             (not (minusp               ; scheduled for today/in future
                    (- (time-to-days (current-time))
                       (time-to-days item-time))))))))
 
 
+(defun org-drill-entry-new-p ()
+  (let ((item-time (org-get-scheduled-time (point))))
+    (and (org-drill-entry-p)
+         (null item-time))))
+
+
+
+(defun org-drill-entry-last-quality ()
+  (let ((quality (cdr (assoc "DRILL_LAST_QUALITY" (org-entry-properties nil)))))
+    (if quality
+        (string-to-number quality)
+      nil)))
+
+
 
 (defun org-drill-reschedule ()
+  "Returns quality rating (0-5), or nil if the user quit."
   (let ((ch nil))
     (while (not (memq ch '(?q ?0 ?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?5)))
       (setq ch (read-char
                   "How well did you do? (0-5, ?=help, q=quit)"))))
     (cond
      ((and (>= ch ?0) (<= ch ?5))
-      (save-excursion
-        (org-smart-reschedule (- ch 48)))
-      ch)
+      (let ((quality (- ch ?0))
+            (failures (cdr (assoc "DRILL_FAILURE_COUNT" (org-entry-properties nil)))))
+        (save-excursion
+          (org-smart-reschedule quality))
+        (push quality *org-drill-session-qualities*)
+        (cond
+         ((< quality 3)
+          (when org-drill-leech-failure-threshold
+            (setq failures (if failures (string-to-number failures) 0))
+            (org-set-property "DRILL_FAILURE_COUNT"
+                              (format "%d" (1+ failures)))
+            (if (> (1+ failures) org-drill-leech-failure-threshold)
+                (org-toggle-tag "leech" 'on)))))
+        (org-set-property "DRILL_LAST_QUALITY" (format "%d" quality))
+        quality))
      (t
       nil))))
 
     (reverse drill-sections)))
 
 
+
 (defun org-drill-presentation-prompt (&rest fmt-and-args)
-  (let ((ch (read-char (if fmt-and-args
-                           (apply 'format
-                                  (first fmt-and-args)
-                                  (rest fmt-and-args))
-                         "Press any key to see the answer, 'e' to edit, 'q' to quit."))))
+  (let ((ch nil)
+        (prompt
+         (if fmt-and-args
+             (apply 'format
+                    (first fmt-and-args)
+                    (rest fmt-and-args))
+           "Press any key to see the answer, 'e' to edit, 'q' to quit.")))
+    (setq prompt
+          (format "(%d) %s" *org-drill-pending-entry-count* prompt))
+    (if (and (eql 'warn org-drill-leech-method)
+             (org-drill-entry-leech-p))
+        (setq prompt (concat "!!! LEECH ITEM !!!
+You seem to be having a lot of trouble memorising this item.
+Consider reformulating the item to make it easier to remember.\n" prompt)))
+    (setq ch (read-char prompt))
     (case ch
       (?q nil)
       (?e 'edit)
     (org-show-subtree)))
 
 
+(defun org-drill-present-two-sided-card ()
+  (let ((drill-sections (org-drill-hide-all-subheadings-except nil)))
+    (when drill-sections
+      (save-excursion
+        (goto-char (nth (random (min 2 (length drill-sections))) drill-sections))
+        (org-show-subtree)))
+    (prog1
+        (org-drill-presentation-prompt)
+      (org-show-subtree))))
+
+
+
 (defun org-drill-present-multi-sided-card ()
   (let ((drill-sections (org-drill-hide-all-subheadings-except nil)))
     (when drill-sections
 Review will occur regardless of whether the topic is due for review or whether
 it meets the definition of a 'review topic' used by `org-drill'.
 
+Returns a quality rating from 0 to 5, or nil if the user quit, or the symbol
+EDIT if the user chose to exit the drill and edit the current item.
+
 See `org-drill' for more details."
   (interactive)
   (unless (org-at-heading-p)
     (save-restriction
       (org-narrow-to-subtree) 
       (org-show-subtree)
-      (org-cycle-hide-drawers 'overview)
+      (org-cycle-hide-drawers 'all)
       
       (let ((presentation-fn (cdr (assoc card-type org-drill-card-type-alist))))
         (cond
 
 
 
+(defun org-drill-entries (entries)
+  "Returns nil, t, or a list of markers representing entries that were
+'failed' and need to be presented again before the session ends."
+  (let ((again-entries nil)
+        (*org-drill-done-entry-count* 0)
+        (*org-drill-pending-entry-count* (length entries)))
+    (if (and org-drill-maximum-items-per-session
+             (> (length entries)
+                org-drill-maximum-items-per-session))
+        (setq entries (subseq entries 0
+                              org-drill-maximum-items-per-session)))
+    (block org-drill-entries
+      (dolist (m entries)
+        (save-restriction
+          (switch-to-buffer (marker-buffer m))
+          (goto-char (marker-position m))
+          (setq result (org-drill-entry))
+          (cond
+           ((null result)
+            (message "Quit")
+            (return-from org-drill-entries nil))
+           ((eql result 'edit)
+            (setq end-pos (point-marker))
+            (return-from org-drill-entries nil))
+           (t
+            (cond
+             ((< result 3)
+              (push m again-entries))
+             (t
+              (decf *org-drill-pending-entry-count*)
+              (incf *org-drill-done-entry-count*)))
+            (when (and org-drill-maximum-duration
+                       (> (- (float-time (current-time)) *org-drill-start-time*)
+                          (* org-drill-maximum-duration 60)))
+              (message "This drill session has reached its maximum duration.")
+              (return-from org-drill-entries nil))))))
+      (or again-entries
+          t))))
+
+
+(defun org-drill-final-report ()
+  (read-char
+(format
+ "%d items reviewed, %d items awaiting review
+Session duration %s
+
+Recall of reviewed items:
+ Excellent (5):     %3d%%
+ Good (4):          %3d%%
+ Hard (3):          %3d%%
+ Near miss (2):     %3d%%
+ Failure (1):       %3d%%
+ Total failure (0): %3d%%
+
+Session finished. Press a key to continue..." 
+ *org-drill-done-entry-count*
+ *org-drill-pending-entry-count*
+ (format-seconds "%h:%.2m:%.2s"
+                 (- (float-time (current-time)) *org-drill-start-time*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 5 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 4 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 3 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 2 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 1 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ (round (* 100 (count 0 *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+        (length *org-drill-session-qualities*))
+ )))
+
+
+
 (defun org-drill (&optional scope)
   "Begin an interactive 'drill session'. The user is asked to
 review a series of topics (headers). Each topic is initially
 
   (interactive)
   (let ((entries nil)
+        (failed-entries nil)
+        (new-entries nil)
+        (old-entries nil)
         (result nil)
         (results nil)
         (end-pos nil))
     (block org-drill
+      (setq *org-drill-session-qualities* nil)
+      (setq *org-drill-start-time* (float-time (current-time)))
       (save-excursion
         (org-map-entries
-         (lambda () (if (org-drill-entry-due-p)
-                   (push (point-marker) entries)))
+         (lambda () (when (org-drill-entry-due-p)
+                 (cond
+                  ((org-drill-entry-new-p)
+                   (push (point-marker) new-entries))
+                  ((member (org-drill-entry-last-quality) '(0 1 2))
+                   (push (point-marker) failed-entries))
+                  (t
+                   (push (point-marker) old-entries)))))
          "" scope)
+        ;; Failed first, then random mix of old + new
+        (setq entries (append (shuffle-list failed-entries)
+                              (shuffle-list (append old-entries
+                                                    new-entries))))
         (cond
          ((null entries)
           (message "I did not find any pending drill items."))
          (t
-          (let ((start-time (float-time (current-time))))
-            (dolist (m (if (and org-drill-maximum-items-per-session
-                                (> (length entries)
-                                   org-drill-maximum-items-per-session))
-                           (subseq (shuffle-list entries) 0
-                                   org-drill-maximum-items-per-session)
-                         (shuffle-list entries)))
-              (save-restriction
-                (switch-to-buffer (marker-buffer m))
-                (goto-char (marker-position m))
-                (setq result (org-drill-entry))
-                (cond
-                 ((null result)
-                  (message "Quit")
-                  (return-from org-drill nil))
-                 ((eql result 'edit)
-                  (setq end-pos (point-marker))
-                  (return-from org-drill nil))
-                 ((and org-drill-maximum-duration
-                       (> (- (float-time (current-time)) start-time)
-                          (* org-drill-maximum-duration 60)))
-                  (message "This drill session has reached its maximum duration.")
-                  (return-from org-drill nil)))))
+          (let ((again t))
+            (while again
+              (when (listp again)
+                (setq entries (shuffle-list again)))
+              (setq again (org-drill-entries entries))
+              (cond
+               ((null again)
+                (return-from org-drill nil))
+               ((eql t again)
+                (setq again nil))))
             (message "Drill session finished!")
             )))))
-    (when end-pos
+    (cond
+     (end-pos
       (switch-to-buffer (marker-buffer end-pos))
       (goto-char (marker-position end-pos))
-      (message "Edit topic."))))
+      (message "Edit topic."))
+     (t
+      (org-drill-final-report)))))
 
 
 
+(add-hook 'org-mode-hook
+          (lambda ()
+            (if org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p
+                (font-lock-add-keywords
+                 'org-mode
+                 `((,org-drill-cloze-regexp
+                    (0 'org-drill-visible-cloze-face nil)))
+                 t)))) 
+
+
 (provide 'org-drill)
 #+STARTUP: showall
 
 # examples of card definitions for use with org-drill.
+# Cards, AKA topics, have the 'drill' tag. Note that the higher-level headings
+# in the file do NOT have this tag.
 
 * Spanish questions
 
 ** Greetings
 
-# Simple cards. When each card is presented, any subheadings are collapsed, but
+# Simple cards. When each card is presented, all subheadings are collapsed, but
 # the text under the topic's main heading remains visible.
 
 *** Greeting 1                                       :drill:
 
 ¿Cómo se llama usted?
 
+**** Notes
+
+llamar = to be named
+
 *** Greeting 2                                       :drill:
 
 Translate into Spanish:
 
 ¿Cómo te llamas?
 
-** Nouns
+**** Notes
 
-# Examples of 'multisided' cards. The user will randomly be presented with ONE
-# of the subheadings -- in this case either the Spanish word, or the English
-# word.
+llamar = to be named
 
-# (we could include a third subheading which just contains an inline picture.)
+
+** Grammar rules
+
+# More simple cards -- here the question and answer are produced purely using
+# cloze deletion of test in [square brackets], without the need to hide any
+# subtopics (though they WILL still be hidden if present).
+
+# Set the variable `org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p' to `t' if you want 
+# cloze-deleted text to be shown in a special face when you are editing org
+# mode buffers.
+
+*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:
+
+To make the plural of an adjective ending in [a stressed vowel or a consonant 
+other than -z], add /-es/.
+
+*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:
+
+To form an adverb from an adjective, add [-mente] to the [feminine] (gender)
+form of the adjective.
+
+** Vocabulary
+
+# Examples of 'twosided' cards. These are 'flip cards' where one of the
+# first 2 'sides' (subheadings) is presented at random, while all others stay
+# hidden. 
+
+# There is another builtin card type called 'multisided'. These are like
+# 'twosided' cards, but can have any number of sides. So we could extend the
+# examples below by changing their type to multisided and adding a third
+# subheading which contains an inline image.
+
 
 *** Noun                                             :drill:
     :PROPERTIES:
-    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: multisided
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
     :END:
 
 Translate this word.
 
 the cat
 
+**** Example sentence
+
+*El gato* se sentó en la estera.
+*The cat* sat on the mat.
+
 
 *** Noun                                             :drill:
     :PROPERTIES:
-    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: multisided
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
     :END:
 
 Translate this word.
 
 the dog
 
+**** Example sentence
 
-** Grammar rules
+Cuidado con *el perro*. 
+Beware of *the dog*.
 
-# More simple cards -- here the question and answer are produced purely using
-# cloze deletion of test in [square brackets], without the need to hide any
-# subtopics.
 
-*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:
+*** Adjective                                        :drill:
+    :PROPERTIES:
+    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
+    :END:
 
-To make the plural of an adjective ending in [a stressed vowel or a consonant 
-other than -z], add /-es/.
+Translate this word.
 
-*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:
+**** Spanish
 
-To form an adverb from an adjective, add [-mente] to the [feminine] (gender)
-form of the adjective.
+caliente
+
+**** English 
+
+hot
+
+**** Example sentence
+
+El agua está muy caliente.
+The water is very hot.
+
 
 ** Verbs
 
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