Source

org-drill / spanish.org

# -*- mode: org; coding: utf-8 -*-
#+STARTUP: showall

# examples of card definitions for use with org-drill.
# Cards, AKA topics, have the 'drill' tag. Note that the higher-level headings
# in the file do NOT have this tag.

* Spanish questions

** Greetings

# Simple cards. When each card is presented, all subheadings are collapsed, but
# the text under the topic's main heading remains visible.

*** Greeting 1                                       :drill:

Translate into Spanish:
What is your name? (formal)

**** Answer

¿Cómo se llama usted?

**** Notes

llamar = to be named

*** Greeting 2                                       :drill:

Translate into Spanish:
What is your name? (informal)

**** Answer

¿Cómo te llamas?

**** Notes

llamar = to be named


** Grammar rules 1

# More simple cards -- here the question and answer are produced purely using
# cloze deletion of test in [square brackets], without the need to hide any
# subtopics (though they WILL still be hidden if present).

# If the text between the brackets contains a `|' character, everything after
# that character is considered to be a `hint', and will remain visible when the
# rest of the clozed text is hidden.

# Set the variable `org-drill-use-visible-cloze-face-p' to `t' if you want
# cloze-deleted text to be shown in a special face when you are editing org
# mode buffers.

*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:

To form the plural of a noun ending in a consonant, add [-es] to the end.

*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:

To make the plural of an adjective ending in [a stressed vowel or a consonant
other than -z], add /-es/.

** Grammar rules 2

# An example of a 'hide1cloze' card. One of the areas marked with square
# brackets will be hidden (chosen at random), the others will remain visible.

# This card also illustrates the use of hints inside clozed text. Note how
# during testing, the hint text `gender' is invisible unless its clozed text
# area is being hidden, in which case that text is replaced by `[gender...]'

*** Grammar Rule                                     :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: hide1cloze
    :END:

To form [an adverb] from an adjective, add [-mente] to the [feminine|gender]
form of the adjective.

** Vocabulary

# Examples of 'twosided' cards. These are 'flip cards' where one of the
# first 2 'sides' (subheadings) is presented at random, while all others stay
# hidden.

# There is another builtin card type called 'multisided'. These are like
# 'twosided' cards, but can have any number of sides. So we could extend the
# examples below by changing their type to multisided and adding a third
# subheading which contains an inline image.


*** Noun                                             :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
    :END:

Translate this word.

**** Spanish

el gato

**** English

the cat

**** Example sentence

*El gato* se sentó en la estera.
*The cat* sat on the mat.


*** Noun                                             :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: hide1cloze
    :END:

Sp: [el perro]
En: [the dog]

**** Example sentence

Cuidado con *el perro*.
Beware of *the dog*.


*** Noun                                             :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: multisided
    :END:

**** Spanish

la manzana

**** English

the apple

**** Picture

The Spanish word for...

[[file:apple.jpg][Picture]]


*** Adjective                                        :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: twosided
    :END:

Translate this word.

**** Spanish

caliente

**** English

hot

**** Example sentence

El agua está muy caliente.
The water is very hot.


** Verbs

[[Regular Verb: bailar][Below]] is an example of a complex drill item. The main item is itself a drill
item which tests your ability to translate 'bailar' to and from English (which
direction is chosen at random).

The item has several child items, some of which contain notes about the verb,
others of which are separate drill items relating to the verb. In this example,
all of the child drill items test verb conjugation, and have the 'conjugate'
card type. Which tense to test is specified by the =VERB_TENSE= property in
each item, and the information about the verb is retrieved from the parent's
=VERB_INFINITIVE=, =VERB_TRANSLATION= and =VERB_INFINITIVE_HINT= properties.

Some of the conjugation items are empty -- this allows the user to past in
conjugations as they are learned. They will automatically be excluded from
drill sessions as long as their bodies remain empty.

Following this item is an [[Old Style Verb][example]] of the older "spanish_verb" card type. This
is not as sophisticated or useful as the first example, but is intended to
demonstrate how a function can control which subheadings are visible when an
item is tested.


*** Regular Verb: bailar                                            :verb:drill:
  :PROPERTIES:
  :VERB_INFINITIVE: "bailar"
  :VERB_TRANSLATION: "to dance"
  :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: hide1cloze
  :DATE_ADDED: [2011-04-30 Sat]
  :VERB_INFINITIVE_HINT: "b..."
  :END:

Sp:  [bailar]
En:  [to dance] (verb)

**** Notes

This is a regular verb.

**** Examples

Bailé con mi novia.
I danced with my girlfriend.

**** Present Indicative tense                                       :verb:drill:
     :PROPERTIES:
     :VERB_TENSE: "present indicative"
     :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: conjugate
     :END:

| yo            | bailo    |
| tú            | bailas   |
| él/usted      | baila    |
| nosotros      | bailamos |
| vosotros      | bailáis  |
| ellos/ustedes | bailan   |

**** Participles                                                    :verb:drill:
Present participle of bailar:  [bailando]
Past participle of bailar:     [bailado]

**** Preterite tense                                                :verb:drill:
     :PROPERTIES:
     :VERB_TENSE: "preterite"
     :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: conjugate
     :END:

| yo            | bailé      |
| tú            | bailaste   |
| él/usted      | bailó      |
| nosotros      | bailamos   |
| vosotros      | bailasteis |
| ellos/ustedes | bailaron   |

**** Imperfect tense                                                :verb:drill:
     :PROPERTIES:
     :VERB_TENSE: "imperfect"
     :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: conjugate
     :END:

**** Future tense                                                   :verb:drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :VERB_TENSE: "future"
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: conjugate
    :END:


*** Old Style Verb                                                       :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: spanish_verb
    :END:

**** Infinitive

cantar

**** English

to sing

**** Present Tense

| yo canto  | nosotros cantamos |
| tú cantas | vosotros cantáis  |
| él canta  | ellos cantan      |

**** Past Tense

| yo canté    | nosotros cantamos   |
| tú cantaste | vosotros cantasteis |
| él cantó    | ellos cantaron      |

**** Future Perfect Tense

| yo cantaré  | nosotros cantaremos |
| tú cantarás | vosotros cantaréis  |
| él cantarán | ellos cantarán      |


**** Notes

Regular verb.


** Sentences


It is generally a lot harder for language students to translate /to/ the
foreign language, than to translate /from/ it. This is because when you see a
sentence in the foreign language, you can often get the sense of the sentence
by recognising the nouns and verbs; once this is achieved, combining them into
a grammatically correct sentence in your native tongue is automatic and
effortless. However, in the other direction, not only do you have to recall the
correct nouns, verbs and so on, but you also have to put the words in the right
order and get all the grammar and "in-between words" correct.

Therefore, if you are learning a language you should generally test your
ability to translate into the language, more often than you test your ability
in the other direction.

The following is an example of the card type =hide1_firstmore=. This card type
works like =hide1cloze= but the /first/ clozed text area is guaranteed to be
hidden 75% of the time.

The second example is of a similar card type, =show1_firstless=. Here only 1
clozed text area is visible during testing. 75% of the time, the /first/ area
is guaranteed to be one of the hidden areas.


*** Sentence                                                             :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: hide1_firstmore
    :END:

Sp:  [La mujer cuyo perro estamos buscando es mi jefe.]
En:  [The woman whose dog were seeking is my boss.]

*** Adverb                                                               :drill:
    :PROPERTIES:
    :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: show1_firstless
    :END:

Sp:  [entre]
En:  [between] or [among]


** Random Numbers

Below is an example of a card that tests the user's ability to translate random
whole numbers to and from a non-English language. For it to work correctly, you
must have the third party library [[http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/spell-number.el][spell-number.el]] installed and loaded.

The meaning of the item's properties is as follows:
- =DRILL_LANGUAGE=: any language recognised by spell-number.el. At the time of
  writing these include: catalan, danish, dutch, english-eur, english-gb,
  english-us, esperanto, finnish, french-fr, french-ch, german, italian,
  japanese, norwegian, portuguese-br, portuguese-pt, spanish and swedish.
- =DRILL_NUMBER_MIN= and =DRILL_NUMBER_MAX=: the range between which the random
  number will fall.


*** Random Number 20-99                                                  :drill:
  :PROPERTIES:
  :DRILL_NUMBER_MIN: 20
  :DRILL_NUMBER_MAX: 99
  :DRILL_LANGUAGE: spanish
  :DRILL_CARD_TYPE: translate_number
  :END:

# This comment is included so that the item body is non-empty. Items with
# empty bodies are skipped during drill sessions.
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