drop_acid_osbridge_2009 / slides.html

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<h1>Drop ACID and think about data</h1>

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<h1 class="title">Drop ACID and think about data</h1>
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<td>Bob Ippolito</td></tr>
<tr><th class="docinfo-name">Date:</th>
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<tr class="field"><th class="docinfo-name">Venue:</th><td class="field-body">PyCon 2009</td>
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<li>Cofounded Mochi Media in 2005</li>
<li>MochiBot analytics platform (for Flash)</li>
<li>MochiAds ad serving platform (for Flash games)</li>
<li>Other cool services for game developers</li>
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<h1>What's ACID?</h1>
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<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Isolation:</th><td class="field-body">no fights</td>
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<h1>ACID Trips</h1>
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<li>Downtime is unacceptable</li>
<li>Reliable is &gt;= 2 nodes</li>
<li>Scalable is ... more</li>
<li>Networks make it hard</li>
<li>Networks make it hard</li>
<li>Networks make it hard</li>
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<li>Consistency</li>
<li>Availability</li>
<li>Partition tolerance</li>
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<li>Basically Available</li>
<li>Soft state</li>
<li>Eventually consistent</li>
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<h1>BASE jumping</h1>
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<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Everyone else is doing it:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Google</li>
<li>Amazon</li>
<li>eBay</li>
<li>Yahoo!</li>
<li>Facebook</li>
<li>...</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bigtable">
<h1>BigTable</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Google:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Paxos (Chubby)</li>
<li>Single-master</li>
<li>Distributed tablets via GFS</li>
<li>Row/Column db hybrid</li>
<li>Compression (BMDiff, Zippy)</li>
<li>Versioned (Row, Column, Timestamp)</li>
<li>Bloom filters</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bigtable-pros">
<h1>BigTable Pros</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Pros:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Compression = Awesome</li>
<li>Clients are probably simple</li>
<li>Integrates with map/reduce</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bigtable-cons">
<h1>BigTable Cons</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Cons:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Proprietary to Google</li>
<li>Single-master</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bigtable-diagram">
<h1>BigTable Diagram</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Single-master:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<img alt="images/i-has-minions.jpg" src="images/i-has-minions.jpg" />
</div>
<div class="slide" id="dynamo">
<h1>Dynamo</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Amazon:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Key/Value store</li>
<li>Consistent hashing</li>
<li>Vector clocks</li>
<li>Read repair</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="dynamo-pros">
<h1>Dynamo Pros</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Pros:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>No master</li>
<li>Highly available for write</li>
<li>Knobs to make it fast to read</li>
<li>&quot;Simple&quot; (lots of half-baked clones!)</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="dynamo-cons">
<h1>Dynamo Cons</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Cons:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Proprietary to Amazon</li>
<li>Clients need to be smart</li>
<li>No compression</li>
<li>Not suitable for column-like workloads</li>
<li>Just a Key/Value store</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="dynamo-diagram">
<h1>Dynamo Diagram</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Smart client:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<img alt="images/we-await-ur-instrucsions.jpg" src="images/we-await-ur-instrucsions.jpg" />
</div>
<div class="slide" id="cassandra">
<h1>Cassandra</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Facebook -&gt; Apache:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Open source!</li>
<li>No master like Dynamo</li>
<li>Storage model more like BigTable</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="cassandra-pros">
<h1>Cassandra Pros</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Pros:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>OPEN SOURCE</li>
<li>Incrementally scalable</li>
<li>Minimal administration</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="cassandra-cons">
<h1>Cassandra Cons</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Cons:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Not polished</li>
<li>No compression yet</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="cassandra-diagram">
<h1>Cassandra Diagram</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Soul Calibur:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<img alt="images/sc4_pub_ss_cassandra003_copy.jpg" src="images/sc4_pub_ss_cassandra003_copy.jpg" />
</div>
<div class="slide" id="distributed-musings">
<h1>Distributed Musings</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">New Hotness:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Distributed databases are the new web framework</li>
<li>... except none of them are awesome yet</li>
<li>I don't think we need another half-baked Dynamo clone</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="key-value-stores">
<h1>Key-Value Stores</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Simple and Fast:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Similar to a Python dict</li>
<li>Keys usually bytes, probably limited</li>
<li>Values usually bytes, often have fewer limits</li>
<li>Extremely fast, simple</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="memcached">
<h1>Memcached</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Key/Value store as cache:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>No persistence</li>
<li>RAM only</li>
<li>Throws data away (on purpose)</li>
<li>Lightning fast</li>
<li>&quot;Everyone&quot; uses it</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="caching-immutable-data">
<h1>Caching Immutable Data</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">If only data never changed:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Immutable is easy, do that</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="caching-mutable-data">
<h1>Caching Mutable Data</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Invalidation sucks:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Mutable is hard</li>
<li>Failed transactions?</li>
<li>Concurrent writers?</li>
<li>Dependent cache keys?</li>
<li>You will get it wrong and it will be hard to debug</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="tokyo-cabinet-tyrant">
<h1>Tokyo Cabinet/Tyrant</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Not your mom's BerkeleyDB:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Disk persistent</li>
<li>Very performant</li>
<li>Actively developed</li>
<li>Similar replication strategy to MySQL</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="redis">
<h1>Redis</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Still very new:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Not just a Key/Value store</li>
<li>Matching on key spaces</li>
<li>Values can be bytes, lists or sets</li>
<li>Requires full store in RAM</li>
<li>Might be a nice cache server?</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="document-databases">
<h1>Document Databases</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Schema-free:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Very easy to use</li>
<li>Document Versioning</li>
<li>Great for storing documents</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="couchdb">
<h1>CouchDB</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Document DB Poster Child:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Apache project</li>
<li>Asynchronous replication</li>
<li>JSON based</li>
<li>Views materialized on demand (not indexes)</li>
<li>Neat admin UI</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="mongodb">
<h1>MongoDB</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">C++'s revenge:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Fast</li>
<li>JSON and BSON (binary JSON-ish)</li>
<li>Asynchronous replication with auto-sharding &quot;soon&quot;</li>
<li>Index support</li>
<li>Nested documents</li>
<li>Advanced queries</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="column-databases">
<h1>Column Databases</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Data Warehousing:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Sequential reads are awesome</li>
<li>Columns compress better than rows</li>
<li>Doesn't waste I/O on uninteresting columns</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="monetdb">
<h1>MonetDB</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Research project:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Tried really hard to get it to work</li>
<li>Crashes a lot and corrupts your data</li>
<li>Do not waste your time</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="luciddb">
<h1>LucidDB</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Sounds interesting:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Java/C++ open source data warehouse</li>
<li>No clustering</li>
<li>No experience yet</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="vertica">
<h1>Vertica</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">We paid for it:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Commercial (based on C-Store)</li>
<li>Clustered</li>
<li>Would still prefer open source</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bitmap-indexes">
<h1>Bitmap Indexes</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Sequential Scans can be fast:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>1-N bits per row of data</li>
<li>Can apply logical operations across indexes</li>
<li>Can be compressed (BBC, WAH)</li>
<li>FastBit is a good implementation</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bitmap-index-uses">
<h1>Bitmap Index Uses</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Big Queries:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>PostgreSQL 8.1+ in-memory for some queries</li>
<li>Almost a requirement for column stores</li>
<li>FastBit is a great implementation (WAH)</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bloom-filters-are-neat">
<h1>Bloom Filters are Neat</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">But our Princess is in another castle:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Probabilistic data structure</li>
<li>False positives at a known error</li>
<li>Constant space</li>
<li>I won't bore you with the math</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bloom-filter-diagram">
<h1>Bloom Filter Diagram</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Actually Relevant:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<img alt="images/649px-Bloom_filter.png" src="images/649px-Bloom_filter.png" />
</div>
<div class="slide" id="bloom-filter-uses">
<h1>Bloom Filter Uses</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name" colspan="2">Find stuff, maybe:</th></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Approximate counting of a large set (e.g. unique IPs from logs)</li>
<li>Knowing that data is definitely NOT stored somewhere, e.g. remote cache</li>
<li>Several variants (Counting Bloom Filter, Scalable Bloom Filter, ...)</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="slide" id="questions">
<h1>Questions?</h1>
<table class="docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
<col class="field-name" />
<col class="field-body" />
<tbody valign="top">
<tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Open Space:</th><td class="field-body"></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<ul class="simple">
<li>Open Space TODAY &#64; 5pm, Lambert. See Jonathan Ellis</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
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