pypy-postgresql / pypy / rpython / lltypesystem / rclass.py

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import sys
import types
from pypy.tool.pairtype import pairtype, pair
from pypy.objspace.flow.model import Constant
from pypy.rpython.error import TyperError
from pypy.rpython.rmodel import Repr, inputconst, warning, mangle
from pypy.rpython.rclass import AbstractClassRepr,\
                                AbstractInstanceRepr,\
                                MissingRTypeAttribute,\
                                getclassrepr, getinstancerepr,\
                                get_type_repr, rtype_new_instance
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem.lltype import \
     Ptr, Struct, GcStruct, malloc, \
     cast_pointer, cast_ptr_to_int, castable, nullptr, \
     RuntimeTypeInfo, getRuntimeTypeInfo, typeOf, \
     Array, Char, Void, \
     FuncType, Bool, Signed, functionptr, PyObject
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem import lltype
from pypy.rpython.robject import PyObjRepr, pyobj_repr
from pypy.rpython.extregistry import ExtRegistryEntry
from pypy.annotation import model as annmodel
from pypy.rlib.rarithmetic import intmask
from pypy.rlib import objectmodel
from pypy.tool.identity_dict import identity_dict
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem.lloperation import llop

#
#  There is one "vtable" per user class, with the following structure:
#  A root class "object" has:
#
#      struct object_vtable {
#          // struct object_vtable* parenttypeptr;  not used any more
#          RuntimeTypeInfo * rtti;
#          Signed subclassrange_min;  //this is also the id of the class itself
#          Signed subclassrange_max;
#          array { char } * name;
#          struct object * instantiate();
#      }
#
#  Every other class X, with parent Y, has the structure:
#
#      struct vtable_X {
#          struct vtable_Y super;   // inlined
#          ...                      // extra class attributes
#      }

# The type of the instances is:
#
#     struct object {       // for the root class
#         struct object_vtable* typeptr;
#     }
#
#     struct X {
#         struct Y super;   // inlined
#         ...               // extra instance attributes
#     }
#
# there's also a nongcobject 

OBJECT_VTABLE = lltype.ForwardReference()
CLASSTYPE = Ptr(OBJECT_VTABLE)
OBJECT = GcStruct('object', ('typeptr', CLASSTYPE),
                  hints = {'immutable': True, 'shouldntbenull': True,
                           'typeptr': True},
                  rtti = True)
OBJECTPTR = Ptr(OBJECT)
OBJECT_VTABLE.become(Struct('object_vtable',
                            #('parenttypeptr', CLASSTYPE),
                            ('subclassrange_min', Signed),
                            ('subclassrange_max', Signed),
                            ('rtti', Ptr(RuntimeTypeInfo)),
                            ('name', Ptr(Array(Char))),
                            ('instantiate', Ptr(FuncType([], OBJECTPTR))),
                            hints = {'immutable': True}))
# non-gc case
NONGCOBJECT = Struct('nongcobject', ('typeptr', CLASSTYPE))
NONGCOBJECTPTR = Ptr(NONGCOBJECT)

OBJECT_BY_FLAVOR = {'gc': OBJECT,
                    'raw': NONGCOBJECT}

LLFLAVOR = {'gc'   : 'gc',
            'raw'  : 'raw',
            'stack': 'raw',
            }

def cast_vtable_to_typeptr(vtable):
    while typeOf(vtable).TO != OBJECT_VTABLE:
        vtable = vtable.super
    return vtable

def alloc_array_name(name):
    p = malloc(Array(Char), len(name)+1, immortal=True)
    for i in range(len(name)):
        p[i] = name[i]
    p[len(name)] = '\x00'
    return p


class ClassRepr(AbstractClassRepr):
    def __init__(self, rtyper, classdef):
        AbstractClassRepr.__init__(self, rtyper, classdef)
        if classdef is None:
            # 'object' root type
            self.vtable_type = OBJECT_VTABLE
        else:
            self.vtable_type = lltype.ForwardReference()
        self.lowleveltype = Ptr(self.vtable_type)

    def _setup_repr(self):
        # NOTE: don't store mutable objects like the dicts below on 'self'
        #       before they are fully built, to avoid strange bugs in case
        #       of recursion where other code would uses these
        #       partially-initialized dicts.
        clsfields = {}
        pbcfields = {}
        allmethods = {}
        if self.classdef is not None:
            # class attributes
            llfields = []
            attrs = self.classdef.attrs.items()
            attrs.sort()
            for name, attrdef in attrs:
                if attrdef.readonly:
                    s_value = attrdef.s_value
                    s_unboundmethod = self.prepare_method(s_value)
                    if s_unboundmethod is not None:
                        allmethods[name] = True
                        s_value = s_unboundmethod
                    r = self.rtyper.getrepr(s_value)
                    mangled_name = 'cls_' + name
                    clsfields[name] = mangled_name, r
                    llfields.append((mangled_name, r.lowleveltype))
            # attributes showing up in getattrs done on the class as a PBC
            extra_access_sets = self.rtyper.class_pbc_attributes.get(
                self.classdef, {})
            for access_set, (attr, counter) in extra_access_sets.items():
                r = self.rtyper.getrepr(access_set.s_value)
                mangled_name = mangle('pbc%d' % counter, attr)
                pbcfields[access_set, attr] = mangled_name, r
                llfields.append((mangled_name, r.lowleveltype))
            #
            self.rbase = getclassrepr(self.rtyper, self.classdef.basedef)
            self.rbase.setup()
            kwds = {'hints': {'immutable': True}}
            vtable_type = Struct('%s_vtable' % self.classdef.name,
                                 ('super', self.rbase.vtable_type),
                                 *llfields, **kwds)
            self.vtable_type.become(vtable_type)
            allmethods.update(self.rbase.allmethods)
        self.clsfields = clsfields
        self.pbcfields = pbcfields
        self.allmethods = allmethods
        self.vtable = None

#    def convert_const(self, value):
#        if not isinstance(value, (type, types.ClassType)):
#            raise TyperError("not a class: %r" % (value,))
#        try:
#            subclassdef = self.rtyper.annotator.getuserclasses()[value]
#        except KeyError:
#            raise TyperError("no classdef: %r" % (value,))
#        if self.classdef is not None:
#            if self.classdef.commonbase(subclassdef) != self.classdef:
#                raise TyperError("not a subclass of %r: %r" % (
#                    self.classdef.cls, value))
#        #
#        return getclassrepr(self.rtyper, subclassdef).getvtable()

    def getvtable(self, cast_to_typeptr=True):
        """Return a ptr to the vtable of this type."""
        if self.vtable is None:
            self.vtable = malloc(self.vtable_type, immortal=True)
            self.setup_vtable(self.vtable, self)
        #
        vtable = self.vtable
        if cast_to_typeptr:
            vtable = cast_vtable_to_typeptr(vtable)
        return vtable

    def getruntime(self, expected_type):
        assert expected_type == CLASSTYPE
        return self.getvtable()

    def setup_vtable(self, vtable, rsubcls):
        """Initialize the 'self' portion of the 'vtable' belonging to the
        given subclass."""
        if self.classdef is None:
            # initialize the 'subclassrange_*' and 'name' fields
            if rsubcls.classdef is not None:
                #vtable.parenttypeptr = rsubcls.rbase.getvtable()
                vtable.subclassrange_min = rsubcls.classdef.minid
                vtable.subclassrange_max = rsubcls.classdef.maxid
            else: #for the root class
                vtable.subclassrange_min = 0
                vtable.subclassrange_max = sys.maxint
            rinstance = getinstancerepr(self.rtyper, rsubcls.classdef)
            rinstance.setup()
            if rinstance.gcflavor == 'gc':
                vtable.rtti = getRuntimeTypeInfo(rinstance.object_type)
            if rsubcls.classdef is None:
                name = 'object'
            else:
                name = rsubcls.classdef.shortname
            vtable.name = alloc_array_name(name)
            if hasattr(rsubcls.classdef, 'my_instantiate_graph'):
                graph = rsubcls.classdef.my_instantiate_graph
                vtable.instantiate = self.rtyper.getcallable(graph)
            #else: the classdef was created recently, so no instantiate()
            #      could reach it
        else:
            # setup class attributes: for each attribute name at the level
            # of 'self', look up its value in the subclass rsubcls
            def assign(mangled_name, value):
                if isinstance(value, Constant) and isinstance(value.value, staticmethod):
                    value = Constant(value.value.__get__(42))   # staticmethod => bare function
                llvalue = r.convert_desc_or_const(value)
                setattr(vtable, mangled_name, llvalue)

            mro = list(rsubcls.classdef.getmro())
            for fldname in self.clsfields:
                mangled_name, r = self.clsfields[fldname]
                if r.lowleveltype is Void:
                    continue
                value = rsubcls.classdef.classdesc.read_attribute(fldname, None)
                if value is not None:
                    assign(mangled_name, value)
            # extra PBC attributes
            for (access_set, attr), (mangled_name, r) in self.pbcfields.items():
                if rsubcls.classdef.classdesc not in access_set.descs:
                    continue   # only for the classes in the same pbc access set
                if r.lowleveltype is Void:
                    continue
                attrvalue = rsubcls.classdef.classdesc.read_attribute(attr, None)
                if attrvalue is not None:
                    assign(mangled_name, attrvalue)

            # then initialize the 'super' portion of the vtable
            self.rbase.setup_vtable(vtable.super, rsubcls)

    #def fromparentpart(self, v_vtableptr, llops):
    #    """Return the vtable pointer cast from the parent vtable's type
    #    to self's vtable type."""

    def fromtypeptr(self, vcls, llops):
        """Return the type pointer cast to self's vtable type."""
        self.setup()
        castable(self.lowleveltype, vcls.concretetype) # sanity check
        return llops.genop('cast_pointer', [vcls],
                           resulttype=self.lowleveltype)

    fromclasstype = fromtypeptr

    def getclsfield(self, vcls, attr, llops):
        """Read the given attribute of 'vcls'."""
        if attr in self.clsfields:
            mangled_name, r = self.clsfields[attr]
            v_vtable = self.fromtypeptr(vcls, llops)
            cname = inputconst(Void, mangled_name)
            return llops.genop('getfield', [v_vtable, cname], resulttype=r)
        else:
            if self.classdef is None:
                raise MissingRTypeAttribute(attr)
            return self.rbase.getclsfield(vcls, attr, llops)

    def setclsfield(self, vcls, attr, vvalue, llops):
        """Write the given attribute of 'vcls'."""
        if attr in self.clsfields:
            mangled_name, r = self.clsfields[attr]
            v_vtable = self.fromtypeptr(vcls, llops)
            cname = inputconst(Void, mangled_name)
            llops.genop('setfield', [v_vtable, cname, vvalue])
        else:
            if self.classdef is None:
                raise MissingRTypeAttribute(attr)
            self.rbase.setclsfield(vcls, attr, vvalue, llops)

    def getpbcfield(self, vcls, access_set, attr, llops):
        if (access_set, attr) not in self.pbcfields:
            raise TyperError("internal error: missing PBC field")
        mangled_name, r = self.pbcfields[access_set, attr]
        v_vtable = self.fromtypeptr(vcls, llops)
        cname = inputconst(Void, mangled_name)
        return llops.genop('getfield', [v_vtable, cname], resulttype=r)

    def rtype_issubtype(self, hop): 
        class_repr = get_type_repr(self.rtyper)
        v_cls1, v_cls2 = hop.inputargs(class_repr, class_repr)
        if isinstance(v_cls2, Constant):
            cls2 = v_cls2.value
            # XXX re-implement the following optimization
##            if cls2.subclassrange_max == cls2.subclassrange_min:
##                # a class with no subclass
##                return hop.genop('ptr_eq', [v_cls1, v_cls2], resulttype=Bool)
##            else:
            minid = hop.inputconst(Signed, cls2.subclassrange_min)
            maxid = hop.inputconst(Signed, cls2.subclassrange_max)
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_issubclass_const, v_cls1, minid,
                                     maxid)
        else:
            v_cls1, v_cls2 = hop.inputargs(class_repr, class_repr)
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_issubclass, v_cls1, v_cls2)

# ____________________________________________________________


class InstanceRepr(AbstractInstanceRepr):
    def __init__(self, rtyper, classdef, gcflavor='gc'):
        AbstractInstanceRepr.__init__(self, rtyper, classdef)
        if classdef is None:
            self.object_type = OBJECT_BY_FLAVOR[LLFLAVOR[gcflavor]]
        else:
            ForwardRef = lltype.FORWARDREF_BY_FLAVOR[LLFLAVOR[gcflavor]]
            self.object_type = ForwardRef()
            
        self.iprebuiltinstances = identity_dict()
        self.lowleveltype = Ptr(self.object_type)
        self.gcflavor = gcflavor

    def _setup_repr(self, llfields=None, hints=None, adtmeths=None):
        # NOTE: don't store mutable objects like the dicts below on 'self'
        #       before they are fully built, to avoid strange bugs in case
        #       of recursion where other code would uses these
        #       partially-initialized dicts.
        AbstractInstanceRepr._setup_repr(self)
        self.rclass = getclassrepr(self.rtyper, self.classdef)
        fields = {}
        allinstancefields = {}
        if self.classdef is None:
            fields['__class__'] = 'typeptr', get_type_repr(self.rtyper)
        else:
            # instance attributes
            attrs = self.classdef.attrs.items()
            attrs.sort()
            myllfields = []
            for name, attrdef in attrs:
                if not attrdef.readonly:
                    r = self.rtyper.getrepr(attrdef.s_value)
                    mangled_name = 'inst_' + name
                    fields[name] = mangled_name, r
                    myllfields.append((mangled_name, r.lowleveltype))

            # Sort the instance attributes by decreasing "likely size",
            # as reported by rffi.sizeof(), to minimize padding holes in C.
            # Fields of the same size are sorted by name (by attrs.sort()
            # above) just to minimize randomness.
            def keysize((_, T)):
                if T is lltype.Void:
                    return None
                from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem.rffi import sizeof
                try:
                    return -sizeof(T)
                except StandardError:
                    return None
            myllfields.sort(key = keysize)
            if llfields is None:
                llfields = myllfields
            else:
                llfields = llfields + myllfields

            self.rbase = getinstancerepr(self.rtyper, self.classdef.basedef,
                                         self.gcflavor)
            self.rbase.setup()

            MkStruct = lltype.STRUCT_BY_FLAVOR[LLFLAVOR[self.gcflavor]]
            if adtmeths is None:
                adtmeths = {}
            if hints is None:
                hints = {}
            hints = self._check_for_immutable_hints(hints)
            kwds = {}
            if self.gcflavor == 'gc':
                kwds['rtti'] = True

            for name, attrdef in attrs:
                if not attrdef.readonly and self.is_quasi_immutable(name):
                    llfields.append(('mutate_' + name, OBJECTPTR))

            object_type = MkStruct(self.classdef.name,
                                   ('super', self.rbase.object_type),
                                   hints=hints,
                                   adtmeths=adtmeths,
                                   *llfields,
                                   **kwds)
            self.object_type.become(object_type)
            allinstancefields.update(self.rbase.allinstancefields)
        allinstancefields.update(fields)
        self.fields = fields
        self.allinstancefields = allinstancefields

    def _setup_repr_final(self):
        AbstractInstanceRepr._setup_repr_final(self)
        if self.gcflavor == 'gc':
            if (self.classdef is not None and
                self.classdef.classdesc.lookup('__del__') is not None):
                s_func = self.classdef.classdesc.s_read_attribute('__del__')
                source_desc = self.classdef.classdesc.lookup('__del__')
                source_classdef = source_desc.getclassdef(None)
                source_repr = getinstancerepr(self.rtyper, source_classdef)
                assert len(s_func.descriptions) == 1
                funcdesc, = s_func.descriptions
                graph = funcdesc.getuniquegraph()
                self.check_graph_of_del_does_not_call_too_much(graph)
                FUNCTYPE = FuncType([Ptr(source_repr.object_type)], Void)
                destrptr = functionptr(FUNCTYPE, graph.name,
                                       graph=graph,
                                       _callable=graph.func)
            else:
                destrptr = None
            OBJECT = OBJECT_BY_FLAVOR[LLFLAVOR[self.gcflavor]]
            self.rtyper.attachRuntimeTypeInfoFunc(self.object_type,
                                                  ll_runtime_type_info,
                                                  OBJECT, destrptr)
            vtable = self.rclass.getvtable()
            self.rtyper.set_type_for_typeptr(vtable, self.lowleveltype.TO)

    def common_repr(self): # -> object or nongcobject reprs
        return getinstancerepr(self.rtyper, None, self.gcflavor)

    def _get_field(self, attr):
        return self.fields[attr]

    def null_instance(self):
        return nullptr(self.object_type)

    def upcast(self, result):
        return cast_pointer(self.lowleveltype, result)

    def create_instance(self):
        return malloc(self.object_type, flavor=self.gcflavor, immortal=True)

    def initialize_prebuilt_data(self, value, classdef, result):
        if self.classdef is not None:
            # recursively build the parent part of the instance
            self.rbase.initialize_prebuilt_data(value, classdef, result.super)
            # then add instance attributes from this level
            for name, (mangled_name, r) in self.fields.items():
                if r.lowleveltype is Void:
                    llattrvalue = None
                else:
                    try:
                        attrvalue = getattr(value, name)
                    except AttributeError:
                        attrvalue = self.classdef.classdesc.read_attribute(name, None)
                        if attrvalue is None:
                            warning("prebuilt instance %r has no attribute %r" % (
                                    value, name))
                            llattrvalue = r.lowleveltype._defl()
                        else:
                            llattrvalue = r.convert_desc_or_const(attrvalue)
                    else:
                        llattrvalue = r.convert_const(attrvalue)
                setattr(result, mangled_name, llattrvalue)
        else:
            # OBJECT part
            rclass = getclassrepr(self.rtyper, classdef)
            result.typeptr = rclass.getvtable()

    def initialize_prebuilt_hash(self, value, result):
        llattrvalue = getattr(value, '__precomputed_identity_hash', None)
        if llattrvalue is not None:
            lltype.init_identity_hash(result, llattrvalue)

    def getfieldrepr(self, attr):
        """Return the repr used for the given attribute."""
        if attr in self.fields:
            mangled_name, r = self.fields[attr]
            return r
        else:
            if self.classdef is None:
                raise MissingRTypeAttribute(attr)
            return self.rbase.getfieldrepr(attr)

    def getfield(self, vinst, attr, llops, force_cast=False, flags={}):
        """Read the given attribute (or __class__ for the type) of 'vinst'."""
        if attr in self.fields:
            mangled_name, r = self.fields[attr]
            cname = inputconst(Void, mangled_name)
            if force_cast:
                vinst = llops.genop('cast_pointer', [vinst], resulttype=self)
            self.hook_access_field(vinst, cname, llops, flags)
            return llops.genop('getfield', [vinst, cname], resulttype=r)
        else:
            if self.classdef is None:
                raise MissingRTypeAttribute(attr)
            return self.rbase.getfield(vinst, attr, llops, force_cast=True,
                                       flags=flags)

    def setfield(self, vinst, attr, vvalue, llops, force_cast=False,
                 flags={}):
        """Write the given attribute (or __class__ for the type) of 'vinst'."""
        if attr in self.fields:
            mangled_name, r = self.fields[attr]
            cname = inputconst(Void, mangled_name)
            if force_cast:
                vinst = llops.genop('cast_pointer', [vinst], resulttype=self)
            self.hook_access_field(vinst, cname, llops, flags)
            self.hook_setfield(vinst, attr, llops)
            llops.genop('setfield', [vinst, cname, vvalue])
        else:
            if self.classdef is None:
                raise MissingRTypeAttribute(attr)
            self.rbase.setfield(vinst, attr, vvalue, llops, force_cast=True,
                                flags=flags)

    def new_instance(self, llops, classcallhop=None):
        """Build a new instance, without calling __init__."""
        flavor = self.gcflavor
        flags = {'flavor': flavor }
        ctype = inputconst(Void, self.object_type)
        cflags = inputconst(Void, flags)
        vlist = [ctype, cflags]
        cnonmovable = self.classdef.classdesc.read_attribute(
            '_alloc_nonmovable_', Constant(False))
        if cnonmovable.value:
            opname = 'malloc_nonmovable'
        else:
            opname = 'malloc'
        vptr = llops.genop(opname, vlist,
                           resulttype = Ptr(self.object_type))
        ctypeptr = inputconst(CLASSTYPE, self.rclass.getvtable())
        self.setfield(vptr, '__class__', ctypeptr, llops)
        # initialize instance attributes from their defaults from the class
        if self.classdef is not None:
            flds = self.allinstancefields.keys()
            flds.sort()
            for fldname in flds:
                if fldname == '__class__':
                    continue
                mangled_name, r = self.allinstancefields[fldname]
                if r.lowleveltype is Void:
                    continue
                value = self.classdef.classdesc.read_attribute(fldname, None)
                if value is not None:
                    cvalue = inputconst(r.lowleveltype,
                                        r.convert_desc_or_const(value))
                    self.setfield(vptr, fldname, cvalue, llops,
                                  flags={'access_directly': True})
        return vptr

    def rtype_type(self, hop):
        if hop.s_result.is_constant():
            return hop.inputconst(hop.r_result, hop.s_result.const)
        instance_repr = self.common_repr()
        vinst, = hop.inputargs(instance_repr)
        if hop.args_s[0].can_be_none():
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_inst_type, vinst)
        else:
            return instance_repr.getfield(vinst, '__class__', hop.llops)

    def rtype_getattr(self, hop):
        if hop.s_result.is_constant():
            return hop.inputconst(hop.r_result, hop.s_result.const)
        attr = hop.args_s[1].const
        vinst, vattr = hop.inputargs(self, Void)
        if attr == '__class__' and hop.r_result.lowleveltype is Void:
            # special case for when the result of '.__class__' is a constant
            [desc] = hop.s_result.descriptions
            return hop.inputconst(Void, desc.pyobj)
        if attr in self.allinstancefields:
            return self.getfield(vinst, attr, hop.llops,
                                 flags=hop.args_s[0].flags)
        elif attr in self.rclass.allmethods:
            # special case for methods: represented as their 'self' only
            # (see MethodsPBCRepr)
            return hop.r_result.get_method_from_instance(self, vinst,
                                                         hop.llops)
        else:
            vcls = self.getfield(vinst, '__class__', hop.llops)
            return self.rclass.getclsfield(vcls, attr, hop.llops)

    def rtype_setattr(self, hop):
        attr = hop.args_s[1].const
        r_value = self.getfieldrepr(attr)
        vinst, vattr, vvalue = hop.inputargs(self, Void, r_value)
        self.setfield(vinst, attr, vvalue, hop.llops,
                      flags=hop.args_s[0].flags)

    def rtype_is_true(self, hop):
        vinst, = hop.inputargs(self)
        return hop.genop('ptr_nonzero', [vinst], resulttype=Bool)

    def ll_str(self, i): # doesn't work for non-gc classes!
        from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem import rstr
        from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem.ll_str import ll_int2hex
        from pypy.rlib.rarithmetic import r_uint
        if not i:
            return rstr.null_str
        instance = cast_pointer(OBJECTPTR, i)
        uid = r_uint(cast_ptr_to_int(i))
        nameLen = len(instance.typeptr.name)
        nameString = rstr.mallocstr(nameLen-1)
        i = 0
        while i < nameLen - 1:
            nameString.chars[i] = instance.typeptr.name[i]
            i += 1
        res =                        rstr.instance_str_prefix
        res = rstr.ll_strconcat(res, nameString)
        res = rstr.ll_strconcat(res, rstr.instance_str_infix)
        res = rstr.ll_strconcat(res, ll_int2hex(uid, False))
        res = rstr.ll_strconcat(res, rstr.instance_str_suffix)
        return res

    def rtype_isinstance(self, hop):
        class_repr = get_type_repr(hop.rtyper)
        instance_repr = self.common_repr()

        v_obj, v_cls = hop.inputargs(instance_repr, class_repr)
        if isinstance(v_cls, Constant):
            cls = v_cls.value
            # XXX re-implement the following optimization
            #if cls.subclassrange_max == cls.subclassrange_min:
            #    # a class with no subclass
            #    return hop.gendirectcall(rclass.ll_isinstance_exact, v_obj, v_cls)
            #else:
            minid = hop.inputconst(Signed, cls.subclassrange_min)
            maxid = hop.inputconst(Signed, cls.subclassrange_max)
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_isinstance_const, v_obj, minid, maxid)
        else:
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_isinstance, v_obj, v_cls)



class __extend__(pairtype(InstanceRepr, InstanceRepr)):
    def convert_from_to((r_ins1, r_ins2), v, llops):
        # which is a subclass of which?
        if r_ins1.classdef is None or r_ins2.classdef is None:
            basedef = None
        else:
            basedef = r_ins1.classdef.commonbase(r_ins2.classdef)
        if basedef == r_ins2.classdef:
            # r_ins1 is an instance of the subclass: converting to parent
            v = llops.genop('cast_pointer', [v],
                            resulttype = r_ins2.lowleveltype)
            return v
        elif basedef == r_ins1.classdef:
            # r_ins2 is an instance of the subclass: potentially unsafe
            # casting, but we do it anyway (e.g. the annotator produces
            # such casts after a successful isinstance() check)
            v = llops.genop('cast_pointer', [v],
                            resulttype = r_ins2.lowleveltype)
            return v
        else:
            return NotImplemented

    def rtype_is_((r_ins1, r_ins2), hop):
        if r_ins1.gcflavor != r_ins2.gcflavor:
            # obscure logic, the is can be true only if both are None
            v_ins1, v_ins2 = hop.inputargs(r_ins1.common_repr(), r_ins2.common_repr())
            return hop.gendirectcall(ll_both_none, v_ins1, v_ins2)
        if r_ins1.classdef is None or r_ins2.classdef is None:
            basedef = None
        else:
            basedef = r_ins1.classdef.commonbase(r_ins2.classdef)
        r_ins = getinstancerepr(r_ins1.rtyper, basedef, r_ins1.gcflavor)
        return pairtype(Repr, Repr).rtype_is_(pair(r_ins, r_ins), hop)

    rtype_eq = rtype_is_

    def rtype_ne(rpair, hop):
        v = rpair.rtype_eq(hop)
        return hop.genop("bool_not", [v], resulttype=Bool)

# ____________________________________________________________
#
#  Low-level implementation of operations on classes and instances

# doesn't work for non-gc stuff!
def ll_cast_to_object(obj):
    return cast_pointer(OBJECTPTR, obj)

# doesn't work for non-gc stuff!
def ll_type(obj):
    return cast_pointer(OBJECTPTR, obj).typeptr

def ll_issubclass(subcls, cls):
    return llop.int_between(Bool, cls.subclassrange_min,
                                  subcls.subclassrange_min,
                                  cls.subclassrange_max)

def ll_issubclass_const(subcls, minid, maxid):
    return llop.int_between(Bool, minid, subcls.subclassrange_min, maxid)


def ll_isinstance(obj, cls): # obj should be cast to OBJECT or NONGCOBJECT
    if not obj:
        return False
    obj_cls = obj.typeptr
    return ll_issubclass(obj_cls, cls)

def ll_isinstance_const(obj, minid, maxid):
    if not obj:
        return False
    return ll_issubclass_const(obj.typeptr, minid, maxid)

def ll_isinstance_exact(obj, cls):
    if not obj:
        return False
    obj_cls = obj.typeptr
    return obj_cls == cls

def ll_runtime_type_info(obj):
    return obj.typeptr.rtti

def ll_inst_type(obj):
    if obj:
        return obj.typeptr
    else:
        # type(None) -> NULL  (for now)
        return nullptr(typeOf(obj).TO.typeptr.TO)

def ll_both_none(ins1, ins2):
    return not ins1 and not ins2

# ____________________________________________________________

def feedllattr(inst, name, llvalue):
    p = widest = lltype.normalizeptr(inst)
    while True:
        try:
            return setattr(p, 'inst_' + name, llvalue)
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            p = p.super
        except AttributeError:
            break
    raise AttributeError("%s has no field %s" % (lltype.typeOf(widest),
                                                 name))

def declare_type_for_typeptr(vtable, TYPE):
    """Hack for custom low-level-only 'subclasses' of OBJECT:
    call this somewhere annotated, in order to declare that it is
    of the given TYPE and has got the corresponding vtable."""

class Entry(ExtRegistryEntry):
    _about_ = declare_type_for_typeptr
    def compute_result_annotation(self, s_vtable, s_TYPE):
        assert s_vtable.is_constant()
        assert s_TYPE.is_constant()
        return annmodel.s_None
    def specialize_call(self, hop):
        vtable = hop.args_v[0].value
        TYPE   = hop.args_v[1].value
        assert lltype.typeOf(vtable) == CLASSTYPE
        assert isinstance(TYPE, GcStruct)
        assert lltype._castdepth(TYPE, OBJECT) > 0
        hop.rtyper.set_type_for_typeptr(vtable, TYPE)
        hop.exception_cannot_occur()
        return hop.inputconst(lltype.Void, None)
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