1. Grzegorz Chrupała
  2. elman




Elman is a version of Tomas Mikolov's rnnlm toolkit [1] adapted to output the activations of the hidden units to be used as embeddings. This implementation was used to extract text representations used for the tweet normalization task in [2].


The input format for both training and new data is one text per line, with symbols separated by spaces. The model data/twitter.big.elman.4.414000000 was trained on tweets, represented as sequences of bytes. The tweets were not filtered in any way and could be in any language. This model should work for languages commonly found on Twitter such as English, Spanish, Chinese or Indonesian. If you want to extract hidden layer activations with this model from new text use the following command:

elman -rnnlm data/twitter.big.elman.4.414000000 -test data/example.txt -print-hidden > output.txt

The file data/example contains input formatted as sequences of bytes for the following two texts:

Hello world

The output will contain the activations of 400 units of the hidden layer, one line per input symbol, with a blank line separating input for each text.