Manage different Django settings within a project, and easily switch
between them. Different settings can be helpful either on a single
computer, but django-environments is mostly intended for use on
different system environments, like development, test, staging/acceptance
and production, all with "maximum DRY™".
On the command line, you specify your project and settings using
environment variables. When you run your application via WSGI, a
naming convention determines which settings to use based on the name
of the WSGI file. All this helps to minimize the number of code
changes and other file updates when working across different
Django-environments moves the settings.py to a settings package,
and suggests a settings inheritance model, which you can adhere to
as much as you like. Simply "inherit" from more generic settings
using 'from ... import *', and overrule - see the provided examples.
If you'd rather use a "composition" model (import settings not just
from base settings "above", but also "from the side"), that's also
Compatibility with Python < 2.6
In the example settings files, 'from .. import *' is used. You will
need to change this to ``from <project>.settings import *`` for older
versions of Python. The downside is that you will have to include
the project name in your settings, which is a violation of the DRY
principle that django-environments tries to live by.
Compatibility with virtualenv
Please note django-environments can be nicely used together with
virtualenv, especially virtualenvwrapper's ``bin/postactivate`` script.
This is a fully working Django project; you can copy files from it
as needed to your own projects. To get django-environments working
by itself, do the following:
1. Copy scripts/initenv_example to scripts/initenv.
2. Edit initenv and set ``PROJECT_ROOT``, ``DJANGO_PROJECT`` (always a
subdirectory of ``PROJECT_ROOT``) and ``DJANGO_SETTINGS`` (simply
changing ``PROJECT_ROOT`` should be enough for fresh checkouts, btw).
3. Activate the environment using ``source scripts/initenv``.
4. When using virtualenv with virtualenvwrapper, you can do either
``source <path-to-project>/scripts/initenv`` from ``bin/postactivate``,
or simply use your initenv's contents inside postactivate.
Alternatively, you may also symlink ``bin/postactivate`` to your
If everything works okay, the following shell aliases are created:
* cdroot - go to project root.
* cdjango - go to Django project root (one lower than project root).
* runserver - perform ``django-admin.py runserver``.
* syncdb - perform ``django-admin.py syncdb``.
Using Apache mod_wsgi
Should you wish to use the settings in for instance
``settings/env/staging.py``, simply copy the example
``mysite/deploy/development.wsgi`` to ``mysite/deploy/staging.wsgi``,
or make staging.wsgi a symlink (if your Apache configuration allows
it, which is normally the case). Next, add something like this to
WSGIScriptAlias / /Users/spanky/repos/django-environments/mysite/deploy/staging.wsgi
And restart Apache. The identifier 'staging' in staging.wsgi will
automatically make sure settings.env.staging is used. Create other
.wsgi files for other environment settings.
Refer to the source of the provided WSGI script to see how specific
directories, like a virtualenv site-packages directory, can be
prepended to sys.path, overruling standard Python environment settings.
Automatic generation of local wsgi links and settings file
If you want your WSGI setup done as quickly as possible, do as
follows. Activate an environment - either directly via your
``scripts/initenv`` or through virtualenv - and execute
``scripts/setup_local_wsgi.sh <environment>``, e.g.::
This will create a symbolic link deploy/local.wsgi to staging.wsgi and
will create a settings/env/local.py with default contents for a given
environment. Now, you only need to update settings.env.local with those
settings you want to keep absolutely local, like those containing
user ids and passwords. Keep in mind the script will overwrite exiting
local.py settings files!
* The ``mysite/settings`` directory replaces ``settings.py`` and contains
the default settings in ``generic.py``, whose contents are
imported in ``__init__.py``.
* The ``mysite/settings/env`` directory contains the different settings
files for every environment.
* All .wsgi files in the ``mysite/deploy`` folder are normally
equal, except for the sys.path configuration. Their respective
filenames are used to determine which settings to import. If
your Apache configuration allows it, you could use symlinks
instead of copies.
* The scripts directory contains the shell scripts intended to be
sourced with the ``source`` command, unless they have a '.sh'
* ``urls.py`` is just there to demonstrate the ``SERVE_MEDIA`` setting.
* ``manage.py`` is removed as the generated default ignores
$DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE, simply importing 'settings' instead.