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django-registration / docs / models.txt

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===================
Models and managers
===================


Because the two-step process of registration and activation requires
some means of temporarily storing activation key and retrieving it for
verification, a simple model --
``registration.models.RegistrationProfile`` -- is provided in this
application, and a custom manager --
``registration.models.RegistrationManager`` -- is included and defines
several useful methods for interacting with ``RegistrationProfile``.

Both the ``RegistrationProfile`` model and the ``RegistrationManager``
are found in ``registration.models``.


The ``RegistrationProfile`` model
=================================

A simple profile which stores an activation key for use during user
account registration.

Generally, you will not want to interact directly with instances of
this model; the provided manager includes methods for creating and
activating new accounts, as well as for cleaning out accounts which
have never been activated.

While it is possible to use this model as the value of the
``AUTH_PROFILE_MODULE`` setting, it's not recommended that you do
so. This model's sole purpose is to store data temporarily during
account registration and activation, and a mechanism for automatically
creating an instance of a site-specific profile model is provided via
the ``create_inactive_user`` on ``RegistrationManager``.
    
``RegistrationProfile`` objects have the following fields:

``activation_key``
    A SHA1 hash used as an account's activation key.

``user``
    The ``User`` object for which activation information is being
    stored.

``RegistrationProfile`` also has one custom method defined:

``activation_key_expired()``
    Determines whether this ``RegistrationProfile``'s activation key
    has expired.
    
    Returns ``True`` if the key has expired, ``False`` otherwise.
    
    Key expiration is determined by a two-step process:
    
    1. If the user has already activated, the key will have been reset
       to the string constant ``ACTIVATED``. Re-activating is not
       permitted, and so this method returns ``True`` in this case.
    
    2. Otherwise, the date the user signed up is incremented by the
       number of days specified in the setting
       ``ACCOUNT_ACTIVATION_DAYS`` (which should be the number of days
       after signup during which a user is allowed to activate their
       account); if the result is less than or equal to the current
       date, the key has expired and this method returns ``True``.


The ``RegistrationManager``
===========================

Custom manager for the ``RegistrationProfile`` model.
    
The methods defined here provide shortcuts for account creation and
activation (including generation and emailing of activation keys), and
for cleaning out expired inactive accounts.
    
Methods:

``activate_user(activation_key)``
    Validate an activation key and activate the corresponding
    ``User`` if valid.
    
    If the key is valid and has not expired, return the ``User``
    after activating.
    
    If the key is not valid or has expired, return ``False``.
    
    If the key is valid but the ``User`` is already active,
    return ``False``.
    
    To prevent reactivation of an account which has been
    deactivated by site administrators, the activation key is
    reset to the string constant ``RegistrationProfile.ACTIVATED``
    after successful activation.

    To execute customized logic when a ``User`` is activated,
    connect a function to the signal
    ``registration.signals.user_activated``; this signal will be
    sent (with the ``User`` as the value of the keyword argument
    ``user``) after a successful activation.

``create_inactive_user(username, password, email, send_email=True)``
    Create a new, inactive ``User``, generate a
    ``RegistrationProfile`` and email its activation key to the
    ``User``, returning the new ``User``.
    
    To disable the email, call with ``send_email=False``.

    The activation email will make use of two templates:

    ``registration/activation_email_subject.txt``
        This template will be used for the subject line of the
        email. It receives one context variable, ``site``, which
        is the currently-active
        ``django.contrib.sites.models.Site`` instance. Because it
        is used as the subject line of an email, this template's
        output **must** be only a single line of text; output
        longer than one line will be forcibly joined into only a
        single line.

    ``registration/activation_email.txt``
        This template will be used for the body of the email. It
        will receive three context variables: ``activation_key``
        will be the user's activation key (for use in constructing
        a URL to activate the account), ``expiration_days`` will
        be the number of days for which the key will be valid and
        ``site`` will be the currently-active
        ``django.contrib.sites.models.Site`` instance.

    To execute customized logic once the new ``User`` has been
    created, connect a function to the signal
    ``registration.signals.user_registered``; this signal will be
    sent (with the new ``User`` as the value of the keyword
    argument ``user``) after the ``User`` and
    ``RegistrationProfile`` have been created, and after the email (if
    any) has been sent.
        
``create_profile(user)``
    Creates a ``RegistrationProfile`` for a given ``User``. Returns
    the ``RegistrationProfile``.
    
    The activation key for the ``RegistrationProfile`` will be a SHA1
    hash, generated from a combination of the ``User``'s username and
    a random salt.

``deleted_expired_users()``
    Removes expired instances of ``RegistrationProfile`` and their
    associated ``User`` objects.
    
    Accounts to be deleted are identified by searching for instances
    of ``RegistrationProfile`` with expired activation keys, and then
    checking to see if their associated ``User`` instances have the
    field ``is_active`` set to ``False``; any ``User`` who is both
    inactive and has an expired activation key will be deleted.
    
    It is recommended that this method be executed regularly as part
    of your routine site maintenance; this application provides a
    custom management command which will call this method, accessible
    as ``manage.py cleanupregistration``.
    
    Regularly clearing out accounts which have never been activated
    serves two useful purposes:
    
    1. It alleviates the ocasional need to reset a
       ``RegistrationProfile`` and/or re-send an activation email when
       a user does not receive or does not act upon the initial
       activation email; since the account will be deleted, the user
       will be able to simply re-register and receive a new activation
       key.
    
    2. It prevents the possibility of a malicious user registering one
       or more accounts and never activating them (thus denying the
       use of those usernames to anyone else); since those accounts
       will be deleted, the usernames will become available for use
       again.
    
    If you have a troublesome ``User`` and wish to disable their
    account while keeping it in the database, simply delete the
    associated ``RegistrationProfile``; an inactive ``User`` which
    does not have an associated ``RegistrationProfile`` will not be
    deleted.