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======================= lfm - Last File Manager ======================= :Author: Iñigo Serna, inigoserna AT gmail DOT com :Version: 3.1, June 25th. 2017 :Home page: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/ :License: | Copyright © 2001-18, Iñigo Serna | This software has been realised under the `GPL License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/licenses.html#GPL>`_ version 3 or later, read the `<COPYING>`_ file that comes with this package for more information. | There is NO WARRANTY. :Last update: |date| .. meta:: :description: Last File Manager is a powerful file manager for the UNIX console :keywords: lfm, file manager, python, ncurses .. contents:: Table of Contents Introduction ============ **Last File Manager** is a powerful file manager for the UNIX console. It has a curses interface and it's written in Python v3.4+. Some of the features you can find in *lfm*: - console-based file manager for UNIX platforms - 1-pane or 2-pane view - tabs - files filters - bookmarks - history - VFS for compressed files - tree view - dialogs with entry completion - PowerCLI, a command line interface with advanced features - fast access to the shell - direct integration of find/grep, df and other tools - color files by extension [Andrey Skvortsov] - fully customizable themes (colors) - fully customizable key bindings - support for filenames with wide chars, f.e. East Asian - ...and many others Some screenshots: *Tabs and compressed file VFS* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-1.png *File completion* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-2.png *Tree view* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-3.png *Edit filter* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-4.png *PowerCLI* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-5.png *Find & grep* .. image:: https://inigo.katxi.org/devel/lfm/lfm-6.png When *lfm* starts the first time, it tries to discover the location of some programs in your system to configure itself automatically, but you should take a look to the configuration (`General Menu [F9] -> Edit Configuration [c]`) in case you want to change something. Consult `Customization`_ section for in-depth knowledgement about all the settings and their meaning. Finally, take a look at `<TODO>`_ file to check known bugs and *not-implemented-yet*\™ features. **Last File Manager** development can be followed in the `BitBucket mercurial repository <https://bitbucket.org/inigoserna/lfm3>`_. Download and installation ========================= Requirements ------------ *lfm* is written in `Python <http://www.python.org>`_ language and has a text-based ncurses interface. It should run with Python v3.4 or higher and doesn't need additional modules or any other dependencies, only those provided by the python standard library. For systems with Python v2.x only, use the old version *lfm v2.3*. All modern UNIX flavours (Linux, \*BSD, Solaris, etc) should run it without problems. But note I mostly tested the new 3.x series on Linux. If they appear any issues please notify me. Installation ------------ .. sidebar:: **Files:** all releases :class: warning .. list-table:: :widths: 10 15 10 :header-rows: 1 * - Version - File - Date * - 3.1 - `<lfm-3.1.tar.gz>`_ - 2017/06/25 * - 3.0 - `<lfm-3.0.tar.gz>`_ - 2015/10/23 * - 2.3 - `<lfm-2.3.tar.gz>`_ - 2011/05/21 * - 2.2 - `<lfm-2.2.tar.gz>`_ - 2010/05/22 * - 2.1 - `<lfm-2.1.tar.gz>`_ - 2008/12/21 * - 2.0 - `<lfm-2.0.tar.gz>`_ - 2007/09/03 * - 1.0 - Never released - ~2006 * - 0.91 - `<lfm-0.91.tar.gz>`_ - 2004/07/03 * - 0.9 - `<lfm-0.9.tar.gz>`_ - 2002/09/05 * - 0.8 - `<lfm-0.8.tar.gz>`_ - 2002/03/04 * - 0.7 - `<lfm-0.7.tar.gz>`_ - 2001/11/30 * - 0.5 - `<lfm-0.5.tar.gz>`_ - 2001/08/07 * - 0.4 - `<lfm-0.4.tar.gz>`_ - 2001/07/19 Read about `<NEWS>`_. *lfm* is very easy to install, select one of these options. * First, check if your OS include *lfm* in their repositories. Type as root: ``# dnf install lfm # fedora/redhat/centos/…`` ``# pacman -S lfm # archlinux`` ``# apt-get install lfm # debian/ubuntu/mint/…`` **NOTE 1**: be sure to install *lfm* version 3 or higher, not old version 2.3! **NOTE 2**: `lfm` is not usually included in main distributions repositories. * Using pip: ``$ pip install lfm`` * To install from sources: 1. Download `sources <lfm-3.1.tar.gz>`_ 2. Uncompress file: ``$ tar xvfz lfm-3.1.tar.gz`` 3. Enter the directory and build: ``$ python setup.py build`` 4. Install, as root: ``# python setup.py install`` **WARNING**: Remember *lfm 3.x* requires Python 3.4+. If you have installed both python 2.x and 3.x versions on your system, change ``python`` with ``python3`` and ``pip`` with ``pip3`` above. Now to run it: ``$ lfm`` and to change default settings: `General Menu [F9] -> Edit Configuration [c]` To let *lfm* to change to panel's current directory after quiting with ``q`` or ``F10`` keys, you must add next code to ``/etc/bashrc`` or to your ``~/.bashrc``:: lfm() { /usr/bin/lfm "$@" # type here full path to lfm script LFMPATHFILE=/tmp/lfm-$$.path cd "`cat $LFMPATHFILE`" && rm -f $LFMPATHFILE } If you don't use bash or csh shell, above lines could differ. Upgrading from 2.x to 3.x ------------------------- Some notes about the upgrade process from *lfm* version 2.x to 3.x: - *lfm* 3.0 has been almost completely rewritten from scratch, and it hasn't been tested as much as lfm v2.x series on non-linux OS. - *lfm* 3.x requires python 3.4+, it will not work with python 2.x. - Configuration has moved from the file ``~/.lfmrc`` to the directory ``~/.config/lfm/``. You can delete ``~/.lfmrc`` from your system as it is not used anymore. See section `Customization`_ later. - Also, note that some key bindings and PowerCLI variables have changed since previous versions. Read documentation carefully. - *pyview* —the file viewer— has been removed from *lfm* package, as well as old references to it in configuration, code and documentation. Thus, default viewer has been changed to `less`. See `FAQ`_ entry. More information in the `<NEWS>`_ file. Keys shortcuts ============== In this section you can find the complete list of key shortcuts used in *lfm*. Read `Key bindings`_ section if you want to customize them. Global ------ + **Movement** - up, k - down, j - page_up, backspace, Ctrl-p - page_down, space, Ctrl-n - Ctrl-up: move cursor up 10 - Ctrl-down: move cursor down 10 - home, Ctrl-a: move cursor to first file - end, Ctrl-e: move cursor to last file - Ctrl-s: go to file whose name contains… - Alt-s: go to file whose first letter is… + **Change directory** - left: parent dir - right, enter: enter dir / vfs - g: go to directory… - b: go to bookmark… [0-9a-z] - B: set bookmark… [0-9a-z] - Ctrl-d: select bookmark from menu… - Ctrl-y: select directory from navigation history… + **Panes** - tab: other pane - =: show same directory in both panes - , Ctrl-u: change panes position (left<->right) - .: toggle display 1 or 2 panes - Ctrl-h: toggle show/hide dot-files - Ctrl-f: edit filter for active tab… - s: sort files by… - #: show selected/all directories size - Ctrl-r: refresh contents - Alt-r: redraw screen + **Tabs** - :: new tab - !: close tab - <: go to left tab - >: go to right tab + **Selections** - insert: select item and move cursor to next file - +: select group… - -: deselect group… - \*: invert selection + **Files / Directories operations** - F2: rename file/dir… - F3: view file - F4: edit file - F5: copy file/dir/selection… - F6: move file/dir/selection… - F7: make directory… - F8: delete file/dir/selection - enter: execute file, enter dir / vfs or view 'specially' depending on the extension of the regular file. It is executed in a thread that can be stopped and captures output - @: exec on file… (output is not captured) - t: touch file… - l: create link… - L: edit link… - i: show file info + **Other** - /: find/grep files… - Ctrl-t: tree - Ctrl-o: open shell. Type 'exit' or press Ctrl-d to return to lfm - Ctrl-x: toggle show/hide PowerCLI - F12: file menu - @: exec on file(s) (output is not captured) - i: show file info - p: change file(s) permissions… - o: change file(s) owner and/or group… - a: backup file(s)… - d: diff file with backup - z: Compress/uncompress file(s)… - g: gzip/gunzip - b: bzip2/bunzip2 - x: xz/unxz - l: lzip/lunzip - 4: lz4/unlz4 - s: zstd/unzstd - x: uncompress .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .tar.xz, .tar.lz, .tar.lz4, .tar.zst, .zip, .rar, .7z - u: uncompress .tar.gz, etc in other panel - c: compress directory to format… - t: .tar - g: .tar.gz - b: .tar.bz2 - x: .tar.xz - l: .tar.lz - 4: .tar.lz4 - s: .tar.zst - z: .zip - r: .rar - 7: .7z - F9: general menu - /: find/grep file… - #: show directories size - s: sort files by… - t: tree - f: show filesystems info - o: open shell - c: edit configuration - k: edit key bindings file - e: edit theme file - h: delete history - h: help… - q, F10: exit and chdir to current path - Ctrl-q: quit and don't change to current path Dialogs ------- + ***EntryLine* window and *PowerCLI*** - enter: return path or execute command in *PowerCLI* - Ctrl-c, ESC: quit - Ctrl-x: toggle show/hide in *PowerCLI* - insert: toggle insert/overwrite - special: - up, down: history - tab: change to next entry or button, or complete in *PowerCLI* - Ctrl-t: complete… - movement - home, Ctrl-a: move to beginning of line - end, Ctrl-e: move to end of line - left, Ctrl-b: move cursor left - right, Ctrl-f: move cursor right - Ctrl-left, Ctrl-p: move cursor to previous word - Ctrl-right, Ctrl-n: move cursor to next word - deletion - backspace: delete previous character - del: delete character at cursor - Ctrl-w: delete whole line - Ctrl-h: delete from start to cursor position - Ctrl-k: delete from cursor position to end of line - Ctrl-q, Ctrl-backspace: delete until previous word - Ctrl-r, Ctrl-del: delete until next word - insertion - Ctrl-z: restore original content (undo) - Ctrl-v: insert filename at position - Ctrl-s: insert path at position - Ctrl-o: insert other pane tab path at position - Ctrl-d, Ctrl-\: select bookmark at position… - Ctrl-y: select path from navigation history at position… - Ctrl-g: select historic path (not *PowerCLI*)… - Ctrl-g: select historic or stored (from config) command (*PowerCLI*)… + ***SelectItem* window** - [letter]: go to entry whose first char is this - up, k, K - down, j, J - page_up, backspace, Ctrl-b - page_down, space, Ctrl-f - home, Ctrl-a - end, Ctrl-e - Ctrl-l: go to entry in the middle of list - Ctrl-s: go to entry starting by… - enter: return entry - Ctrl-c, q, Q, ESC: quit + ***Permissions* and *Owner/Group* windows** - tab, cursor: move - in permissions: r, w, x, s, t to toggle read, write, exec, setuid or setgid, sticky bit - in user, group: space or enter to select - in recursive: space or enter to toggle - in buttons: space or enter to accept that action - everywhere: space or enter to accept, a to accept all, i to ignore and c, q, esc, Ctrl-c to cancel + ***Tree* panel** - down, j, K: down within current depth, without going out from directory - up, k, K: up within current depth, without going out from directory - page_up, backspace, Ctrl-b: same as up but page-size scroll - page_down, space, Ctrl-f: same as down but page-size scroll - home, Ctrl-a: first directory - end, Ctrl-e: last directory - left: go out from directory - right: enter in directory - enter: return changing to directory - Ctrl-c, q, Q, F10, ESC: quit + ***View* window** - up, k, K - down, j, J - page_up, backspace, Ctrl-b - page_down, space, Ctrl-f - home, Ctrl-a: move cursor to first file - end, Ctrl-e: move cursor to last file - Ctrl-c, q, Q, F3, F10, ESC: quit Some features in detail ======================= Running *lfm* ------------- Type ``lfm --help`` for a complete list of options:: ~$ lfm --help Usage: lfm [-h] [-d] [-w] [--restore-config] [--restore-keys] [--restore-theme] [--delete-history] [path1] [path2] lfm v3.1 - (C) 2001-18, by Iñigo Serna <inigoserna@gmail.com> positional arguments: path1 Path to show in left pane (default: ".") path2 Path to show in right pane (default: ".") optional arguments: -h, --help Show this help message and exit -d, --debug Enable debug level in log file -w, --use-wide-chars Enable support for wide chars --restore-config Restore default configuration --restore-keys Restore default key bindings --restore-theme Restore default theme --delete-history Delete history 'Last File Manager' is a powerful file manager for UNIX console. It has a curses interface and it's written in Python version 3.4+. Released under GNU Public License, read COPYING file for more details. As mentioned in the `Installation`_ section, quitting *lfm* with `q` or `F10` keys will leave you in the directory of active tab, if you want to go back to the directory you started *lfm* from, quit the program using `Ctrl-q`. When running *lfm* writes some events to the log file ``~/.config/lfm/lfm.log``. Passing ``-d`` or ``--debug`` to *lfm* increments the verbosity of the logs. Start the program with ``lfm -w`` or ``lfm --use-wide-chars`` to enable the support for East Asian languages. Note you could enable this feature in the configuration permanently. This option is not enabled by default as it makes the program a bit slower. There is an entry in the `FAQ`_ with more information on this regard. Files name encoding ------------------- Since v3.0, *lfm* uses UTF-8 encoding. Since v2.2, *lfm* was rewritten to always use unicode strings internally, but employ terminal encoding (f.e. UTF-8) to interact with the user in input forms, to display contents, and to pass commands to run in shell. When *lfm* detects a file with invalid encoding name it asks the user to convert it (can be automatic with the proper option in the configuration). If not converted, *lfm* will display the file but won't operate on it. Virtual File Systems (VFS) -------------------------- You can navigate inside some special files (known as vfs files in *lfm*) just *entering into* them (press *enter* or *cursor_right* when the cursor bar is over one of these files). By now, supported types are `.tar.gz`, `.tar.bz2`, `.tar.xz`, `.zip`, `.rar`, and `.7z` files. *lfm* even supports navigating nested compressed files (vfs inside vfs)! The virtual directory name (`path_to_vfs_file#vfs/dir`) is not propagated, so the temporary directory (`/tmp/tmpc396zode.lfm/dir`) could be displayed in the copy/move/… dialogs or when view/edit/… a file, but this is just an estetic issue. When returning from one of such vfs files, a question dialog appears asking to allow you to regenerate the vfs file and update all changes (i.e., it is compressed again, so it could be slow in some machines), but *lfm* checks if it can do first, to avoid waste of time. This behaviour (rebuild or not rebuild, ask it or not) can be modified in the configuration file. By default the question is showed but it's set to *not regenerate vfs*. Note that in the case of `panelize` vfs type (vfs with matched files after find/grep), rebuild will cause that all files modifications or deletions be translated to the original directory. So be careful! *lfm* doesn't implement remote vfs such as ssh, ftp, smb, webdav… This is a design criterion, we don't want to add external dependencies beyond python standard library. If you need to access remote file systems you could mount them using something like *fuse* and treat them as local directories from inside *lfm*. Look at the `FAQ`_ section to learn how. Find & grep ----------- You can find and grep for files matching a given pattern (default ``/`` key). Then you can select some actions to perform: - ``go``: chdir to the directory containing the selected file - ``panelize``: create a VFS with matched files - ``view``: view selected file - ``edit``: edit selected file - ``do``: exec on selected file (output is not captured) - ``quit``: quit dialog Note that in the case of `panelize` vfs, rebuild will cause that all files modifications or deletions be translated to the original directory. So be careful! Filters ------- Filters can be used in tabs to hide some files or directories from the view. Use ``Ctrl-f`` to edit current filter. You could see some indication on the frame of pane at the top-right position: for example ``.f`` would mean dotfiles are shown (``.``) and there is an active filter (``f``). The filters are a property of a tab, so they remain active even when chdir. If you what to disable, edit and delete. The default blank filter is the same as ``!*``, i.e. don't hide anything, show all files and directories. Filters can look complex at first sight, but just remember a filter defines the files to hide. They are implemented as `globs`. Some examples: - ``*.png,*.jpg``: hide all PNG and JPEG files - ``*.jpg,!*shot*``: hide all JPEG files except those with 'shot' in the name - ``*,!*py``: hide all except python source files Bookmarks --------- The user can define up to 35 bookmarks, which are associated to characters `0-9`, `a-z`. Upper and lower variant of a letter represent the same bookmark. From the main interface use ``B`` key and then select a letter to set a bookmark for current directory. Later press ``b`` and this same character to go back to the stored path. ``Ctrl-d`` allows to select the bookmark from a list. Note you can insert a bookmark path in `EntryLine` widgets or `PowerCLI`. Move files and directories -------------------------- You can choose between 2 different functions to move files and directories: - ``move_file``: old implementation - ``move_file2``: alternative version using `shtutil.move` instead of copy & delete. Faster but less control of errors. Default Choose the one you prefer and associate it with the `F6` (default key) in the key bindings file. Some historical notes --------------------- **[These comments are probably not necessary nowdays, but I keep them here anyway.]** Since version 0.90, *lfm* needs ncurses >= v5.x to handle terminal resizing. Python v2.5+ and ncurses v5.4+ to use wide characters. Note that python curses module should be linked against ncursesw library (instead of ncurses) to get wide characters support. This is the usual case in later versions of Linux distributions, but maybe not the case in older Linux or other UNIX platforms. Thus, expect problems when using multibyte file names (f.e. UTF-8 or latin-1 encoded) if your curses module isn't compiled against ncursesw. Anyway, I hope this issue will disappear with new releases of those platforms eventually. Consult `Files name encoding`_ section below for more information about support of different encodings. PowerCLI ======== *PowerCLI* is a command line interface with advanced features. To show it press ``Ctrl-x``, and same again to hide, ``ENTER`` to run. Line contents are restored next time PowerCLI is showed. Some features: - uses *EntryLine*, so the same key bindings are available. You can press ``Ctrl-v`` to paste file name for instance - completion (``Ctrl-t`` or ``tab`` key), both for system programs or path files and directories - loops to run the same command for all the selected files - variable substitution - can execute python code - persistent history between sessions - faster than opening a shell (``Ctrl-o``) *lfm* waits until the command is finished, showing output or error. You can stop the command if it seems to run forever. To run a command in background just add a ``&`` at the end of the command. This is useful to open a graphical program and come back to *lfm* quickly. But note you won't get any feedback about the command, even if it has been able to run or not. If the program you want to run needs the terminal (less, vim, emacs -nw…), add ``$`` at the end of the command to let *lfm* know it must temporary free the terminal. Not passing it will fill the screen with garbage. Variables substitution ---------------------- There are a lot of variables you can use to simplify your command typing. Specially useful in loops to apply the same command to many files. - ``$f``: file name including extension - ``$v``: same than ``$f`` - ``$E``: file name without extension - ``$e``: extension - ``$p``: active directory - ``$o``: other pane directory - ``$b#``: path in bookmark # - ``$s``: all selected files, space-separated and enclosed between " - ``$a``: all files, space-separated and enclosed between " - ``$i``: loop index, starting at 1 - ``$tm``: file modification date and time - ``$ta``: file access date and time - ``$tc``: file creation date and time - ``$tn``: now (date and time) - ``$dm``: file modification date - ``$da``: file access date - ``$dc``: file creation date - ``$dn``: now (only date) Python execution ---------------- You can run a subset of python language code in a sandbox, but note this sandbox doesn't allow to import modules or access anything outside for security reasons. But **DON'T TRUST IT'S SECURE**. The sandbox is a very limited environment but powerful enough to satisfy common needs, even you can use the variables inside the code. Code must be enclosed between ``{`` ``}``. You can even use different code chunks in the same command. Consult the examples. Examples -------- * copy current file (or all selected files in a loop) to the other pane path:: cp $f $o * move selected files to path stored in bookmark #3 (no loop):: mv $s "$b3" We have enclosed ``$b3`` between " here in case the path could contain spaces. * show all python files in a directory:: find /to/path -name "*.py" * open current file with `eog` in background and continue inmediately in *lfm*:: eog [Ctrl-v] & * find python files containing some special words in the background and redirect output to a file:: find . -name "*py" -print0 | xargs --null grep -EHcni "TODO|WARNING|FIXME|BUG" > output.txt & Note that if you run a command in the background you won't get any feedback by default, that's why we redirect the output to a file. * edit current file with `vim` in the console:: vim %F $ Note you must end the line with a ``%`` if the command will use the terminal. * convert file (or all selected) to lowercase and change ``.bak`` extension to ``.orig``. F.e., ``FiLeFOO.bak`` => ``filefoo.orig``:: mv $f {$f.lower().replace('.bak', '.orig')} * loop over selected files, copy to the other pane path and rename. F.e., if ``/current/path/img1234.jpeg`` is the 13th file in the selection and was created on 2010/07/22 at 19:43:22 => ``/other/path/13. 20100722194322 - IMG1234.jpg``:: cp $f "$o/{'%2.2d. %s - %s' % ($i, $tm.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%S'), $E.upper())}.jpg" Yes, a stupid convoluted example, but it clearly shows how powerful *PowerCLI* is. Also observe that as the target file name contain spaces, the whole destination must be surrounded with ". Random notes ------------ * Paths or filenames with spaces or special characters must be enclosed between ". Study last example above * Loops are only executed with selected files AND at least one of next variables present within the command: ``$f``, ``$v``, ``$F``, ``$E``, ``$i``, ``$tm``, ``$ta``, ``$tc``. Remember ``$a`` or ``$s`` never loop * Note the differences of running commands with trailing ``&`` vs. ``$`` vs. nothing * If cursor is at the beginning of line, completion will try system programs. If it is in any other position, it will try files or directories first and if nothing is found then programs * Although python code is executed inside a sandbox, it's not completely secure. Anyway, it's the same kind of security issues your system is exposed to when shell access is allowed Customization ============= The configuration of *lfm* is stored across some files in the `~/.config/lfm` directory. This directory is created the first time *lfm* runs, and filled with some files with default settings. To restore default configuration exit from all instances of *lfm* and delete `~/.config/lfm` directory. You could also the command line options to restore default configuration, key bindings, or theme. In next subsections we will discuss the default configuration and the meaning of the different options. Preferences ----------- Program preferences are saved in the ``~/.config/lfm/lfm.ini`` file. To configure *lfm* go to `General Menu [F9] -> Edit Configuration [c]` menu option, or edit this file manually when no instance of the program is running. It contains these parts: Header ~~~~~~ Always the same text. It is used to validate the configuration file:: ########## lfm - Last File Manager Configuration File v3.x ########## [Options] ~~~~~~~~~ Main settings:: # automatic_file_encoding_conversion: never = -1, ask = 0, always = 1 # sort_type: SortType.none, SortType.byName, SortType.byExt, SortType.byPath, SortType.bySize, SortType.byMTime automatic_file_encoding_conversion: 0 detach_terminal_at_exec: 1 find_ignorecase: 1 grep_ignorecase: 1 grep_regex: 1 rebuild_vfs: 0 save_configuration_at_exit: 1 save_history_at_exit: 1 show_dotfiles: 1 show_output_after_exec: 1 sort_mix_cases: 1 sort_mix_dirs: 0 sort_reverse: 0 sort_type: SortType.byName use_wide_chars: 0 * ``automatic_file_encoding_conversion``: Automatically convert filenames when wrong encoding found? Default 0 (no, ask) * ``detach_terminal_at_exec``: Detach terminal at execute? Default 1 (yes) * ``find_ignorecase``: Ignore case in find? Default 0 (no) * ``grep_ignorecase``: Ignore case in grep? Default 1 (yes) * ``grep_regex``: Use regex as grep pattern? Default 1 (yes) * ``rebuild_vfs``: Rebuild vfs? Useful if automatic in confirmations->ask_rebuild_vfs. Default 0 (no) * ``save_configuration_at_exit``: Save configuration at exit? Default 1 (yes) * ``save_history_at_exit``: Save history at exit for future sessions? Default 1 (yes) * ``show_dotfiles``: Show .files? Default 1 (yes) * ``show_output_after_exec``: Show output after exec? Default 1 (yes) * ``sort_mix_cases``: Mix upper and lower case files in sort? Default 1 (yes) * ``sort_mix_dirs``: Mix files and directories in sort? Default 0 (no) * ``sort_reverse``: Reverse sort? Default 0 (no) * ``sort_type``: Sort type. Default SortType.byName (sort by name) * ``use_wide_chars``: Use wide chars? Default 0 (no) [Confirmations] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ These settings indicate whether the user will be prompted in these actions:: ask_rebuild_vfs: 1 delete: 1 overwrite: 1 quit: 1 * ``ask_rebuild_vfs``: when abandoning compressed files, prompt if we should rebuild the file in case we've modified contents. Note that in `find/grep panelize` (vfs with matched files) if rebuild, all files modifications or deletions are translated to original directory. So be careful! [Misc] ~~~~~~ Settings which require a string value:: # diff_type: context, unified, ndiff backup_extension: .bak diff_type: unified * ``backup_extension``: Backup file extension? Default .bak * ``diff_type``: Diff output format? Default unified [Programs] ~~~~~~~~~~ Default programs *lfm* uses to open common file types:: audio: vlc ebook: FBReader editor: vi graphics: eog pager: less pdf: evince shell: bash video: vlc web: firefox The applications listed here must be executable programs in your `$PATH`, shell alias will not work. [Files] ~~~~~~~ File extensions associated with default programs. Used to color files too. See previous subsection:: archive: 7z, arc, arj, ark, bz2, cab, deb, gz, lha, lzh, rar, rpm, tar, tbz2, tgz, txz, xz, z, zip, zoo audio: au, flac, mid, midi, mp2, mp3, mpg, ogg, wma, xm data: cdx, dat, db, dbf, dbi, dbx, dta, fox, mdb, mdn, mdx, msql, mssql, nc, pgsql, sql, sqlite, ssql devel: ada, asm, awk, bash, c, caml, cc, cgi, cpp, css, diff, el, f, f90, glade, h, hh, hpp, hs, inc, jasm, jav, java, js, lua, m, m4, mak, ml, mli, mll, mlp, mly, pas, pas, patch, php, phps, pl, pm, pov, prg, py, pyw, rb, sh, sl, st, tcl, tk, ui, vala document: 1, abw, bib, djvu, doc, docx, dtd, dvi, gnumeric, ics, info, letter, lsm, mail, man, msg, odc, odp, odt, po, pps, ppt, pptx, rtf, sdc, sdp, sdw, sgml, sxc, sxp, sxw, tex, text, txt, vcard, vcs, xls, xlsx, xml, xsd, xslt ebook: azw, azw3, chm, epub, fb2, imp, lit, mobi, prc graphics: ai, bmp, cdr, dia, dwb, dwg, dxf, eps, gif, ico, jpeg, jpg, omf, pcx, pic, png, rle, svg, tif, tiff, wmf, xbm, xcf, xpm pdf: pdf, ps temp: $$$, bak, tmp, ~ video: acc, asf, avi, flv, med, mkv, mol, mov, mp4, mpeg, mpg, mpl, ogv, ogv, swf, wmv web: htm, html, shtml [Bookmarks] ~~~~~~~~~~~ User-defined 35 bookmarks (0-9, a-z). No differences between upper and lower character, as they represent the same bookmark. ``/`` initially:: 0: / 1: / . . . 8: / 9: / a: / b: / . . . y: / z: / [PowerCLI Favs] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ User-defined 10 favourite PowerCLI stored commands:: 0: mv "$f" "{$f.replace('', '')}" 1: less "$f" % 2: find "$d" -name "*" -print0 | xargs --null grep -EHcni "TODO|WARNING|FIXME|BUG" 3: find "$d" -name "*" -print0 | xargs --null grep -EHcni "TODO|WARNING|FIXME|BUG" >output.txt & 4: cp $s "$o" 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: Key bindings ------------ The currently used key bindings for the main user interface are stored in the ``~/.config/lfm/lfm.keys`` file. To customize select `General Menu [F9] -> Edit keys [k]` from the program or if you edit the file directly be sure no instance of *lfm* is running. Currently, it is not possible to modify the key bindings for the dialogs. The format is:: <action>: key_combination_1 key_combination_2 … Something like ``C-up`` means `Control` & `cursor up` keys pressed simultaneously and ``A-s`` means `Alt` & `s` keys pressed simultaneously. If the definition contains 2 or more bindings, all of them could be used, as is the case with ``C-u`` and ``,`` for `panes_swap` action below. Consult `Keys shortcuts`_ section for more information. Default key bindings:: ########## lfm - Last File Manager - Keys ########## [Main] # cursor movement cursor_up: up k cursor_down: down j cursor_pageup: pageup backspace C-p cursor_pagedown: pagedown spc C-n cursor_up10: C-up cursor_down10: C-down cursor_home: home C-a cursor_end: end C-e cursor_goto_file: C-s cursor_goto_file_1char: A-s # change dir dir_up: left dir_enter: right enter goto: g bookmark_goto: b bookmark_set: B bookmark_select_fromlist: C-d history_select_fromlist: C-y # pane & tabs pane_change_focus: tab pane_other_tab_equal: = panes_swap: C-u , panes_cycle_view: . refresh: C-r redraw_screen: A-r dotfiles_toggle: C-h filters_edit: C-f sort_files: s show_dirs_size: # tab_new: : tab_close: ! tab_left: < tab_right: > # selection select: ins select_glob: + deselect_glob: - select_invert: * # files rename_file: F2 view_file: F3 edit_file: F4 copy_file: F5 move_file2: F6 make_dir: F7 delete_file: F8 exec_on_file: @ touch_file: t link_create: l link_edit: L show_file_info: i # general find_grep: / show_tree: C-t main_menu: F9 file_menu: F12 help_menu: h open_shell: C-o toggle_powercli: C-x quit_chdir: q F10 quit_nochdir: C-q Color themes ------------ The current theme is stored in the ``~/.config/lfm/lfm.theme`` file, where you can adapt the user interface colors to your likings. To customize select `General Menu [F9] -> Edit theme [e]` from the program or if you edit the file directly be sure no instance of *lfm* is running. To edit this file be sure no instance of *lfm* is running. Each entry represents a different entity. The format is:: <item>: foreground_color background_color or to make an entity adopt the same colors as other previous one:: <item>: =<previous_item> Valid colors are: white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan. Can use * before a foreground color to intensify. Default theme is defined as:: ########## lfm - Last File Manager - Theme ########## # Format is: item: foreground background # or: item: =previous_item # Valid colors: white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan # Can use * to intensify a foreground color [Colors] header: yellow blue tab_active: yellow black tab_inactive: =header pane_active: green black pane_inactive: white black pane_header_path: red* black pane_header_titles: white* black statusbar: =header powercli_prompt: blue* black powercli_text: white black selected_files: yellow* black cursor: blue cyan cursor_selected: yellow* cyan files_dir: green black files_exe: red black files_reg: white black files_archive: yellow black files_audio: blue black files_data: magenta* black files_devel: cyan black files_document: blue black files_ebook: =files_document files_graphics: magenta black files_pdf: =files_document files_temp: white black files_web: =files_document files_video: =files_audio dialog: yellow blue dialog_title: yellow* blue button_active: yellow* red button_inactive: =dialog_title dialog_error: black red dialog_error_title: white red dialog_error_text: white* red dialog_perms: green* black selectitem: blue cyan selectitem_title: red cyan selectitem_cursor: yellow blue entryline: yellow* cyan progressbar_fg: black white progressbar_bg: white cyan view_white_on_black: white black view_red_on_black: red black view_blue_on_black: blue black view_green_on_black: green black FAQ === **How and why lfm born?** Everything is explained in next sections. `list.com` and `midnight commander` were the muses who guided. **Isn't python slow? why develop lfm on python?** No. It's fast enough. And programming in python is funny. **Does it work with Python v2.x?** Not anymore. lfm v3.x is written for Python 3.4+. If you only have Python 2.x please use old lfm v2.3. **lfm does not change to current directory after quiting** This can't be made inside the program, but you could get it using the shell tip mentioned `Installation`_ section. **lfm does not start, shows the message "Terminal to narrow to show contents"** **lfm shows the message "Terminal to narrow to show contents" and quits when resizing** lfm needs a terminal with 66 columns as mininum. If the terminal is narrower or you resize it to fewer columns program will stop inmediately. **Why doesn't lfm implement remote vfs such as ssh, ftp, smb, webdav, ...?** One of the design goals for *lfm* is simplicity, we don't want to add external dependencies beyond python standard library. Nevertheless you can use something like *fuse* to mount those remote volumes anyway. To use fuse with ssh you need *fuse* and *sshfs* packages installed on your system:: $ mkdir /mount/point/for_ssh_server $ sshfs user@ip_or_hostname:/path /mount/point/for_ssh_server For ftp you need *fuse* and *curlftpfs*:: $ mkdir /mount/point/for_ftp_server $ curlftpfs ftp://user:password@ip_or_hostname /mount/point/for_ftp_server For webdav you need *fuse* and *wdfs* or davfs2 (non fuse based):: $ mkdir /mount/point/for_webdav_server $ wdfs https://user:password@server.org/webdav_dir /mount/point/for_webdav_server For smb take a look at *fuse-smb*. And to umount:: $ fusermount -u /mount/point $ rm -rf /mount/point **Request: add advanced file rename tool** Use *PowerCLI*, it's much... uhmmm... powerful! **I don't like the colors of the interface. Can I change the theme?** Yes!!! lfm v3.x supports color personalization, but only one default theme is provided. Customize colors in the file `~/.config/lfm/lfm.theme`. More information in the section `Color themes`_. And please share your creations. **Key bindings customization?** Yes!!! lfm v3.x supports key bindings personalization. Customize them in the file `~/.config/lfm/lfm.keys`. More information in the section `Key bindings`_. **Some Chinese, Japanese or Korean files make lfm look ugly or even crash** Start the program as ``lfm -w`` or enable it by default setting an option in the configuration file: ``use_wide_chars: 1`` in section ``[Options]`` (see `[Options]`_ above). This option is not enabled by default as it makes the program slower. The characters of these languages can span over 1 or 2 cells, so it's not possible for *lfm* to guess the real width they need, it must be calculated for every string to show. **I can't find pyview anymore** Starting with version 3.0, *pyview* has been removed from *lfm* package, and now ``less`` is used as the default file viewer/pager. Nowdays I use ``emacs`` for almost everything, even as my default file viewer. You can emulate old *pyview* features easily just adding next configuration to your ``.emacs`` file:: [...] (defun eless (&rest args_str) (interactive) (let ((args (pop args_str))) (if (string-match "\\+\\([0-9]+\\)\s+\\(.+\\)" args) (let* ((line (string-to-number (match-string 1 args))) (file (match-string 2 args))) (view-file file) (goto-line line)) (view-file args)))) (add-hook 'view-mode-hook '(lambda () (define-key view-mode-map "q" 'kill-emacs) (define-key view-mode-map '[f3] 'kill-emacs))) (add-hook 'hexl-mode-hook '(lambda () (define-key hexl-mode-map '[f4] 'hexl-mode-exit))) (global-set-key '[f2] 'toggle-truncate-lines) (global-set-key '[f3] 'view-mode) (global-set-key '[f4] 'hexl-mode) (global-set-key "\C-cn" 'linum-mode) [...] create a new executable program ``ve`` with these contents and move it to any directory in your `$PATH`:: emacs -nw --eval "(eless \"$*\")" and finally set ``ve`` as your viewer in *lfm* configuration: `pager` entry under `[Options]` section in ``~/.config/lfm/lfm.ini`` file. Of course you can substitute that ``emacs`` call with ``emacsclient`` and adapt the code if you run ``emacs`` as daemon. If you prefer ``vim`` create the ``ve`` file with something like:: vim -u /usr/share/vim/vimXX/macros/less.vim "$*" where `XX` is the vim version you have, for example `74` for vim 7.4. In any case note that ``ve`` must be an executable program in your `$PATH`, a shell alias will not work. **Mouse support? UI to configure settings?** I'm afraid we speak different languages. **When will be support for internationalization?** If we are talking about translating *lfm*, the answer is mostly never. Ncurses programming makes very difficult to control the length of every text for every possible language translation. If you mean support for file names in foreign languages and encodings then it's almost here already. **[Any other question / feature request]** Consult if it's mentioned in the `<TODO>`_ file and/or send me an email. History ======= Many many years ago I began to write a program like this in C, but after some weeks of coding I never finished it… I'm too lazy, yes. Then I saw the light and I started writing *lfm* to learn Python. Code evolved and application got more and more features, used by many people around the world on different UNIX systems. But after the release of version 0.91 (June 2004) they were not more releases. Not that I had stopped working on *lfm*, new code was written, tested, rewritten again… silently… different reasons made me to postpone public releases… refactoring, a new essential feature, source cleaning, a wedding, a child, ahem… code refactoring… Anyway, from now on I'll do my best to release often. Thanks ====== Thanks are obviously due to the whole python community, specially to GvR (of course! ;-) and all the people who answered my questions in c.l.p. It's a great pleasure to code in a language like this. Alexei Gilchrist, for his cfm program from which I took some ideas. `Midnight Commander <http://www.ibiblio.org/mc/>`_ developers, whose program was the mirror. `Vernon D. Buerg's list.com <http://web.archive.org/web/20070720001132/http://www.buerg.com/about.htm>`_, the best program ever coded (well, just after emacs ;-). Added 2012/06/19: I've just read Buerg died on Dec. 30, 2009. RIP. And also to all the people who have contributed with ideas, reporting bugs and code over these years: Antoni Aloy, Sebastien Bacher, Grigory Bakunov, Greg Bell, Jean-François Bercher, Luigi M. Bianchi, Hunter Blanks, Josef Boehm, Witold Bołt, Fabian Braennstroem, Jason Buberel, Ondrej Certik, Kevin Coyner, Tim Daneliuk, Mike Dean, Arnå DG, Maximilian Dietrich, Christian Eichert, Steve Emms, Murat Erten, Daniel Echeverry, Luca Falavigna, Stephen R. Figgins, f1ufx, Roy Fullmer, Francisco Gama, Vlad Glagolev, Ana Beatriz Guerrero Lopez, Kelly Hopkins, Laurent Humblet, Ibu, Uffe Jakobsen, Tjabo Kloppenburg, Zoran Kolic, Shantanu Kulkarni, Kurka, Max Kutny, Karol M. Langner, Yu-Jie Lin, Martin Lüethi, Thomas Marsaleix, Mateusz Matejuk, Maurício, James Mills, Oliver Mueller, Bartosz Oler, Piotr Ozarowski, Mikhail A. Pokidko, Jerome Prudent, Mikhail Ramendik, Rod, Daniel T. Schmitt, Chengqi Song, Robin Siebler, Andrey Skvortsov, Espartaco Smith, Jörg Sonnenberger, Jonathan Steel, Martin Steigerwald, Wayne Tan, Joshua Tasker, Tim Terlegård, Jean Terrier, Edd Thompson, Sergey Tkachenko, E.R. Uber, Viktor Vad, Walter van den Broek, Jesper Vestergaard, Xin Wang, Alejandro Weil, Yellowprotoss, Hai Zaar and many others… You have made posible to run *lfm* in all those platforms! .. |date| date:: %a, %d %b %Y - %H:%M:%S