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jpel...@bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37  committed 9d34873

[multi-db] Merged trunk to [4158]. Some tests still failing.

  • Participants
  • Parent commits 4ea4583
  • Branches multiple-db-support

Comments (0)

Files changed (17)

     SmileyChris <smileychris@gmail.com>
     sopel
     Thomas Steinacher <tom@eggdrop.ch>
+    nowell strite
     Radek Švarz <http://www.svarz.cz/translate/>
     Swaroop C H <http://www.swaroopch.info>
     Aaron Swartz <http://www.aaronsw.com/>

File django/conf/project_template/urls.py

 
 urlpatterns = patterns('',
     # Example:
-    # (r'^{{ project_name }}/', include('{{ project_name }}.apps.foo.urls.foo')),
+    # (r'^{{ project_name }}/', include('{{ project_name }}.foo.urls')),
 
     # Uncomment this for admin:
 #     (r'^admin/', include('django.contrib.admin.urls')),

File django/contrib/sitemaps/templates/sitemap_index.xml

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemapindex/0.9">
+<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
 {% for location in sitemaps %}<sitemap><loc>{{ location|escape }}</loc></sitemap>{% endfor %}
 </sitemapindex>

File django/core/handlers/base.py

 
             # Complain if the view returned None (a common error).
             if response is None:
-                raise ValueError, "The view %s.%s didn't return an HttpResponse object." % (callback.__module__, callback.func_name)
+                try:
+                    view_name = callback.func_name # If it's a function
+                except AttributeError:
+                    view_name = callback.__class__.__name__ + '.__call__' # If it's a class
+                raise ValueError, "The view %s.%s didn't return an HttpResponse object." % (callback.__module__, view_name)
 
             return response
         except http.Http404, e:

File django/core/handlers/wsgi.py

     data in the body.
     """
     if not size:
-        return copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst, length)
+        return
     while size > 0:
         buf = fsrc.read(min(length, size))
         if not buf:
             return self._raw_post_data
         except AttributeError:
             buf = StringIO()
-            # CONTENT_LENGTH might be absent if POST doesn't have content at all (lighttpd)
-            content_length = int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH', 0))
+            try:
+                # CONTENT_LENGTH might be absent if POST doesn't have content at all (lighttpd)
+                content_length = int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH', 0))
+            except ValueError: # if CONTENT_LENGTH was empty string or not an integer
+                content_length = 0
             safe_copyfileobj(self.environ['wsgi.input'], buf, size=content_length)
             self._raw_post_data = buf.getvalue()
             buf.close()

File django/db/models/fields/__init__.py

 
     def get_db_prep_save(self, value):
         # Casts dates into string format for entry into database.
-        if isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
-            value = value.date().strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
-        elif isinstance(value, datetime.date):
+        if value is not None:
             value = value.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
         return Field.get_db_prep_save(self, value)
 
 
     def pre_save(self, model_instance, add):
         value = super(DateField, self).pre_save(model_instance, add)
-        if isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
+        if value is not None:
             # MySQL will throw a warning if microseconds are given, because it
             # doesn't support microseconds.
             settings = model_instance._default_manager.db.connection.settings
         # Casts dates into string format for entry into database.
         if value is not None:
             value = str(value)
-        elif isinstance(value, datetime.date):
-            # MySQL will throw a warning if microseconds are given, because it
-            # doesn't support microseconds.
-            if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE == 'mysql' and hasattr(value, 'microsecond'):
-                value = datetime.datetime(value.year, value.month, value.day, microsecond=0)
-            value = str(value)
-            
         return Field.get_db_prep_save(self, value)
 
     def get_db_prep_lookup(self, lookup_type, value):

File django/http/__init__.py

         if path is not None:
             self.cookies[key]['path'] = path
         if domain is not None:
-            self.cookies[key]['domain'] = path
+            self.cookies[key]['domain'] = domain
         self.cookies[key]['expires'] = 0
         self.cookies[key]['max-age'] = 0
 

File django/newforms/__init__.py

 from widgets import *
 from fields import *
 from forms import Form
-
-##########################
-# DATABASE API SHORTCUTS #
-##########################
-
-def form_for_model(model):
-    "Returns a Form instance for the given Django model class."
-    raise NotImplementedError
-
-def form_for_fields(field_list):
-    "Returns a Form instance for the given list of Django database field instances."
-    raise NotImplementedError
+from models import *

File django/newforms/fields.py

         of int().
         """
         super(IntegerField, self).clean(value)
+        if not self.required and value in EMPTY_VALUES:
+            return u''
         try:
             return int(value)
         except (ValueError, TypeError):
         Field.clean(self, value)
         if value in EMPTY_VALUES: value = u''
         value = smart_unicode(value)
+        if not self.required and value == u'':
+            return value
         if not self.regex.search(value):
             raise ValidationError(self.error_message)
         return value
         value = Field.clean(self, value)
         if value in EMPTY_VALUES: value = u''
         value = smart_unicode(value)
+        if not self.required and value == u'':
+            return value
         valid_values = set([str(k) for k, v in self.choices])
         if value not in valid_values:
             raise ValidationError(u'Select a valid choice. %s is not one of the available choices.' % value)
         """
         Validates that the input is a list or tuple.
         """
+        if self.required and not value:
+            raise ValidationError(u'This field is required.')
+        elif not self.required and not value:
+            return []
         if not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
             raise ValidationError(u'Enter a list of values.')
-        if self.required and not value:
-            raise ValidationError(u'This field is required.')
         new_value = []
         for val in value:
             val = smart_unicode(val)
 class ComboField(Field):
     def __init__(self, fields=(), required=True, widget=None):
         Field.__init__(self, required, widget)
+        # Set 'required' to False on the individual fields, because the
+        # required validation will be handled by ComboField, not by those
+        # individual fields.
+        for f in fields:
+            f.required = False
         self.fields = fields
 
     def clean(self, value):

File django/newforms/forms.py

 """
 
 from django.utils.datastructures import SortedDict
+from django.utils.html import escape
 from fields import Field
-from widgets import TextInput, Textarea
+from widgets import TextInput, Textarea, HiddenInput
 from util import ErrorDict, ErrorList, ValidationError
 
 NON_FIELD_ERRORS = '__all__'
     __metaclass__ = DeclarativeFieldsMetaclass
 
     def __init__(self, data=None, auto_id=False): # TODO: prefix stuff
+        self.ignore_errors = data is None
         self.data = data or {}
         self.auto_id = auto_id
         self.clean_data = None # Stores the data after clean() has been called.
             raise KeyError('Key %r not found in Form' % name)
         return BoundField(self, field, name)
 
-    def clean(self):
-        if self.__errors is None:
-            self.full_clean()
-        return self.clean_data
-
-    def errors(self):
+    def _errors(self):
         "Returns an ErrorDict for self.data"
         if self.__errors is None:
             self.full_clean()
         return self.__errors
+    errors = property(_errors)
 
     def is_valid(self):
         """
-        Returns True if the form has no errors. Otherwise, False. This exists
-        solely for convenience, so client code can use positive logic rather
-        than confusing negative logic ("if not form.errors()").
+        Returns True if the form has no errors. Otherwise, False. If errors are
+        being ignored, returns False.
         """
-        return not bool(self.errors())
+        return not self.ignore_errors and not bool(self.errors)
 
     def as_table(self):
         "Returns this form rendered as HTML <tr>s -- excluding the <table></table>."
-        return u'\n'.join(['<tr><td>%s:</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (pretty_name(name), BoundField(self, field, name)) for name, field in self.fields.items()])
+        output = []
+        if self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
+            # Errors not corresponding to a particular field are displayed at the top.
+            output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % self.non_field_errors())
+        for name, field in self.fields.items():
+            bf = BoundField(self, field, name)
+            if bf.is_hidden:
+                if bf.errors:
+                    new_errors = ErrorList(['(Hidden field %s) %s' % (name, e) for e in bf.errors])
+                    output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % new_errors)
+                output.append(str(bf))
+            else:
+                if bf.errors:
+                    output.append(u'<tr><td colspan="2">%s</td></tr>' % bf.errors)
+                output.append(u'<tr><td>%s</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (bf.label_tag(escape(bf.verbose_name+':')), bf))
+        return u'\n'.join(output)
 
     def as_ul(self):
         "Returns this form rendered as HTML <li>s -- excluding the <ul></ul>."
-        return u'\n'.join(['<li>%s: %s</li>' % (pretty_name(name), BoundField(self, field, name)) for name, field in self.fields.items()])
-
-    def as_table_with_errors(self):
-        "Returns this form rendered as HTML <tr>s, with errors."
         output = []
-        if self.errors().get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
+        if self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
             # Errors not corresponding to a particular field are displayed at the top.
-            output.append('<tr><td colspan="2"><ul>%s</ul></td></tr>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in self.errors()[NON_FIELD_ERRORS]]))
+            output.append(u'<li>%s</li>' % self.non_field_errors())
         for name, field in self.fields.items():
             bf = BoundField(self, field, name)
-            if bf.errors:
-                output.append('<tr><td colspan="2"><ul>%s</ul></td></tr>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in bf.errors]))
-            output.append('<tr><td>%s:</td><td>%s</td></tr>' % (pretty_name(name), bf))
+            if bf.is_hidden:
+                if bf.errors:
+                    new_errors = ErrorList(['(Hidden field %s) %s' % (name, e) for e in bf.errors])
+                    output.append(u'<li>%s</li>' % new_errors)
+                output.append(str(bf))
+            else:
+                output.append(u'<li>%s%s %s</li>' % (bf.errors, bf.label_tag(escape(bf.verbose_name+':')), bf))
         return u'\n'.join(output)
 
-    def as_ul_with_errors(self):
-        "Returns this form rendered as HTML <li>s, with errors."
-        output = []
-        if self.errors().get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS):
-            # Errors not corresponding to a particular field are displayed at the top.
-            output.append('<li><ul>%s</ul></li>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in self.errors()[NON_FIELD_ERRORS]]))
-        for name, field in self.fields.items():
-            bf = BoundField(self, field, name)
-            line = '<li>'
-            if bf.errors:
-                line += '<ul>%s</ul>' % '\n'.join(['<li>%s</li>' % e for e in bf.errors])
-            line += '%s: %s</li>' % (pretty_name(name), bf)
-            output.append(line)
-        return u'\n'.join(output)
+    def non_field_errors(self):
+        """
+        Returns an ErrorList of errors that aren't associated with a particular
+        field -- i.e., from Form.clean(). Returns an empty ErrorList if there
+        are none.
+        """
+        return self.errors.get(NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ErrorList())
 
     def full_clean(self):
         """
         """
         self.clean_data = {}
         errors = ErrorDict()
+        if self.ignore_errors: # Stop further processing.
+            self.__errors = errors
+            return
         for name, field in self.fields.items():
-            value = self.data.get(name, None)
+            # value_from_datadict() gets the data from the dictionary.
+            # Each widget type knows how to retrieve its own data, because some
+            # widgets split data over several HTML fields.
+            value = field.widget.value_from_datadict(self.data, name)
             try:
                 value = field.clean(value)
                 self.clean_data[name] = value
     def clean(self):
         """
         Hook for doing any extra form-wide cleaning after Field.clean() been
-        called on every field.
+        called on every field. Any ValidationError raised by this method will
+        not be associated with a particular field; it will have a special-case
+        association with the field named '__all__'.
         """
         return self.clean_data
 
         "Renders this field as an HTML widget."
         # Use the 'widget' attribute on the field to determine which type
         # of HTML widget to use.
-        return self.as_widget(self._field.widget)
+        value = self.as_widget(self._field.widget)
+        if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            # Some Widget render() methods -- notably RadioSelect -- return a
+            # "special" object rather than a string. Call the __str__() on that
+            # object to get its rendered value.
+            value = value.__str__()
+        return value
 
     def _errors(self):
         """
         if there are none.
         """
         try:
-            return self._form.errors()[self._name]
+            return self._form.errors[self._name]
         except KeyError:
             return ErrorList()
     errors = property(_errors)
     def as_widget(self, widget, attrs=None):
         attrs = attrs or {}
         auto_id = self.auto_id
-        if not attrs.has_key('id') and not widget.attrs.has_key('id') and auto_id:
+        if auto_id and not attrs.has_key('id') and not widget.attrs.has_key('id'):
             attrs['id'] = auto_id
-        return widget.render(self._name, self._form.data.get(self._name, None), attrs=attrs)
+        return widget.render(self._name, self.data, attrs=attrs)
 
     def as_text(self, attrs=None):
         """
         "Returns a string of HTML for representing this as a <textarea>."
         return self.as_widget(Textarea(), attrs)
 
+    def as_hidden(self, attrs=None):
+        """
+        Returns a string of HTML for representing this as an <input type="hidden">.
+        """
+        return self.as_widget(HiddenInput(), attrs)
+
+    def _data(self):
+        "Returns the data for this BoundField, or None if it wasn't given."
+        return self._form.data.get(self._name, None)
+    data = property(_data)
+
+    def _verbose_name(self):
+        return pretty_name(self._name)
+    verbose_name = property(_verbose_name)
+
+    def label_tag(self, contents=None):
+        """
+        Wraps the given contents in a <label>, if the field has an ID attribute.
+        Does not HTML-escape the contents. If contents aren't given, uses the
+        field's HTML-escaped verbose_name.
+        """
+        contents = contents or escape(self.verbose_name)
+        widget = self._field.widget
+        id_ = widget.attrs.get('id') or self.auto_id
+        if id_:
+            contents = '<label for="%s">%s</label>' % (widget.id_for_label(id_), contents)
+        return contents
+
+    def _is_hidden(self):
+        "Returns True if this BoundField's widget is hidden."
+        return self._field.widget.is_hidden
+    is_hidden = property(_is_hidden)
+
     def _auto_id(self):
         """
         Calculates and returns the ID attribute for this BoundField, if the

File django/newforms/models.py

+"""
+Helper functions for creating Forms from Django models and database field objects.
+"""
+
+__all__ = ('form_for_model', 'form_for_fields')
+
+def form_for_model(model):
+    "Returns a Form instance for the given Django model class."
+    raise NotImplementedError
+
+def form_for_fields(field_list):
+    "Returns a Form instance for the given list of Django database field instances."
+    raise NotImplementedError

File django/newforms/widgets.py

 __all__ = (
     'Widget', 'TextInput', 'PasswordInput', 'HiddenInput', 'FileInput',
     'Textarea', 'CheckboxInput',
-    'Select', 'SelectMultiple', 'RadioSelect',
+    'Select', 'SelectMultiple', 'RadioSelect', 'CheckboxSelectMultiple',
 )
 
 from util import smart_unicode
 
 class Widget(object):
     requires_data_list = False # Determines whether render()'s 'value' argument should be a list.
+    is_hidden = False          # Determines whether this corresponds to an <input type="hidden">.
+
     def __init__(self, attrs=None):
         self.attrs = attrs or {}
 
         raise NotImplementedError
 
     def build_attrs(self, extra_attrs=None, **kwargs):
+        "Helper function for building an attribute dictionary."
         attrs = dict(self.attrs, **kwargs)
         if extra_attrs:
             attrs.update(extra_attrs)
         return attrs
 
+    def value_from_datadict(self, data, name):
+        """
+        Given a dictionary of data and this widget's name, returns the value
+        of this widget. Returns None if it's not provided.
+        """
+        return data.get(name, None)
+
+    def id_for_label(self, id_):
+        """
+        Returns the HTML ID attribute of this Widget for use by a <label>,
+        given the ID of the field. Returns None if no ID is available.
+
+        This hook is necessary because some widgets have multiple HTML
+        elements and, thus, multiple IDs. In that case, this method should
+        return an ID value that corresponds to the first ID in the widget's
+        tags.
+        """
+        return id_
+    id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)
+
 class Input(Widget):
     """
     Base class for all <input> widgets (except type='checkbox' and
 
 class HiddenInput(Input):
     input_type = 'hidden'
+    is_hidden = True
 
 class FileInput(Input):
     input_type = 'file'
         return u'<textarea%s>%s</textarea>' % (flatatt(final_attrs), escape(value))
 
 class CheckboxInput(Widget):
+    def __init__(self, attrs=None, check_test=bool):
+        # check_test is a callable that takes a value and returns True
+        # if the checkbox should be checked for that value.
+        self.attrs = attrs or {}
+        self.check_test = check_test
+
     def render(self, name, value, attrs=None):
         final_attrs = self.build_attrs(attrs, type='checkbox', name=name)
-        if value: final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
+        try:
+            result = self.check_test(value)
+        except: # Silently catch exceptions
+            result = False
+        if result:
+            final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
+        if value not in ('', True, False, None):
+            final_attrs['value'] = smart_unicode(value) # Only add the 'value' attribute if a value is non-empty.
         return u'<input%s />' % flatatt(final_attrs)
 
 class Select(Widget):
 
 class RadioInput(object):
     "An object used by RadioFieldRenderer that represents a single <input type='radio'>."
-    def __init__(self, name, value, attrs, choice):
+    def __init__(self, name, value, attrs, choice, index):
         self.name, self.value = name, value
-        self.attrs = attrs or {}
+        self.attrs = attrs
         self.choice_value, self.choice_label = choice
+        self.index = index
 
     def __str__(self):
         return u'<label>%s %s</label>' % (self.tag(), self.choice_label)
         return self.value == smart_unicode(self.choice_value)
 
     def tag(self):
+        if self.attrs.has_key('id'):
+            self.attrs['id'] = '%s_%s' % (self.attrs['id'], self.index)
         final_attrs = dict(self.attrs, type='radio', name=self.name, value=self.choice_value)
         if self.is_checked():
             final_attrs['checked'] = 'checked'
         self.choices = choices
 
     def __iter__(self):
-        for choice in self.choices:
-            yield RadioInput(self.name, self.value, self.attrs, choice)
+        for i, choice in enumerate(self.choices):
+            yield RadioInput(self.name, self.value, self.attrs.copy(), choice, i)
 
     def __str__(self):
         "Outputs a <ul> for this set of radio fields."
         "Returns a RadioFieldRenderer instance rather than a Unicode string."
         if value is None: value = ''
         str_value = smart_unicode(value) # Normalize to string.
+        attrs = attrs or {}
         return RadioFieldRenderer(name, str_value, attrs, list(chain(self.choices, choices)))
 
-class CheckboxSelectMultiple(Widget):
-    pass
+    def id_for_label(self, id_):
+        # RadioSelect is represented by multiple <input type="radio"> fields,
+        # each of which has a distinct ID. The IDs are made distinct by a "_X"
+        # suffix, where X is the zero-based index of the radio field. Thus,
+        # the label for a RadioSelect should reference the first one ('_0').
+        if id_:
+            id_ += '_0'
+        return id_
+    id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)
+
+class CheckboxSelectMultiple(SelectMultiple):
+    def render(self, name, value, attrs=None, choices=()):
+        if value is None: value = []
+        final_attrs = self.build_attrs(attrs, name=name)
+        output = [u'<ul>']
+        str_values = set([smart_unicode(v) for v in value]) # Normalize to strings.
+        cb = CheckboxInput(final_attrs, check_test=lambda value: value in str_values)
+        for option_value, option_label in chain(self.choices, choices):
+            option_value = smart_unicode(option_value)
+            rendered_cb = cb.render(name, option_value)
+            output.append(u'<li><label>%s %s</label></li>' % (rendered_cb, escape(smart_unicode(option_label))))
+        output.append(u'</ul>')
+        return u'\n'.join(output)
+
+    def id_for_label(self, id_):
+        # See the comment for RadioSelect.id_for_label()
+        if id_:
+            id_ += '_0'
+        return id_
+    id_for_label = classmethod(id_for_label)

File django/views/generic/list_detail.py

         context_processors=None, template_object_name='object',
         mimetype=None):
     """
-    Generic list of objects.
+    Generic detail of an object.
 
     Templates: ``<app_label>/<model_name>_detail.html``
     Context:

File docs/sessions.txt

 Here's a typical usage example::
 
     def login(request):
-        if request.POST:
+        if request.method == 'POST':
             if request.session.test_cookie_worked():
                 request.session.delete_test_cookie()
                 return HttpResponse("You're logged in.")

File docs/testing.txt

 write.
 
 For developers new to testing, however, this choice can seem
-confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide weather
+confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide whether
 doctests or unit tests are right for you.
 
 If you've been using Python for a while, ``doctest`` will probably feel more
 # Compile the list of packages available, because distutils doesn't have
 # an easy way to do this.
 packages, data_files = [], []
-root_dir = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'django')
-for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(root_dir):
+root_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__)
+len_root_dir = len(root_dir)
+django_dir = os.path.join(root_dir, 'django')
+
+for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(django_dir):
     # Ignore dirnames that start with '.'
     for i, dirname in enumerate(dirnames):
         if dirname.startswith('.'): del dirnames[i]
     if '__init__.py' in filenames:
-        packages.append(dirpath.replace('/', '.'))
+        package = dirpath[len_root_dir:].lstrip('/').replace('/', '.')
+        packages.append(package)
     else:
         data_files.append((dirpath, [os.path.join(dirpath, f) for f in filenames]))
 

File tests/regressiontests/forms/tests.py

 >>> import datetime
 >>> import re
 
+###########
+# Widgets #
+###########
+
+Each Widget class corresponds to an HTML form widget. A Widget knows how to
+render itself, given a field name and some data. Widgets don't perform
+validation.
+
 # TextInput Widget ############################################################
 
 >>> w = TextInput()
 >>> w = CheckboxInput()
 >>> w.render('is_cool', '')
 u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
+>>> w.render('is_cool', None)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
 >>> w.render('is_cool', False)
 u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
 >>> w.render('is_cool', True)
 u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="is_cool" />'
+
+Using any value that's not in ('', None, False, True) will check the checkbox
+and set the 'value' attribute.
+>>> w.render('is_cool', 'foo')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="is_cool" value="foo" />'
+
 >>> w.render('is_cool', False, attrs={'class': 'pretty'})
 u'<input type="checkbox" name="is_cool" class="pretty" />'
 
 >>> w.render('is_cool', '', attrs={'class': 'special'})
 u'<input type="checkbox" class="special" name="is_cool" />'
 
+You can pass 'check_test' to the constructor. This is a callable that takes the
+value and returns True if the box should be checked.
+>>> w = CheckboxInput(check_test=lambda value: value.startswith('hello'))
+>>> w.render('greeting', '')
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello there')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello there" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', 'hello & goodbye')
+u'<input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="greeting" value="hello &amp; goodbye" />'
+
+A subtlety: If the 'check_test' argument cannot handle a value and raises any
+exception during its __call__, then the exception will be swallowed and the box
+will not be checked. In this example, the 'check_test' assumes the value has a
+startswith() method, which fails for the values True, False and None.
+>>> w.render('greeting', True)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', False)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+>>> w.render('greeting', None)
+u'<input type="checkbox" name="greeting" />'
+
 # Select Widget ###############################################################
 
 >>> w = Select()
 beatle J G George False
 beatle J R Ringo False
 
+# CheckboxSelectMultiple Widget ###############################################
+
+>>> w = CheckboxSelectMultiple()
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'P'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'P', 'R'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If the value is None, none of the options are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', None, choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If the value corresponds to a label (but not to an option value), none of the options are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['John'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If multiple values are given, but some of them are not valid, the valid ones are selected:
+>>> print w.render('beatles', ['J', 'G', 'foo'], choices=(('J', 'John'), ('P', 'Paul'), ('G', 'George'), ('R', 'Ringo')))
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="J" /> John</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="P" /> Paul</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="G" /> George</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="beatles" value="R" /> Ringo</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+The value is compared to its str():
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2'), ('3', '3')])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('nums', ['2'], choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+The 'choices' argument can be any iterable:
+>>> def get_choices():
+...     for i in range(5):
+...         yield (i, i)
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=get_choices())
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="0" /> 0</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="4" /> 4</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+You can also pass 'choices' to the constructor:
+>>> w = CheckboxSelectMultiple(choices=[(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)])
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+If 'choices' is passed to both the constructor and render(), then they'll both be in the output:
+>>> print w.render('nums', [2], choices=[(4, 4), (5, 5)])
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="4" /> 4</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="5" /> 5</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+>>> w.render('nums', ['ŠĐĆŽćžšđ'], choices=[('ŠĐĆŽćžšđ', 'ŠĐabcĆŽćžšđ'), ('ćžšđ', 'abcćžšđ')])
+u'<ul>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="1" /> 1</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="2" /> 2</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="3" /> 3</label></li>\n<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="nums" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /> \u0160\u0110abc\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111</label></li>\n<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="nums" value="\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /> abc\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111</label></li>\n</ul>'
+
+##########
+# Fields #
+##########
+
+Each Field class does some sort of validation. Each Field has a clean() method,
+which either raises django.newforms.ValidationError or returns the "clean"
+data -- usually a Unicode object, but, in some rare cases, a list.
+
+Each Field's __init__() takes at least these parameters:
+    required -- Boolean that specifies whether the field is required.
+                True by default.
+    widget -- A Widget class, or instance of a Widget class, that should be
+              used for this Field when displaying it. Each Field has a default
+              Widget that it'll use if you don't specify this. In most cases,
+              the default widget is TextInput.
+
+Other than that, the Field subclasses have class-specific options for
+__init__(). For example, CharField has a max_length option.
+
 # CharField ###################################################################
 
+>>> f = CharField()
+>>> f.clean(1)
+u'1'
+>>> f.clean('hello')
+u'hello'
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean([1, 2, 3])
+u'[1, 2, 3]'
+
 >>> f = CharField(required=False)
 >>> f.clean(1)
 u'1'
 u'hello'
 >>> f.clean(None)
 u''
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
 >>> f.clean([1, 2, 3])
 u'[1, 2, 3]'
 
 CharField accepts an optional max_length parameter:
 >>> f = CharField(max_length=10, required=False)
->>> f.clean('')
-u''
 >>> f.clean('12345')
 u'12345'
 >>> f.clean('1234567890')
 # IntegerField ################################################################
 
 >>> f = IntegerField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('1')
+1
+>>> isinstance(f.clean('1'), int)
+True
+>>> f.clean('23')
+23
+>>> f.clean('a')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a whole number.']
+>>> f.clean('1 ')
+1
+>>> f.clean(' 1')
+1
+>>> f.clean(' 1 ')
+1
+>>> f.clean('1a')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a whole number.']
+
+>>> f = IntegerField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
 >>> f.clean('1')
 1
 >>> isinstance(f.clean('1'), int)
 ...
 ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid date/time.']
 
+>>> f = DateTimeField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean(None)
+>>> repr(f.clean(None))
+'None'
+>>> f.clean('')
+>>> repr(f.clean(''))
+'None'
+
 # RegexField ##################################################################
 
 >>> f = RegexField('^\d[A-F]\d$')
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
 ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid value.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+
+>>> f = RegexField('^\d[A-F]\d$', required=False)
+>>> f.clean('2A2')
+u'2A2'
+>>> f.clean('3F3')
+u'3F3'
+>>> f.clean('3G3')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid value.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
 
 Alternatively, RegexField can take a compiled regular expression:
 >>> f = RegexField(re.compile('^\d[A-F]\d$'))
 # EmailField ##################################################################
 
 >>> f = EmailField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('person@example.com')
+u'person@example.com'
+>>> f.clean('foo')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('foo@')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('foo@bar')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+
+>>> f = EmailField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
 >>> f.clean('person@example.com')
 u'person@example.com'
 >>> f.clean('foo')
 # URLField ##################################################################
 
 >>> f = URLField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example.com')
+u'http://example.com'
+>>> f.clean('http://www.example.com')
+u'http://www.example.com'
+>>> f.clean('foo')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('example.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://example.')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+>>> f.clean('http://.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid URL.']
+
+>>> f = URLField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
 >>> f.clean('http://example.com')
 u'http://example.com'
 >>> f.clean('http://www.example.com')
 # BooleanField ################################################################
 
 >>> f = BooleanField()
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(True)
+True
+>>> f.clean(False)
+False
+>>> f.clean(1)
+True
+>>> f.clean(0)
+False
+>>> f.clean('Django rocks')
+True
+
+>>> f = BooleanField(required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+False
+>>> f.clean(None)
+False
 >>> f.clean(True)
 True
 >>> f.clean(False)
 # ChoiceField #################################################################
 
 >>> f = ChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')])
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
 >>> f.clean(1)
 u'1'
 >>> f.clean('1')
 u'1'
->>> f.clean(None)
+>>> f.clean('3')
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> f = ChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')], required=False)
 >>> f.clean('')
-Traceback (most recent call last):
-...
-ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
+>>> f.clean(1)
+u'1'
+>>> f.clean('1')
+u'1'
 >>> f.clean('3')
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
 # MultipleChoiceField #########################################################
 
 >>> f = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')])
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
 >>> f.clean([1])
 [u'1']
 >>> f.clean(['1'])
 ...
 ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
 
+>>> f = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('1', '1'), ('2', '2')], required=False)
+>>> f.clean('')
+[]
+>>> f.clean(None)
+[]
+>>> f.clean([1])
+[u'1']
+>>> f.clean(['1'])
+[u'1']
+>>> f.clean(['1', '2'])
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean([1, '2'])
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean((1, '2'))
+[u'1', u'2']
+>>> f.clean('hello')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a list of values.']
+>>> f.clean([])
+[]
+>>> f.clean(())
+[]
+>>> f.clean(['3'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 3 is not one of the available choices.']
+
 # ComboField ##################################################################
 
 ComboField takes a list of fields that should be used to validate a value,
-in that order:
+in that order.
 >>> f = ComboField(fields=[CharField(max_length=20), EmailField()])
 >>> f.clean('test@example.com')
 u'test@example.com'
 ...
 ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
 
+>>> f = ComboField(fields=[CharField(max_length=20), EmailField()], required=False)
+>>> f.clean('test@example.com')
+u'test@example.com'
+>>> f.clean('longemailaddress@example.com')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Ensure this value has at most 20 characters.']
+>>> f.clean('not an e-mail')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a valid e-mail address.']
+>>> f.clean('')
+u''
+>>> f.clean(None)
+u''
+
+#########
+# Forms #
+#########
+
+A Form is a collection of Fields. It knows how to validate a set of data and it
+knows how to render itself in a couple of default ways (e.g., an HTML table).
+You can pass it data in __init__(), as a dictionary.
+
 # Form ########################################################################
 
 >>> class Person(Form):
 ...     first_name = CharField()
 ...     last_name = CharField()
 ...     birthday = DateField()
+
+Pass a dictionary to a Form's __init__().
+>>> p = Person({'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': u'1940-10-9'})
+>>> p.errors
+{}
+>>> p.is_valid()
+True
+>>> p.errors.as_ul()
+u''
+>>> p.errors.as_text()
+u''
+>>> p.clean_data
+{'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': datetime.date(1940, 10, 9)}
+>>> print p['first_name']
+<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
+>>> print p['last_name']
+<input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" />
+>>> print p['birthday']
+<input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" />
+>>> for boundfield in p:
+...     print boundfield
+<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
+<input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" />
+<input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" />
+>>> for boundfield in p:
+...     print boundfield.verbose_name, boundfield.data
+First name John
+Last name Lennon
+Birthday 1940-10-9
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>
+
+Empty dictionaries are valid, too.
+>>> p = Person({})
+>>> p.errors
+{'first_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'last_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'birthday': [u'This field is required.']}
+>>> p.is_valid()
+False
+>>> print p
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+
+If you don't pass any values to the Form's __init__(), or if you pass None,
+the Form won't do any validation. Form.errors will be an empty dictionary *but*
+Form.is_valid() will return False.
 >>> p = Person()
+>>> p.errors
+{}
+>>> p.is_valid()
+False
 >>> print p
 <tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
 <li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
 <li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
 <li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
->>> print p.as_table_with_errors()
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
->>> print p.as_ul_with_errors()
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
-<li><ul><li>This field is required.</li></ul>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
 
->>> p = Person({'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': u'1940-10-9'})
->>> p.errors()
-{}
->>> p.is_valid()
-True
->>> p.errors().as_ul()
-u''
->>> p.errors().as_text()
-u''
->>> p.clean()
-{'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'Lennon', 'birthday': datetime.date(1940, 10, 9)}
->>> print p['first_name']
-<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
->>> print p['last_name']
-<input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" />
->>> print p['birthday']
-<input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" />
->>> for boundfield in p:
-...     print boundfield
-<input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" />
-<input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" />
-<input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" />
->>> print p
-<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>
+Unicode values are handled properly.
+>>> p = Person({'first_name': u'John', 'last_name': u'\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111', 'birthday': '1940-10-9'})
+>>> p.as_table()
+u'<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>\n<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /></td></tr>\n<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>'
+>>> p.as_ul()
+u'<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></li>\n<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" value="\u0160\u0110\u0106\u017d\u0107\u017e\u0161\u0111" /></li>\n<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></li>'
 
 >>> p = Person({'last_name': u'Lennon'})
->>> p.errors()
+>>> p.errors
 {'first_name': [u'This field is required.'], 'birthday': [u'This field is required.']}
 >>> p.is_valid()
 False
->>> p.errors().as_ul()
+>>> p.errors.as_ul()
 u'<ul class="errorlist"><li>first_name<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></li><li>birthday<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></li></ul>'
->>> print p.errors().as_text()
+>>> print p.errors.as_text()
 * first_name
   * This field is required.
 * birthday
   * This field is required.
->>> p.clean()
->>> repr(p.clean())
+>>> p.clean_data
+>>> repr(p.clean_data)
 'None'
 >>> p['first_name'].errors
 [u'This field is required.']
 
 "auto_id" tells the Form to add an "id" attribute to each form element.
 If it's a string that contains '%s', Django will use that as a format string
-into which the field's name will be inserted.
+into which the field's name will be inserted. It will also put a <label> around
+the human-readable labels for a field.
 >>> p = Person(auto_id='id_%s')
 >>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+>>> print p.as_table()
+<tr><td><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></td></tr>
 
 If auto_id is any True value whose str() does not contain '%s', the "id"
 attribute will be the name of the field.
 >>> p = Person(auto_id=True)
 >>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" id="first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
 
 If auto_id is any False value, an "id" attribute won't be output unless it
 was manually entered.
 <li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
 
 In this example, auto_id is False, but the "id" attribute for the "first_name"
-field is given.
+field is given. Also note that field gets a <label>, while the others don't.
 >>> class PersonNew(Form):
 ...     first_name = CharField(widget=TextInput(attrs={'id': 'first_name_id'}))
 ...     last_name = CharField()
 ...     birthday = DateField()
 >>> p = PersonNew(auto_id=False)
 >>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name_id">First name:</label> <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
 <li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
 <li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
 
 attribute in the Form gets precedence.
 >>> p = PersonNew(auto_id=True)
 >>> print p.as_ul()
-<li>First name: <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
-<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
-<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
+<li><label for="first_name_id">First name:</label> <input type="text" id="first_name_id" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="last_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="birthday" /></li>
 
 >>> class SignupForm(Form):
 ...     email = EmailField()
 >>> print f['message']
 <textarea name="message"></textarea>
 
-as_textarea() and as_text() are shortcuts for changing the output widget type:
+as_textarea(), as_text() and as_hidden() are shortcuts for changing the output
+widget type:
 >>> f['subject'].as_textarea()
 u'<textarea name="subject"></textarea>'
 >>> f['message'].as_text()
 u'<input type="text" name="message" />'
+>>> f['message'].as_hidden()
+u'<input type="hidden" name="message" />'
 
 The 'widget' parameter to a Field can also be an instance:
 >>> class ContactForm(Form):
 >>> print f['message']
 <textarea rows="80" cols="20" name="message"></textarea>
 
-Instance-level attrs are *not* carried over to as_textarea() and as_text():
+Instance-level attrs are *not* carried over to as_textarea(), as_text() and
+as_hidden():
 >>> f['message'].as_text()
 u'<input type="text" name="message" />'
 >>> f = ContactForm({'subject': 'Hello', 'message': 'I love you.'})
 u'<textarea name="subject">Hello</textarea>'
 >>> f['message'].as_text()
 u'<input type="text" name="message" value="I love you." />'
+>>> f['message'].as_hidden()
+u'<input type="hidden" name="message" value="I love you." />'
 
 For a form with a <select>, use ChoiceField:
 >>> class FrameworkForm(Form):
 <option value="J">Java</option>
 </select>
 
+Add widget=RadioSelect to use that widget with a ChoiceField.
+>>> class FrameworkForm(Form):
+...     name = CharField()
+...     language = ChoiceField(choices=[('P', 'Python'), ('J', 'Java')], widget=RadioSelect)
+>>> f = FrameworkForm()
+>>> print f['language']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> print f
+<tr><td>Name:</td><td><input type="text" name="name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Language:</td><td><ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></td></tr>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Name: <input type="text" name="name" /></li>
+<li>Language: <ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="P" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" name="language" value="J" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></li>
+
+Regarding auto_id and <label>, RadioSelect is a special case. Each radio button
+gets a distinct ID, formed by appending an underscore plus the button's
+zero-based index.
+>>> f = FrameworkForm(auto_id='id_%s')
+>>> print f['language']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+When RadioSelect is used with auto_id, and the whole form is printed using
+either as_table() or as_ul(), the label for the RadioSelect will point to the
+ID of the *first* radio button.
+>>> print f
+<tr><td><label for="id_name">Name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="name" id="id_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_language_0">Language:</label></td><td><ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></td></tr>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li><label for="id_name">Name:</label> <input type="text" name="name" id="id_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_language_0">Language:</label> <ul>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_0" value="P" name="language" /> Python</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="radio" id="id_language_1" value="J" name="language" /> Java</label></li>
+</ul></li>
+
 MultipleChoiceField is a special case, as its data is required to be a list:
 >>> class SongForm(Form):
 ...     name = CharField()
 <option value="P" selected="selected">Paul McCartney</option>
 </select>
 
+MultipleChoiceField can also be used with the CheckboxSelectMultiple widget.
+>>> class SongForm(Form):
+...     name = CharField()
+...     composers = MultipleChoiceField(choices=[('J', 'John Lennon'), ('P', 'Paul McCartney')], widget=CheckboxSelectMultiple)
+>>> f = SongForm()
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> f = SongForm({'composers': ['J']})
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+>>> f = SongForm({'composers': ['J', 'P']})
+>>> print f['composers']
+<ul>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="J" /> John Lennon</label></li>
+<li><label><input checked="checked" type="checkbox" name="composers" value="P" /> Paul McCartney</label></li>
+</ul>
+
+When using CheckboxSelectMultiple, the framework expects a list of input and
+returns a list of input.
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday'})
+>>> f.errors
+{'composers': [u'This field is required.']}
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday', 'composers': ['J']})
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f.clean_data
+{'composers': [u'J'], 'name': u'Yesterday'}
+>>> f = SongForm({'name': 'Yesterday', 'composers': ['J', 'P']})
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f.clean_data
+{'composers': [u'J', u'P'], 'name': u'Yesterday'}
+
 There are a couple of ways to do multiple-field validation. If you want the
 validation message to be associated with a particular field, implement the
 clean_XXX() method on the Form, where XXX is the field name. As in
-Field.clean(), the clean_XXX() method should return the cleaned value:
+Field.clean(), the clean_XXX() method should return the cleaned value. In the
+clean_XXX() method, you have access to self.clean_data, which is a dictionary
+of all the data that has been cleaned *so far*, in order by the fields,
+including the current field (e.g., the field XXX if you're in clean_XXX()).
 >>> class UserRegistration(Form):
 ...    username = CharField(max_length=10)
 ...    password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
 ...            raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
 ...        return self.clean_data['password2']
 >>> f = UserRegistration()
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f = UserRegistration({})
+>>> f.errors
 {'username': [u'This field is required.'], 'password1': [u'This field is required.'], 'password2': [u'This field is required.']}
 >>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
 {'password2': [u'Please make sure your passwords match.']}
 >>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'foo'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
 {}
->>> f.clean()
+>>> f.clean_data
 {'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'foo', 'password2': u'foo'}
 
 Another way of doing multiple-field validation is by implementing the
 Form's clean() method. If you do this, any ValidationError raised by that
 method will not be associated with a particular field; it will have a
-special-case association with the field named '__all__'. Note that
-Form.clean() still needs to return a dictionary of all clean data:
+special-case association with the field named '__all__'.
+Note that in Form.clean(), you have access to self.clean_data, a dictionary of
+all the fields/values that have *not* raised a ValidationError. Also note
+Form.clean() is required to return a dictionary of all clean data.
 >>> class UserRegistration(Form):
 ...    username = CharField(max_length=10)
 ...    password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
 ...            raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
 ...        return self.clean_data
 >>> f = UserRegistration()
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f = UserRegistration({})
 >>> print f.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" /></td></tr>
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
 {'username': [u'This field is required.'], 'password1': [u'This field is required.'], 'password2': [u'This field is required.']}
 >>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
 {'__all__': [u'Please make sure your passwords match.']}
 >>> print f.as_table()
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
->>> print f.as_table_with_errors()
-<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
-<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
->>> print f.as_ul_with_errors()
-<li><ul><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></li>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></li>
 <li>Username: <input type="text" name="username" value="adrian" /></li>
 <li>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></li>
 <li>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></li>
 >>> f = UserRegistration({'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'foo'})
->>> f.errors()
+>>> f.errors
 {}
->>> f.clean()
+>>> f.clean_data
 {'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'foo', 'password2': u'foo'}
 
 It's possible to construct a Form dynamically by adding to the self.fields
 <tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
 
+HiddenInput widgets are displayed differently in the as_table() and as_ul()
+output of a Form -- their verbose names are not displayed, and a separate
+<tr>/<li> is not displayed.
+>>> class Person(Form):
+...     first_name = CharField()
+...     last_name = CharField()
+...     hidden_text = CharField(widget=HiddenInput)
+...     birthday = DateField()
+>>> p = Person()
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" /></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /></li>
+<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" /></li>
+
+With auto_id set, a HiddenInput still gets an ID, but it doesn't get a label.
+>>> p = Person(auto_id='id_%s')
+>>> print p
+<tr><td><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" id="id_hidden_text" />
+<tr><td><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label></td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li><label for="id_first_name">First name:</label> <input type="text" name="first_name" id="id_first_name" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_last_name">Last name:</label> <input type="text" name="last_name" id="id_last_name" /></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" id="id_hidden_text" />
+<li><label for="id_birthday">Birthday:</label> <input type="text" name="birthday" id="id_birthday" /></li>
+
+If a field with a HiddenInput has errors, the as_table() and as_ul() output
+will include the error message(s) with the text "(Hidden field [fieldname]) "
+prepended.
+>>> p = Person({'first_name': 'John', 'last_name': 'Lennon', 'birthday': '1940-10-9'})
+>>> print p
+<tr><td>First name:</td><td><input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Last name:</td><td><input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>(Hidden field hidden_text) This field is required.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<tr><td>Birthday:</td><td><input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></td></tr>
+>>> print p.as_ul()
+<li>First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" value="John" /></li>
+<li>Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" value="Lennon" /></li>
+<li><ul class="errorlist"><li>(Hidden field hidden_text) This field is required.</li></ul></li>
+<input type="hidden" name="hidden_text" />
+<li>Birthday: <input type="text" name="birthday" value="1940-10-9" /></li>
+
 A Form's fields are displayed in the same order in which they were defined.
 >>> class TestForm(Form):
 ...     field1 = CharField()
 <tr><td>Field12:</td><td><input type="text" name="field12" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Field13:</td><td><input type="text" name="field13" /></td></tr>
 <tr><td>Field14:</td><td><input type="text" name="field14" /></td></tr>
+
+# Basic form processing in a view #############################################
+
+>>> from django.template import Template, Context
+>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
+...    username = CharField(max_length=10)
+...    password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+...    password2 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+...    def clean(self):
+...        if self.clean_data.get('password1') and self.clean_data.get('password2') and self.clean_data['password1'] != self.clean_data['password2']:
+...            raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
+...        return self.clean_data
+>>> def my_function(method, post_data):
+...     if method == 'POST':
+...         form = UserRegistration(post_data)
+...     else:
+...         form = UserRegistration()
+...     if form.is_valid():
+...         return 'VALID: %r' % form.clean_data
+...     t = Template('<form action="" method="post">\n<table>\n{{ form }}\n</table>\n<input type="submit" />\n</form>')
+...     return t.render(Context({'form': form}))
+
+Case 1: GET (an empty form, with no errors).
+>>> print my_function('GET', {})
+<form action="" method="post">
+<table>
+<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" /></td></tr>
+</table>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Case 2: POST with erroneous data (a redisplayed form, with errors).
+>>> print my_function('POST', {'username': 'this-is-a-long-username', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})
+<form action="" method="post">
+<table>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td colspan="2"><ul class="errorlist"><li>Ensure this value has at most 10 characters.</li></ul></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Username:</td><td><input type="text" name="username" value="this-is-a-long-username" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password1:</td><td><input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></td></tr>
+<tr><td>Password2:</td><td><input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></td></tr>
+</table>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Case 3: POST with valid data (the success message).
+>>> print my_function('POST', {'username': 'adrian', 'password1': 'secret', 'password2': 'secret'})
+VALID: {'username': u'adrian', 'password1': u'secret', 'password2': u'secret'}
+
+# Some ideas for using templates with forms ###################################
+
+>>> class UserRegistration(Form):
+...    username = CharField(max_length=10)
+...    password1 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+...    password2 = CharField(widget=PasswordInput)
+...    def clean(self):
+...        if self.clean_data.get('password1') and self.clean_data.get('password2') and self.clean_data['password1'] != self.clean_data['password2']:
+...            raise ValidationError(u'Please make sure your passwords match.')
+...        return self.clean_data
+
+You have full flexibility in displaying form fields in a template. Just pass a
+Form instance to the template, and use "dot" access to refer to individual
+fields. Note, however, that this flexibility comes with the responsibility of
+displaying all the errors, including any that might not be associated with a
+particular field.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django'})}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul><p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>This field is required.</li></ul><p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+Use form.[field].verbose_name to output a field's "verbose name" -- its field
+name with underscores converted to spaces, and the initial letter capitalized.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... <p><label>{{ form.username.verbose_name }}: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... <p><label>{{ form.password1.verbose_name }}: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... <p><label>{{ form.password2.verbose_name }}: {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Username: <input type="text" name="username" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+User form.[field].label_tag to output a field's verbose_name with a <label>
+tag wrapped around it, but *only* if the given field has an "id" attribute.
+Recall from above that passing the "auto_id" argument to a Form gives each
+field an "id" attribute.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... <p>{{ form.username.label_tag }}: {{ form.username }}</p>
+... <p>{{ form.password1.label_tag }}: {{ form.password1 }}</p>
+... <p>{{ form.password2.label_tag }}: {{ form.password2 }}</p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration()}))
+<form action="">
+<p>Username: <input type="text" name="username" /></p>
+<p>Password1: <input type="password" name="password1" /></p>
+<p>Password2: <input type="password" name="password2" /></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration(auto_id='id_%s')}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label for="id_username">Username</label>: <input type="text" name="username" id="id_username" /></p>
+<p><label for="id_password1">Password1</label>: <input type="password" name="password1" id="id_password1" /></p>
+<p><label for="id_password2">Password2</label>: <input type="password" name="password2" id="id_password2" /></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+
+To display the errors that aren't associated with a particular field -- e.g.,
+the errors caused by Form.clean() -- use {{ form.non_field_errors }} in the
+template. If used on its own, it is displayed as a <ul> (or an empty string, if
+the list of errors is empty). You can also use it in {% if %} statements.
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})}))
+<form action="">
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
+>>> t = Template('''<form action="">
+... {{ form.non_field_errors }}
+... {{ form.username.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Your username: {{ form.username }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password1.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password: {{ form.password1 }}</label></p>
+... {{ form.password2.errors.as_ul }}<p><label>Password (again): {{ form.password2 }}</label></p>
+... <input type="submit" />
+... </form>''')
+>>> print t.render(Context({'form': UserRegistration({'username': 'django', 'password1': 'foo', 'password2': 'bar'})}))
+<form action="">
+<ul class="errorlist"><li>Please make sure your passwords match.</li></ul>
+<p><label>Your username: <input type="text" name="username" value="django" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password1" value="foo" /></label></p>
+<p><label>Password (again): <input type="password" name="password2" value="bar" /></label></p>
+<input type="submit" />
+</form>
 """
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":