Source

django / docs / ref / contrib / admin / index.txt

The default branch has multiple heads

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
=====================
The Django admin site
=====================

.. module:: django.contrib.admin
   :synopsis: Django's admin site.

One of the most powerful parts of Django is the automatic admin interface. It
reads metadata in your model to provide a powerful and production-ready
interface that content producers can immediately use to start adding content to
the site. In this document, we discuss how to activate, use and customize
Django's admin interface.

.. admonition:: Note

    The admin site has been refactored significantly since Django 0.96. This
    document describes the newest version of the admin site, which allows for
    much richer customization. If you follow the development of Django itself,
    you may have heard this described as "newforms-admin."

Overview
========

There are six steps in activating the Django admin site:

    1. Add ``'django.contrib.admin'`` to your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
       setting.

    2. Admin has two dependencies - ``django.contrib.auth`` and
       ``django.contrib.contenttypes``. If these applications are not
       in your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` list, add them.

    3. Determine which of your application's models should be editable in the
       admin interface.

    4. For each of those models, optionally create a ``ModelAdmin`` class that
       encapsulates the customized admin functionality and options for that
       particular model.

    5. Instantiate an ``AdminSite`` and tell it about each of your models and
       ``ModelAdmin`` classes.

    6. Hook the ``AdminSite`` instance into your URLconf.

Other topics
------------

.. toctree::
   :maxdepth: 1

   actions
   admindocs

.. seealso::

    For information about serving the media files (images, JavaScript, and CSS)
    associated with the admin in production, see :ref:`serving-media-files`.

``ModelAdmin`` objects
======================

.. class:: ModelAdmin

    The ``ModelAdmin`` class is the representation of a model in the admin
    interface. These are stored in a file named ``admin.py`` in your
    application. Let's take a look at a very simple example of
    the ``ModelAdmin``::

        from django.contrib import admin
        from myproject.myapp.models import Author

        class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            pass
        admin.site.register(Author, AuthorAdmin)

    .. admonition:: Do you need a ``ModelAdmin`` object at all?

        In the preceding example, the ``ModelAdmin`` class doesn't define any
        custom values (yet). As a result, the default admin interface will be
        provided. If you are happy with the default admin interface, you don't
        need to define a ``ModelAdmin`` object at all -- you can register the
        model class without providing a ``ModelAdmin`` description. The
        preceding example could be simplified to::

            from django.contrib import admin
            from myproject.myapp.models import Author

            admin.site.register(Author)

``ModelAdmin`` Options
----------------------

The ``ModelAdmin`` is very flexible. It has several options for dealing with
customizing the interface. All options are defined on the ``ModelAdmin``
subclass::

    class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        date_hierarchy = 'pub_date'

.. versionadded:: 1.3

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.autocomplete_fields

By default, Django's admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for fields 
that are ``ForeignKey`` or ``ManyToMany``.  If you know that your users' 
browsers will have javascript enabled you can give them autocomplete behavior.

``autocomplete_fields`` is a list of fields you would like to change
into a smart ``Input`` widget for either a ``ForeignKey`` or ``ManyToManyField``::

    class BookAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        autocomplete_fields = {
            'author': { 'fields': ('name',) },
        }

``autocomplete_fields`` is a dictionary that connects a ``field_name`` to 
a dictionary of ``field_options``.  The ``field_options`` can have the 
following keys:

    * ``fields``
        A tuple of field names used to search for objects associated with 
        ``field_name``. This key is required.

        Example::

            'fields': ('name', '^user__email',),

    * ``label``
        A formatting string or subroutine that controls how each choice 
        is displayed in the list of autocomplete choices.

        Example::

            'label': 'name'
            'label': '%(name)s [%(gender)s]'
            'label': lambda o: o.name.lower()

    * ``limit``
        An integer that limits the size of the autocomplete choices displayed.

    * ``show_search``
        A boolean that controls the rendering of a clickable search icon.  
        Defaults to `True`. 

    * ``value``
       A formatting string or subroutine that controls how a selected item 
       is displayed.

       Same syntax as the ``label`` option.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.date_hierarchy

    Set ``date_hierarchy`` to the name of a ``DateField`` or ``DateTimeField``
    in your model, and the change list page will include a date-based drilldown
    navigation by that field.

    Example::

        date_hierarchy = 'pub_date'

    .. versionadded:: 1.3

        This will intelligently populate itself based on available data,
        e.g. if all the dates are in one month, it'll show the day-level
        drill-down only.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.form

    By default a ``ModelForm`` is dynamically created for your model. It is
    used to create the form presented on both the add/change pages. You can
    easily provide your own ``ModelForm`` to override any default form behavior
    on the add/change pages.

    For an example see the section `Adding custom validation to the admin`_.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.fieldsets

    Set ``fieldsets`` to control the layout of admin "add" and "change" pages.

    ``fieldsets`` is a list of two-tuples, in which each two-tuple represents a
    ``<fieldset>`` on the admin form page. (A ``<fieldset>`` is a "section" of
    the form.)

    The two-tuples are in the format ``(name, field_options)``, where ``name``
    is a string representing the title of the fieldset and ``field_options`` is
    a dictionary of information about the fieldset, including a list of fields
    to be displayed in it.

    A full example, taken from the :class:`django.contrib.flatpages.FlatPage`
    model::

        class FlatPageAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            fieldsets = (
                (None, {
                    'fields': ('url', 'title', 'content', 'sites')
                }),
                ('Advanced options', {
                    'classes': ('collapse',),
                    'fields': ('enable_comments', 'registration_required', 'template_name')
                }),
            )

    This results in an admin page that looks like:

        .. image:: _images/flatfiles_admin.png

    If ``fieldsets`` isn't given, Django will default to displaying each field
    that isn't an ``AutoField`` and has ``editable=True``, in a single
    fieldset, in the same order as the fields are defined in the model.

    The ``field_options`` dictionary can have the following keys:

        * ``fields``
            A tuple of field names to display in this fieldset. This key is
            required.

            Example::

                {
                'fields': ('first_name', 'last_name', 'address', 'city', 'state'),
                }

            To display multiple fields on the same line, wrap those fields in
            their own tuple. In this example, the ``first_name`` and
            ``last_name`` fields will display on the same line::

                {
                'fields': (('first_name', 'last_name'), 'address', 'city', 'state'),
                }

            .. versionadded:: 1.2

            ``fields`` can contain values defined in
            :attr:`~ModelAdmin.readonly_fields` to be displayed as read-only.

        * ``classes``
            A list containing extra CSS classes to apply to the fieldset.

            Example::

                {
                'classes': ['wide', 'extrapretty'],
                }

            Two useful classes defined by the default admin site stylesheet are
            ``collapse`` and ``wide``. Fieldsets with the ``collapse`` style
            will be initially collapsed in the admin and replaced with a small
            "click to expand" link. Fieldsets with the ``wide`` style will be
            given extra horizontal space.

        * ``description``
            A string of optional extra text to be displayed at the top of each
            fieldset, under the heading of the fieldset.

            Note that this value is *not* HTML-escaped when it's displayed in
            the admin interface. This lets you include HTML if you so desire.
            Alternatively you can use plain text and
            ``django.utils.html.escape()`` to escape any HTML special
            characters.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.fields

    Use this option as an alternative to ``fieldsets`` if the layout does not
    matter and if you want to only show a subset of the available fields in the
    form. For example, you could define a simpler version of the admin form for
    the ``django.contrib.flatpages.FlatPage`` model as follows::

        class FlatPageAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            fields = ('url', 'title', 'content')

    In the above example, only the fields 'url', 'title' and 'content' will be
    displayed, sequentially, in the form.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    ``fields`` can contain values defined in :attr:`ModelAdmin.readonly_fields`
    to be displayed as read-only.

    .. admonition:: Note

        This ``fields`` option should not be confused with the ``fields``
        dictionary key that is within the ``fieldsets`` option, as described in
        the previous section.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.exclude

    This attribute, if given, should be a list of field names to exclude from
    the form.

    For example, let's consider the following model::

        class Author(models.Model):
            name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
            title = models.CharField(max_length=3)
            birth_date = models.DateField(blank=True, null=True)

    If you want a form for the ``Author`` model that includes only the ``name``
    and ``title`` fields, you would specify ``fields`` or ``exclude`` like
    this::

        class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            fields = ('name', 'title')

        class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            exclude = ('birth_date',)

    Since the Author model only has three fields, ``name``, ``title``, and
    ``birth_date``, the forms resulting from the above declarations will
    contain exactly the same fields.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.filter_horizontal

    Use a nifty unobtrusive JavaScript "filter" interface instead of the
    usability-challenged ``<select multiple>`` in the admin form. The value is
    a list of fields that should be displayed as a horizontal filter interface.
    See ``filter_vertical`` to use a vertical interface.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.filter_vertical

    Same as ``filter_horizontal``, but is a vertical display of the filter
    interface.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_display

    Set ``list_display`` to control which fields are displayed on the change
    list page of the admin.

    Example::

        list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name')

    If you don't set ``list_display``, the admin site will display a single
    column that displays the ``__unicode__()`` representation of each object.

    You have four possible values that can be used in ``list_display``:

        * A field of the model. For example::

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name')

        * A callable that accepts one parameter for the model instance. For
          example::

              def upper_case_name(obj):
                  return ("%s %s" % (obj.first_name, obj.last_name)).upper()
              upper_case_name.short_description = 'Name'

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = (upper_case_name,)

        * A string representing an attribute on the ``ModelAdmin``. This
          behaves same as the callable. For example::

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = ('upper_case_name',)

                  def upper_case_name(self, obj):
                    return ("%s %s" % (obj.first_name, obj.last_name)).upper()
                  upper_case_name.short_description = 'Name'

        * A string representing an attribute on the model. This behaves almost
          the same as the callable, but ``self`` in this context is the model
          instance. Here's a full model example::

              class Person(models.Model):
                  name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
                  birthday = models.DateField()

                  def decade_born_in(self):
                      return self.birthday.strftime('%Y')[:3] + "0's"
                  decade_born_in.short_description = 'Birth decade'

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = ('name', 'decade_born_in')

    A few special cases to note about ``list_display``:

        * If the field is a ``ForeignKey``, Django will display the
          ``__unicode__()`` of the related object.

        * ``ManyToManyField`` fields aren't supported, because that would
          entail executing a separate SQL statement for each row in the table.
          If you want to do this nonetheless, give your model a custom method,
          and add that method's name to ``list_display``. (See below for more
          on custom methods in ``list_display``.)

        * If the field is a ``BooleanField`` or ``NullBooleanField``, Django
          will display a pretty "on" or "off" icon instead of ``True`` or
          ``False``.

        * If the string given is a method of the model, ``ModelAdmin`` or a
          callable, Django will HTML-escape the output by default. If you'd
          rather not escape the output of the method, give the method an
          ``allow_tags`` attribute whose value is ``True``.

          Here's a full example model::

              class Person(models.Model):
                  first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
                  last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
                  color_code = models.CharField(max_length=6)

                  def colored_name(self):
                      return '<span style="color: #%s;">%s %s</span>' % (self.color_code, self.first_name, self.last_name)
                  colored_name.allow_tags = True

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name', 'colored_name')

        * If the string given is a method of the model, ``ModelAdmin`` or a
          callable that returns True or False Django will display a pretty
          "on" or "off" icon if you give the method a ``boolean`` attribute
          whose value is ``True``.

          Here's a full example model::

              class Person(models.Model):
                  first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
                  birthday = models.DateField()

                  def born_in_fifties(self):
                      return self.birthday.strftime('%Y')[:3] == '195'
                  born_in_fifties.boolean = True

              class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                  list_display = ('name', 'born_in_fifties')


        * The ``__str__()`` and ``__unicode__()`` methods are just as valid in
          ``list_display`` as any other model method, so it's perfectly OK to
          do this::

              list_display = ('__unicode__', 'some_other_field')

        * Usually, elements of ``list_display`` that aren't actual database
          fields can't be used in sorting (because Django does all the sorting
          at the database level).

          However, if an element of ``list_display`` represents a certain
          database field, you can indicate this fact by setting the
          ``admin_order_field`` attribute of the item.

          For example::

            class Person(models.Model):
                first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
                color_code = models.CharField(max_length=6)

                def colored_first_name(self):
                    return '<span style="color: #%s;">%s</span>' % (self.color_code, self.first_name)
                colored_first_name.allow_tags = True
                colored_first_name.admin_order_field = 'first_name'

            class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
                list_display = ('first_name', 'colored_first_name')

          The above will tell Django to order by the ``first_name`` field when
          trying to sort by ``colored_first_name`` in the admin.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_display_links

    Set ``list_display_links`` to control which fields in ``list_display``
    should be linked to the "change" page for an object.

    By default, the change list page will link the first column -- the first
    field specified in ``list_display`` -- to the change page for each item.
    But ``list_display_links`` lets you change which columns are linked. Set
    ``list_display_links`` to a list or tuple of field names (in the same
    format as ``list_display``) to link.

    ``list_display_links`` can specify one or many field names. As long as the
    field names appear in ``list_display``, Django doesn't care how many (or
    how few) fields are linked. The only requirement is: If you want to use
    ``list_display_links``, you must define ``list_display``.

    In this example, the ``first_name`` and ``last_name`` fields will be
    linked on the change list page::

        class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name', 'birthday')
            list_display_links = ('first_name', 'last_name')

    .. _admin-list-editable:

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_editable

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    Set ``list_editable`` to a list of field names on the model which will
    allow editing on the change list page. That is, fields listed in
    ``list_editable`` will be displayed as form widgets on the change list
    page, allowing users to edit and save multiple rows at once.

    .. note::

        ``list_editable`` interacts with a couple of other options in
        particular ways; you should note the following rules:

            * Any field in ``list_editable`` must also be in ``list_display``.
              You can't edit a field that's not displayed!

            * The same field can't be listed in both ``list_editable`` and
              ``list_display_links`` -- a field can't be both a form and
              a link.

        You'll get a validation error if either of these rules are broken.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_filter

    Set ``list_filter`` to activate filters in the right sidebar of the change
    list page of the admin. This should be a list of field names, and each
    specified field should be either a ``BooleanField``, ``CharField``,
    ``DateField``, ``DateTimeField``, ``IntegerField`` or ``ForeignKey``.

    This example, taken from the ``django.contrib.auth.models.User`` model,
    shows how both ``list_display`` and ``list_filter`` work::

        class UserAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            list_display = ('username', 'email', 'first_name', 'last_name', 'is_staff')
            list_filter = ('is_staff', 'is_superuser')

    Fields in ``list_filter`` can also span relations using the ``__`` lookup::

        class UserAdminWithLookup(UserAdmin):
            list_filter = ('groups__name')

    The above code results in an admin change list page that looks like this:

        .. image:: _images/users_changelist.png

    (This example also has ``search_fields`` defined. See below.)

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_per_page

    Set ``list_per_page`` to control how many items appear on each paginated
    admin change list page. By default, this is set to ``100``.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.list_select_related

    Set ``list_select_related`` to tell Django to use
    :meth:`~django.db.models.QuerySet.select_related` in retrieving the list of
    objects on the admin change list page. This can save you a bunch of
    database queries.

    The value should be either ``True`` or ``False``. Default is ``False``.

    Note that Django will use :meth:`~django.db.models.QuerySet.select_related`,
    regardless of this setting if one of the ``list_display`` fields is a
    ``ForeignKey``.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.inlines

    See :class:`InlineModelAdmin` objects below.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.ordering

    Set ``ordering`` to specify how lists of objects should be ordered in the
    Django admin views. This should be a list or tuple in the same format as a
    model's ``ordering`` parameter.

    If this isn't provided, the Django admin will use the model's default
    ordering.

    .. admonition:: Note

        Django will only honor the first element in the list/tuple; any others
        will be ignored.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields

    Set ``prepopulated_fields`` to a dictionary mapping field names to the
    fields it should prepopulate from::

        class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            prepopulated_fields = {"slug": ("title",)}

    When set, the given fields will use a bit of JavaScript to populate from
    the fields assigned. The main use for this functionality is to
    automatically generate the value for ``SlugField`` fields from one or more
    other fields. The generated value is produced by concatenating the values
    of the source fields, and then by transforming that result into a valid
    slug (e.g. substituting dashes for spaces).

    ``prepopulated_fields`` doesn't accept ``DateTimeField``, ``ForeignKey``,
    nor ``ManyToManyField`` fields.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.radio_fields

    By default, Django's admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
    fields that are ``ForeignKey`` or have ``choices`` set. If a field is
    present in ``radio_fields``, Django will use a radio-button interface
    instead. Assuming ``group`` is a ``ForeignKey`` on the ``Person`` model::

        class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            radio_fields = {"group": admin.VERTICAL}

    You have the choice of using ``HORIZONTAL`` or ``VERTICAL`` from the
    ``django.contrib.admin`` module.

    Don't include a field in ``radio_fields`` unless it's a ``ForeignKey`` or has
    ``choices`` set.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.raw_id_fields

    By default, Django's admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
    fields that are ``ForeignKey``. Sometimes you don't want to incur the
    overhead of having to select all the related instances to display in the
    drop-down.

    ``raw_id_fields`` is a list of fields you would like to change
    into an ``Input`` widget for either a ``ForeignKey`` or
    ``ManyToManyField``::

        class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            raw_id_fields = ("newspaper",)

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.readonly_fields

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    By default the admin shows all fields as editable. Any fields in this
    option (which should be a ``list`` or ``tuple``) will display its data
    as-is and non-editable. This option behaves nearly identical to
    :attr:`ModelAdmin.list_display`. Usage is the same, however, when you
    specify :attr:`ModelAdmin.fields` or :attr:`ModelAdmin.fieldsets` the
    read-only fields must be present to be shown (they are ignored otherwise).

    If ``readonly_fields`` is used without defining explicit ordering through
    :attr:`ModelAdmin.fields` or :attr:`ModelAdmin.fieldsets` they will be
    added last after all editable fields.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.save_as

    Set ``save_as`` to enable a "save as" feature on admin change forms.

    Normally, objects have three save options: "Save", "Save and continue
    editing" and "Save and add another". If ``save_as`` is ``True``, "Save
    and add another" will be replaced by a "Save as" button.

    "Save as" means the object will be saved as a new object (with a new ID),
    rather than the old object.

    By default, ``save_as`` is set to ``False``.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.save_on_top

    Set ``save_on_top`` to add save buttons across the top of your admin change
    forms.

    Normally, the save buttons appear only at the bottom of the forms. If you
    set ``save_on_top``, the buttons will appear both on the top and the
    bottom.

    By default, ``save_on_top`` is set to ``False``.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.search_fields

    Set ``search_fields`` to enable a search box on the admin change list page.
    This should be set to a list of field names that will be searched whenever
    somebody submits a search query in that text box.

    These fields should be some kind of text field, such as ``CharField`` or
    ``TextField``. You can also perform a related lookup on a ``ForeignKey`` or
    ``ManyToManyField`` with the lookup API "follow" notation::

        search_fields = ['foreign_key__related_fieldname']

    For example, if you have a blog entry with an author, the following
    definition would enable search blog entries by the email address of the
    author::

        search_fields = ['user__email']

    When somebody does a search in the admin search box, Django splits the
    search query into words and returns all objects that contain each of the
    words, case insensitive, where each word must be in at least one of
    ``search_fields``. For example, if ``search_fields`` is set to
    ``['first_name', 'last_name']`` and a user searches for ``john lennon``,
    Django will do the equivalent of this SQL ``WHERE`` clause::

        WHERE (first_name ILIKE '%john%' OR last_name ILIKE '%john%')
        AND (first_name ILIKE '%lennon%' OR last_name ILIKE '%lennon%')

    For faster and/or more restrictive searches, prefix the field name
    with an operator:

    ``^``
        Matches the beginning of the field. For example, if ``search_fields``
        is set to ``['^first_name', '^last_name']`` and a user searches for
        ``john lennon``, Django will do the equivalent of this SQL ``WHERE``
        clause::

            WHERE (first_name ILIKE 'john%' OR last_name ILIKE 'john%')
            AND (first_name ILIKE 'lennon%' OR last_name ILIKE 'lennon%')

        This query is more efficient than the normal ``'%john%'`` query,
        because the database only needs to check the beginning of a column's
        data, rather than seeking through the entire column's data. Plus, if
        the column has an index on it, some databases may be able to use the
        index for this query, even though it's a ``LIKE`` query.

    ``=``
        Matches exactly, case-insensitive. For example, if
        ``search_fields`` is set to ``['=first_name', '=last_name']`` and
        a user searches for ``john lennon``, Django will do the equivalent
        of this SQL ``WHERE`` clause::

            WHERE (first_name ILIKE 'john' OR last_name ILIKE 'john')
            AND (first_name ILIKE 'lennon' OR last_name ILIKE 'lennon')

        Note that the query input is split by spaces, so, following this
        example, it's currently not possible to search for all records in which
        ``first_name`` is exactly ``'john winston'`` (containing a space).

    ``@``
        Performs a full-text match. This is like the default search method but
        uses an index. Currently this is only available for MySQL.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.formfield_overrides

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    This provides a quick-and-dirty way to override some of the
    :class:`~django.forms.Field` options for use in the admin.
    ``formfield_overrides`` is a dictionary mapping a field class to a dict of
    arguments to pass to the field at construction time.

    Since that's a bit abstract, let's look at a concrete example. The most
    common use of ``formfield_overrides`` is to add a custom widget for a
    certain type of field. So, imagine we've written a ``RichTextEditorWidget``
    that we'd like to use for large text fields instead of the default
    ``<textarea>``. Here's how we'd do that::

        from django.db import models
        from django.contrib import admin

        # Import our custom widget and our model from where they're defined
        from myapp.widgets import RichTextEditorWidget
        from myapp.models import MyModel

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            formfield_overrides = {
                models.TextField: {'widget': RichTextEditorWidget},
            }

    Note that the key in the dictionary is the actual field class, *not* a
    string. The value is another dictionary; these arguments will be passed to
    :meth:`~django.forms.Field.__init__`. See :doc:`/ref/forms/api` for
    details.

    .. warning::

        If you want to use a custom widget with a relation field (i.e.
        :class:`~django.db.models.ForeignKey` or
        :class:`~django.db.models.ManyToManyField`), make sure you haven't
        included that field's name in ``raw_id_fields`` or ``radio_fields``.

        ``formfield_overrides`` won't let you change the widget on relation
        fields that have ``raw_id_fields`` or ``radio_fields`` set. That's
        because ``raw_id_fields`` and ``radio_fields`` imply custom widgets of
        their own.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.actions

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    A list of actions to make available on the change list page. See
    :doc:`/ref/contrib/admin/actions` for details.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.actions_on_top
.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.actions_on_bottom

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    Controls where on the page the actions bar appears. By default, the admin
    changelist displays actions at the top of the page (``actions_on_top = True;
    actions_on_bottom = False``).

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.actions_selection_counter

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Controls whether a selection counter is display next to the action dropdown.
    By default, the admin changelist will display it
    (``actions_selection_counter = True``).

Custom template options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The `Overriding Admin Templates`_ section describes how to override or extend
the default admin templates.  Use the following options to override the default
templates used by the :class:`ModelAdmin` views:

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.add_form_template

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Path to a custom template, used by :meth:`add_view`.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.change_form_template

    Path to a custom template, used by :meth:`change_view`.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.change_list_template

    Path to a custom template, used by :meth:`changelist_view`.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.delete_confirmation_template

    Path to a custom template, used by :meth:`delete_view` for displaying a
    confirmation page when deleting one or more objects.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.delete_selected_confirmation_template

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Path to a custom template, used by the :meth:`delete_selected`
    action method for displaying a confirmation page when deleting one
    or more objects. See the :doc:`actions
    documentation</ref/contrib/admin/actions>`.

.. attribute:: ModelAdmin.object_history_template

    Path to a custom template, used by :meth:`history_view`.


.. _model-admin-methods:

``ModelAdmin`` methods
----------------------

.. warning::

    :meth:`ModelAdmin.save_model` and :meth:`ModelAdmin.delete_model` must
    save/delete the object, they are not for veto purposes, rather they allow
    you to perform extra operations.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.save_model(self, request, obj, form, change)

    The ``save_model`` method is given the ``HttpRequest``, a model instance,
    a ``ModelForm`` instance and a boolean value based on whether it is adding
    or changing the object. Here you can do any pre- or post-save operations.

    For example to attach ``request.user`` to the object prior to saving::

        class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def save_model(self, request, obj, form, change):
                obj.user = request.user
                obj.save()

.. method:: ModelAdmin.delete_model(self, request, obj)

    .. versionadded:: 1.3

    The ``delete_model`` method is given the ``HttpRequest`` and a model
    instance. Use this method to do pre- or post-delete operations.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.save_formset(self, request, form, formset, change)

    The ``save_formset`` method is given the ``HttpRequest``, the parent
    ``ModelForm`` instance and a boolean value based on whether it is adding or
    changing the parent object.

    For example to attach ``request.user`` to each changed formset
    model instance::

        class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def save_formset(self, request, form, formset, change):
                instances = formset.save(commit=False)
                for instance in instances:
                    instance.user = request.user
                    instance.save()
                formset.save_m2m()

.. method:: ModelAdmin.get_readonly_fields(self, request, obj=None)

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    The ``get_readonly_fields`` method is given the ``HttpRequest`` and the
    ``obj`` being edited (or ``None`` on an add form) and is expected to return
    a ``list`` or ``tuple`` of field names that will be displayed as read-only,
    as described above in the :attr:`ModelAdmin.readonly_fields` section.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.get_urls(self)

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    The ``get_urls`` method on a ``ModelAdmin`` returns the URLs to be used for
    that ModelAdmin in the same way as a URLconf.  Therefore you can extend
    them as documented in :doc:`/topics/http/urls`::

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def get_urls(self):
                urls = super(MyModelAdmin, self).get_urls()
                my_urls = patterns('',
                    (r'^my_view/$', self.my_view)
                )
                return my_urls + urls

    .. note::

        Notice that the custom patterns are included *before* the regular admin
        URLs: the admin URL patterns are very permissive and will match nearly
        anything, so you'll usually want to prepend your custom URLs to the
        built-in ones.

    However, the ``self.my_view`` function registered above suffers from two
    problems:

      * It will *not* perform any permission checks, so it will be accessible
        to the general public.
      * It will *not* provide any header details to prevent caching. This means
        if the page retrieves data from the database, and caching middleware is
        active, the page could show outdated information.

    Since this is usually not what you want, Django provides a convenience
    wrapper to check permissions and mark the view as non-cacheable. This
    wrapper is :meth:`AdminSite.admin_view` (i.e.
    ``self.admin_site.admin_view`` inside a ``ModelAdmin`` instance); use it
    like so::

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def get_urls(self):
                urls = super(MyModelAdmin, self).get_urls()
                my_urls = patterns('',
                    (r'^my_view/$', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view))
                )
                return my_urls + urls

    Notice the wrapped view in the fifth line above::

        (r'^my_view/$', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view))

    This wrapping will protect ``self.my_view`` from unauthorized access and
    will apply the ``django.views.decorators.cache.never_cache`` decorator to
    make sure it is not cached if the cache middleware is active.

    If the page is cacheable, but you still want the permission check to be
    performed, you can pass a ``cacheable=True`` argument to
    :meth:`AdminSite.admin_view`::

        (r'^my_view/$', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view, cacheable=True))

.. method:: ModelAdmin.formfield_for_foreignkey(self, db_field, request, **kwargs)

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    The ``formfield_for_foreignkey`` method on a ``ModelAdmin`` allows you to
    override the default formfield for a foreign key field. For example, to
    return a subset of objects for this foreign key field based on the user::

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def formfield_for_foreignkey(self, db_field, request, **kwargs):
                if db_field.name == "car":
                    kwargs["queryset"] = Car.objects.filter(owner=request.user)
                return super(MyModelAdmin, self).formfield_for_foreignkey(db_field, request, **kwargs)

    This uses the ``HttpRequest`` instance to filter the ``Car`` foreign key
    field to only display the cars owned by the ``User`` instance.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.formfield_for_manytomany(self, db_field, request, **kwargs)

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    Like the ``formfield_for_foreignkey`` method, the
    ``formfield_for_manytomany`` method can be overridden to change the
    default formfield for a many to many field. For example, if an owner can
    own multiple cars and cars can belong to multiple owners -- a many to
    many relationship -- you could filter the ``Car`` foreign key field to
    only display the cars owned by the ``User``::

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def formfield_for_manytomany(self, db_field, request, **kwargs):
                if db_field.name == "cars":
                    kwargs["queryset"] = Car.objects.filter(owner=request.user)
                return super(MyModelAdmin, self).formfield_for_manytomany(db_field, request, **kwargs)

.. method:: ModelAdmin.queryset(self, request)

    The ``queryset`` method on a ``ModelAdmin`` returns a
    :class:`~django.db.models.QuerySet` of all model instances that can be
    edited by the admin site. One use case for overriding this method is
    to show objects owned by the logged-in user::

        class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            def queryset(self, request):
                qs = super(MyModelAdmin, self).queryset(request)
                if request.user.is_superuser:
                    return qs
                return qs.filter(author=request.user)

.. method:: ModelAdmin.message_user(request, message)

    Sends a message to the user. The default implementation creates a message
    using the :mod:`django.contrib.messages` backend. See the
    :ref:`custom ModelAdmin example <custom-admin-action>`.

Other methods
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. method:: ModelAdmin.add_view(self, request, form_url='', extra_context=None)

    Django view for the model instance addition page. See note below.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.change_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None)

    Django view for the model instance edition page. See note below.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.changelist_view(self, request, extra_context=None)

    Django view for the model instances change list/actions page. See note
    below.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.delete_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None)

    Django view for the model instance(s) deletion confirmation page. See note
    below.

.. method:: ModelAdmin.history_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None)

    Django view for the page that shows the modification history for a given
    model instance.

Unlike the hook-type ``ModelAdmin`` methods detailed in the previous section,
these five methods are in reality designed to be invoked as Django views from
the admin application URL dispatching handler to render the pages that deal
with model instances CRUD operations. As a result, completely overriding these
methods will significantly change the behavior of the admin application.

One common reason for overriding these methods is to augment the context data
that is provided to the template that renders the view. In the following
example, the change view is overridden so that the rendered template is
provided some extra mapping data that would not otherwise be available::

    class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):

        # A template for a very customized change view:
        change_form_template = 'admin/myapp/extras/openstreetmap_change_form.html'

        def get_osm_info(self):
            # ...

        def change_view(self, request, object_id, extra_context=None):
            my_context = {
                'osm_data': self.get_osm_info(),
            }
            return super(MyModelAdmin, self).change_view(request, object_id,
                extra_context=my_context)

``ModelAdmin`` media definitions
--------------------------------

There are times where you would like add a bit of CSS and/or JavaScript to
the add/change views. This can be accomplished by using a Media inner class
on your ``ModelAdmin``::

    class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        class Media:
            css = {
                "all": ("my_styles.css",)
            }
            js = ("my_code.js",)

Keep in mind that this will be prepended with ``MEDIA_URL``. The same rules
apply as :doc:`regular media definitions on forms </topics/forms/media>`.

Django admin Javascript makes use of the `jQuery`_ library. To avoid
conflict with user scripts, Django's jQuery is namespaced as
``django.jQuery``. If you want to use jQuery in your own admin
JavaScript without including a second copy, you can use the
``django.jQuery`` object on changelist and add/edit views.

.. _jQuery: http://jquery.com

Adding custom validation to the admin
-------------------------------------

Adding custom validation of data in the admin is quite easy. The automatic
admin interface reuses :mod:`django.forms`, and the ``ModelAdmin`` class gives
you the ability define your own form::

    class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        form = MyArticleAdminForm

``MyArticleAdminForm`` can be defined anywhere as long as you import where
needed. Now within your form you can add your own custom validation for
any field::

    class MyArticleAdminForm(forms.ModelForm):
        class Meta:
            model = Article

        def clean_name(self):
            # do something that validates your data
            return self.cleaned_data["name"]

It is important you use a ``ModelForm`` here otherwise things can break. See
the :doc:`forms </ref/forms/index>` documentation on :doc:`custom validation
</ref/forms/validation>` and, more specifically, the
:ref:`model form validation notes <overriding-modelform-clean-method>` for more
information.

.. _admin-inlines:

``InlineModelAdmin`` objects
============================

.. class:: InlineModelAdmin

    The admin interface has the ability to edit models on the same page as a
    parent model. These are called inlines. Suppose you have these two models::

         class Author(models.Model):
            name = models.CharField(max_length=100)

         class Book(models.Model):
            author = models.ForeignKey(Author)
            title = models.CharField(max_length=100)

    You can edit the books authored by an author on the author page. You add
    inlines to a model by specifying them in a ``ModelAdmin.inlines``::

        class BookInline(admin.TabularInline):
            model = Book

        class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
            inlines = [
                BookInline,
            ]

    Django provides two subclasses of ``InlineModelAdmin`` and they are:

        * ``TabularInline``
        * ``StackedInline``

    The difference between these two is merely the template used to render
    them.

``InlineModelAdmin`` options
-----------------------------

``InlineModelAdmin`` shares many of the same features as ``ModelAdmin``, and
adds some of its own (the shared features are actually defined in the
``BaseModelAdmin`` superclass). The shared features are:

- :attr:`~InlineModelAdmin.form`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.fieldsets`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.fields`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.exclude`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.filter_horizontal`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.filter_vertical`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.radio_fields`
- :attr:`~InlineModelAdmin.raw_id_fields`

.. versionadded:: 1.1

- :meth:`~ModelAdmin.formfield_for_foreignkey`
- :meth:`~ModelAdmin.formfield_for_manytomany`

.. versionadded:: 1.2

- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.readonly_fields`
- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.formfield_overrides`

.. versionadded:: 1.3

- :attr:`~ModelAdmin.ordering`
- :meth:`~ModelAdmin.queryset`

The ``InlineModelAdmin`` class adds:

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.model

    The model in which the inline is using. This is required.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.fk_name

    The name of the foreign key on the model. In most cases this will be dealt
    with automatically, but ``fk_name`` must be specified explicitly if there
    are more than one foreign key to the same parent model.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.formset

    This defaults to ``BaseInlineFormSet``. Using your own formset can give you
    many possibilities of customization. Inlines are built around
    :ref:`model formsets <model-formsets>`.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.form

    The value for ``form`` defaults to ``ModelForm``. This is what is passed
    through to ``inlineformset_factory`` when creating the formset for this
    inline.

    .. _ref-contrib-admin-inline-extra:

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.extra

    This controls the number of extra forms the formset will display in
    addition to the initial forms. See the
    :doc:`formsets documentation </topics/forms/formsets>` for more
    information.

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    For users with JavaScript-enabled browsers, an "Add another" link is
    provided to enable any number of additional inlines to be added in addition
    to those provided as a result of the ``extra`` argument.

    The dynamic link will not appear if the number of currently displayed forms
    exceeds ``max_num``, or if the user does not have JavaScript enabled.

    .. _ref-contrib-admin-inline-max-num:

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.max_num

    This controls the maximum number of forms to show in the inline. This
    doesn't directly correlate to the number of objects, but can if the value
    is small enough. See :ref:`model-formsets-max-num` for more information.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.raw_id_fields

    By default, Django's admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
    fields that are ``ForeignKey``. Sometimes you don't want to incur the
    overhead of having to select all the related instances to display in the
    drop-down.

    ``raw_id_fields`` is a list of fields you would like to change into a
    ``Input`` widget for either a ``ForeignKey`` or ``ManyToManyField``::

        class BookInline(admin.TabularInline):
            model = Book
            raw_id_fields = ("pages",)


.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.template

    The template used to render the inline on the page.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.verbose_name

    An override to the ``verbose_name`` found in the model's inner ``Meta``
    class.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.verbose_name_plural

    An override to the ``verbose_name_plural`` found in the model's inner
    ``Meta`` class.

.. attribute:: InlineModelAdmin.can_delete

    Specifies whether or not inline objects can be deleted in the inline.
    Defaults to ``True``.


Working with a model with two or more foreign keys to the same parent model
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

It is sometimes possible to have more than one foreign key to the same model.
Take this model for instance::

    class Friendship(models.Model):
        to_person = models.ForeignKey(Person, related_name="friends")
        from_person = models.ForeignKey(Person, related_name="from_friends")

If you wanted to display an inline on the ``Person`` admin add/change pages
you need to explicitly define the foreign key since it is unable to do so
automatically::

    class FriendshipInline(admin.TabularInline):
        model = Friendship
        fk_name = "to_person"

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = [
            FriendshipInline,
        ]

Working with Many-to-Many Models
--------------------------------

.. versionadded:: 1.2

By default, admin widgets for many-to-many relations will be displayed
on whichever model contains the actual reference to the ``ManyToManyField``.
Depending on your ``ModelAdmin`` definition, each many-to-many field in your
model will be represented by a standard HTML ``<select multiple>``, a
horizontal or vertical filter, or a ``raw_id_admin`` widget. However, it is
also possible to to replace these widgets with inlines.

Suppose we have the following models::

    class Person(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=128)

    class Group(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=128)
        members = models.ManyToManyField(Person, related_name='groups')

If you want to display many-to-many relations using an inline, you can do
so by defining an ``InlineModelAdmin`` object for the relationship::

    class MembershipInline(admin.TabularInline):
        model = Group.members.through

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = [
            MembershipInline,
        ]

    class GroupAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = [
            MembershipInline,
        ]
        exclude = ('members',)

There are two features worth noting in this example.

Firstly - the ``MembershipInline`` class references ``Group.members.through``.
The ``through`` attribute is a reference to the model that manages the
many-to-many relation. This model is automatically created by Django when you
define a many-to-many field.

Secondly, the ``GroupAdmin`` must manually exclude the ``members`` field.
Django displays an admin widget for a many-to-many field on the model that
defines the relation (in this case, ``Group``). If you want to use an inline
model to represent the many-to-many relationship, you must tell Django's admin
to *not* display this widget - otherwise you will end up with two widgets on
your admin page for managing the relation.

In all other respects, the ``InlineModelAdmin`` is exactly the same as any
other. You can customize the appearance using any of the normal
``ModelAdmin`` properties.

Working with Many-to-Many Intermediary Models
----------------------------------------------

When you specify an intermediary model using the ``through`` argument to a
``ManyToManyField``, the admin will not display a widget by default. This is
because each instance of that intermediary model requires more information
than could be displayed in a single widget, and the layout required for
multiple widgets will vary depending on the intermediate model.

However, we still want to be able to edit that information inline. Fortunately,
this is easy to do with inline admin models. Suppose we have the following
models::

    class Person(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=128)

    class Group(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=128)
        members = models.ManyToManyField(Person, through='Membership')

    class Membership(models.Model):
        person = models.ForeignKey(Person)
        group = models.ForeignKey(Group)
        date_joined = models.DateField()
        invite_reason = models.CharField(max_length=64)

The first step in displaying this intermediate model in the admin is to
define an inline class for the ``Membership`` model::

    class MembershipInline(admin.TabularInline):
        model = Membership
        extra = 1

This simple example uses the default ``InlineModelAdmin`` values for the
``Membership`` model, and limits the extra add forms to one. This could be
customized using any of the options available to ``InlineModelAdmin`` classes.

Now create admin views for the ``Person`` and ``Group`` models::

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = (MembershipInline,)

    class GroupAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = (MembershipInline,)

Finally, register your ``Person`` and ``Group`` models with the admin site::

    admin.site.register(Person, PersonAdmin)
    admin.site.register(Group, GroupAdmin)

Now your admin site is set up to edit ``Membership`` objects inline from
either the ``Person`` or the ``Group`` detail pages.

Using generic relations as an inline
------------------------------------

It is possible to use an inline with generically related objects. Let's say
you have the following models::

    class Image(models.Model):
        image = models.ImageField(upload_to="images")
        content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType)
        object_id = models.PositiveIntegerField()
        content_object = generic.GenericForeignKey("content_type", "object_id")

    class Product(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=100)

If you want to allow editing and creating ``Image`` instance on the ``Product``
add/change views you can simply use ``GenericInlineModelAdmin`` provided by
``django.contrib.contenttypes.generic``. In your ``admin.py`` for this
example app::

    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.contrib.contenttypes import generic

    from myproject.myapp.models import Image, Product

    class ImageInline(generic.GenericTabularInline):
        model = Image

    class ProductAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        inlines = [
            ImageInline,
        ]

    admin.site.register(Product, ProductAdmin)

``django.contrib.contenttypes.generic`` provides both a ``GenericTabularInline``
and ``GenericStackedInline`` and behave just like any other inline. See the
:doc:`contenttypes documentation </ref/contrib/contenttypes>` for more specific
information.

Overriding Admin Templates
==========================

It is relatively easy to override many of the templates which the admin module
uses to generate the various pages of an admin site. You can even override a
few of these templates for a specific app, or a specific model.

Set up your projects admin template directories
-----------------------------------------------

The admin template files are located in the ``contrib/admin/templates/admin``
directory.

In order to override one or more of them, first create an ``admin`` directory
in your project's ``templates`` directory. This can be any of the directories
you specified in ``TEMPLATE_DIRS``.

Within this ``admin`` directory, create sub-directories named after your app.
Within these app subdirectories create sub-directories named after your models.
Note, that the admin app will lowercase the model name when looking for the
directory, so make sure you name the directory in all lowercase if you are
going to run your app on a case-sensitive filesystem.

To override an admin template for a specific app, copy and edit the template
from the ``django/contrib/admin/templates/admin`` directory, and save it to one
of the directories you just created.

For example, if we wanted to add a tool to the change list view for all the
models in an app named ``my_app``, we would copy
``contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_list.html`` to the
``templates/admin/my_app/`` directory of our project, and make any necessary
changes.

If we wanted to add a tool to the change list view for only a specific model
named 'Page', we would copy that same file to the
``templates/admin/my_app/page`` directory of our project.

Overriding vs. replacing an admin template
------------------------------------------

Because of the modular design of the admin templates, it is usually neither
necessary nor advisable to replace an entire template. It is almost always
better to override only the section of the template which you need to change.

To continue the example above, we want to add a new link next to the ``History``
tool for the ``Page`` model. After looking at ``change_form.html`` we determine
that we only need to override the ``object-tools`` block. Therefore here is our
new ``change_form.html`` :

.. code-block:: html+django

    {% extends "admin/change_form.html" %}
    {% load i18n %}
    {% block object-tools %}
    {% if change %}{% if not is_popup %}
      <ul class="object-tools">
        <li><a href="history/" class="historylink">{% trans "History" %}</a></li>
        <li><a href="mylink/" class="historylink">My Link</a></li>
        {% if has_absolute_url %}
            <li><a href="../../../r/{{ content_type_id }}/{{ object_id }}/" class="viewsitelink">
                {% trans "View on site" %}</a>
            </li>
        {% endif%}
      </ul>
    {% endif %}{% endif %}
    {% endblock %}

And that's it! If we placed this file in the ``templates/admin/my_app``
directory, our link would appear on every model's change form.

Templates which may be overridden per app or model
--------------------------------------------------

Not every template in ``contrib/admin/templates/admin`` may be overridden per
app or per model. The following can:

    * ``app_index.html``
    * ``change_form.html``
    * ``change_list.html``
    * ``delete_confirmation.html``
    * ``object_history.html``

For those templates that cannot be overridden in this way, you may still
override them for your entire project. Just place the new version in your
``templates/admin`` directory. This is particularly useful to create custom 404
and 500 pages.

.. note::

    Some of the admin templates, such as ``change_list_request.html`` are used
    to render custom inclusion tags. These may be overridden, but in such cases
    you are probably better off creating your own version of the tag in
    question and giving it a different name. That way you can use it
    selectively.

Root and login templates
------------------------

If you wish to change the index, login or logout templates, you are better off
creating your own ``AdminSite`` instance (see below), and changing the
:attr:`AdminSite.index_template` , :attr:`AdminSite.login_template` or
:attr:`AdminSite.logout_template` properties.

``AdminSite`` objects
=====================

.. class:: AdminSite(name=None)

    A Django administrative site is represented by an instance of
    ``django.contrib.admin.sites.AdminSite``; by default, an instance of
    this class is created as ``django.contrib.admin.site`` and you can
    register your models and ``ModelAdmin`` instances with it.

    If you'd like to set up your own administrative site with custom
    behavior, however, you're free to subclass ``AdminSite`` and override
    or add anything you like. Then, simply create an instance of your
    ``AdminSite`` subclass (the same way you'd instantiate any other
    Python class), and register your models and ``ModelAdmin`` subclasses
    with it instead of using the default.

    .. versionadded:: 1.1

    When constructing an instance of an ``AdminSite``, you are able to provide
    a unique instance name using the ``name`` argument to the constructor. This
    instance name is used to identify the instance, especially when
    :ref:`reversing admin URLs <admin-reverse-urls>`. If no instance name is
    provided, a default instance name of ``admin`` will be used.

``AdminSite`` attributes
------------------------

Templates can override or extend base admin templates as described in
`Overriding Admin Templates`_.

.. attribute:: AdminSite.index_template

    Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site main index
    view.

.. attribute:: AdminSite.login_template

    Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site login view.

.. versionadded:: 1.3

.. attribute:: AdminSite.login_form

    Subclass of :class:`~django.contrib.auth.forms.AuthenticationForm` that
    will be used by the admin site login view.

.. attribute:: AdminSite.logout_template

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site logout view.

.. attribute:: AdminSite.password_change_template

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site password
    change view.

.. attribute:: AdminSite.password_change_done_template

    .. versionadded:: 1.2

    Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site password
    change done view.

Hooking ``AdminSite`` instances into your URLconf
-------------------------------------------------

The last step in setting up the Django admin is to hook your ``AdminSite``
instance into your URLconf. Do this by pointing a given URL at the
``AdminSite.urls`` method.

In this example, we register the default ``AdminSite`` instance
``django.contrib.admin.site`` at the URL ``/admin/`` ::

    # urls.py
    from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
    from django.contrib import admin

    admin.autodiscover()

    urlpatterns = patterns('',
        (r'^admin/', include(admin.site.urls)),
    )

Above we used ``admin.autodiscover()`` to automatically load the
``INSTALLED_APPS`` admin.py modules.

In this example, we register the ``AdminSite`` instance
``myproject.admin.admin_site`` at the URL ``/myadmin/`` ::

    # urls.py
    from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
    from myproject.admin import admin_site

    urlpatterns = patterns('',
        (r'^myadmin/', include(admin_site.urls)),
    )

There is really no need to use autodiscover when using your own ``AdminSite``
instance since you will likely be importing all the per-app admin.py modules
in your ``myproject.admin`` module.

Multiple admin sites in the same URLconf
----------------------------------------

It's easy to create multiple instances of the admin site on the same
Django-powered Web site. Just create multiple instances of ``AdminSite`` and
root each one at a different URL.

.. versionchanged:: 1.1
    The method for hooking ``AdminSite`` instances into urls has changed in
    Django 1.1.

In this example, the URLs ``/basic-admin/`` and ``/advanced-admin/`` feature
separate versions of the admin site -- using the ``AdminSite`` instances
``myproject.admin.basic_site`` and ``myproject.admin.advanced_site``,
respectively::

    # urls.py
    from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
    from myproject.admin import basic_site, advanced_site

    urlpatterns = patterns('',
        (r'^basic-admin/', include(basic_site.urls)),
        (r'^advanced-admin/', include(advanced_site.urls)),
    )

``AdminSite`` instances take a single argument to their constructor, their
name, which can be anything you like. This argument becomes the prefix to the
URL names for the purposes of :ref:`reversing them<admin-reverse-urls>`. This
is only necessary if you are using more than one ``AdminSite``.

Adding views to admin sites
---------------------------

.. versionadded:: 1.1

Just like :class:`ModelAdmin`, :class:`AdminSite` provides a
:meth:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin.get_urls()` method
that can be overridden to define additional views for the site. To add
a new view to your admin site, extend the base
:meth:`~django.contrib.admin.ModelAdmin.get_urls()` method to include
a pattern for your new view.

.. note::
    Any view you render that uses the admin templates, or extends the base
    admin template, should provide the ``current_app`` argument to
    ``RequestContext`` or ``Context`` when rendering the template.  It should
    be set to either ``self.name`` if your view is on an ``AdminSite`` or
    ``self.admin_site.name`` if your view is on a ``ModelAdmin``.

.. _admin-reverse-urls:

Reversing Admin URLs
====================

.. versionadded:: 1.1

When an :class:`AdminSite` is deployed, the views provided by that site are
accessible using Django's :ref:`URL reversing system <naming-url-patterns>`.

The :class:`AdminSite` provides the following named URL patterns:

    ======================  ========================  =============
    Page                    URL name                  Parameters
    ======================  ========================  =============
    Index                   ``index``
    Logout                  ``logout``
    Password change         ``password_change``
    Password change done    ``password_change_done``
    i18n javascript         ``jsi18n``
    Application index page  ``app_list``              ``app_label``
    ======================  ========================  =============

Each :class:`ModelAdmin` instance provides an additional set of named URLs:

    ======================  ===============================================   =============
    Page                    URL name                                          Parameters
    ======================  ===============================================   =============
    Changelist              ``{{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_changelist``
    Add                     ``{{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_add``
    History                 ``{{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_history``      ``object_id``
    Delete                  ``{{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_delete``       ``object_id``
    Change                  ``{{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_change``       ``object_id``
    ======================  ===============================================   =============

These named URLs are registered with the application namespace ``admin``, and
with an instance namespace corresponding to the name of the Site instance.

So - if you wanted to get a reference to the Change view for a particular
``Choice`` object (from the polls application) in the default admin, you would
call::

    >>> from django.core import urlresolvers
    >>> c = Choice.objects.get(...)
    >>> change_url = urlresolvers.reverse('admin:polls_choice_change', args=(c.id,))

This will find the first registered instance of the admin application
(whatever the instance name), and resolve to the view for changing
``poll.Choice`` instances in that instance.

If you want to find a URL in a specific admin instance, provide the name of
that instance as a ``current_app`` hint to the reverse call. For example,
if you specifically wanted the admin view from the admin instance named
``custom``, you would need to call::

    >>> change_url = urlresolvers.reverse('custom:polls_choice_change', args=(c.id,))

For more details, see the documentation on :ref:`reversing namespaced URLs
<topics-http-reversing-url-namespaces>`.
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.