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Call Me Maybe

A C# library to help you deal with optional values. It is open-sourced on GitHub, and is available from NuGet.


Provides a class and a few extension methods to facilitate common operations with values that may or may not exist.

Traditionally, C# programmers often use null references to represent values that "aren't there", but the problem is that this was never their intended purpose.

  • The inventor of null references has apologized for creating them in the first place, calling them his "billion-dollar mistake."
  • This misuse of null references has spread far and wide, leading to the unfortunately-named Nullable<> type (which, being a value type, is never actually null), and attributes like [CanBeNull] and [NotNull] to help programmers know when they can expect a method to treat a null value as legitimate input.
  • Many languages provide a way to deal with optional values that doesn't involve null references (e.g. F#, Scala, Haskell, and recently even Java). This is one area where C# has lagged behind other languages.

Our best hope of avoiding NullReferenceExceptions lies in trying to make sure that our reference variables are never null. But in that case, how do we indicate when a reference value is optional?

Well, that's where Maybe comes in.


Basic Usage

Imagine you have this method:

public string HowLuckyIs(int number)
    return number == 13 ? "So lucky." : null;

This is error prone! The person writing code to consume this method won't know that it might return a null value. They're likely to write something like this:

bool isLucky = HowLuckyIs(number).Contains("lucky");

Instead, try using Maybe<> as your return value.

public Maybe<string> HowLuckyIs(int number)
    return number == 13 ? "So lucky." : null;

Notice how the internal code of this method is exactly the same as before? It's super easy to switch to using Maybe. And now, consumers of your code are forced to acknowledge the possibility that you gave them nothing. They can do this in a few different ways:

// `Is` will tell you whether the value matches another value or criteria.
bool isLucky1 = HowLuckyIs(number).Is("So lucky.");
bool isLucky2 = HowLuckyIs(number).Is(s => s.Contains("lucky"));

// `Else` will return the given value if the `Maybe` has no value.
bool isLucky3 = HowLuckyIs(number).Else("").Contains("lucky");

// `Select` will return a `Maybe<>`, running the lambda only if there's a value. 
bool isLucky4 = HowLuckyIs(number).Select(n => n.Contains("lucky")).Else(false);

// `Single` will throw an exception if there is no value.
bool isLucky5 = HowLuckyIs(number).Single().Contains("lucky");

// `HasValue` will simply tell you whether there is a value in the `Maybe`.
bool isLucky6 = HowLuckyIs(number).HasValue;

// `Do` will only do something if the `Maybe` has a value.
HowLuckyIs(number).Do(n => Console.WriteLine(n.Contains("lucky")));

Notice that Select and Single behave just they way any LINQ user would expect them to. The same is true of several other LINQ operators, which makes Maybe work very smoothly in LINQ syntax:

var luckyNumbers =
    from n in Enumerable.Range(1, 20)
    from s in HowLuckyIs(n)
    where s.Contains("lucky")
    select new {number = n, howLucky = s};

Now let's look at the HowLuckyIs method again. It was easy enough to rely on implicit casting, but what if we want to be more explicit, and avoid using null in our code?

public Maybe<string> HowLuckyIs(int number)
    return number == 13 ? Maybe.From("So lucky.") : Maybe<string>.Not;

But that's way too verbose. Let's try this instead:

public Maybe<string> HowLuckyIs(int number)
    return Maybe.If(number == 13, "So lucky.");

Use Cases

Don't limit your usage of Maybe<> to return types. Maybe<> also works great for optional parameters, and any property that doesn't get set by an object's constructor. Because Maybe<> is a value type, if it never gets initialized, it will always be empty rather than null.

// Can be called like this: CallMe("123-456-7890")
public void CallMe(Maybe<string> phoneNumber = default(Maybe<string>))

public class Callee
    Maybe<string> PhoneNumber {get; set;}


Maybe.Not is a special value that implicitly casts to an empty Maybe<> object. However, because it requires an implicit cast, you may sometimes need to use Maybe<T>.Not. You can also use new Maybe<T>() or default(Maybe<T>). Take your pick, but be consistent.


When working with dictionaries, try using the .GetMaybe(key) extension method instead of the dictionary's indexer or .TryGetValue():

var carsByOwner = GetCars().ToDictionary(c => c.OwnerPersonId);
var activePeopleWithCars =
    from p in GetPeople()
    where p.IsActive
    from car in carsByOwner.GetMaybe(p.PersonId)
    select new {owner = p, car};

String Parsing

Are you tired of using clunky out parameters for safe parsing? Convert your string into a Maybe<string> to access to some handy parsing extension methods:

var validInput = Maybe.From(input).ParseInt32().Where(i => i > 0);
var errorMessage = Maybe.If(!validInput.HasValue, input + " is not a positive number");

Feel free to make your own parsing extension methods, too. Here's how you can do it from a typical TryParse() pattern:

public static class PhoneNumberParsingExtensions
    public static Maybe<PhoneNumber> ParsePhoneNumber(this Maybe<string> source)
        return source.SelectMany(str => {
            PhoneNumber number;
            return Maybe.If(PhoneNumber.TryParse(str, out number), number);

Limitations and Caveats

No Implicit Casting of Nullable<>s

It's not possible to create an implicit casting operator from T? (i.e. Nullable<T>) to Maybe<T> without restricting Maybe<>s to value types.

public void PrintDate(Maybe<DateTime> dateTime) { ... }

DateTime? d = GetDate();
// This won't work
// Instead, try this:

The Maybe() extension method is available on all Nullable<> types, and there is a corresponding Nullable() method on any Maybe<T> where T is a value type.

No Implicit Casting of Interfaces

C# does not allow implicit casts from interfaces:

public void PrintHtml(Maybe<IHtmlString> html) { ... }

IHtmlString html = GetHtml();
// This won't work
// Instead, try this:

Covariance and Equality

Maybe<T> is intended to be a generically-typed compile-time aid, and can yield unexpected behavior when they are cast as objects. If you put Nullable<int>s into a HashSet<object>, .NET will automatically convert those values into either ints or null values. However, mere mortals don't have access to the magic required to make this happen. So, for consistency, a Maybe<T> .Equals() another object only if that other object is of the same Maybe<T> type and has the same value.

Maybe.From(5) == 5 and 5 == Maybe.From(5) will yield true because 5 is implicitly cast as a Maybe<int>. Also, Maybe.From((string)null) == null will yield true because null can be implicitly cast to a string, which then gets implicitly cast to a Maybe<string>. However, using the .Equals(object) method will not match this behavior. Maybe.From(5).Equals(5) yields false because 5.Equals(Maybe.From(5)) cannot be true.

None of this will be a problem if you only use Maybe<> values as compile-time constructs. Don't cast Maybe<T>s as objects, and use the .Is() method or the == and != operators, rather than .Equals(object).

Third-Party Support

Unfortunately, Maybe<> is not a part of the BCL (though it probably should be). That means that there's not much support for it in third-party frameworks like Entity Framework. My hope is to add some plugin packages for frameworks that are extensible (e.g. ASP.NET MVC model binding). But there will be some places where other frameworks just won't know what to do with it.


Call Me Maybe is open-sourced under the MIT License, as set forth here.


  • I drew on some of the best ideas I found in other similar frameworks:
  • Special thanks to friends, and anyone else, who has given me feedback and suggestions on this project.
  • Thanks to you for reading this and (hopefully) using the framework. Issues, ideas, and pull requests are welcome.