seek-bzip2 / micro-bunzip.c

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/* vi: set sw=4 ts=4: */
/* micro-bunzip, a small, simple bzip2 decompression implementation.
 Copyright 2003 by Rob Landley (rob@landley.net).

 Based on bzip2 decompression code by Julian R Seward (jseward@acm.org),
 which also acknowledges contributions by Mike Burrows, David Wheeler,
 Peter Fenwick, Alistair Moffat, Radford Neal, Ian H. Witten,
 Robert Sedgewick, and Jon L. Bentley.

 I hereby release this code under the GNU Library General Public License
 (LGPL) version 2, available at http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lgpl.html
*/

#include <setjmp.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

/* Constants for huffman coding */
#define MAX_GROUPS   6
#define GROUP_SIZE     50  /* 64 would have been more efficient */
#define MAX_HUFCODE_BITS  20  /* Longest huffman code allowed */
#define MAX_SYMBOLS   258  /* 256 literals + RUNA + RUNB */
#define SYMBOL_RUNA   0
#define SYMBOL_RUNB   1

/* Status return values */
#define RETVAL_OK      0
#define RETVAL_LAST_BLOCK    (-1)
#define RETVAL_NOT_BZIP_DATA   (-2)
#define RETVAL_UNEXPECTED_INPUT_EOF  (-3)
#define RETVAL_UNEXPECTED_OUTPUT_EOF (-4)
#define RETVAL_DATA_ERROR    (-5)
#define RETVAL_OUT_OF_MEMORY   (-6)
#define RETVAL_OBSOLETE_INPUT   (-7)

/* Other housekeeping constants */
#define IOBUF_SIZE   4096

char *bunzip_errors[] = {NULL, "Bad file checksum", "Not bzip data",
                         "Unexpected input EOF", "Unexpected output EOF", "Data error",
                         "Out of memory", "Obsolete (pre 0.9.5) bzip format not supported."};

/* This is what we know about each huffman coding group */
struct group_data
{
    int limit[MAX_HUFCODE_BITS], base[MAX_HUFCODE_BITS], permute[MAX_SYMBOLS];
    char minLen, maxLen;
};

/* Structure holding all the housekeeping data, including IO buffers and
   memory that persists between calls to bunzip */
typedef struct
{
    /* For I/O error handling */
    jmp_buf jmpbuf;
    /* Input stream, input buffer, input bit buffer */
    int in_fd, inbufCount, inbufPos;
    unsigned char *inbuf;
    unsigned int inbufBitCount, inbufBits;
    /* Output buffer */
    char outbuf[IOBUF_SIZE];
    int outbufPos;
    /* The CRC values stored in the block header and calculated from the data */
    unsigned int crc32Table[256], headerCRC, dataCRC, totalCRC;
    /* Intermediate buffer and its size (in bytes) */
    unsigned int *dbuf, dbufSize;
    /* State for interrupting output loop */
    int writePos, writeRun, writeCount, writeCurrent;

    /* These things are a bit too big to go on the stack */
    unsigned char selectors[32768];   /* nSelectors=15 bits */
    struct group_data groups[MAX_GROUPS]; /* huffman coding tables */
    /* james@bx.psu.edu: Keep track of position in in_fd in bits */
    unsigned long inPosBits;
}
bunzip_data;

/* Return the next nnn bits of input.  All reads from the compressed input
   are done through this function.  All reads are big endian */
static unsigned int get_bits( bunzip_data *bd, char bits_wanted )
{
    unsigned int bits = 0;

    /* james@bx.psu.edu: Increment position in bits */
    bd->inPosBits += bits_wanted;

    /* If we need to get more data from the byte buffer, do so.  (Loop getting
       one byte at a time to enforce endianness and avoid unaligned access.) */
    while ( bd->inbufBitCount < bits_wanted )
    {
        /* If we need to read more data from file into byte buffer, do so */
        if ( bd->inbufPos == bd->inbufCount )
        {
            if ( !( bd->inbufCount = read( bd->in_fd, bd->inbuf, IOBUF_SIZE ) ) )
                longjmp( bd->jmpbuf, RETVAL_UNEXPECTED_INPUT_EOF );
            bd->inbufPos = 0;
        }
        /* Avoid 32-bit overflow (dump bit buffer to top of output) */
        if ( bd->inbufBitCount >= 24 )
        {
            bits = bd->inbufBits & ( ( 1 << bd->inbufBitCount ) - 1 );
            bits_wanted -= bd->inbufBitCount;
            bits <<= bits_wanted;
            bd->inbufBitCount = 0;
        }
        /* Grab next 8 bits of input from buffer. */
        bd->inbufBits = ( bd->inbufBits << 8 ) | bd->inbuf[bd->inbufPos++];
        bd->inbufBitCount += 8;
    }
    /* Calculate result */
    bd->inbufBitCount -= bits_wanted;
    bits |= ( bd->inbufBits >> bd->inbufBitCount ) & ( ( 1 << bits_wanted ) - 1 );

    return bits;
}

/* Decompress a block of text to into intermediate buffer */

extern int read_bunzip_data( bunzip_data *bd )
{
    struct group_data *hufGroup;
    int dbufCount, nextSym, dbufSize, origPtr, groupCount, *base, *limit, selector,
    i, j, k, t, runPos, symCount, symTotal, nSelectors, byteCount[256];
    unsigned char uc, symToByte[256], mtfSymbol[256], *selectors;
    unsigned int *dbuf;

    /* Read in header signature (borrowing mtfSymbol for temp space). */
    for ( i = 0;i < 6;i++ ) mtfSymbol[i] = get_bits( bd, 8 );
    mtfSymbol[6] = 0;
    /* Read CRC (which is stored big endian). */
    bd->headerCRC = get_bits( bd, 32 );
    /* Is this the last block (with CRC for file)? */
    if ( !strcmp( mtfSymbol, "\x17\x72\x45\x38\x50\x90" ) )
        return RETVAL_LAST_BLOCK;
    /* If it's not a valid data block, barf. */
    if ( strcmp( mtfSymbol, "\x31\x41\x59\x26\x53\x59" ) )
        return RETVAL_NOT_BZIP_DATA;

    dbuf = bd->dbuf;
    dbufSize = bd->dbufSize;
    selectors = bd->selectors;
    /* We can add support for blockRandomised if anybody complains.  There was
       some code for this in busybox 1.0.0-pre3, but nobody ever noticed that
       it didn't actually work. */
    if ( get_bits( bd, 1 ) ) return RETVAL_OBSOLETE_INPUT;
    if ( ( origPtr = get_bits( bd, 24 ) ) > dbufSize ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
    /* mapping table: if some byte values are never used (encoding things
       like ascii text), the compression code removes the gaps to have fewer
       symbols to deal with, and writes a sparse bitfield indicating which
       values were present.  We make a translation table to convert the symbols
       back to the corresponding bytes. */
    t = get_bits( bd, 16 );
    memset( symToByte, 0, 256 );
    symTotal = 0;
    for ( i = 0;i < 16;i++ )
    {
        if ( t&( 1 << ( 15 - i ) ) )
        {
            k = get_bits( bd, 16 );
            for ( j = 0;j < 16;j++ )
                if ( k&( 1 << ( 15 - j ) ) ) symToByte[symTotal++] = ( 16 * i ) + j;
        }
    }
    /* How many different huffman coding groups does this block use? */
    groupCount = get_bits( bd, 3 );
    if ( groupCount < 2 || groupCount > MAX_GROUPS ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
    /* nSelectors: Every GROUP_SIZE many symbols we select a new huffman coding
       group.  Read in the group selector list, which is stored as MTF encoded
       bit runs. */
    if ( !( nSelectors = get_bits( bd, 15 ) ) ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
    for ( i = 0; i < groupCount; i++ ) mtfSymbol[i] = i;
    for ( i = 0; i < nSelectors; i++ )
    {
        /* Get next value */
        for ( j = 0;get_bits( bd, 1 );j++ ) if ( j >= groupCount ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
        /* Decode MTF to get the next selector */
        uc = mtfSymbol[j];
        memmove( mtfSymbol + 1, mtfSymbol, j );
        mtfSymbol[0] = selectors[i] = uc;
    }
    /* Read the huffman coding tables for each group, which code for symTotal
       literal symbols, plus two run symbols (RUNA, RUNB) */
    symCount = symTotal + 2;
    for ( j = 0; j < groupCount; j++ )
    {
        unsigned char length[MAX_SYMBOLS], temp[MAX_HUFCODE_BITS+1];
        int minLen, maxLen, pp;
        /* Read lengths */
        t = get_bits( bd, 5 );
        for ( i = 0; i < symCount; i++ )
        {
            for ( ;; )
            {
                if ( t < 1 || t > MAX_HUFCODE_BITS ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
                if ( !get_bits( bd, 1 ) ) break;
                if ( !get_bits( bd, 1 ) ) t++;
                else t--;
            }
            length[i] = t;
        }
        /* Find largest and smallest lengths in this group */
        minLen = maxLen = length[0];
        for ( i = 1; i < symCount; i++ )
        {
            if ( length[i] > maxLen ) maxLen = length[i];
            else if ( length[i] < minLen ) minLen = length[i];
        }
        /* Calculate permute[], base[], and limit[] tables from length[].
         *
         * permute[] is the lookup table for converting huffman coded symbols
         * into decoded symbols.  base[] is the amount to subtract from the
         * value of a huffman symbol of a given length when using permute[].
         *
         * limit[] indicates the largest numerical value a symbol with a given
         * number of bits can have.  It lets us know when to stop reading.
         *
         * To use these, keep reading bits until value<=limit[bitcount] or
         * you've read over 20 bits (error).  Then the decoded symbol
         * equals permute[hufcode_value-base[hufcode_bitcount]].
         */
        hufGroup = bd->groups + j;
        hufGroup->minLen = minLen;
        hufGroup->maxLen = maxLen;
        /* Note that minLen can't be smaller than 1, so we adjust the base
           and limit array pointers so we're not always wasting the first
           entry.  We do this again when using them (during symbol decoding).*/
        base = hufGroup->base - 1;
        limit = hufGroup->limit - 1;
        /* Calculate permute[] */
        pp = 0;
        for ( i = minLen;i <= maxLen;i++ )
            for ( t = 0;t < symCount;t++ )
                if ( length[t] == i ) hufGroup->permute[pp++] = t;
        /* Count cumulative symbols coded for at each bit length */
        for ( i = minLen;i <= maxLen;i++ ) temp[i] = limit[i] = 0;
        for ( i = 0;i < symCount;i++ ) temp[length[i]]++;
        /* Calculate limit[] (the largest symbol-coding value at each bit
         * length, which is (previous limit<<1)+symbols at this level), and
         * base[] (number of symbols to ignore at each bit length, which is
         * limit-cumulative count of symbols coded for already). */
        pp = t = 0;
        for ( i = minLen; i < maxLen; i++ )
        {
            pp += temp[i];
            limit[i] = pp - 1;
            pp <<= 1;
            base[i+1] = pp - ( t += temp[i] );
        }
        limit[maxLen] = pp + temp[maxLen] - 1;
        base[minLen] = 0;
    }
    /* We've finished reading and digesting the block header.  Now read this
       block's huffman coded symbols from the file and undo the huffman coding
       and run length encoding, saving the result into dbuf[dbufCount++]=uc */

    /* Initialize symbol occurrence counters and symbol mtf table */
    memset( byteCount, 0, 256*sizeof( int ) );
    for ( i = 0;i < 256;i++ ) mtfSymbol[i] = ( unsigned char )i;
    /* Loop through compressed symbols */
    runPos = dbufCount = symCount = selector = 0;
    for ( ;; )
    {
        /* Determine which huffman coding group to use. */
        if ( !( symCount-- ) )
        {
            symCount = GROUP_SIZE - 1;
            if ( selector >= nSelectors ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
            hufGroup = bd->groups + selectors[selector++];
            base = hufGroup->base - 1;
            limit = hufGroup->limit - 1;
        }
        /* Read next huffman-coded symbol */
        i = hufGroup->minLen;
        j = get_bits( bd, i );
        for ( ;; )
        {
            if ( i > hufGroup->maxLen ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
            if ( j <= limit[i] ) break;
            i++;

            j = ( j << 1 ) | get_bits( bd, 1 );
        }
        /* Huffman decode nextSym (with bounds checking) */
        j -= base[i];
        if ( j < 0 || j >= MAX_SYMBOLS ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
        nextSym = hufGroup->permute[j];
        /* If this is a repeated run, loop collecting data */
        if ( nextSym == SYMBOL_RUNA || nextSym == SYMBOL_RUNB )
        {
            /* If this is the start of a new run, zero out counter */
            if ( !runPos )
            {
                runPos = 1;
                t = 0;
            }
            /* Neat trick that saves 1 symbol: instead of or-ing 0 or 1 at
               each bit position, add 1 or 2 instead.  For example,
               1011 is 1<<0 + 1<<1 + 2<<2.  1010 is 2<<0 + 2<<1 + 1<<2.
               You can make any bit pattern that way using 1 less symbol than
               the basic or 0/1 method (except all bits 0, which would use no
               symbols, but a run of length 0 doesn't mean anything in this
               context).  Thus space is saved. */
            if ( nextSym == SYMBOL_RUNA ) t += runPos;
            else t += 2 * runPos;
            runPos <<= 1;
            continue;
        }
        /* When we hit the first non-run symbol after a run, we now know
           how many times to repeat the last literal, so append that many
           copies to our buffer of decoded symbols (dbuf) now.  (The last
           literal used is the one at the head of the mtfSymbol array.) */
        if ( runPos )
        {
            runPos = 0;
            if ( dbufCount + t >= dbufSize ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;

            uc = symToByte[mtfSymbol[0]];
            byteCount[uc] += t;
            while ( t-- ) dbuf[dbufCount++] = uc;
        }
        /* Is this the terminating symbol? */
        if ( nextSym > symTotal ) break;
        /* At this point, the symbol we just decoded indicates a new literal
           character.  Subtract one to get the position in the MTF array
           at which this literal is currently to be found.  (Note that the
           result can't be -1 or 0, because 0 and 1 are RUNA and RUNB.
           Another instance of the first symbol in the mtf array, position 0,
           would have been handled as part of a run.) */
        if ( dbufCount >= dbufSize ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
        i = nextSym - 1;
        uc = mtfSymbol[i];
        memmove( mtfSymbol + 1, mtfSymbol, i );
        mtfSymbol[0] = uc;
        uc = symToByte[uc];
        /* We have our literal byte.  Save it into dbuf. */
        byteCount[uc]++;
        dbuf[dbufCount++] = ( unsigned int )uc;
    }
    /* At this point, we've finished reading huffman-coded symbols and
       compressed runs from the input stream.  There are dbufCount many of
       them in dbuf[].  Now undo the Burrows-Wheeler transform on dbuf.
       See http://dogma.net/markn/articles/bwt/bwt.htm
     */

    /* Now we know what dbufCount is, do a better sanity check on origPtr.  */
    if ( origPtr < 0 || origPtr >= dbufCount ) return RETVAL_DATA_ERROR;
    /* Turn byteCount into cumulative occurrence counts of 0 to n-1. */
    j = 0;
    for ( i = 0;i < 256;i++ )
    {
        k = j + byteCount[i];
        byteCount[i] = j;
        j = k;
    }
    /* Figure out what order dbuf would be in if we sorted it. */
    for ( i = 0;i < dbufCount;i++ )
    {
        uc = ( unsigned char )( dbuf[i] & 0xff );
        dbuf[byteCount[uc]] |= ( i << 8 );
        byteCount[uc]++;
    }
    /* blockRandomised support would go here. */

    /* Using i as position, j as previous character, t as current character,
       and uc as run count */
    bd->dataCRC = 0xffffffffL;
    /* Decode first byte by hand to initialize "previous" byte.  Note that it
       doesn't get output, and if the first three characters are identical
       it doesn't qualify as a run (hence uc=255, which will either wrap
       to 1 or get reset). */
    if ( dbufCount )
    {
        bd->writePos = dbuf[origPtr];
        bd->writeCurrent = ( unsigned char )( bd->writePos & 0xff );
        bd->writePos >>= 8;
        bd->writeRun = -1;
    }
    bd->writeCount = dbufCount;

    return RETVAL_OK;
}

/* Flush output buffer to disk */
extern void flush_bunzip_outbuf( bunzip_data *bd, int out_fd )
{
    if ( bd->outbufPos )
    {
        if ( write( out_fd, bd->outbuf, bd->outbufPos ) != bd->outbufPos )
            longjmp( bd->jmpbuf, RETVAL_UNEXPECTED_OUTPUT_EOF );
        bd->outbufPos = 0;
    }
}


/* Undo burrows-wheeler transform on intermediate buffer to produce output.
   If !len, write up to len bytes of data to buf.  Otherwise write to out_fd.
   Returns len ? bytes written : RETVAL_OK.  Notice all errors negative #'s. */
extern int write_bunzip_data( bunzip_data *bd, int out_fd, char *outbuf, int len )
{
    unsigned int *dbuf = bd->dbuf;
    int count, pos, current, run, copies, outbyte, previous, gotcount = 0;

    for ( ;; )
    {
        /* If last read was short due to end of file, return last block now */
        if ( bd->writeCount < 0 ) return bd->writeCount;
        /* If we need to refill dbuf, do it. */
        if ( !bd->writeCount )
        {
            int i = read_bunzip_data( bd );
            if ( i )
            {
                if ( i == RETVAL_LAST_BLOCK )
                {
                    bd->writeCount = i;
                    return gotcount;
                }
                else return i;
            }
        }
        /* Loop generating output */
        count = bd->writeCount;
        pos = bd->writePos;
        current = bd->writeCurrent;
        run = bd->writeRun;
        while ( count )
        {
            /* If somebody (like busybox tar) wants a certain number of bytes of
            data from memory instead of written to a file, humor them */
            if ( len && bd->outbufPos >= len ) goto dataus_interruptus;
            count--;
            /* Follow sequence vector to undo Burrows-Wheeler transform */
            previous = current;
            pos = dbuf[pos];
            current = pos & 0xff;
            pos >>= 8;
            /* Whenever we see 3 consecutive copies of the same byte,
               the 4th is a repeat count */
            if ( run++ == 3 )
            {
                copies = current;
                outbyte = previous;
                current = -1;
            }
            else
            {
                copies = 1;
                outbyte = current;
            }
            /* Output bytes to buffer, flushing to file if necessary */
            while ( copies-- )
            {
                if ( bd->outbufPos == IOBUF_SIZE ) flush_bunzip_outbuf( bd, out_fd );
                bd->outbuf[bd->outbufPos++] = outbyte;
                bd->dataCRC = ( bd->dataCRC << 8 )
                              ^ bd->crc32Table[( bd->dataCRC >> 24 ) ^ outbyte];
            }
            if ( current != previous ) run = 0;
        }
        /* Decompression of this block completed successfully */
        bd->dataCRC = ~( bd->dataCRC );
        bd->totalCRC = ( ( bd->totalCRC << 1 ) | ( bd->totalCRC >> 31 ) ) ^ bd->dataCRC;
        /* If this block had a CRC error, force file level CRC error. */
        if ( bd->dataCRC != bd->headerCRC )
        {
            bd->totalCRC = bd->headerCRC + 1;
            return RETVAL_LAST_BLOCK;
        }
dataus_interruptus:
        bd->writeCount = count;
        if ( len )
        {
            gotcount += bd->outbufPos;
            memcpy( outbuf, bd->outbuf, len );
            /* If we got enough data, checkpoint loop state and return */
            if ( ( len -= bd->outbufPos ) < 1 )
            {
                bd->outbufPos -= len;
                if ( bd->outbufPos )
                    memmove( bd->outbuf, bd->outbuf + len, bd->outbufPos );
                bd->writePos = pos;
                bd->writeCurrent = current;
                bd->writeRun = run;
                return gotcount;
            }
        }
    }
}

/* Allocate the structure, read file header.  If !len, src_fd contains
   filehandle to read from.  Else inbuf contains data. */
extern int start_bunzip( bunzip_data **bdp, int src_fd, char *inbuf, int len )
{
    bunzip_data *bd;
    unsigned int i, j, c;

    /* Figure out how much data to allocate */
    i = sizeof( bunzip_data );
    if ( !len ) i += IOBUF_SIZE;
    /* Allocate bunzip_data.  Most fields initialize to zero. */
    if ( !( bd = *bdp = malloc( i ) ) ) return RETVAL_OUT_OF_MEMORY;
    memset( bd, 0, sizeof( bunzip_data ) );
    if ( len )
    {
        bd->inbuf = inbuf;
        bd->inbufCount = len;
        bd->in_fd = -1;
    }
    else
    {
        bd->inbuf = ( char * )( bd + 1 );
        bd->in_fd = src_fd;
    }
    /* Init the CRC32 table (big endian) */
    for ( i = 0;i < 256;i++ )
    {
        c = i << 24;
        for ( j = 8;j;j-- )
            c = c & 0x80000000 ? ( c << 1 ) ^ 0x04c11db7 : ( c << 1 );
        bd->crc32Table[i] = c;
    }
    /* Setup for I/O error handling via longjmp */
    i = setjmp( bd->jmpbuf );
    if ( i ) return i;
    /* Ensure that file starts with "BZh" */
    for ( i = 0;i < 3;i++ ) if ( get_bits( bd, 8 ) != "BZh"[i] ) return RETVAL_NOT_BZIP_DATA;
    /* Next byte ascii '1'-'9', indicates block size in units of 100k of
       uncompressed data.  Allocate intermediate buffer for block. */
    i = get_bits( bd, 8 );
    if ( i < '1' || i > '9' ) return RETVAL_NOT_BZIP_DATA;
    bd->dbufSize = 100000 * ( i - '0' );
    if ( !( bd->dbuf = malloc( bd->dbufSize * sizeof( int ) ) ) )
        return RETVAL_OUT_OF_MEMORY;
    return RETVAL_OK;
}

/* Example usage: decompress src_fd to dst_fd.  (Stops at end of bzip data,
   not end of file.) */
extern char *uncompressStream( int src_fd, int dst_fd )
{
    bunzip_data *bd;
    int i;

    if ( !( i = start_bunzip( &bd, src_fd, 0, 0 ) ) )
    {
        i = write_bunzip_data( bd, dst_fd, 0, 0 );
        if ( i == RETVAL_LAST_BLOCK && bd->headerCRC == bd->totalCRC ) i = RETVAL_OK;
    }
    flush_bunzip_outbuf( bd, dst_fd );
    if ( bd->dbuf ) free( bd->dbuf );
    free( bd );
    return bunzip_errors[-i];
}

/* james@bx.psu.edu: comment out main for 'library' use */

/* Dumb little test thing, decompress stdin to stdout */
/*int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
 char *c=uncompressStream(0,1);
 fprintf(stderr,"\n%s\n", c ? c : "Completed OK");
}*/
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