James Palmer avatar James Palmer committed abf6d99

Remove support for Python 2.4 and below.

Comments (0)

Files changed (5)

ignite/command.py

 try:
     import subprocess
 except ImportError:
-    try:
-        from ignite.util import subprocess24 as subprocess
-    except ImportError:
-        subprocess = None # jython
+    # jython
+    subprocess = None
 
 difflib = None
 

ignite/copydir.py

 import os
 import pkg_resources
 import sys
-if sys.version_info < (2, 4):
-    from ignite.util import string24 as string
-else:
-    import string
+import string
 import cgi
 import urllib
 import re
 try:
     import subprocess
 except ImportError:
-    try:
-        from ignite.util import subprocess24 as subprocess
-    except ImportError:
-        subprocess = None # jython
+    # jython
+    subprocess = None
 import inspect
 
 class SkipTemplate(Exception):

ignite/filemaker.py

 from ignite import pluginlib, copydir
 from ignite.command import BadCommand
 difflib = None
+
 try:
     import subprocess
 except ImportError:
-    from ignite.util import subprocess24 as subprocess
+    subprocess = None
 
 class FileOp(object):
     """

ignite/util/string24.py

-# (c) 2005 Ian Bicking and contributors; written for Paste
-# (http://pythonpaste.org)
-#
-# Licensed under the MIT license:
-# http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php
-"""A collection of string operations (most are no longer used).
-
-Warning: most of the code you see here isn't normally used nowadays.
-Beginning with Python 1.6, many of these functions are implemented as
-methods on the standard string object. They used to be implemented by
-a built-in module called strop, but strop is now obsolete itself.
-
-Public module variables:
-
-whitespace -- a string containing all characters considered whitespace
-lowercase -- a string containing all characters considered lowercase letters
-uppercase -- a string containing all characters considered uppercase letters
-letters -- a string containing all characters considered letters
-digits -- a string containing all characters considered decimal digits
-hexdigits -- a string containing all characters considered hexadecimal digits
-octdigits -- a string containing all characters considered octal digits
-punctuation -- a string containing all characters considered punctuation
-printable -- a string containing all characters considered printable
-
-"""
-
-# Some strings for ctype-style character classification
-whitespace = ' \t\n\r\v\f'
-lowercase = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'
-uppercase = 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'
-letters = lowercase + uppercase
-ascii_lowercase = lowercase
-ascii_uppercase = uppercase
-ascii_letters = ascii_lowercase + ascii_uppercase
-digits = '0123456789'
-hexdigits = digits + 'abcdef' + 'ABCDEF'
-octdigits = '01234567'
-punctuation = """!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~"""
-printable = digits + letters + punctuation + whitespace
-
-# Case conversion helpers
-# Use str to convert Unicode literal in case of -U
-# Note that Cookie.py bogusly uses _idmap :(
-l = map(chr, xrange(256))
-_idmap = str('').join(l)
-del l
-
-# Functions which aren't available as string methods.
-
-# Capitalize the words in a string, e.g. " aBc  dEf " -> "Abc Def".
-# See also regsub.capwords().
-def capwords(s, sep=None):
-    """capwords(s, [sep]) -> string
-
-    Split the argument into words using split, capitalize each
-    word using capitalize, and join the capitalized words using
-    join. Note that this replaces runs of whitespace characters by
-    a single space.
-
-    """
-    return (sep or ' ').join([x.capitalize() for x in s.split(sep)])
-
-
-# Construct a translation string
-_idmapL = None
-def maketrans(fromstr, tostr):
-    """maketrans(frm, to) -> string
-
-    Return a translation table (a string of 256 bytes long)
-    suitable for use in string.translate.  The strings frm and to
-    must be of the same length.
-
-    """
-    if len(fromstr) != len(tostr):
-        raise ValueError, "maketrans arguments must have same length"
-    global _idmapL
-    if not _idmapL:
-        _idmapL = map(None, _idmap)
-    L = _idmapL[:]
-    fromstr = map(ord, fromstr)
-    for i in range(len(fromstr)):
-        L[fromstr[i]] = tostr[i]
-    return ''.join(L)
-
-
-
-####################################################################
-import re as _re
-
-class _multimap:
-    """Helper class for combining multiple mappings.
-
-    Used by .{safe_,}substitute() to combine the mapping and keyword
-    arguments.
-    """
-    def __init__(self, primary, secondary):
-        self._primary = primary
-        self._secondary = secondary
-
-    def __getitem__(self, key):
-        try:
-            return self._primary[key]
-        except KeyError:
-            return self._secondary[key]
-
-
-class _TemplateMetaclass(type):
-    pattern = r"""
-    %(delim)s(?:
-      (?P<escaped>%(delim)s) |   # Escape sequence of two delimiters
-      (?P<named>%(id)s)      |   # delimiter and a Python identifier
-      {(?P<braced>%(id)s)}   |   # delimiter and a braced identifier
-      (?P<invalid>)              # Other ill-formed delimiter exprs
-    )
-    """
-
-    def __init__(cls, name, bases, dct):
-        super(_TemplateMetaclass, cls).__init__(name, bases, dct)
-        if 'pattern' in dct:
-            pattern = cls.pattern
-        else:
-            pattern = _TemplateMetaclass.pattern % {
-                'delim' : _re.escape(cls.delimiter),
-                'id'    : cls.idpattern,
-                }
-        cls.pattern = _re.compile(pattern, _re.IGNORECASE | _re.VERBOSE)
-
-
-class Template:
-    """A string class for supporting $-substitutions."""
-    __metaclass__ = _TemplateMetaclass
-
-    delimiter = '$'
-    idpattern = r'[_a-z][_a-z0-9]*'
-
-    def __init__(self, template):
-        self.template = template
-
-    # Search for $$, $identifier, ${identifier}, and any bare $'s
-
-    def _invalid(self, mo):
-        i = mo.start('invalid')
-        lines = self.template[:i].splitlines(True)
-        if not lines:
-            colno = 1
-            lineno = 1
-        else:
-            colno = i - len(''.join(lines[:-1]))
-            lineno = len(lines)
-        raise ValueError('Invalid placeholder in string: line %d, col %d' %
-                         (lineno, colno))
-
-    def substitute(self, *args, **kws):
-        if len(args) > 1:
-            raise TypeError('Too many positional arguments')
-        if not args:
-            mapping = kws
-        elif kws:
-            mapping = _multimap(kws, args[0])
-        else:
-            mapping = args[0]
-        # Helper function for .sub()
-        def convert(mo):
-            # Check the most common path first.
-            named = mo.group('named') or mo.group('braced')
-            if named is not None:
-                val = mapping[named]
-                # We use this idiom instead of str() because the latter will
-                # fail if val is a Unicode containing non-ASCII characters.
-                return '%s' % val
-            if mo.group('escaped') is not None:
-                return self.delimiter
-            if mo.group('invalid') is not None:
-                self._invalid(mo)
-            raise ValueError('Unrecognized named group in pattern',
-                             self.pattern)
-        return self.pattern.sub(convert, self.template)
-
-    def safe_substitute(self, *args, **kws):
-        if len(args) > 1:
-            raise TypeError('Too many positional arguments')
-        if not args:
-            mapping = kws
-        elif kws:
-            mapping = _multimap(kws, args[0])
-        else:
-            mapping = args[0]
-        # Helper function for .sub()
-        def convert(mo):
-            named = mo.group('named')
-            if named is not None:
-                try:
-                    # We use this idiom instead of str() because the latter
-                    # will fail if val is a Unicode containing non-ASCII
-                    return '%s' % mapping[named]
-                except KeyError:
-                    return self.delimiter + named
-            braced = mo.group('braced')
-            if braced is not None:
-                try:
-                    return '%s' % mapping[braced]
-                except KeyError:
-                    return self.delimiter + '{' + braced + '}'
-            if mo.group('escaped') is not None:
-                return self.delimiter
-            if mo.group('invalid') is not None:
-                return self.delimiter
-            raise ValueError('Unrecognized named group in pattern',
-                             self.pattern)
-        return self.pattern.sub(convert, self.template)
-
-
-
-####################################################################
-# NOTE: Everything below here is deprecated.  Use string methods instead.
-# This stuff will go away in Python 3.0.
-
-# Backward compatible names for exceptions
-index_error = ValueError
-atoi_error = ValueError
-atof_error = ValueError
-atol_error = ValueError
-
-# convert UPPER CASE letters to lower case
-def lower(s):
-    """lower(s) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s converted to lowercase.
-
-    """
-    return s.lower()
-
-# Convert lower case letters to UPPER CASE
-def upper(s):
-    """upper(s) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s converted to uppercase.
-
-    """
-    return s.upper()
-
-# Swap lower case letters and UPPER CASE
-def swapcase(s):
-    """swapcase(s) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with upper case characters
-    converted to lowercase and vice versa.
-
-    """
-    return s.swapcase()
-
-# Strip leading and trailing tabs and spaces
-def strip(s, chars=None):
-    """strip(s [,chars]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with leading and trailing
-    whitespace removed.
-    If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
-    If chars is unicode, S will be converted to unicode before stripping.
-
-    """
-    return s.strip(chars)
-
-# Strip leading tabs and spaces
-def lstrip(s, chars=None):
-    """lstrip(s [,chars]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with leading whitespace removed.
-    If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
-
-    """
-    return s.lstrip(chars)
-
-# Strip trailing tabs and spaces
-def rstrip(s, chars=None):
-    """rstrip(s [,chars]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with trailing whitespace removed.
-    If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
-
-    """
-    return s.rstrip(chars)
-
-
-# Split a string into a list of space/tab-separated words
-def split(s, sep=None, maxsplit=-1):
-    """split(s [,sep [,maxsplit]]) -> list of strings
-
-    Return a list of the words in the string s, using sep as the
-    delimiter string.  If maxsplit is given, splits at no more than
-    maxsplit places (resulting in at most maxsplit+1 words).  If sep
-    is not specified or is None, any whitespace string is a separator.
-
-    (split and splitfields are synonymous)
-
-    """
-    return s.split(sep, maxsplit)
-splitfields = split
-
-# Split a string into a list of space/tab-separated words
-def rsplit(s, sep=None, maxsplit=-1):
-    """rsplit(s [,sep [,maxsplit]]) -> list of strings
-
-    Return a list of the words in the string s, using sep as the
-    delimiter string, starting at the end of the string and working
-    to the front.  If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit splits are
-    done. If sep is not specified or is None, any whitespace string
-    is a separator.
-    """
-    return s.rsplit(sep, maxsplit)
-
-# Join fields with optional separator
-def join(words, sep = ' '):
-    """join(list [,sep]) -> string
-
-    Return a string composed of the words in list, with
-    intervening occurrences of sep.  The default separator is a
-    single space.
-
-    (joinfields and join are synonymous)
-
-    """
-    return sep.join(words)
-joinfields = join
-
-# Find substring, raise exception if not found
-def index(s, *args):
-    """index(s, sub [,start [,end]]) -> int
-
-    Like find but raises ValueError when the substring is not found.
-
-    """
-    return s.index(*args)
-
-# Find last substring, raise exception if not found
-def rindex(s, *args):
-    """rindex(s, sub [,start [,end]]) -> int
-
-    Like rfind but raises ValueError when the substring is not found.
-
-    """
-    return s.rindex(*args)
-
-# Count non-overlapping occurrences of substring
-def count(s, *args):
-    """count(s, sub[, start[,end]]) -> int
-
-    Return the number of occurrences of substring sub in string
-    s[start:end].  Optional arguments start and end are
-    interpreted as in slice notation.
-
-    """
-    return s.count(*args)
-
-# Find substring, return -1 if not found
-def find(s, *args):
-    """find(s, sub [,start [,end]]) -> in
-
-    Return the lowest index in s where substring sub is found,
-    such that sub is contained within s[start,end].  Optional
-    arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
-
-    Return -1 on failure.
-
-    """
-    return s.find(*args)
-
-# Find last substring, return -1 if not found
-def rfind(s, *args):
-    """rfind(s, sub [,start [,end]]) -> int
-
-    Return the highest index in s where substring sub is found,
-    such that sub is contained within s[start,end].  Optional
-    arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.
-
-    Return -1 on failure.
-
-    """
-    return s.rfind(*args)
-
-# for a bit of speed
-_float = float
-_int = int
-_long = long
-
-# Convert string to float
-def atof(s):
-    """atof(s) -> float
-
-    Return the floating point number represented by the string s.
-
-    """
-    return _float(s)
-
-
-# Convert string to integer
-def atoi(s , base=10):
-    """atoi(s [,base]) -> int
-
-    Return the integer represented by the string s in the given
-    base, which defaults to 10.  The string s must consist of one
-    or more digits, possibly preceded by a sign.  If base is 0, it
-    is chosen from the leading characters of s, 0 for octal, 0x or
-    0X for hexadecimal.  If base is 16, a preceding 0x or 0X is
-    accepted.
-
-    """
-    return _int(s, base)
-
-
-# Convert string to long integer
-def atol(s, base=10):
-    """atol(s [,base]) -> long
-
-    Return the long integer represented by the string s in the
-    given base, which defaults to 10.  The string s must consist
-    of one or more digits, possibly preceded by a sign.  If base
-    is 0, it is chosen from the leading characters of s, 0 for
-    octal, 0x or 0X for hexadecimal.  If base is 16, a preceding
-    0x or 0X is accepted.  A trailing L or l is not accepted,
-    unless base is 0.
-
-    """
-    return _long(s, base)
-
-
-# Left-justify a string
-def ljust(s, width, *args):
-    """ljust(s, width[, fillchar]) -> string
-
-    Return a left-justified version of s, in a field of the
-    specified width, padded with spaces as needed.  The string is
-    never truncated.  If specified the fillchar is used instead of spaces.
-
-    """
-    return s.ljust(width, *args)
-
-# Right-justify a string
-def rjust(s, width, *args):
-    """rjust(s, width[, fillchar]) -> string
-
-    Return a right-justified version of s, in a field of the
-    specified width, padded with spaces as needed.  The string is
-    never truncated.  If specified the fillchar is used instead of spaces.
-
-    """
-    return s.rjust(width, *args)
-
-# Center a string
-def center(s, width, *args):
-    """center(s, width[, fillchar]) -> string
-
-    Return a center version of s, in a field of the specified
-    width. padded with spaces as needed.  The string is never
-    truncated.  If specified the fillchar is used instead of spaces.
-
-    """
-    return s.center(width, *args)
-
-# Zero-fill a number, e.g., (12, 3) --> '012' and (-3, 3) --> '-03'
-# Decadent feature: the argument may be a string or a number
-# (Use of this is deprecated; it should be a string as with ljust c.s.)
-def zfill(x, width):
-    """zfill(x, width) -> string
-
-    Pad a numeric string x with zeros on the left, to fill a field
-    of the specified width.  The string x is never truncated.
-
-    """
-    if not isinstance(x, basestring):
-        x = repr(x)
-    return x.zfill(width)
-
-# Expand tabs in a string.
-# Doesn't take non-printing chars into account, but does understand \n.
-def expandtabs(s, tabsize=8):
-    """expandtabs(s [,tabsize]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with all tab characters replaced
-    by the appropriate number of spaces, depending on the current
-    column, and the tabsize (default 8).
-
-    """
-    return s.expandtabs(tabsize)
-
-# Character translation through look-up table.
-def translate(s, table, deletions=""):
-    """translate(s,table [,deletions]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s, where all characters occurring
-    in the optional argument deletions are removed, and the
-    remaining characters have been mapped through the given
-    translation table, which must be a string of length 256.  The
-    deletions argument is not allowed for Unicode strings.
-
-    """
-    if deletions:
-        return s.translate(table, deletions)
-    else:
-        # Add s[:0] so that if s is Unicode and table is an 8-bit string,
-        # table is converted to Unicode.  This means that table *cannot*
-        # be a dictionary -- for that feature, use u.translate() directly.
-        return s.translate(table + s[:0])
-
-# Capitalize a string, e.g. "aBc  dEf" -> "Abc  def".
-def capitalize(s):
-    """capitalize(s) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of the string s with only its first character
-    capitalized.
-
-    """
-    return s.capitalize()
-
-# Substring replacement (global)
-def replace(s, old, new, maxsplit=-1):
-    """replace (str, old, new[, maxsplit]) -> string
-
-    Return a copy of string str with all occurrences of substring
-    old replaced by new. If the optional argument maxsplit is
-    given, only the first maxsplit occurrences are replaced.
-
-    """
-    return s.replace(old, new, maxsplit)
-
-
-# Try importing optional built-in module "strop" -- if it exists,
-# it redefines some string operations that are 100-1000 times faster.
-# It also defines values for whitespace, lowercase and uppercase
-# that match <ctype.h>'s definitions.
-
-try:
-    from strop import maketrans, lowercase, uppercase, whitespace
-    letters = lowercase + uppercase
-except ImportError:
-    pass                                          # Use the original versions

ignite/util/subprocess24.py

-# (c) 2005 Ian Bicking and contributors; written for Paste
-# (http://pythonpaste.org)
-#
-# Licensed under the MIT license:
-# http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php
-
-# subprocess - Subprocesses with accessible I/O streams
-#
-# For more information about this module, see PEP 324.
-#
-# This module should remain compatible with Python 2.2, see PEP 291.
-#
-# Copyright (c) 2003-2005 by Peter Astrand <astrand@lysator.liu.se>
-#
-# Licensed to PSF under a Contributor Agreement.
-# See http://www.python.org/2.4/license for licensing details.
-
-r"""subprocess - Subprocesses with accessible I/O streams
-
-This module allows you to spawn processes, connect to their
-input/output/error pipes, and obtain their return codes.  This module
-intends to replace several other, older modules and functions, like:
-
-os.system
-os.spawn*
-os.popen*
-popen2.*
-commands.*
-
-Information about how the subprocess module can be used to replace these
-modules and functions can be found below.
-
-
-
-Using the subprocess module
-===========================
-This module defines one class called Popen:
-
-class Popen(args, bufsize=0, executable=None,
-            stdin=None, stdout=None, stderr=None,
-            preexec_fn=None, close_fds=False, shell=False,
-            cwd=None, env=None, universal_newlines=False,
-            startupinfo=None, creationflags=0):
-
-
-Arguments are:
-
-args should be a string, or a sequence of program arguments.  The
-program to execute is normally the first item in the args sequence or
-string, but can be explicitly set by using the executable argument.
-
-On UNIX, with shell=False (default): In this case, the Popen class
-uses os.execvp() to execute the child program.  args should normally
-be a sequence.  A string will be treated as a sequence with the string
-as the only item (the program to execute).
-
-On UNIX, with shell=True: If args is a string, it specifies the
-command string to execute through the shell.  If args is a sequence,
-the first item specifies the command string, and any additional items
-will be treated as additional shell arguments.
-
-On Windows: the Popen class uses CreateProcess() to execute the child
-program, which operates on strings.  If args is a sequence, it will be
-converted to a string using the list2cmdline method.  Please note that
-not all MS Windows applications interpret the command line the same
-way: The list2cmdline is designed for applications using the same
-rules as the MS C runtime.
-
-bufsize, if given, has the same meaning as the corresponding argument
-to the built-in open() function: 0 means unbuffered, 1 means line
-buffered, any other positive value means use a buffer of
-(approximately) that size.  A negative bufsize means to use the system
-default, which usually means fully buffered.  The default value for
-bufsize is 0 (unbuffered).
-
-stdin, stdout and stderr specify the executed programs' standard
-input, standard output and standard error file handles, respectively.
-Valid values are PIPE, an existing file descriptor (a positive
-integer), an existing file object, and None.  PIPE indicates that a
-new pipe to the child should be created.  With None, no redirection
-will occur; the child's file handles will be inherited from the
-parent.  Additionally, stderr can be STDOUT, which indicates that the
-stderr data from the applications should be captured into the same
-file handle as for stdout.
-
-If preexec_fn is set to a callable object, this object will be called
-in the child process just before the child is executed.
-
-If close_fds is true, all file descriptors except 0, 1 and 2 will be
-closed before the child process is executed.
-
-if shell is true, the specified command will be executed through the
-shell.
-
-If cwd is not None, the current directory will be changed to cwd
-before the child is executed.
-
-If env is not None, it defines the environment variables for the new
-process.
-
-If universal_newlines is true, the file objects stdout and stderr are
-opened as a text files, but lines may be terminated by any of '\n',
-the Unix end-of-line convention, '\r', the Macintosh convention or
-'\r\n', the Windows convention.  All of these external representations
-are seen as '\n' by the Python program.  Note: This feature is only
-available if Python is built with universal newline support (the
-default).  Also, the newlines attribute of the file objects stdout,
-stdin and stderr are not updated by the communicate() method.
-
-The startupinfo and creationflags, if given, will be passed to the
-underlying CreateProcess() function.  They can specify things such as
-appearance of the main window and priority for the new process.
-(Windows only)
-
-
-This module also defines two shortcut functions:
-
-call(*args, **kwargs):
-    Run command with arguments.  Wait for command to complete, then
-    return the returncode attribute.
-
-    The arguments are the same as for the Popen constructor.  Example:
-
-    retcode = call(["ls", "-l"])
-
-
-Exceptions
-----------
-Exceptions raised in the child process, before the new program has
-started to execute, will be re-raised in the parent.  Additionally,
-the exception object will have one extra attribute called
-'child_traceback', which is a string containing traceback information
-from the childs point of view.
-
-The most common exception raised is OSError.  This occurs, for
-example, when trying to execute a non-existent file.  Applications
-should prepare for OSErrors.
-
-A ValueError will be raised if Popen is called with invalid arguments.
-
-
-Security
---------
-Unlike some other popen functions, this implementation will never call
-/bin/sh implicitly.  This means that all characters, including shell
-metacharacters, can safely be passed to child processes.
-
-
-Popen objects
-=============
-Instances of the Popen class have the following methods:
-
-poll()
-    Check if child process has terminated.  Returns returncode
-    attribute.
-
-wait()
-    Wait for child process to terminate.  Returns returncode attribute.
-
-communicate(input=None)
-    Interact with process: Send data to stdin.  Read data from stdout
-    and stderr, until end-of-file is reached.  Wait for process to
-    terminate.  The optional stdin argument should be a string to be
-    sent to the child process, or None, if no data should be sent to
-    the child.
-
-    communicate() returns a tuple (stdout, stderr).
-
-    Note: The data read is buffered in memory, so do not use this
-    method if the data size is large or unlimited.
-
-The following attributes are also available:
-
-stdin
-    If the stdin argument is PIPE, this attribute is a file object
-    that provides input to the child process.  Otherwise, it is None.
-
-stdout
-    If the stdout argument is PIPE, this attribute is a file object
-    that provides output from the child process.  Otherwise, it is
-    None.
-
-stderr
-    If the stderr argument is PIPE, this attribute is file object that
-    provides error output from the child process.  Otherwise, it is
-    None.
-
-pid
-    The process ID of the child process.
-
-returncode
-    The child return code.  A None value indicates that the process
-    hasn't terminated yet.  A negative value -N indicates that the
-    child was terminated by signal N (UNIX only).
-
-
-Replacing older functions with the subprocess module
-====================================================
-In this section, "a ==> b" means that b can be used as a replacement
-for a.
-
-Note: All functions in this section fail (more or less) silently if
-the executed program cannot be found; this module raises an OSError
-exception.
-
-In the following examples, we assume that the subprocess module is
-imported with "from subprocess import *".
-
-
-Replacing /bin/sh shell backquote
----------------------------------
-output=`mycmd myarg`
-==>
-output = Popen(["mycmd", "myarg"], stdout=PIPE).communicate()[0]
-
-
-Replacing shell pipe line
--------------------------
-output=`dmesg | grep hda`
-==>
-p1 = Popen(["dmesg"], stdout=PIPE)
-p2 = Popen(["grep", "hda"], stdin=p1.stdout, stdout=PIPE)
-output = p2.communicate()[0]
-
-
-Replacing os.system()
----------------------
-sts = os.system("mycmd" + " myarg")
-==>
-p = Popen("mycmd" + " myarg", shell=True)
-sts = os.waitpid(p.pid, 0)
-
-Note:
-
-* Calling the program through the shell is usually not required.
-
-* It's easier to look at the returncode attribute than the
-  exitstatus.
-
-A more real-world example would look like this:
-
-try:
-    retcode = call("mycmd" + " myarg", shell=True)
-    if retcode < 0:
-        print >>sys.stderr, "Child was terminated by signal", -retcode
-    else:
-        print >>sys.stderr, "Child returned", retcode
-except OSError, e:
-    print >>sys.stderr, "Execution failed:", e
-
-
-Replacing os.spawn*
--------------------
-P_NOWAIT example:
-
-pid = os.spawnlp(os.P_NOWAIT, "/bin/mycmd", "mycmd", "myarg")
-==>
-pid = Popen(["/bin/mycmd", "myarg"]).pid
-
-
-P_WAIT example:
-
-retcode = os.spawnlp(os.P_WAIT, "/bin/mycmd", "mycmd", "myarg")
-==>
-retcode = call(["/bin/mycmd", "myarg"])
-
-
-Vector example:
-
-os.spawnvp(os.P_NOWAIT, path, args)
-==>
-Popen([path] + args[1:])
-
-
-Environment example:
-
-os.spawnlpe(os.P_NOWAIT, "/bin/mycmd", "mycmd", "myarg", env)
-==>
-Popen(["/bin/mycmd", "myarg"], env={"PATH": "/usr/bin"})
-
-
-Replacing os.popen*
--------------------
-pipe = os.popen(cmd, mode='r', bufsize)
-==>
-pipe = Popen(cmd, shell=True, bufsize=bufsize, stdout=PIPE).stdout
-
-pipe = os.popen(cmd, mode='w', bufsize)
-==>
-pipe = Popen(cmd, shell=True, bufsize=bufsize, stdin=PIPE).stdin
-
-
-(child_stdin, child_stdout) = os.popen2(cmd, mode, bufsize)
-==>
-p = Popen(cmd, shell=True, bufsize=bufsize,
-          stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True)
-(child_stdin, child_stdout) = (p.stdin, p.stdout)
-
-
-(child_stdin,
- child_stdout,
- child_stderr) = os.popen3(cmd, mode, bufsize)
-==>
-p = Popen(cmd, shell=True, bufsize=bufsize,
-          stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, stderr=PIPE, close_fds=True)
-(child_stdin,
- child_stdout,
- child_stderr) = (p.stdin, p.stdout, p.stderr)
-
-
-(child_stdin, child_stdout_and_stderr) = os.popen4(cmd, mode, bufsize)
-==>
-p = Popen(cmd, shell=True, bufsize=bufsize,
-          stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, stderr=STDOUT, close_fds=True)
-(child_stdin, child_stdout_and_stderr) = (p.stdin, p.stdout)
-
-
-Replacing popen2.*
-------------------
-Note: If the cmd argument to popen2 functions is a string, the command
-is executed through /bin/sh.  If it is a list, the command is directly
-executed.
-
-(child_stdout, child_stdin) = popen2.popen2("somestring", bufsize, mode)
-==>
-p = Popen(["somestring"], shell=True, bufsize=bufsize
-          stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True)
-(child_stdout, child_stdin) = (p.stdout, p.stdin)
-
-
-(child_stdout, child_stdin) = popen2.popen2(["mycmd", "myarg"], bufsize, mode)
-==>
-p = Popen(["mycmd", "myarg"], bufsize=bufsize,
-          stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True)
-(child_stdout, child_stdin) = (p.stdout, p.stdin)
-
-The popen2.Popen3 and popen3.Popen4 basically works as subprocess.Popen,
-except that:
-
-* subprocess.Popen raises an exception if the execution fails
-* the capturestderr argument is replaced with the stderr argument.
-* stdin=PIPE and stdout=PIPE must be specified.
-* popen2 closes all filedescriptors by default, but you have to specify
-  close_fds=True with subprocess.Popen.
-
-
-"""
-
-import sys
-mswindows = (sys.platform == "win32")
-
-import os
-import types
-import traceback
-
-if mswindows:
-    import threading
-    import msvcrt
-    if 0: # <-- change this to use pywin32 instead of the _subprocess driver
-        import pywintypes
-        from win32api import GetStdHandle, STD_INPUT_HANDLE, \
-                             STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE, STD_ERROR_HANDLE
-        from win32api import GetCurrentProcess, DuplicateHandle, \
-                             GetModuleFileName, GetVersion
-        from win32con import DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS, SW_HIDE
-        from win32pipe import CreatePipe
-        from win32process import CreateProcess, STARTUPINFO, \
-                                 GetExitCodeProcess, STARTF_USESTDHANDLES, \
-                                 STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW, CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE
-        from win32event import WaitForSingleObject, INFINITE, WAIT_OBJECT_0
-    else:
-        raise ImportError(
-            "Windows subprocess module must be installed: see "
-            "http://effbot.org/downloads/#subprocess")
-        from _subprocess import *
-        class STARTUPINFO:
-            dwFlags = 0
-            hStdInput = None
-            hStdOutput = None
-            hStdError = None
-        class pywintypes:
-            error = IOError
-else:
-    import select
-    import errno
-    import fcntl
-    import pickle
-
-__all__ = ["Popen", "PIPE", "STDOUT", "call"]
-
-try:
-    MAXFD = os.sysconf("SC_OPEN_MAX")
-except:
-    MAXFD = 256
-
-# True/False does not exist on 2.2.0
-try:
-    False
-except NameError:
-    False = 0
-    True = 1
-
-_active = []
-
-def _cleanup():
-    for inst in _active[:]:
-        inst.poll()
-
-PIPE = -1
-STDOUT = -2
-
-
-def call(*args, **kwargs):
-    """Run command with arguments.  Wait for command to complete, then
-    return the returncode attribute.
-
-    The arguments are the same as for the Popen constructor.  Example:
-
-    retcode = call(["ls", "-l"])
-    """
-    return Popen(*args, **kwargs).wait()
-
-
-def list2cmdline(seq):
-    """
-    Translate a sequence of arguments into a command line
-    string, using the same rules as the MS C runtime:
-
-    1) Arguments are delimited by white space, which is either a
-       space or a tab.
-
-    2) A string surrounded by double quotation marks is
-       interpreted as a single argument, regardless of white space
-       contained within.  A quoted string can be embedded in an
-       argument.
-
-    3) A double quotation mark preceded by a backslash is
-       interpreted as a literal double quotation mark.
-
-    4) Backslashes are interpreted literally, unless they
-       immediately precede a double quotation mark.
-
-    5) If backslashes immediately precede a double quotation mark,
-       every pair of backslashes is interpreted as a literal
-       backslash.  If the number of backslashes is odd, the last
-       backslash escapes the next double quotation mark as
-       described in rule 3.
-    """
-
-    # See
-    # http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/vccelng/htm/progs_12.asp
-    result = []
-    needquote = False
-    for arg in seq:
-        bs_buf = []
-
-        # Add a space to separate this argument from the others
-        if result:
-            result.append(' ')
-
-        needquote = (" " in arg) or ("\t" in arg)
-        if needquote:
-            result.append('"')
-
-        for c in arg:
-            if c == '\\':
-                # Don't know if we need to double yet.
-                bs_buf.append(c)
-            elif c == '"':
-                # Double backspaces.
-                result.append('\\' * len(bs_buf)*2)
-                bs_buf = []
-                result.append('\\"')
-            else:
-                # Normal char
-                if bs_buf:
-                    result.extend(bs_buf)
-                    bs_buf = []
-                result.append(c)
-
-        # Add remaining backspaces, if any.
-        if bs_buf:
-            result.extend(bs_buf)
-
-        if needquote:
-            result.extend(bs_buf)
-            result.append('"')
-
-    return ''.join(result)
-
-
-class Popen(object):
-    def __init__(self, args, bufsize=0, executable=None,
-                 stdin=None, stdout=None, stderr=None,
-                 preexec_fn=None, close_fds=False, shell=False,
-                 cwd=None, env=None, universal_newlines=False,
-                 startupinfo=None, creationflags=0):
-        """Create new Popen instance."""
-        _cleanup()
-
-        if not isinstance(bufsize, (int, long)):
-            raise TypeError("bufsize must be an integer")
-
-        if mswindows:
-            if preexec_fn is not None:
-                raise ValueError("preexec_fn is not supported on Windows "
-                                 "platforms")
-            if close_fds:
-                raise ValueError("close_fds is not supported on Windows "
-                                 "platforms")
-        else:
-            # POSIX
-            if startupinfo is not None:
-                raise ValueError("startupinfo is only supported on Windows "
-                                 "platforms")
-            if creationflags != 0:
-                raise ValueError("creationflags is only supported on Windows "
-                                 "platforms")
-
-        self.stdin = None
-        self.stdout = None
-        self.stderr = None
-        self.pid = None
-        self.returncode = None
-        self.universal_newlines = universal_newlines
-
-        # Input and output objects. The general principle is like
-        # this:
-        #
-        # Parent                   Child
-        # ------                   -----
-        # p2cwrite   ---stdin--->  p2cread
-        # c2pread    <--stdout---  c2pwrite
-        # errread    <--stderr---  errwrite
-        #
-        # On POSIX, the child objects are file descriptors.  On
-        # Windows, these are Windows file handles.  The parent objects
-        # are file descriptors on both platforms.  The parent objects
-        # are None when not using PIPEs. The child objects are None
-        # when not redirecting.
-
-        (p2cread, p2cwrite,
-         c2pread, c2pwrite,
-         errread, errwrite) = self._get_handles(stdin, stdout, stderr)
-
-        self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
-                            cwd, env, universal_newlines,
-                            startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
-                            p2cread, p2cwrite,
-                            c2pread, c2pwrite,
-                            errread, errwrite)
-
-        if p2cwrite:
-            self.stdin = os.fdopen(p2cwrite, 'wb', bufsize)
-        if c2pread:
-            if universal_newlines:
-                self.stdout = os.fdopen(c2pread, 'rU', bufsize)
-            else:
-                self.stdout = os.fdopen(c2pread, 'rb', bufsize)
-        if errread:
-            if universal_newlines:
-                self.stderr = os.fdopen(errread, 'rU', bufsize)
-            else:
-                self.stderr = os.fdopen(errread, 'rb', bufsize)
-
-        _active.append(self)
-
-
-    def _translate_newlines(self, data):
-        data = data.replace("\r\n", "\n")
-        data = data.replace("\r", "\n")
-        return data
-
-
-    if mswindows:
-        #
-        # Windows methods
-        #
-        def _get_handles(self, stdin, stdout, stderr):
-            """Construct and return tupel with IO objects:
-            p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite
-            """
-            if stdin == None and stdout == None and stderr == None:
-                return (None, None, None, None, None, None)
-
-            p2cread, p2cwrite = None, None
-            c2pread, c2pwrite = None, None
-            errread, errwrite = None, None
-
-            if stdin == None:
-                p2cread = GetStdHandle(STD_INPUT_HANDLE)
-            elif stdin == PIPE:
-                p2cread, p2cwrite = CreatePipe(None, 0)
-                # Detach and turn into fd
-                p2cwrite = p2cwrite.Detach()
-                p2cwrite = msvcrt.open_osfhandle(p2cwrite, 0)
-            elif type(stdin) == types.IntType:
-                p2cread = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stdin)
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                p2cread = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stdin.fileno())
-            p2cread = self._make_inheritable(p2cread)
-
-            if stdout == None:
-                c2pwrite = GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE)
-            elif stdout == PIPE:
-                c2pread, c2pwrite = CreatePipe(None, 0)
-                # Detach and turn into fd
-                c2pread = c2pread.Detach()
-                c2pread = msvcrt.open_osfhandle(c2pread, 0)
-            elif type(stdout) == types.IntType:
-                c2pwrite = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stdout)
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                c2pwrite = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stdout.fileno())
-            c2pwrite = self._make_inheritable(c2pwrite)
-
-            if stderr == None:
-                errwrite = GetStdHandle(STD_ERROR_HANDLE)
-            elif stderr == PIPE:
-                errread, errwrite = CreatePipe(None, 0)
-                # Detach and turn into fd
-                errread = errread.Detach()
-                errread = msvcrt.open_osfhandle(errread, 0)
-            elif stderr == STDOUT:
-                errwrite = c2pwrite
-            elif type(stderr) == types.IntType:
-                errwrite = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stderr)
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                errwrite = msvcrt.get_osfhandle(stderr.fileno())
-            errwrite = self._make_inheritable(errwrite)
-
-            return (p2cread, p2cwrite,
-                    c2pread, c2pwrite,
-                    errread, errwrite)
-
-
-        def _make_inheritable(self, handle):
-            """Return a duplicate of handle, which is inheritable"""
-            return DuplicateHandle(GetCurrentProcess(), handle,
-                                   GetCurrentProcess(), 0, 1,
-                                   DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS)
-
-
-        def _find_w9xpopen(self):
-            """Find and return absolut path to w9xpopen.exe"""
-            w9xpopen = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(GetModuleFileName(0)),
-                                    "w9xpopen.exe")
-            if not os.path.exists(w9xpopen):
-                # Eeek - file-not-found - possibly an embedding
-                # situation - see if we can locate it in sys.exec_prefix
-                w9xpopen = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(sys.exec_prefix),
-                                        "w9xpopen.exe")
-                if not os.path.exists(w9xpopen):
-                    raise RuntimeError("Cannot locate w9xpopen.exe, which is "
-                                       "needed for Popen to work with your "
-                                       "shell or platform.")
-            return w9xpopen
-
-
-        def _execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
-                           cwd, env, universal_newlines,
-                           startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
-                           p2cread, p2cwrite,
-                           c2pread, c2pwrite,
-                           errread, errwrite):
-            """Execute program (MS Windows version)"""
-
-            if not isinstance(args, types.StringTypes):
-                args = list2cmdline(args)
-
-            # Process startup details
-            default_startupinfo = STARTUPINFO()
-            if startupinfo == None:
-                startupinfo = default_startupinfo
-            if not None in (p2cread, c2pwrite, errwrite):
-                startupinfo.dwFlags |= STARTF_USESTDHANDLES
-                startupinfo.hStdInput = p2cread
-                startupinfo.hStdOutput = c2pwrite
-                startupinfo.hStdError = errwrite
-
-            if shell:
-                default_startupinfo.dwFlags |= STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW
-                default_startupinfo.wShowWindow = SW_HIDE
-                comspec = os.environ.get("COMSPEC", "cmd.exe")
-                args = comspec + " /c " + args
-                if (GetVersion() >= 0x80000000L or
-                        os.path.basename(comspec).lower() == "command.com"):
-                    # Win9x, or using command.com on NT. We need to
-                    # use the w9xpopen intermediate program. For more
-                    # information, see KB Q150956
-                    # (http://web.archive.org/web/20011105084002/http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q150/9/56.asp)
-                    w9xpopen = self._find_w9xpopen()
-                    args = '"%s" %s' % (w9xpopen, args)
-                    # Not passing CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE has been known to
-                    # cause random failures on win9x.  Specifically a
-                    # dialog: "Your program accessed mem currently in
-                    # use at xxx" and a hopeful warning about the
-                    # stability of your system.  Cost is Ctrl+C wont
-                    # kill children.
-                    creationflags |= CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE
-
-            # Start the process
-            try:
-                hp, ht, pid, tid = CreateProcess(executable, args,
-                                         # no special security
-                                         None, None,
-                                         # must inherit handles to pass std
-                                         # handles
-                                         1,
-                                         creationflags,
-                                         env,
-                                         cwd,
-                                         startupinfo)
-            except pywintypes.error, e:
-                # Translate pywintypes.error to WindowsError, which is
-                # a subclass of OSError.  FIXME: We should really
-                # translate errno using _sys_errlist (or simliar), but
-                # how can this be done from Python?
-                raise WindowsError(*e.args)
-
-            # Retain the process handle, but close the thread handle
-            self._handle = hp
-            self.pid = pid
-            ht.Close()
-
-            # Child is launched. Close the parent's copy of those pipe
-            # handles that only the child should have open.  You need
-            # to make sure that no handles to the write end of the
-            # output pipe are maintained in this process or else the
-            # pipe will not close when the child process exits and the
-            # ReadFile will hang.
-            if p2cread != None:
-                p2cread.Close()
-            if c2pwrite != None:
-                c2pwrite.Close()
-            if errwrite != None:
-                errwrite.Close()
-
-
-        def poll(self):
-            """Check if child process has terminated.  Returns returncode
-            attribute."""
-            if self.returncode == None:
-                if WaitForSingleObject(self._handle, 0) == WAIT_OBJECT_0:
-                    self.returncode = GetExitCodeProcess(self._handle)
-                    _active.remove(self)
-            return self.returncode
-
-
-        def wait(self):
-            """Wait for child process to terminate.  Returns returncode
-            attribute."""
-            if self.returncode == None:
-                obj = WaitForSingleObject(self._handle, INFINITE)
-                self.returncode = GetExitCodeProcess(self._handle)
-                _active.remove(self)
-            return self.returncode
-
-
-        def _readerthread(self, fh, buffer):
-            buffer.append(fh.read())
-
-
-        def communicate(self, input=None):
-            """Interact with process: Send data to stdin.  Read data from
-            stdout and stderr, until end-of-file is reached.  Wait for
-            process to terminate.  The optional input argument should be a
-            string to be sent to the child process, or None, if no data
-            should be sent to the child.
-
-            communicate() returns a tuple (stdout, stderr)."""
-            stdout = None # Return
-            stderr = None # Return
-
-            if self.stdout:
-                stdout = []
-                stdout_thread = threading.Thread(target=self._readerthread,
-                                                 args=(self.stdout, stdout))
-                stdout_thread.setDaemon(True)
-                stdout_thread.start()
-            if self.stderr:
-                stderr = []
-                stderr_thread = threading.Thread(target=self._readerthread,
-                                                 args=(self.stderr, stderr))
-                stderr_thread.setDaemon(True)
-                stderr_thread.start()
-
-            if self.stdin:
-                if input != None:
-                    self.stdin.write(input)
-                self.stdin.close()
-
-            if self.stdout:
-                stdout_thread.join()
-            if self.stderr:
-                stderr_thread.join()
-
-            # All data exchanged.  Translate lists into strings.
-            if stdout != None:
-                stdout = stdout[0]
-            if stderr != None:
-                stderr = stderr[0]
-
-            # Translate newlines, if requested.  We cannot let the file
-            # object do the translation: It is based on stdio, which is
-            # impossible to combine with select (unless forcing no
-            # buffering).
-            if self.universal_newlines and hasattr(open, 'newlines'):
-                if stdout:
-                    stdout = self._translate_newlines(stdout)
-                if stderr:
-                    stderr = self._translate_newlines(stderr)
-
-            self.wait()
-            return (stdout, stderr)
-
-    else:
-        #
-        # POSIX methods
-        #
-        def _get_handles(self, stdin, stdout, stderr):
-            """Construct and return tupel with IO objects:
-            p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite
-            """
-            p2cread, p2cwrite = None, None
-            c2pread, c2pwrite = None, None
-            errread, errwrite = None, None
-
-            if stdin == None:
-                pass
-            elif stdin == PIPE:
-                p2cread, p2cwrite = os.pipe()
-            elif type(stdin) == types.IntType:
-                p2cread = stdin
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                p2cread = stdin.fileno()
-
-            if stdout == None:
-                pass
-            elif stdout == PIPE:
-                c2pread, c2pwrite = os.pipe()
-            elif type(stdout) == types.IntType:
-                c2pwrite = stdout
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                c2pwrite = stdout.fileno()
-
-            if stderr == None:
-                pass
-            elif stderr == PIPE:
-                errread, errwrite = os.pipe()
-            elif stderr == STDOUT:
-                errwrite = c2pwrite
-            elif type(stderr) == types.IntType:
-                errwrite = stderr
-            else:
-                # Assuming file-like object
-                errwrite = stderr.fileno()
-
-            return (p2cread, p2cwrite,
-                    c2pread, c2pwrite,
-                    errread, errwrite)
-
-
-        def _set_cloexec_flag(self, fd):
-            try:
-                cloexec_flag = fcntl.FD_CLOEXEC
-            except AttributeError:
-                cloexec_flag = 1
-
-            old = fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_GETFD)
-            fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFD, old | cloexec_flag)
-
-
-        def _close_fds(self, but):
-            for i in range(3, MAXFD):
-                if i == but:
-                    continue
-                try:
-                    os.close(i)
-                except:
-                    pass
-
-
-        def _execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
-                           cwd, env, universal_newlines,
-                           startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
-                           p2cread, p2cwrite,
-                           c2pread, c2pwrite,
-                           errread, errwrite):
-            """Execute program (POSIX version)"""
-
-            if isinstance(args, types.StringTypes):
-                args = [args]
-
-            if shell:
-                args = ["/bin/sh", "-c"] + args
-
-            if executable == None:
-                executable = args[0]
-
-            # For transferring possible exec failure from child to parent
-            # The first char specifies the exception type: 0 means
-            # OSError, 1 means some other error.
-            errpipe_read, errpipe_write = os.pipe()
-            self._set_cloexec_flag(errpipe_write)
-
-            self.pid = os.fork()
-            if self.pid == 0:
-                # Child
-                try:
-                    # Close parent's pipe ends
-                    if p2cwrite:
-                        os.close(p2cwrite)
-                    if c2pread:
-                        os.close(c2pread)
-                    if errread:
-                        os.close(errread)
-                    os.close(errpipe_read)
-
-                    # Dup fds for child
-                    if p2cread:
-                        os.dup2(p2cread, 0)
-                    if c2pwrite:
-                        os.dup2(c2pwrite, 1)
-                    if errwrite:
-                        os.dup2(errwrite, 2)
-
-                    # Close pipe fds.  Make sure we doesn't close the same
-                    # fd more than once.
-                    if p2cread:
-                        os.close(p2cread)
-                    if c2pwrite and c2pwrite not in (p2cread,):
-                        os.close(c2pwrite)
-                    if errwrite and errwrite not in (p2cread, c2pwrite):
-                        os.close(errwrite)
-
-                    # Close all other fds, if asked for
-                    if close_fds:
-                        self._close_fds(but=errpipe_write)
-
-                    if cwd != None:
-                        os.chdir(cwd)
-
-                    if preexec_fn:
-                        apply(preexec_fn)
-
-                    if env == None:
-                        os.execvp(executable, args)
-                    else:
-                        os.execvpe(executable, args, env)
-
-                except:
-                    exc_type, exc_value, tb = sys.exc_info()
-                    # Save the traceback and attach it to the exception object
-                    exc_lines = traceback.format_exception(exc_type,
-                                                           exc_value,
-                                                           tb)
-                    exc_value.child_traceback = ''.join(exc_lines)
-                    os.write(errpipe_write, pickle.dumps(exc_value))
-
-                # This exitcode won't be reported to applications, so it
-                # really doesn't matter what we return.
-                os._exit(255)
-
-            # Parent
-            os.close(errpipe_write)
-            if p2cread and p2cwrite:
-                os.close(p2cread)
-            if c2pwrite and c2pread:
-                os.close(c2pwrite)
-            if errwrite and errread:
-                os.close(errwrite)
-
-            # Wait for exec to fail or succeed; possibly raising exception
-            data = os.read(errpipe_read, 1048576) # Exceptions limited to 1 MB
-            os.close(errpipe_read)
-            if data != "":
-                os.waitpid(self.pid, 0)
-                child_exception = pickle.loads(data)
-                raise child_exception
-
-
-        def _handle_exitstatus(self, sts):
-            if os.WIFSIGNALED(sts):
-                self.returncode = -os.WTERMSIG(sts)
-            elif os.WIFEXITED(sts):
-                self.returncode = os.WEXITSTATUS(sts)
-            else:
-                # Should never happen
-                raise RuntimeError("Unknown child exit status!")
-
-            _active.remove(self)
-
-
-        def poll(self):
-            """Check if child process has terminated.  Returns returncode
-            attribute."""
-            if self.returncode == None:
-                try:
-                    pid, sts = os.waitpid(self.pid, os.WNOHANG)
-                    if pid == self.pid:
-                        self._handle_exitstatus(sts)
-                except os.error:
-                    pass
-            return self.returncode
-
-
-        def wait(self):
-            """Wait for child process to terminate.  Returns returncode
-            attribute."""
-            if self.returncode == None:
-                pid, sts = os.waitpid(self.pid, 0)
-                self._handle_exitstatus(sts)
-            return self.returncode
-
-
-        def communicate(self, input=None):
-            """Interact with process: Send data to stdin.  Read data from
-            stdout and stderr, until end-of-file is reached.  Wait for
-            process to terminate.  The optional input argument should be a
-            string to be sent to the child process, or None, if no data
-            should be sent to the child.
-
-            communicate() returns a tuple (stdout, stderr)."""
-            read_set = []
-            write_set = []
-            stdout = None # Return
-            stderr = None # Return
-
-            if self.stdin:
-                # Flush stdio buffer.  This might block, if the user has
-                # been writing to .stdin in an uncontrolled fashion.
-                self.stdin.flush()
-                if input:
-                    write_set.append(self.stdin)
-                else:
-                    self.stdin.close()
-            if self.stdout:
-                read_set.append(self.stdout)
-                stdout = []
-            if self.stderr:
-                read_set.append(self.stderr)
-                stderr = []
-
-            while read_set or write_set:
-                rlist, wlist, xlist = select.select(read_set, write_set, [])
-
-                if self.stdin in wlist:
-                    # When select has indicated that the file is writable,
-                    # we can write up to PIPE_BUF bytes without risk
-                    # blocking.  POSIX defines PIPE_BUF >= 512
-                    bytes_written = os.write(self.stdin.fileno(), input[:512])
-                    input = input[bytes_written:]
-                    if not input:
-                        self.stdin.close()
-                        write_set.remove(self.stdin)
-
-                if self.stdout in rlist:
-                    data = os.read(self.stdout.fileno(), 1024)
-                    if data == "":
-                        self.stdout.close()
-                        read_set.remove(self.stdout)
-                    stdout.append(data)
-
-                if self.stderr in rlist:
-                    data = os.read(self.stderr.fileno(), 1024)
-                    if data == "":
-                        self.stderr.close()
-                        read_set.remove(self.stderr)
-                    stderr.append(data)
-
-            # All data exchanged.  Translate lists into strings.
-            if stdout != None:
-                stdout = ''.join(stdout)
-            if stderr != None:
-                stderr = ''.join(stderr)
-
-            # Translate newlines, if requested.  We cannot let the file
-            # object do the translation: It is based on stdio, which is
-            # impossible to combine with select (unless forcing no
-            # buffering).
-            if self.universal_newlines and hasattr(open, 'newlines'):
-                if stdout:
-                    stdout = self._translate_newlines(stdout)
-                if stderr:
-                    stderr = self._translate_newlines(stderr)
-
-            self.wait()
-            return (stdout, stderr)
-
-
-def _demo_posix():
-    #
-    # Example 1: Simple redirection: Get process list
-    #
-    plist = Popen(["ps"], stdout=PIPE).communicate()[0]
-    print "Process list:"
-    print plist
-
-    #
-    # Example 2: Change uid before executing child
-    #
-    if os.getuid() == 0:
-        p = Popen(["id"], preexec_fn=lambda: os.setuid(100))
-        p.wait()
-
-    #
-    # Example 3: Connecting several subprocesses
-    #
-    print "Looking for 'hda'..."
-    p1 = Popen(["dmesg"], stdout=PIPE)
-    p2 = Popen(["grep", "hda"], stdin=p1.stdout, stdout=PIPE)
-    print repr(p2.communicate()[0])
-
-    #
-    # Example 4: Catch execution error
-    #
-    print
-    print "Trying a weird file..."
-    try:
-        print Popen(["/this/path/does/not/exist"]).communicate()
-    except OSError, e:
-        if e.errno == errno.ENOENT:
-            print "The file didn't exist.  I thought so..."
-            print "Child traceback:"
-            print e.child_traceback
-        else:
-            print "Error", e.errno
-    else:
-        print >>sys.stderr, "Gosh.  No error."
-
-
-def _demo_windows():
-    #
-    # Example 1: Connecting several subprocesses
-    #
-    print "Looking for 'PROMPT' in set output..."
-    p1 = Popen("set", stdout=PIPE, shell=True)
-    p2 = Popen('find "PROMPT"', stdin=p1.stdout, stdout=PIPE)
-    print repr(p2.communicate()[0])
-
-    #
-    # Example 2: Simple execution of program
-    #
-    print "Executing calc..."
-    p = Popen("calc")
-    p.wait()
-
-
-if __name__ == "__main__":
-    if mswindows:
-        _demo_windows()
-    else:
-        _demo_posix()
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.