tweethon / tweethon.py

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#!/usr/bin/python
#
# Copyright 2007 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

'''A library that provides a python interface to the Twitter API'''

__author__ = 'jeremy@jeremyrossi.com'
__version__ = '0.8.1'


import base64
import calendar
try:
    import hashlib
except ImportError:
    import md5 as hashlib

try:
    import json
except ImportError:
    import simplejson as json
import os
import rfc822
import sys
import tempfile
import textwrap
import time
import urllib
import urllib2
import urlparse
import gzip
import StringIO
import datetime



CHARACTER_LIMIT = 140


class TwitterError(Exception):
    '''Base class for Twitter errors'''
    
    @property
    def message(self):
        '''Returns the first argument used to construct this error.'''
        return self.args[0]

class Status(object):
    '''A class representing the Status structure used by the twitter API.
    
    The Status structure exposes the following properties:
      
      status.created_at
      status.created_at_in_seconds # read only
      status.favorited
      status.in_reply_to_screen_name
      status.in_reply_to_user_id
      status.in_reply_to_status_id
      status.truncated
      status.source
      status.id
      status.text
      status.location
      status.relative_created_at # read only
      status.user
    '''
    def __init__(self,
                 created_at=None,
                 favorited=None,
                 id=None,
                 text=None,
                 location=None,
                 user=None,
                 in_reply_to_screen_name=None,
                 in_reply_to_user_id=None,
                 in_reply_to_status_id=None,
                 truncated=None,
                 source=None,
                 now=None):
        '''An object to hold a Twitter status message.
        
        This class is normally instantiated by the twitter.Api class and
        returned in a sequence.
        
        Note: Dates are posted in the form "Sat Jan 27 04:17:38 +0000 2007"
        
        Args:
          created_at: The time this status message was posted
          favorited: Whether this is a favorite of the authenticated user
          id: The unique id of this status message
          text: The text of this status message
          location: the geolocation string associated with this message
          relative_created_at:
              A human readable string representing the posting time
          user:
              A twitter.User instance representing the person posting the message
          now:
              The current time, if the client choses to set it.  Defaults to the
              wall clock time.
        '''
        self.created_at = created_at
        self.favorited = favorited
        self.id = id
        self.text = text
        self.location = location
        self.user = user
        self.now = now
        self.in_reply_to_screen_name = in_reply_to_screen_name
        self.in_reply_to_user_id = in_reply_to_user_id
        self.in_reply_to_status_id = in_reply_to_status_id
        self.truncated = truncated
        self.source = source
    
    def GetCreatedAt(self):
        '''Get the time this status message was posted.
        
        Returns:
            The time this status message was posted
        '''
        return self._created_at
    
    def SetCreatedAt(self, created_at):
        '''Set the time this status message was posted.
        
        Args:
            created_at: The time this status message was created
        '''
        self._created_at = created_at
    
    created_at = property(GetCreatedAt, SetCreatedAt,
                          doc='The time this status message was posted.')
    
    def GetCreatedAtInSeconds(self):
        '''Get the time this status message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
        
        Returns:
            The time this status message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
        '''
        return calendar.timegm(rfc822.parsedate(self.created_at))
    
    created_at_in_seconds = property(GetCreatedAtInSeconds,
                                     doc="The time this status message was "
                                         "posted, in seconds since the epoch")
    
    def GetFavorited(self):
        '''Get the favorited setting of this status message.
        
        Returns:
            True if this status message is favorited; False otherwise
        '''
        return self._favorited
    
    def SetFavorited(self, favorited):
        '''Set the favorited state of this status message.
        
        Args:
            favorited: boolean True/False favorited state of this status message
        '''
        self._favorited = favorited
    
    favorited = property(GetFavorited, SetFavorited,
                         doc='The favorited state of this status message.')
    
    def GetId(self):
        '''Get the unique id of this status message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique id of this status message
        '''
        return self._id
    
    def SetId(self, id):
        '''Set the unique id of this status message.
        
        Args:
            id: The unique id of this status message
        '''
        self._id = id
    
    id = property(GetId, SetId,
                  doc='The unique id of this status message.')
    
    def GetInReplyToScreenName(self):
        return self._in_reply_to_screen_name
    
    def SetInReplyToScreenName(self, in_reply_to_screen_name):
        self._in_reply_to_screen_name = in_reply_to_screen_name
    
    in_reply_to_screen_name = property(GetInReplyToScreenName, SetInReplyToScreenName,
                  doc='')
    
    def GetInReplyToUserId(self):
        return self._in_reply_to_user_id
    
    def SetInReplyToUserId(self, in_reply_to_user_id):
        self._in_reply_to_user_id = in_reply_to_user_id
    
    in_reply_to_user_id = property(GetInReplyToUserId, SetInReplyToUserId,
                  doc='')
    
    def GetInReplyToStatusId(self):
        return self._in_reply_to_status_id
    
    def SetInReplyToStatusId(self, in_reply_to_status_id):
        self._in_reply_to_status_id = in_reply_to_status_id
    
    in_reply_to_status_id = property(GetInReplyToStatusId, SetInReplyToStatusId,
                  doc='')
    
    def GetTruncated(self):
        return self._truncated
    
    def SetTruncated(self, truncated):
        self._truncated = truncated
    
    truncated = property(GetTruncated, SetTruncated,
                  doc='')
    
    def GetSource(self):
        return self._source
    
    def SetSource(self, source):
        self._source = source
    
    source = property(GetSource, SetSource,
                  doc='')
    
    def GetText(self):
        '''Get the text of this status message.
        
        Returns:
            The text of this status message.
        '''
        return self._text
    
    def SetText(self, text):
        '''Set the text of this status message.
        
        Args:
            text: The text of this status message
        '''
        self._text = text
    
    text = property(GetText, SetText,
                    doc='The text of this status message')
    
    def GetLocation(self):
        '''Get the geolocation associated with this status message
        
        Returns:
            The geolocation string of this status message.
        '''
        return self._location
    
    def SetLocation(self, location):
        '''Set the geolocation associated with this status message
        
        Args:
            location: The geolocation string of this status message
        '''
        self._location = location
    
    location = property(GetLocation, SetLocation,
                        doc='The geolocation string of this status message')
    
    def GetRelativeCreatedAt(self):
        '''Get a human redable string representing the posting time
        
        Returns:
            A human readable string representing the posting time
        '''
        fudge = 1.25
        delta  = int(self.now) - int(self.created_at_in_seconds)
        
        if delta < (1 * fudge):
            return 'about a second ago'
        elif delta < (60 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d seconds ago' % (delta)
        elif delta < (60 * fudge):
            return 'about a minute ago'
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d minutes ago' % (delta / 60)
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * fudge):
            return 'about an hour ago'
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d hours ago' % (delta / (60 * 60))
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * fudge):
            return 'about a day ago'
        else:
            return 'about %d days ago' % (delta / (60 * 60 * 24))
    
    relative_created_at = property(GetRelativeCreatedAt,
                                   doc='Get a human readable string representing'
                                       'the posting time')
    
    def GetUser(self):
        '''Get a twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message.
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message
        '''
        return self._user
    
    def SetUser(self, user):
        '''Set a twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message.
        
        Args:
            user: A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this status message
        '''
        self._user = user
    
    user = property(GetUser, SetUser,
                    doc='A twitter.User reprenting the entity posting this '
                        'status message')
    
    def GetNow(self):
        '''Get the wallclock time for this status message.
        
        Used to calculate relative_created_at.  Defaults to the time
        the object was instantiated.
        
        Returns:
            Whatever the status instance believes the current time to be,
            in seconds since the epoch.
        '''
        if self._now is None:
          self._now = time.time()
        return self._now
    
    def SetNow(self, now):
        '''Set the wallclock time for this status message.
        
        Used to calculate relative_created_at.  Defaults to the time
        the object was instantiated.
        
        Args:
            now: The wallclock time for this instance.
        '''
        self._now = now
    
    now = property(GetNow, SetNow,
                   doc='The wallclock time for this status instance.')
  
    
    def __ne__(self, other):
        return not self.__eq__(other)
    
    def __eq__(self, other):
        try:
            return other and \
                   self.created_at == other.created_at and \
                   self.id == other.id and \
                   self.text == other.text and \
                   self.location == other.location and \
                   self.user == other.user and \
                   self.in_reply_to_screen_name == other.in_reply_to_screen_name and \
                   self.in_reply_to_user_id == other.in_reply_to_user_id and \
                   self.in_reply_to_status_id == other.in_reply_to_status_id and \
                   self.truncated == other.truncated and \
                   self.favorited == other.favorited and \
                   self.source == other.source
        except AttributeError:
            return False
    
    def __str__(self):
        '''A string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
        
        The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
        
        Returns:
            A string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
        '''
        return self.AsJsonString()
    
    def AsJsonString(self):
        '''A JSON string representation of this twitter.Status instance.
        
        Returns:
            A JSON string representation of this twitter.Status instance
       '''
        return json.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
    
    def AsDict(self):
        '''A dict representation of this twitter.Status instance.
        
        The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
        
        Return:
            A dict representing this twitter.Status instance
        '''
        data = {}
        if self.created_at:
            data['created_at'] = self.created_at
        if self.favorited:
            data['favorited'] = self.favorited
        if self.id:
            data['id'] = self.id
        if self.text:
            data['text'] = self.text
        if self.location:
            data['location'] = self.location
        if self.user:
            data['user'] = self.user.AsDict()
        if self.in_reply_to_screen_name:
            data['in_reply_to_screen_name'] = self.in_reply_to_screen_name
        if self.in_reply_to_user_id:
            data['in_reply_to_user_id'] = self.in_reply_to_user_id
        if self.in_reply_to_status_id:
            data['in_reply_to_status_id'] = self.in_reply_to_status_id
        if self.truncated is not None:
            data['truncated'] = self.truncated
        if self.favorited is not None:
            data['favorited'] = self.favorited
        if self.source:
            data['source'] = self.source
        return data
    
    @staticmethod
    def NewFromJsonDict(data):
        '''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
        
        Args:
            data: A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance
        '''
        if 'user' in data:
            user = User.NewFromJsonDict(data['user'])
        else:
            user = None
        return Status(created_at=data.get('created_at', None),
                      favorited=data.get('favorited', None),
                      id=data.get('id', None),
                      text=data.get('text', None),
                      location=data.get('location', None),
                      in_reply_to_screen_name=data.get('in_reply_to_screen_name', None),
                      in_reply_to_user_id=data.get('in_reply_to_user_id', None),
                      in_reply_to_status_id=data.get('in_reply_to_status_id', None),
                      truncated=data.get('truncated', None),
                      source=data.get('source', None),
                      user=user)


class User(object):
    '''A class representing the User structure used by the twitter API.
    
    The User structure exposes the following properties:
      
      user.id
      user.name
      user.screen_name
      user.location
      user.description
      user.profile_image_url
      user.profile_background_tile
      user.profile_background_image_url
      user.profile_sidebar_fill_color
      user.profile_background_color
      user.profile_link_color
      user.profile_text_color
      user.protected
      user.utc_offset
      user.time_zone
      user.url
      user.status
      user.statuses_count
      user.followers_count
      user.friends_count
      user.favourites_count
      user.created_at
      user.created_at_in_seconds
      user.relative_created_at
      user.verified
    '''
    
    def __init__(self,
          id=None,
                 name=None,
                 screen_name=None,
                 location=None,
                 description=None,
                 profile_image_url=None,
                 profile_background_tile=None,
                 profile_background_image_url=None,
                 profile_sidebar_fill_color=None,
                 profile_background_color=None,
                 profile_link_color=None,
                 profile_text_color=None,
                 protected=None,
                 utc_offset=None,
                 time_zone=None,
                 followers_count=None,
                 friends_count=None,
                 statuses_count=None,
                 favourites_count=None,
                 created_at=None,
                 url=None,
                 now=None,
                 status=None,
                 verified=False):
        self.id = id
        self.name = name
        self.screen_name = screen_name
        self.location = location
        self.description = description
        self.profile_image_url = profile_image_url
        self.profile_background_tile = profile_background_tile
        self.profile_background_image_url = profile_background_image_url
        self.profile_sidebar_fill_color = profile_sidebar_fill_color
        self.profile_background_color = profile_background_color
        self.profile_link_color = profile_link_color
        self.profile_text_color = profile_text_color
        self.protected = protected
        self.utc_offset = utc_offset
        self.time_zone = time_zone
        self.followers_count = followers_count
        self.friends_count = friends_count
        self.statuses_count = statuses_count
        self.favourites_count = favourites_count
        self.created_at = created_at
        self.url = url
        self.now = now
        self.status = status
        self.verified = verified

  
    
    def GetId(self):
        '''Get the unique id of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The unique id of this user
        '''
        return self._id
    
    def SetId(self, id):
        '''Set the unique id of this user.
        
        Args:
            id: The unique id of this user.
        '''
        self._id = id
    
    id = property(GetId, SetId,
                  doc='The unique id of this user.')
    
    def GetName(self):
        '''Get the real name of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The real name of this user
        '''
        return self._name
    
    def SetName(self, name):
        '''Set the real name of this user.
        
        Args:
            name: The real name of this user
        '''
        self._name = name
    
    name = property(GetName, SetName,
                    doc='The real name of this user.')
    
    def GetScreenName(self):
        '''Get the short username of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The short username of this user
        '''
        return self._screen_name
    
    def SetScreenName(self, screen_name):
        '''Set the short username of this user.
        
        Args:
            screen_name: the short username of this user
        '''
        self._screen_name = screen_name
    
    screen_name = property(GetScreenName, SetScreenName,
                           doc='The short username of this user.')
    
    def GetLocation(self):
        '''Get the geographic location of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The geographic location of this user
        '''
        return self._location
    
    def SetLocation(self, location):
        '''Set the geographic location of this user.
        
        Args:
            location: The geographic location of this user
        '''
        self._location = location
    
    location = property(GetLocation, SetLocation,
                        doc='The geographic location of this user.')
    
    def GetDescription(self):
        '''Get the short text description of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The short text description of this user
        '''
        return self._description
    
    def SetDescription(self, description):
        '''Set the short text description of this user.
        
        Args:
            description: The short text description of this user
        '''
        self._description = description
    
    description = property(GetDescription, SetDescription,
                           doc='The short text description of this user.')
    
    def GetUrl(self):
        '''Get the homepage url of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The homepage url of this user
        '''
        return self._url
    
    def SetUrl(self, url):
        '''Set the homepage url of this user.
        
        Args:
            url: The homepage url of this user
        '''
        self._url = url
    
    url = property(GetUrl, SetUrl,
                   doc='The homepage url of this user.')
    
    def GetProfileImageUrl(self):
        '''Get the url of the thumbnail of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The url of the thumbnail of this user
        '''
        return self._profile_image_url
    
    def SetProfileImageUrl(self, profile_image_url):
        '''Set the url of the thumbnail of this user.
        
        Args:
            profile_image_url: The url of the thumbnail of this user
        '''
        self._profile_image_url = profile_image_url
    
    profile_image_url= property(GetProfileImageUrl, SetProfileImageUrl,
                                doc='The url of the thumbnail of this user.')
    
    def GetProfileBackgroundTile(self):
        '''Boolean for whether to tile the profile background image.
        
        Returns:
            True if the background is to be tiled, False if not, None if unset.
        '''
        return self._profile_background_tile
    
    def SetProfileBackgroundTile(self, profile_background_tile):
        '''Set the boolean flag for whether to tile the profile background image.
        
        Args:
            profile_background_tile: Boolean flag for whether to tile or not.
        '''
        self._profile_background_tile = profile_background_tile
    
    profile_background_tile = property(GetProfileBackgroundTile, SetProfileBackgroundTile,
                                       doc='Boolean for whether to tile the background image.')
    
    def GetProfileBackgroundImageUrl(self):
        return self._profile_background_image_url
    
    def SetProfileBackgroundImageUrl(self, profile_background_image_url):
        self._profile_background_image_url = profile_background_image_url
    
    profile_background_image_url = property(GetProfileBackgroundImageUrl, SetProfileBackgroundImageUrl,
                                            doc='The url of the profile background of this user.')
    
    def GetProfileSidebarFillColor(self):
        return self._profile_sidebar_fill_color
    
    def SetProfileSidebarFillColor(self, profile_sidebar_fill_color):
        self._profile_sidebar_fill_color = profile_sidebar_fill_color
    
    profile_sidebar_fill_color = property(GetProfileSidebarFillColor, SetProfileSidebarFillColor)
    
    def GetProfileBackgroundColor(self):
        return self._profile_background_color
    
    def SetProfileBackgroundColor(self, profile_background_color):
        self._profile_background_color = profile_background_color
    
    profile_background_color = property(GetProfileBackgroundColor, SetProfileBackgroundColor)
    
    def GetProfileLinkColor(self):
        return self._profile_link_color
    
    def SetProfileLinkColor(self, profile_link_color):
        self._profile_link_color = profile_link_color
    
    profile_link_color = property(GetProfileLinkColor, SetProfileLinkColor)
    
    def GetProfileTextColor(self):
        return self._profile_text_color
    
    def SetProfileTextColor(self, profile_text_color):
        self._profile_text_color = profile_text_color
    
    profile_text_color = property(GetProfileTextColor, SetProfileTextColor)
    
    def GetProtected(self):
        return self._protected
    
    def SetProtected(self, protected):
        self._protected = protected
    
    protected = property(GetProtected, SetProtected)
    
    def GetUtcOffset(self):
        return self._utc_offset
    
    def SetUtcOffset(self, utc_offset):
        self._utc_offset = utc_offset
    
    utc_offset = property(GetUtcOffset, SetUtcOffset)
    
    def GetTimeZone(self):
        '''Returns the current time zone string for the user.
        
        Returns:
            The descriptive time zone string for the user.
        '''
        return self._time_zone
    
    def SetTimeZone(self, time_zone):
        '''Sets the user's time zone string.
        
        Args:
            time_zone: The descriptive time zone to assign for the user.
        '''
        self._time_zone = time_zone
    
    time_zone = property(GetTimeZone, SetTimeZone)
    
    def GetStatus(self):
        '''Get the latest twitter.Status of this user.
        
        Returns:
            The latest twitter.Status of this user
        '''
        return self._status
    
    def SetStatus(self, status):
        '''Set the latest twitter.Status of this user.
        
        Args:
            status: The latest twitter.Status of this user
        '''
        self._status = status
    
    status = property(GetStatus, SetStatus,
                    doc='The latest twitter.Status of this user.')
    
    def GetFriendsCount(self):
        '''Get the friend count for this user.
        
        Returns:
            The number of users this user has befriended.
        '''
        return self._friends_count
    
    def SetFriendsCount(self, count):
        '''Set the friend count for this user.
        
        Args:
            count: The number of users this user has befriended.
        '''
        self._friends_count = count
    
    friends_count = property(GetFriendsCount, SetFriendsCount,
                    doc='The number of friends for this user.')
    
    def GetFollowersCount(self):
        '''Get the follower count for this user.
        
        Returns:
            The number of users following this user.
        '''
        return self._followers_count
    
    def SetFollowersCount(self, count):
        '''Set the follower count for this user.
        
        Args:
            count: The number of users following this user.
        '''
        self._followers_count = count
    
    followers_count = property(GetFollowersCount, SetFollowersCount,
                    doc='The number of users following this user.')
    
    def GetStatusesCount(self):
        '''Get the number of status updates for this user.
        
        Returns:
            The number of status updates for this user.
        '''
        return self._statuses_count
    
    def SetStatusesCount(self, count):
        '''Set the status update count for this user.
        
        Args:
            count: The number of updates for this user.
        '''
        self._statuses_count = count
    
    statuses_count = property(GetStatusesCount, SetStatusesCount,
                    doc='The number of updates for this user.')
    
    def GetFavouritesCount(self):
        '''Get the number of favourites for this user.
        
        Returns:
            The number of favourites for this user.
        '''
        return self._favourites_count
    
    def SetFavouritesCount(self, count):
        '''Set the favourite count for this user.
        
        Args:
            count: The number of favourites for this user.
        '''
        self._favourites_count = count
    
    favourites_count = property(GetFavouritesCount, SetFavouritesCount,
                    doc='The number of favourites for this user.')
    
    def GetCreatedAt(self):
        '''Get the time this user was created.
        
        Returns:
            The time this user was created
        '''
        return self._created_at
    
    def SetCreatedAt(self, created_at):
        '''Set the time this user was created.
        
        Args:
            created_at: The time this user was created
        '''
        self._created_at = created_at
    
    created_at = property(GetCreatedAt, SetCreatedAt,
                          doc='The time this user was created.')
    
    def GetCreatedAtInSeconds(self):
        '''Get the time this user was created, in seconds since the epoch.
        
        Returns:
            The time this user was created, in seconds since the epoch.
        '''
        return calendar.timegm(rfc822.parsedate(self.created_at))
    
    created_at_in_seconds = property(GetCreatedAtInSeconds,
                                     doc="The time this user was created,"
                                         "in seconds since the epoch")
    
    def GetRelativeCreatedAt(self):
        '''Get a human redable string representing the creation time of this user
        
        Returns:
            A human readable string representing the creation time of this user
        '''
        fudge = 1.25
        delta  = int(self.now) - int(self.created_at_in_seconds)
        
        if delta < (1 * fudge):
            return 'about a second ago'
        elif delta < (60 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d seconds ago' % (delta)
        elif delta < (60 * fudge):
            return 'about a minute ago'
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d minutes ago' % (delta / 60)
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * fudge):
            return 'about an hour ago'
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * (1/fudge)):
            return 'about %d hours ago' % (delta / (60 * 60))
        elif delta < (60 * 60 * 24 * fudge):
            return 'about a day ago'
        else:
            return 'about %d days ago' % (delta / (60 * 60 * 24))
    
    relative_created_at = property(GetRelativeCreatedAt,
                                   doc='Get a human readable string representing'
                                       'the creation time of this user')

    def GetNow(self):
        '''Get the wallclock time for this user.
        
        Used to calculate relative_created_at.  Defaults to the time
        the object was instantiated.
        
        Returns:
            Whatever the status instance believes the current time to be,
            in seconds since the epoch.
        '''
        if self._now is None:
            self._now = time.time()
        return self._now
    
    def SetNow(self, now):
        '''Set the wallclock time for this user.
        
        Used to calculate relative_created_at.  Defaults to the time
        the object was instantiated.
        
        Args:
            now: The wallclock time for this instance.
        '''
        self._now = now

    now = property(GetNow, SetNow,
                   doc='The wallclock time for this user instance.')





    def __ne__(self, other):
        return not self.__eq__(other)
    
    def __eq__(self, other):
        try:
            return other and \
                   self.id == other.id and \
                   self.name == other.name and \
                   self.screen_name == other.screen_name and \
                   self.location == other.location and \
                   self.description == other.description and \
                   self.profile_image_url == other.profile_image_url and \
                   self.profile_background_tile == other.profile_background_tile and \
                   self.profile_background_image_url == other.profile_background_image_url and \
                   self.profile_sidebar_fill_color == other.profile_sidebar_fill_color and \
                   self.profile_background_color == other.profile_background_color and \
                   self.profile_link_color == other.profile_link_color and \
                   self.profile_text_color == other.profile_text_color and \
                   self.protected == other.protected and \
                   self.utc_offset == other.utc_offset and \
                   self.time_zone == other.time_zone and \
                   self.url == other.url and \
                   self.statuses_count == other.statuses_count and \
                   self.followers_count == other.followers_count and \
                   self.favourites_count == other.favourites_count and \
                   self.friends_count == other.friends_count and \
                   self.created_at == other.created_at and \
                   self.status == other.status
        except AttributeError:
            return False
    
    def __str__(self):
        '''A string representation of this twitter.User instance.
        
        The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
        
        Returns:
            A string representation of this twitter.User instance.
        '''
        return self.AsJsonString()
    
    def __repr__(self):
        return u'<tweethon.User screen_name="%s">'%(self.screen_name)
    def AsJsonString(self):
        '''A JSON string representation of this twitter.User instance.
        
        Returns:
            A JSON string representation of this twitter.User instance
       '''
        return json.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
    
    def AsDict(self):
        '''A dict representation of this twitter.User instance.
        
        The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
        
        Return:
            A dict representing this twitter.User instance
        '''
        data = {}
        if self.id:
            data['id'] = self.id
        if self.name:
            data['name'] = self.name
        if self.screen_name:
            data['screen_name'] = self.screen_name
        if self.location:
            data['location'] = self.location
        if self.description:
            data['description'] = self.description
        if self.profile_image_url:
            data['profile_image_url'] = self.profile_image_url
        if self.profile_background_tile is not None:
            data['profile_background_tile'] = self.profile_background_tile
        if self.profile_background_image_url:
            data['profile_sidebar_fill_color'] = self.profile_background_image_url
        if self.profile_background_color:
            data['profile_background_color'] = self.profile_background_color
        if self.profile_link_color:
            data['profile_link_color'] = self.profile_link_color
        if self.profile_text_color:
            data['profile_text_color'] = self.profile_text_color
        if self.protected is not None:
            data['protected'] = self.protected
        if self.utc_offset:
            data['utc_offset'] = self.utc_offset
        if self.time_zone:
            data['time_zone'] = self.time_zone
        if self.url:
            data['url'] = self.url
        if self.status:
            data['status'] = self.status.AsDict()
        if self.friends_count:
            data['friends_count'] = self.friends_count
        if self.followers_count:
            data['followers_count'] = self.followers_count
        if self.statuses_count:
            data['statuses_count'] = self.statuses_count
        if self.favourites_count:
            data['favourites_count'] = self.favourites_count
        if self.created_at:
            data['created_at'] = self.created_at
        return data
    
    @staticmethod
    def NewFromJsonDict(data):
        '''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
        
        Args:
            data: A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance
        '''
        if 'status' in data:
            status = Status.NewFromJsonDict(data['status'])
        else:
            status = None
        return User(id=data.get('id', None),
                    name=data.get('name', None),
                    screen_name=data.get('screen_name', None),
                    location=data.get('location', None),
                    description=data.get('description', None),
                    statuses_count=data.get('statuses_count', None),
                    followers_count=data.get('followers_count', None),
                    favourites_count=data.get('favourites_count', None),
                    friends_count=data.get('friends_count', None),
                    profile_image_url=data.get('profile_image_url', None),
                    profile_background_tile = data.get('profile_background_tile', None),
                    profile_background_image_url = data.get('profile_background_image_url', None),
                    profile_sidebar_fill_color = data.get('profile_sidebar_fill_color', None),
                    profile_background_color = data.get('profile_background_color', None),
                    profile_link_color = data.get('profile_link_color', None),
                    profile_text_color = data.get('profile_text_color', None),
                    protected = data.get('protected', None),
                    utc_offset = data.get('utc_offset', None),
                    time_zone = data.get('time_zone', None),
                    url=data.get('url', None),
                    status=status,
                    created_at=data.get('created_at', None),
                    verified=data.get('verified', None))

class DirectMessage(object):
    '''A class representing the DirectMessage structure used by the twitter API.
    
    The DirectMessage structure exposes the following properties:
      
      direct_message.id
      direct_message.created_at
      direct_message.created_at_in_seconds # read only
      direct_message.sender_id
      direct_message.sender_screen_name
      direct_message.recipient_id
      direct_message.recipient_screen_name
      direct_message.text
    '''
    
    def __init__(self,
                 id=None,
                 created_at=None,
                 sender_id=None,
                 sender_screen_name=None,
                 recipient_id=None,
                 recipient_screen_name=None,
                 text=None):
        '''An object to hold a Twitter direct message.
        
        This class is normally instantiated by the twitter.Api class and
        returned in a sequence.
        
        Note: Dates are posted in the form "Sat Jan 27 04:17:38 +0000 2007"
        
        Args:
            id: The unique id of this direct message
            created_at: The time this direct message was posted
            sender_id: The id of the twitter user that sent this message
            sender_screen_name: The name of the twitter user that sent this message
            recipient_id: The id of the twitter that received this message
            recipient_screen_name: The name of the twitter that received this message
            text: The text of this direct message
        '''
        self.id = id
        self.created_at = created_at
        self.sender_id = sender_id
        self.sender_screen_name = sender_screen_name
        self.recipient_id = recipient_id
        self.recipient_screen_name = recipient_screen_name
        self.text = text
    
    def GetId(self):
        '''Get the unique id of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique id of this direct message
        '''
        return self._id
    
    def SetId(self, id):
        '''Set the unique id of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            id: The unique id of this direct message
        '''
        self._id = id
    
    id = property(GetId, SetId,
                  doc='The unique id of this direct message.')
    
    def GetCreatedAt(self):
        '''Get the time this direct message was posted.
        
        Returns:
            The time this direct message was posted
        '''
        return self._created_at
    
    def SetCreatedAt(self, created_at):
        '''Set the time this direct message was posted.
        
        Args:
            created_at: The time this direct message was created
        '''
        self._created_at = created_at
    
    created_at = property(GetCreatedAt, SetCreatedAt,
                          doc='The time this direct message was posted.')
    
    def GetCreatedAtInSeconds(self):
        '''Get the time this direct message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
        
        Returns:
            The time this direct message was posted, in seconds since the epoch.
        '''
        return calendar.timegm(rfc822.parsedate(self.created_at))
    
    created_at_in_seconds = property(GetCreatedAtInSeconds,
                                     doc="The time this direct message was "
                                         "posted, in seconds since the epoch")
    
    def GetSenderId(self):
        '''Get the unique sender id of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique sender id of this direct message
        '''
        return self._sender_id
    
    def SetSenderId(self, sender_id):
        '''Set the unique sender id of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            sender id: The unique sender id of this direct message
        '''
        self._sender_id = sender_id
    
    sender_id = property(GetSenderId, SetSenderId,
                  doc='The unique sender id of this direct message.')
    
    def GetSenderScreenName(self):
        '''Get the unique sender screen name of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique sender screen name of this direct message
        '''
        return self._sender_screen_name
    
    def SetSenderScreenName(self, sender_screen_name):
        '''Set the unique sender screen name of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            sender_screen_name: The unique sender screen name of this direct message
        '''
        self._sender_screen_name = sender_screen_name
    
    sender_screen_name = property(GetSenderScreenName, SetSenderScreenName,
                  doc='The unique sender screen name of this direct message.')
    
    def GetRecipientId(self):
        '''Get the unique recipient id of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique recipient id of this direct message
        '''
        return self._recipient_id
    
    def SetRecipientId(self, recipient_id):
        '''Set the unique recipient id of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            recipient id: The unique recipient id of this direct message
        '''
        self._recipient_id = recipient_id
    
    recipient_id = property(GetRecipientId, SetRecipientId,
                  doc='The unique recipient id of this direct message.')
    
    def GetRecipientScreenName(self):
        '''Get the unique recipient screen name of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The unique recipient screen name of this direct message
        '''
        return self._recipient_screen_name
    
    def SetRecipientScreenName(self, recipient_screen_name):
        '''Set the unique recipient screen name of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            recipient_screen_name: The unique recipient screen name of this direct message
        '''
        self._recipient_screen_name = recipient_screen_name
    
    recipient_screen_name = property(GetRecipientScreenName, SetRecipientScreenName,
                  doc='The unique recipient screen name of this direct message.')
    
    def GetText(self):
        '''Get the text of this direct message.
        
        Returns:
            The text of this direct message.
        '''
        return self._text
    
    def SetText(self, text):
        '''Set the text of this direct message.
        
        Args:
            text: The text of this direct message
        '''
        self._text = text
    
    text = property(GetText, SetText,
                    doc='The text of this direct message')
    
    def __ne__(self, other):
        return not self.__eq__(other)
    
    def __eq__(self, other):
        try:
           return other and \
                  self.id == other.id and \
                  self.created_at == other.created_at and \
                  self.sender_id == other.sender_id and \
                  self.sender_screen_name == other.sender_screen_name and \
                  self.recipient_id == other.recipient_id and \
                  self.recipient_screen_name == other.recipient_screen_name and \
                  self.text == other.text
        except AttributeError:
            return False
    
    def __str__(self):
        '''A string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
        
        The return value is the same as the JSON string representation.
        
        Returns:
            A string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
        '''
        return self.AsJsonString()
    
    def AsJsonString(self):
        '''A JSON string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
        
        Returns:
            A JSON string representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance
       '''
        return json.dumps(self.AsDict(), sort_keys=True)
    
    def AsDict(self):
        '''A dict representation of this twitter.DirectMessage instance.
        
        The return value uses the same key names as the JSON representation.
        
        Return:
            A dict representing this twitter.DirectMessage instance
        '''
        data = {}
        if self.id:
            data['id'] = self.id
        if self.created_at:
            data['created_at'] = self.created_at
        if self.sender_id:
            data['sender_id'] = self.sender_id
        if self.sender_screen_name:
            data['sender_screen_name'] = self.sender_screen_name
        if self.recipient_id:
            data['recipient_id'] = self.recipient_id
        if self.recipient_screen_name:
            data['recipient_screen_name'] = self.recipient_screen_name
        if self.text:
            data['text'] = self.text
        return data
    
    @staticmethod
    def NewFromJsonDict(data):
        '''Create a new instance based on a JSON dict.
        
        Args:
            data: A JSON dict, as converted from the JSON in the twitter API
        Returns:
            A twitter.DirectMessage instance
        '''
        return DirectMessage(created_at=data.get('created_at', None),
                             recipient_id=data.get('recipient_id', None),
                             sender_id=data.get('sender_id', None),
                             text=data.get('text', None),
                             sender_screen_name=data.get('sender_screen_name', None),
                             id=data.get('id', None),
                             recipient_screen_name=data.get('recipient_screen_name', None))

class Api(object):
    '''A python interface into the Twitter API
    
    By default, the Api caches results for 1 minute.
    
    Example usage:
        
        To create an instance of the twitter.Api class, with no authentication:
            
            >>> import tweethon as twitter
            >>> api = twitter.Api()
        
        To fetch the most recently posted public twitter status messages:
            
            >>> statuses = api.GetPublicTimeline()
            >>> print [s.user.name for s in statuses]
            [u'DeWitt', u'Kesuke Miyagi', u'ev', u'Buzz Andersen', u'Biz Stone'] #...
        
        To fetch a single user's public status messages, where "user" is either
        a Twitter "short name" or their user id.
            
            >>> statuses = api.GetUserTimeline(user)
            >>> print [s.text for s in statuses]
        
        To use authentication, instantiate the twitter.Api class with a
        username and password:
            
            >>> api = twitter.Api(username='twitter user', password='twitter pass')
        
        To fetch your friends (after being authenticated):
            
            >>> users = api.GetFriends()
            >>> print [u.name for u in users]
        
        To post a twitter status message (after being authenticated):
            
            >>> status = api.PostUpdate('I love python-twitter!')
            >>> print status.text
            I love python-twitter!
        
        There are many other methods, including:
            
            >>> api.PostUpdates(status)
            >>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text)
            >>> api.GetUser(user)
            >>> api.GetMentions()
            >>> api.GetUserTimeline(user)
            >>> api.GetStatus(id)
            >>> api.DestroyStatus(id)
            >>> api.GetFriendsTimeline(user)
            >>> api.GetFriends(user)
            >>> api.GetFollowers()
            >>> api.GetFeatured()
            >>> api.GetDirectMessages()
            >>> api.PostDirectMessage(user, text)
            >>> api.DestroyDirectMessage(id)
            >>> api.DestroyFriendship(user)
            >>> api.CreateFriendship(user)
            >>> api.GetUserByEmail(email)
    '''
    
    DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT = 60 # cache for 1 minute
    
    _API_REALM = 'Twitter API'
    
    def __init__(self,
                 username=None,
                 password=None,
                 input_encoding=None,
                 request_headers=None,
                 base_url='http://twitter.com',
                 user_factory=User.NewFromJsonDict,
                 status_factory=Status.NewFromJsonDict,
                 directmessage_factory=DirectMessage.NewFromJsonDict):
        '''Instantiate a new twitter.Api object.
        
        Args:
            username: The username of the twitter account.  [optional]
            password: The password for the twitter account. [optional]
            input_encoding: The encoding used to encode input strings. [optional]
            request_header: A dictionary of additional HTTP request headers. [optional]
            base_url: The twitter API URL endpoint. [optional]
        '''
        self._cache = _FileCache()
        self._urllib = urllib2
        self._cache_timeout = Api.DEFAULT_CACHE_TIMEOUT
        self._InitializeRequestHeaders(request_headers)
        self._InitializeUserAgent()
        self._InitializeDefaultParameters()
        self._input_encoding = input_encoding
        self._base_url = base_url
        self._factories= {
                "user":user_factory,
                "status":status_factory,
                "directmessage":directmessage_factory,
                }
        self.SetCredentials(username, password)
    
    def GetPublicTimeline(self, since_id=None):
        '''Fetch the sequnce of public twitter.Status message for all users.
        
        Args:
           since_id:
               Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
               more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
        
        Returns:
            An sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
        '''
        parameters = {}
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = since_id
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/public_timeline.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def GetListSubscribers(self, user=None, list_id=None, cursor="-1"):
        parameters = {}
        if not user:
            user = self._username
        if not list_id:
            list_id = "none"
        if cursor:
            parameters['cursor'] = cursor
        url = "http://api.twitter.com/1/%s/%s/subscribers.json"%(user,list_id)
        userList = []
        print url
        while 1:
            print len(userList)
            results = self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, lambda x: x, many=False, parameters=parameters)
            userList += [self._factories['user'](x) for x in  results['users']]
            print results['next_cursor']
            if results['next_cursor'] == 0:
                break
            else:
                parameters['cursor'] = str(results['next_cursor'])
        return userList
        

    def FilterPublicTimeline(self, term, since_id=None):
        ''' Filter the public twitter timeline by a given search term on
          the local machine.
        Args:
            term:
                term to search by.
            since_id:
               Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
               more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
            containing the term
        '''
        statuses = self.GetPublicTimeline(since_id)
        results = []
        
        for s in statuses:
            if s.text.lower().find(term.lower()) != -1:
                results.append(s)
        return results
    
    def GetSearch(self, term, since_id=None, per_page=15, page=1, lang="en"):
        ''' Return twitter search results for a given term.
        
        Args:
            term:
                term to search by.
            since_id:
                Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
                more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
            per_page:
                number of results to return [Optional] default=15
            page:
                which page of search results to return
            lang:
                language for results [Optional] default english
        
        Returns:
              A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each
          message containing the term
        '''
        # Build request parameters
        parameters = {}
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = since_id
        if len(term) == 0:
            return []
        parameters['q'] = urllib.quote(term)
        parameters['show_user'] = "true"
        parameters['lang'] = lang
        parameters['rpp'] = per_page
        parameters['page'] = page
        
        def getresults(data):
            results = []
            for x in data['results']:
                temp = self._factories['status'](x)
                # Build user object with new request
                temp.user = self.GetUser(urllib.quote(x['from_user']))
                results.append(temp)
            
            # Return built list of statuses
            return results
        
        # Make and send requests
        url = 'http://search.twitter.com/search.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, getresults, parameters=parameters)
    
    def GetFriendsTimeline(self,
                           user=None,
                           count=None,
                           since=None,
                           page=None,
                           since_id=None,
                           max_id=None):
        '''Fetch the sequence of twitter.Status messages for a user's friends
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the user is private.
        
        Args:
            user:
                Specifies the ID or screen name of the user for whom to return
                the friends_timeline.  If unspecified, the username and password
                must be set in the twitter.Api instance.  [Optional]
            count:
                Specifies the number of statuses to retrieve. May not be
                greater than 200. [Optional]
            since:
                Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created
                after the specified HTTP-formatted date. [Optional]
            since_id:
                Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
                more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
            max_id:
                Optional.  Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is,
                older than) or equal to the specified ID.
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message
        '''
        if user:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/friends_timeline/%s.json' % user
        elif not user and not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
        else:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/friends_timeline.json'
        parameters = {}
        if count is not None:
            try:
              if int(count) > 200:
                raise TwitterError("'count' may not be greater than 200")
            except ValueError:
              raise TwitterError("'count' must be an integer")
            parameters['count'] = count
        if since:
            parameters['since'] = since
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = str(since_id)
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def GetUserTimeline(self, 
                        user=None, 
                        count=None, 
                        since=None, 
                        since_id=None, 
                        max_id=None,
                        page=None):
        '''Fetch the sequence of public twitter.Status messages for a single user.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the user is private.
        
        Args:
            user:
                either the username (short_name) or id of the user to retrieve.  If
                not specified, then the current authenticated user is used. [optional]
            count: the number of status messages to retrieve [optional]
            since:
                Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created
                after the specified HTTP-formatted date. [optional]
            since_id:
                Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
                more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
            max_id:
                Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is,
                older than) or equal to the specified ID. [Optional]
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each message up to count
        '''
        try:
          if count:
              int(count)
        except:
            raise TwitterError("Count must be an integer")
        parameters = {}
        if count:
            parameters['count'] = count
        if since:
            parameters['since'] = since
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = since_id
        if max_id:
            parameters['max_id'] = max_id
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        if user:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/user_timeline/%s.json' % user
        elif not user and not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
        else:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/user_timeline.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def GetStatus(self, id):
        '''Returns a single status message.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated if the status message is private.
        
        Args:
            id: The numerical ID of the status you're trying to retrieve.
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance representing that status message
        '''
        try:
            if id:
                int(id)
        except:
            raise TwitterError("id must be an integer")
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/show/%s.json' % id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'])
    
    def GetRateLimitStatus(self):
        '''Fetch the rate limit status for the currently authorized user.
        
        Returns:
            A dictionary containing the time the limit will reset (reset_time), the
            number of remaining hits allowed before the reset (remaining_hits), the
            number of hits allowed in a 60-minute period (hourly_limit), and the
            time of the reset in seconds since The Epoch (reset_time_in_seconds).
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/account/rate_limit_status.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, lambda x: x, no_cache=True)
    
    def MaximumHitFrequency(self):
        '''Determines the minimum number of seconds that a program must wait before
        hitting the server again without exceeding the rate_limit imposed for the
        currently authenticated user.
        
        Returns:
            The minimum second interval that a program must use so as to not exceed
            the rate_limit imposed for the user.
        '''
        rate_status = self.GetRateLimitStatus()
        reset_time = rate_status.get('reset_time', None)
        limit = rate_status.get('remaining_hits', None)
        
        if reset_time and limit:
            # put the reset time into a datetime object
            reset = datetime.datetime(*rfc822.parsedate(reset_time)[:7])
            
            # find the difference in time between now and the reset time + 1 hour
            delta = reset + datetime.timedelta(hours=1) - datetime.datetime.utcnow()
            
            # determine the minimum number of seconds allowed as a regular interval
            max_frequency = int(delta.seconds / limit)
            
            # return the number of seconds
            return max_frequency
        
        return 0

    def GetFavorites(self, user=None, page=None):
        '''Return a list of Status objects representing favorited tweets. By default, returns the 
        (up to) 20 most recent tweets for the authenticated user.
   
        Args:
             user: 
                 the username or id of the user whose favorites you are fetching.  If
                 not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [optional]
             page: Optional. Retrieves the 20 next most recent favorite statuses.
        '''
        parameters = {}
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        if user:
             url = self._base_url + '/favorites/%s.json' % user
        elif not user and not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("User must be specified if API is not authenticated.")
        else:
            url = 'http://twitter.com/favorites.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def DestroyStatus(self, id):
        '''Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated and thee
        authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.
        
        Args:
            id: The numerical ID of the status you're trying to destroy.
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance representing the destroyed status message
        '''
        try:
            if id:
                int(id)
        except:
          raise TwitterError("id must be an integer")
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/destroy/%s.json' % id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], post_data={})
    
    def _search(self, query=[], next_url=None, from_user_id=None, to_user_id=None, page=None, rpp=100, since_id=None):
        parameters = {}
        url = 'http://search.twitter.com/search.json'
        if next_url:
            url += next_url
        else:
            if query:
                parameters['q'] = " ".join(query)
            else:
                raise TwitterError("Query List must be provided")
            if since_id:
                parameters['since_id'] = since_id
            if to_user_id:
                parameters['to_user_id'] = to_user_id
            if page:
                parameters['page'] = page
            if max:
                parameters['rpp'] = rpp
            if from_user_id:
                parameters['from_user_id'] = from_user_id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, lambda x: x, parameters=parameters)
    
    def Search(self, query=[], next_url=None, from_user_id=None, to_user_id=None):
        status = []
        if next_url:
            results = self._search(next_url=next_url)
        elif query:
            results = self._search(query=query, from_user_id=from_user_id, to_user_id=to_user_id)
        else:
            raise TwitterError("query or next_url required")
        status += [self._factories['status'](x) for x in results['results']]
        while results.has_key('next_page'):
            results = self._search(next_url=results['next_page'])
            status += [Status.NewFromJsonDict(x) for x in results['results']]
            status += [self._factories['status'](x) for x in results['results']]
        return status
    
    def iterSearch(self, query, from_user_id=None, to_user_id=None):
        def f():
            results = self._search(query=query, from_user_id=from_user_id, to_user_id=to_user_id)
            while True:
                for i in results['results']:
                    yield self._factories['status'](i)
                if results.has_key('next_page'):
                    results = self._search(next_url=results['next_page'])
                else:
                    raise StopIteration
        return f()

    def PostUpdate(self, status, in_reply_to_status_id=None):
        '''Post a twitter status message from the authenticated user.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            status:
                The message text to be posted.  Must be less than or equal to
                140 characters.
            in_reply_to_status_id:
                The ID of an existing status that the status to be posted is
                in reply to.  This implicitly sets the in_reply_to_user_id
                attribute of the resulting status to the user ID of the
                message being replied to.  Invalid/missing status IDs will be
                ignored. [Optional]
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance representing the message posted.
        '''
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
        
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/update.json'
        
        if len(status) > CHARACTER_LIMIT:
            raise TwitterError("Text must be less than or equal to %d characters. "
                               "Consider using PostUpdates." % CHARACTER_LIMIT)
        
        data = {'status': status}
        if in_reply_to_status_id:
            data['in_reply_to_status_id'] = in_reply_to_status_id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], post_data=data)
    
    def PostUpdates(self, status, continuation=None, **kwargs):
        '''Post one or more twitter status messages from the authenticated user.
        
        Unlike api.PostUpdate, this method will post multiple status updates
        if the message is longer than 140 characters.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            status:
                The message text to be posted.  May be longer than 140 characters.
            continuation:
                The character string, if any, to be appended to all but the
                last message.  Note that Twitter strips trailing '...' strings
                from messages.  Consider using the unicode \u2026 character
                (horizontal ellipsis) instead. [Defaults to None]
            **kwargs:
                See api.PostUpdate for a list of accepted parameters.
        Returns:
            A of list twitter.Status instance representing the messages posted.
        '''
        results = list()
        if continuation is None:
            continuation = ''
        line_length = CHARACTER_LIMIT - len(continuation)
        lines = textwrap.wrap(status, line_length)
        for line in lines[0:-1]:
            results.append(self.PostUpdate(line + continuation, **kwargs))
        results.append(self.PostUpdate(lines[-1], **kwargs))
        return results
    
    def GetMentions(self, since=None, since_id=None, max_id=None, page=None):
        '''Get a sequence of status messages representing the 20 most recent
        mentions (status containing @username) to the authenticating
        user.
        
        Args:
            page:
                Specifies the page or results to retrieve. [optional]
            since:
                Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created
                after the specified HTTP-formatted date. [optional]
            max_id:
                Returns only statuses with an ID less than (that is, older than) or 
                equal to the specified ID. [optional]
            since_id:
                Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
                more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.Status instances, one for each reply to the user.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/mentions.json'
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
        parameters = {}
        if since:
            parameters['since'] = since
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = since_id
        if max_id:
            parameters['max_id'] = max_id
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    # Backward compatiable with old Twitter naming.
    GetReplies = GetMentions
    
    def GetFriends(self, user=None, page=None):
        '''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend.
        
        Args:
            user: 
                the username or id of the user whose friends you are fetching.  If
                not specified, defaults to the authenticated user. [optional]
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each friend
        '''
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
        if user:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/friends/%s.json' % user
        else:
            url = self._base_url + '/statuses/friends.json'
        parameters = {}

        parameters['cursor'] = "-1"
        rList = []
        def moreornot(data):
            for i in data['users']:
                rList.append(self._factories['user'](i))
            if data.has_key("next_cursor"):
                return data['next_cursor']
            else:
                return None

        parameters['cursor'] = self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, moreornot, many=False, parameters=parameters)
        while(parameters['cursor']):
            parameters['cursor'] = self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, moreornot, many=False, parameters=parameters)
        return rList
        

    def GetFriendIDs(self, user=None, page=None):
        '''
        Returns a list of numeric id's for every user the specified user is following.

        Args:
            user:
                The id or screen_name of the user to retrieve the friends id list
                for. [optional]
            page:
                Specifies the page number of the results beginning at 1. A single
                page contains 5000 id's. This is recommended for users with
            large id
                lists. If not provided all id's are returned. (Please note that the
                result set isn't guaranteed to be 5000 every time as suspended
                users will be filtered out.) [optional]

        Returns:
            A list of integers, one for each user id.
        '''
        if not user and not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
        if user:
            url = self._base_url + '/friends/ids/%s.json' % user 
        else:
            url = self._base_url + '/friends/ids.json'
        parameters = {}
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url,  lambda x: x, parameters=parameters)

    def GetFollowerIDs(self, user_id=None, screen_name=None):
        '''Fetch an array of numeric IDs for every user the specified user is followed by. If called 
        with no arguments, the results are follower IDs for the authenticated user.  Note that it 
        is unlikely that there is ever a good reason to use both of the kwargs.

        Args:
            user_id: 
                Specfies the ID of the user for whom to return the followers list.[optional]
            screen_name:  
                Specfies the screen name of the user for whom to return the followers list. [optional]
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/followers/ids.json'
        parameters = {}
        if user_id:
            parameters['user_id'] = user_id
        if screen_name:
            parameters['screen_name'] = screen_name
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url,  lambda x: x, parameters=parameters)

    def GetFollowers(self, page=None):
        '''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.User instances, one for each follower
        '''
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("twitter.Api instance must be authenticated")
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/followers.json'
        parameters = {}
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def GetFeatured(self):
        '''Fetch the sequence of twitter.User instances featured on twitter.com
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.User instances
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/statuses/featured.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'], many=True)
    
    def GetUser(self, user):
        '''Returns a single user.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            user: The username or id of the user to retrieve.
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance representing that user
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/users/show/%s.json' % user
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'])
    
    def GetDirectMessages(self, since=None, since_id=None, page=None):
        '''Returns a list of the direct messages sent to the authenticating user.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            since:
               Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created
                after the specified HTTP-formatted date. [optional]
            since_id:
                Returns only public statuses with an ID greater than (that is,
                more recent than) the specified ID. [Optional]
        
        Returns:
            A sequence of twitter.DirectMessage instances
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/direct_messages.json'
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
        parameters = {}
        if since:
            parameters['since'] = since
        if since_id:
            parameters['since_id'] = since_id
        if page:
            parameters['page'] = page
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['directmessage'], many=True, parameters=parameters)
    
    def PostDirectMessage(self, user, text):
        '''Post a twitter direct message from the authenticated user
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            user: The ID or screen name of the recipient user.
            text: The message text to be posted.  Must be less than 140 characters.
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message posted
        '''
        if not self._username:
            raise TwitterError("The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.")
        url = self._base_url + '/direct_messages/new.json'
        data = {'text': text, 'user': user}
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['directmessage'], post_data=data)
    
    def DestroyDirectMessage(self, id):
        '''Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated, and the
        authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct
        message.
        
        Args:
            id: The id of the direct message to be destroyed
        
        Returns:
            A twitter.DirectMessage instance representing the message destroyed
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/direct_messages/destroy/%s.json' % id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['directmessage'], post_data={})
    
    def CreateFriendship(self, user):
        '''Befriends the user specified in the user parameter as the authenticating user.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            The ID or screen name of the user to befriend.
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance representing the befriended user.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/friendships/create/%s.json' % user
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'], post_data={})
    
    def DestroyFriendship(self, user):
        '''Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the user parameter.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            The ID or screen name of the user  with whom to discontinue friendship.
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance representing the discontinued friend.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/friendships/destroy/%s.json' % user
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'], post_data={})
    
    def CreateFavorite(self, status):
        '''Favorites the status specified in the status parameter as the authenticating user.
        Returns the favorite status when successful.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            The twitter.Status instance to mark as a favorite.
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-marked favorite.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/favorites/create/%s.json' % status.id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'], post_data={})
    
    def DestroyFavorite(self, status):
        '''Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user.
        Returns the un-favorited status in the requested format when successful.
        
        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.
        
        Args:
            The twitter.Status to unmark as a favorite.
        Returns:
            A twitter.Status instance representing the newly-unmarked favorite.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/favorites/destroy/%s.json' % status.id
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'], post_data={})
    
    def GetUserByEmail(self, email):
        '''Returns a single user by email address.
        
        Args:
            email: The email of the user to retrieve.
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance representing that user
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/users/show.json?email=%s' % email
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['user'])

    def VerifyCredentials(self):
        '''Use this method to test if supplied user credentials are valid

        The twitter.Api instance must be authenticated.

        Args: none
        Returns:
            A twitter.User instance representing the API user.
        '''
        url = self._base_url + '/account/verify_credentials.json'
        return self._FetchUrlAndParse(url, self._factories['status'])
    
    def SetCredentials(self, username, password):
        '''Set the username and password for this instance
        
        Args:
            username: The twitter username.
            password: The twitter password.
        '''
        self._username = username
        self._password = password
    
    def ClearCredentials(self):
        '''Clear the username and password for this instance
        '''
        self._username = None
        self._password = None
    
    def SetCache(self, cache):
        '''Override the default cache.  Set to None to prevent caching.
        
        Args:
            cache: an instance that supports the same API as the  twitter._FileCache
        '''
        self._cache = cache
    
    def SetUrllib(self, urllib):
        '''Override the default urllib implementation.
        
        Args:
            urllib: an instance that supports the same API as the urllib2 module
        '''
        self._urllib = urllib
    
    def SetCacheTimeout(self, cache_timeout):
        '''Override the default cache timeout.
        
        Args:
            cache_timeout: time, in seconds, that responses should be reused.
        '''
        self._cache_timeout = cache_timeout
    
    def SetUserAgent(self, user_agent):
        '''Override the default user agent
        
        Args:
            user_agent: a string that should be send to the server as the User-agent
        '''
        self._request_headers['User-Agent'] = user_agent
    
    def SetXTwitterHeaders(self, client, url, version):
        '''Set the X-Twitter HTTP headers that will be sent to the server.
        
        Args:
            client:
                The client name as a string.  Will be sent to the server as
                the 'X-Twitter-Client' header.
            url:
                The URL of the meta.xml as a string.  Will be sent to the server
                as the 'X-Twitter-Client-URL' header.
            version:
                The client version as a string.  Will be sent to the server
                as the 'X-Twitter-Client-Version' header.
        '''
        self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client'] = client
        self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-URL'] = url
        self._request_headers['X-Twitter-Client-Version'] = version
    
    def SetSource(self, source):
        '''Suggest the "from source" value to be displayed on the Twitter web site.
        
        The value of the 'source' parameter must be first recognized by
        the Twitter server.  New source values are authorized on a case by
        case basis by the Twitter development team.
        
        Args:
            source:
                The source name as a string.  Will be sent to the server as
                the 'source' parameter.
        '''
        self._default_params['source'] = source
    
    def _BuildUrl(self, url, path_elements=None, extra_params=None):
        # Break url into consituent parts
        (scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment) = urlparse.urlparse(url)
        
        # Add any additional path elements to the path
        if path_elements:
            # Filter out the path elements that have a value of None
            p = [i for i in path_elements if i]
            if not path.endswith('/'):
                path += '/'
            path += '/'.join(p)
        
        # Add any additional query parameters to the query string
        if extra_params and len(extra_params) > 0:
            extra_query = self._EncodeParameters(extra_params)
            # Add it to the existing query
            if query:
                query += '&' + extra_query
            else:
                query = extra_query
        
        # Return the rebuilt URL
        return urlparse.urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment))
    
    def _InitializeRequestHeaders(self, request_headers):
        if request_headers:
            self._request_headers = request_headers
        else:
            self._request_headers = {}
    
    def _InitializeUserAgent(self):
        user_agent = 'Python-urllib/%s (python-twitter/%s)' % \
                     (self._urllib.__version__, __version__)
        self.SetUserAgent(user_agent)
    
    def _InitializeDefaultParameters(self):
        self._default_params = {}
    
    def _AddAuthorizationHeader(self, username, password):
        if username and password:
            basic_auth = base64.encodestring('%s:%s' % (username, password))[:-1]
            self._request_headers['Authorization'] = 'Basic %s' % basic_auth
    
    def _RemoveAuthorizationHeader(self):
        if self._request_headers and 'Authorization' in self._request_headers:
            del self._request_headers['Authorization']
    
    def _DecompressGzippedResponse(self, response):
        raw_data = response.read()
        if response.headers.get('content-encoding', None) == 'gzip':
            url_data = gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=StringIO.StringIO(raw_data)).read()
        else:
            url_data = raw_data
        return url_data

    def _GetOpener(self, url, username=None, password=None):
        if username and password:
            self._AddAuthorizationHeader(username, password)
            handler = self._urllib.HTTPBasicAuthHandler()
            (scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment) = urlparse.urlparse(url)
            handler.add_password(Api._API_REALM, netloc, username, password)
            opener = self._urllib.build_opener(handler)
        else:
            opener = self._urllib.build_opener()
        opener.addheaders = self._request_headers.items()
        return opener
    
    def _Encode(self, s):
        if self._input_encoding:
            return unicode(s, self._input_encoding).encode('utf-8')
        else:
            return unicode(s).encode('utf-8')
    
    def _EncodeParameters(self, parameters):
        '''Return a string in key=value&key=value form
        
        Values of None are not included in the output string.
        
        Args:
            parameters:
                A dict of (key, value) tuples, where value is encoded as
                specified by self._encoding
        Returns:
          A URL-encoded string in "key=value&key=value" form
        '''
        if parameters is None:
            return None
        else:
            return urllib.urlencode(dict([(k, self._Encode(v)) for k, v in parameters.items() if v is not None]))
    
    def _EncodePostData(self, post_data):
        '''Return a string in key=value&key=value form
        
        Values are assumed to be encoded in the format specified by self._encoding,
        and are subsequently URL encoded.
        
        Args:
            post_data:
                A dict of (key, value) tuples, where value is encoded as
                specified by self._encoding
        Returns:
          A URL-encoded string in "key=value&key=value" form
        '''
        if post_data is None:
            return None
        else:
            return urllib.urlencode(dict([(k, self._Encode(v)) for k, v in post_data.items()]))
    
    def _CheckForTwitterError(self, data):
        """Raises a TwitterError if twitter returns an error message.
        
        Args:
            data: A python dict created from the Twitter json response
        Raises:
            TwitterError wrapping the twitter error message if one exists.
        """
        # Twitter errors are relatively unlikely, so it is faster
        # to check first, rather than try and catch the exception
        if 'error' in data:
            raise TwitterError(data['error'])
    
    def _Parser(self, data, factory, many=False):
        data = json.loads(data)
        self._CheckForTwitterError(data)
        if many:
            return [factory(x) for x in data]
        else:
            return factory(data)
    

    def _FetchUrlAndParse(self,
                  url,
                  factory,
                  many=False,
                  post_data=None,
                  parameters=None,
                  no_cache=None,
                  use_gzip_compression=False):
        '''Fetch a URL, optionally caching for a specified time.
        
        Args:
            url: The URL to retrieve
            factory: 
                Function that will create the result objects.
            many: 
                If Ture, tells the factor function to interate over the results and 
                and return a list of results
            post_data:
                A dict of (str, unicode) key/value pairs.  If set, POST will be used.
            parameters:
                A dict whose key/value pairs should encoded and added
                to the query string. [OPTIONAL]
            no_cache: If true, overrides the cache on the current request
            use_gzip_compression:
                If True, tells the server to GZIP the response.  Does
                not apply to POST requests.
        
        Returns:
            A string containing the body of the response.
        '''
        # Build the extra parameters dict
        extra_params = {}
        if self._default_params:
            extra_params.update(self._default_params)
        if parameters:
            extra_params.update(parameters)
        
        # Add key/value parameters to the query string of the url
        url = self._BuildUrl(url, extra_params=extra_params)
        
        # Get a url opener that can handle basic auth
        opener = self._GetOpener(url, username=self._username, password=self._password)
        
        encoded_post_data = self._EncodePostData(post_data)
        
        # Set up compression
        if use_gzip_compression and not post_data:
            opener.addheaders.append(('Accept-Encoding','gzip'))     
        # Open and return the URL immediately if we're not going to cache
        if encoded_post_data or no_cache or not self._cache or not self._cache_timeout:
            response = opener.open(url, encoded_post_data)
            url_data = self._DecompressGzippedResponse(response)
            opener.close()
        else:
           # Unique keys are a combination of the url and the username
            if self._username:
                key = self._username + ':' + url
            else:
                key = url
            
            # See if it has been cached before
            last_cached = self._cache.GetCachedTime(key)
            
            # If the cached version is outdated then fetch another and store it
            if not last_cached or time.time() >= last_cached + self._cache_timeout:
                response = opener.open(url, encoded_post_data)
                url_data = self._DecompressGzippedResponse(response)
                opener.close()
                self._cache.Set(key, url_data)
            else:
                url_data = self._cache.Get(key)
        
        # Always return the latest version
        return self._Parser(url_data, factory, many)

class _TwistedOpener(object):
    """
    An emulator for the urllib opener object, based on Twisted's web client.
    """
    def __init__(self, request_headers, username, password):
        from twisted.web.client import getPage
        self.getPage = getPage
        self.username = username
        self.password = password
        self.request_headers = request_headers

    def open(self, url, data):
        """
        Mutate this opener to work for a particular URL and piece of postdata.
        """
        self.url = url
        self.data = data
        return self
    
    def read(self):
        """
        Return a Deferred which will fire with the given page data.
        """
        if self.data:
            method = 'POST'
        else:
            method = 'GET'
        hdrs = self.request_headers.copy()
        if self.username:
            hdrs.update(Authorization="Basic "+(("%s:%s" % (self.username, self.password)).encode("base64").strip()))
        if self.data:
            hdrs['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
        return self.getPage(self.url, headers=hdrs, method=method,
                            postdata=self.data)



class TwistedApi(Api):
    """
    A Twisted interface to the Twitter API.
    
    This is the same as 'Api', but returning Deferreds instead of values from all
    of its methods.
    """
    def __init__(self, *a, **k):
        Api.__init__(self, *a, **k)
        self.SetCache(_TwistedCacheWrapper(self._cache))
    
    def _InitializeUserAgent(self):
        self.SetUserAgent("TwistedTwitter")
    
    def _GetOpener(self, url, username=None, password=None):
        return _TwistedOpener(self._request_headers, username, password)
    
    def _FetchAndParseUrl(self,
                url,
                factory,
                many=False,
                post_data=None,
                parameters=None,
                no_cache=None,
                use_gzip_compression=False):
        def innerparser(result, a, b):
            return result.addCallback(self._Parser, callbackArgs=(factory, many))
        return Api._FetchAndParseUrl(self, url, innerparser, many, post_data, parameters, no_cache, use_gzip_compression)
    

class _TwistedCacheWrapper:
    """
    A wrapper that deals with Deferreds passed to 'Set' and returns them from
    'Get'.
    """
    def __init__(self, actualCache):
        self.actualCache = actualCache
    
    def Set(self, key, data):
        def actuallySet(result):
            self.actualCache.Set(key, result)
            return result
        
        return data.addCallback(actuallySet)
    
    def GetCachedTime(self, key):
        return self.actualCache.GetCachedTime(key)
    
    def Get(self, key):
        from twisted.internet import defer
        return defer.succeed(self.actualCache.Get(key))
    

class _FileCacheError(Exception):
    '''Base exception class for FileCache related errors'''
    

class _FileCache(object):
    
    DEPTH = 3
    
    def __init__(self,root_directory=None):
        self._InitializeRootDirectory(root_directory)
    
    def Get(self,key):
        path = self._GetPath(key)
        if os.path.exists(path):
            return open(path).read()
        else:
            return None
    
    def Set(self,key,data):
        path = self._GetPath(key)
        directory = os.path.dirname(path)
        if not os.path.exists(directory):
            os.makedirs(directory)
        if not os.path.isdir(directory):
            raise _FileCacheError('%s exists but is not a directory' % directory)
        temp_fd, temp_path = tempfile.mkstemp()
        temp_fp = os.fdopen(temp_fd, 'w')
        temp_fp.write(data)
        temp_fp.close()
        if not path.startswith(self._root_directory):
            raise _FileCacheError('%s does not appear to live under %s' %
                                  (path, self._root_directory))
        if os.path.exists(path):
            os.remove(path)
        os.rename(temp_path, path)
    
    def Remove(self,key):
        path = self._GetPath(key)
        if not path.startswith(self._root_directory):
            raise _FileCacheError('%s does not appear to live under %s' %
                                  (path, self._root_directory ))
        if os.path.exists(path):
            os.remove(path)
    
    def GetCachedTime(self,key):
        path = self._GetPath(key)
        if os.path.exists(path):
            return os.path.getmtime(path)
        else:
            return None
    
    def _GetUsername(self):
        '''Attempt to find the username in a cross-platform fashion.'''
        try:
            return os.getenv('USER') or \
                   os.getenv('LOGNAME') or \
                   os.getenv('USERNAME') or \
                   os.getlogin() or \
                   'nobody'
        except (IOError, OSError), e:
            return 'nobody'
    
    def _GetTmpCachePath(self):
        username = self._GetUsername()
        cache_directory = 'python.cache_' + username
        return os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), cache_directory)
    
    def _InitializeRootDirectory(self, root_directory):
        if not root_directory:
            root_directory = self._GetTmpCachePath()
        root_directory = os.path.abspath(root_directory)
        if not os.path.exists(root_directory):
            os.mkdir(root_directory)
        if not os.path.isdir(root_directory):
            raise _FileCacheError('%s exists but is not a directory' %
                                  root_directory)
        self._root_directory = root_directory
    
    def _GetPath(self,key):
        hashed_key = hashlib.md5(key).hexdigest()
        return os.path.join(self._root_directory,
                            self._GetPrefix(hashed_key),
                            hashed_key)
    
    def _GetPrefix(self,hashed_key):
        return os.path.sep.join(hashed_key[0:_FileCache.DEPTH])
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