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relax. writing more translation of chap.1

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src/01_why_couchdb.rst

 名刺の束です。請求書の例のように、名刺には重要な情報が全て載っており、カード入れに積まれています。
 これを自己完結したデータとよびます。CouchDBのようなドキュメントデータベースでは重要な概念です。
 
-Syntax and Semantics
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+.. Syntax and Semantics
 
-Most business cards contain roughly the same information: someone’s identity, an affiliation, and some contact information. While the exact form of this information can vary between business cards, the general information being conveyed remains the same and we’re easily able to recognize it as a business card. In this sense, we can describe a business card as a real-world document.
+シンタックスとセマンティクス
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
-Jan’s business card might contain a phone number but no fax whereas Chris’s business card contains both a phone number and fax. Jan does not have to make his lack of a fax machine explicit by writing something as ridiculous as “Fax: None” on the business card. Instead, by simply omitting a fax number it’s implied that he doesn’t have one.
+.. Most business cards contain roughly the same information: someone’s identity, an affiliation, and some contact information. While the exact form of this information can vary between business cards, the general information being conveyed remains the same and we’re easily able to recognize it as a business card. In this sense, we can describe a business card as a real-world document.
 
-We can see that real-world documents of the same type, such as business cards, tend to be very similar in semantics, the sort of information they carry, but can vary hugely in syntax, how that information is structured. As human beings, we’re naturally comfortable dealing with this kind of variation.
+大抵の場合名刺は、氏名、所属、連絡先、どれも似たような情報を掲載しています。
+こういった情報のフォーマットは名刺によっていろいろ変わりますが、
+掲載されている大まかな内容はどれも同じなので、見ればすぐに名刺だとわかります。
+こういう意味で、名刺は *実世界のドキュメント* だといえます。
 
-While a traditional relational database requires you to model your data up front, CouchDB’s schema-free design unburdens you with a powerful way to aggregate your data after the fact, just like we do with real-world documents. We’ll look in depth at how to design applications with this underlying storage paradigm.
+.. Jan’s business card might contain a phone number but no fax whereas Chris’s business card contains both a phone number and fax. Jan does not have to make his lack of a fax machine explicit by writing something as ridiculous as “Fax: None” on the business card. Instead, by simply omitting a fax number it’s implied that he doesn’t have one.
 
-Building blocks for larger systems
+ジャンの名刺は電話番号はあるけどFAX番号はない。クリスの名刺は電話番号もFAX番号も載っています。
+ジャンの場合、名刺に「FAX:空欄」などとヘンなことを明示的に書く必要はありません [#f2]_ 。代わりに、
+FAX欄を載せないことで、FAXがないことを暗黙のうちに示すことができます。
+
+.. We can see that real-world documents of the same type, such as business cards, tend to be very similar in semantics, the sort of information they carry, but can vary hugely in syntax, how that information is structured. As human beings, we’re naturally comfortable dealing with this kind of variation.
+
+名刺のように同じ形式の実世界のドキュメントは、載っている情報などの *セマンティクス* 上は非常によく似ていますが、
+情報が表示される構成、つまり *シンタックス* では大きく異なってしまいます。
+
+.. While a traditional relational database requires you to model your data up front, CouchDB’s schema-free design unburdens you with a powerful way to aggregate your data after the fact, just like we do with real-world documents. We’ll look in depth at how to design applications with this underlying storage paradigm.
+
+伝統的なRDBMSではデータを *事前に明示的に* モデリングする必要がありますが、
+CouchDBのスキーマフリーな設計は、我々が実世界ドキュメントでやっているような現実に即してあなたのデータを *後で* まとめる強力な手法で、
+モデリングに関するあなたの肩の荷を軽くしてくれます。
+このようなストレージ・パラダイムの上でどのようにアプリケーションを設計してくかをこれから詳しく見ていきましょう。
+
+
+.. Building blocks for larger systems
+
+システム拡大のための構成要素
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-CouchDB is a storage system useful on its own. You can build many applications with the tools CouchDB gives you. But CouchDB is designed with a bigger picture in mind. Its components can be used as building blocks for systems larger and more complex that solve the storage problem in slightly different ways.
+.. CouchDB is a storage system useful on its own. You can build many applications with the tools CouchDB gives you. But CouchDB is designed with a bigger picture in mind. Its components can be used as building blocks for systems larger and more complex that solve the storage problem in slightly different ways.
 
-Whether you need a system that’s crazy fast that isn’t too concerned with reliability (think logging) or one that guarantees storage in two or more physically separated locations for reliability, but you’re willing to take a performance hit, since reliability is more important, CouchDB lets you build these systems.
+CouchDBはそれだけでとても有用なストレージシステムです。CouchDBが提供するツールでいろいろなアプリケーションを構築できます。
+しかしCouchDBはもっと大きな青写真を持って設計されています。各コンポーネントはより大きくて複雑なシステムの構成要素として使うことができます。ストレージの問題をちょっと違う方法で解決することでしょう。
 
-There are a multitude of knobs you could turn to make a system work better in one area, but you’ll affect another area while doing so. One first example would be the CAP theorem discussed in the next chapter. To give you an idea of other things that affect a storage systems see Figure 1-8 and Figure 1-9:
+.. Whether you need a system that’s crazy fast that isn’t too concerned with reliability (think logging) or one that guarantees storage in two or more physically separated locations for reliability, but you’re willing to take a performance hit, since reliability is more important, CouchDB lets you build these systems.
+
+驚くほど高速で信頼性の低いシステムか、物理的に冗長化されているシステムか、どちらが必要かといわれても、
+実際にはパフォーマンスもほしいし、信頼性も重要もほしい。CouchDBはそれを可能にしてくれます。
+
+.. There are a multitude of knobs you could turn to make a system work better in one area, but you’ll affect another area while doing so. One first example would be the CAP theorem discussed in the next chapter. To give you an idea of other things that affect a storage systems see Figure 1-8 and Figure 1-9:
+
+ひとつの領域でシステムがよりよく動作するためのツマミは沢山ありますが、
+ひとつの領域を変更しようとツマミを操作すると意図しない他の領域も変更されてしまいます。
+次章で説明するCAP定理がよい例でしょう。ストレージシステムの考え方を図1-8と1-9に示します。
 
 .. image:: images/01-09.png
    :width: 500px
    :align: center
 
-*Figure 1-9: Throughput, Latency & Concurrency*
+*図 1-9: スループット、レイテンシ、並列性*
 
-By reducing latency for a given system (and that is true not only for storage systems), you affect concurrency and throughput capabilities.
+.. *Figure 1-9: Throughput, Latency & Concurrency*
+   By reducing latency for a given system (and that is true not only for storage systems), you affect concurrency and throughput capabilities.
+
+(ストレージシステム以外でもこれは当てはまるのですが)レイテンシを下げようとすると、並列性とスループットに影響します。
 
 .. image:: images/01-08.png
    :width: 500px
    :align: center
 
-*Figure 1-8: Scaling: Read Requests, Write Requests or Data*
+*図 1-8: スケーリング:リード、ライト、データ*
 
-When you want to scale out, there are three distinct issues to deal with: Scaling read requests, write requests and data. Orthogonal to all three and to the items shown above are many more attributes like reliability or simplicity. You can draw many of these graphs that show different features or attributes pull into different directions and thus shape the system they describe.
+.. *Figure 1-8: Scaling: Read Requests, Write Requests or Data*
+   When you want to scale out, there are three distinct issues to deal with: Scaling read requests, write requests and data. Orthogonal to all three and to the items shown above are many more attributes like reliability or simplicity. You can draw many of these graphs that show different features or attributes pull into different directions and thus shape the system they describe.
+
+スケールアウトさせたい場合、読み込み性能のスケーリング、書き込み性能のスケーリング、データ量の三つの方向があります。
+これらの三方向に直行する観点として、信頼性やシンプルさなどこれまで示したような多くの観点があります。
+このように、異なった方向性や特徴をグラフに描くことによって、システムの特徴を明らかにすることができます。
 
 CouchDB is very flexible and gives you enough building blocks to make system shaped to suit your exact problem. That’s not saying that CouchDB can be bent to solve any problem: CouchDB is no silver bullet, but in the space of data storage it can get you a long way.
 
 .. rubric:: 訳注
 
 .. [#f1] 原著では "invoice" という単語がついています。invoiceには `ニュアンスが微妙で、よくない訳語が当てられていることがあります <http://www.geocities.jp/kiwidream1997hp/Facility/invoice.html>`_ 。
+
+.. [#f2] 原文 "Fax: None" は、どこぞのデータベースではこういうふうに表現しなければならないことを皮肉っています。
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