1. lac
  2. pytest

Source

pytest / doc / goodpractices.txt


.. highlightlang:: python
.. _`goodpractices`:

Good Integration Practices
=================================================

Work with virtual environments
-----------------------------------------------------------

We recommend the you work with virtualenv_ environments and use easy_install_
(or pip_) for installing your application dependencies as well as
the ``pytest`` package itself.  This way you will get a much more reproducible
environment. 

XYZZY is 'reprocducible' what you meant to say?  I would have thought 
      'consistent'.

             A good tool to help you automate test runs against multiple
dependency configurations or Python interpreters is `tox`_,
independently created by py.test's primary author.  `tox`_
is also useful for integration with the continuous integration
server Hudson_.

.. _`virtualenv`: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/virtualenv
.. _`buildout`: http://www.buildout.org/
.. _pip: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pip

Use tox and Continuous Integration servers
-------------------------------------------------

If you frequently release code to the public you
may want to look into `tox`_, the virtualenv test automation
tool and its `pytest support <http://codespeak.net/tox/example/pytest.html>`_.
The basic idea is to generate a JUnitXML file through the ``--junitxml=PATH`` option and have a continuous integration server like Hudson_ pick it up.

.. _standalone:
.. _`genscript method`:

Create a py.test standalone Script
-------------------------------------------

If you are a maintainer or application developer and want others
to easily run tests you can generate a completely standalone "py.test"
script::

    py.test --genscript=runtests.py

generates a ``runtests.py`` script which is a fully functional basic
``py.test`` script, running unchanged under Python2 and Python3.
You can tell people to download the script and then e.g.  run it like this::

    python runtests.py


.. _`Distribute for installation`: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute#installation-instructions
.. _`distribute installation`: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute


Integrating with distutils / ``python setup.py test``
--------------------------------------------------------

You can easily integrate test runs into your distutils or
setuptools based project.  Use the `genscript method`_
to generate a standalone py.test script::

    py.test --genscript=runtests.py

and make this script part of your distribution and then add
this to your ``setup.py`` file::

    from distutils.core import setup, Command
    # you can also import from setuptools

    class PyTest(Command):
        user_options = []
        def initialize_options(self):
            pass
        def finalize_options(self):
            pass
        def run(self):
            import sys,subprocess
            errno = subprocess.call([sys.executable, 'runtest.py'])
            raise SystemExit(errno)
    setup(
        #...,
        cmdclass = {'test': PyTest},
        #...,
    )

If you now type::

    python setup.py test

this will execute your tests using ``runtest.py``. As this is a
standalone version of ``py.test`` no prior installation whatsoever is
required for calling the test command. You can also pass additional
arguments to the subprocess-calls such as your test directory or other
options.

XYZZY Maybe an example of doing this?

.. _`test discovery`:
.. _`Python test discovery`:

Conventions for Python test discovery
-------------------------------------------------

``py.test`` implements the following standard test discovery:

* collection starts from the initial command line arguments
  which may be directories, filenames or test ids.
* It then recurses into directories, unless they match :confval:`norecursedirs`
looking for:
* ``test_*.py`` or ``*_test.py`` files, imported by their `package name`_.
* ``Test`` prefixed test classes (without an ``__init__`` method)
* ``test_`` prefixed test functions or methods are test items

For and example of how to modify and customize your test discovery
see :doc:`example/pythoncollection`.

py.test additionally discovers tests using the standard
:ref:`unittest.TestCase <unittest.TestCase>` subclassing technique.

Choosing a test layout / import rules
------------------------------------------

py.test supports common test layouts:

* inlining test directories into your application package, useful if you want to
  keep (unit) tests and actually tested code close together::

    mypkg/
        __init__.py
        appmodule.py
        ...
        test/
            test_app.py
            ...

* putting tests into an extra directory outside your actual application
  code, useful if you have many functional tests or want to keep
  tests separate from actual application code::

    mypkg/
        __init__.py
        appmodule.py
    tests/
        test_app.py
        ...

You can always run your tests by pointing to it::

    py.test tests/test_app.py       # for external test dirs
    py.test mypkg/test/test_app.py  # for inlined test dirs
    py.test mypkg                   # run tests in all below test directories
    py.test                         # run all tests below current dir
    ...

.. _`package name`:

.. note::

    Test modules are imported under their fully qualified name as follows:

    * find ``basedir`` -- this is the first "upward" (towards the root)
      directory not containing an ``__init__.py``

XYZZY it's odd that in csc, up in a tree is towards its root, not its
      branches.

    * perform ``sys.path.insert(0, basedir)`` to make the fully
      qualified test module path importable.

    * ``import path.to.test_module`` where the path is determined
      by converting path separators into "." files.  This means
      you must follow the convention of having directory and file
      names map to the import names.


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