Source

python-clinic / Lib / multiprocessing / pool.py

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#
# Module providing the `Pool` class for managing a process pool
#
# multiprocessing/pool.py
#
# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
# Licensed to PSF under a Contributor Agreement.
#

__all__ = ['Pool']

#
# Imports
#

import threading
import queue
import itertools
import collections
import os
import time
import traceback

from multiprocessing import Process, TimeoutError
from multiprocessing.util import Finalize, debug

#
# Constants representing the state of a pool
#

RUN = 0
CLOSE = 1
TERMINATE = 2

#
# Miscellaneous
#

job_counter = itertools.count()

def mapstar(args):
    return list(map(*args))

def starmapstar(args):
    return list(itertools.starmap(args[0], args[1]))

#
# Hack to embed stringification of remote traceback in local traceback
#

class RemoteTraceback(Exception):
    def __init__(self, tb):
        self.tb = tb
    def __str__(self):
        return self.tb

class ExceptionWithTraceback:
    def __init__(self, exc, tb):
        tb = traceback.format_exception(type(exc), exc, tb)
        tb = ''.join(tb)
        self.exc = exc
        self.tb = '\n"""\n%s"""' % tb
    def __reduce__(self):
        return rebuild_exc, (self.exc, self.tb)

def rebuild_exc(exc, tb):
    exc.__cause__ = RemoteTraceback(tb)
    return exc

#
# Code run by worker processes
#

class MaybeEncodingError(Exception):
    """Wraps possible unpickleable errors, so they can be
    safely sent through the socket."""

    def __init__(self, exc, value):
        self.exc = repr(exc)
        self.value = repr(value)
        super(MaybeEncodingError, self).__init__(self.exc, self.value)

    def __str__(self):
        return "Error sending result: '%s'. Reason: '%s'" % (self.value,
                                                             self.exc)

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<MaybeEncodingError: %s>" % str(self)


def worker(inqueue, outqueue, initializer=None, initargs=(), maxtasks=None):
    assert maxtasks is None or (type(maxtasks) == int and maxtasks > 0)
    put = outqueue.put
    get = inqueue.get
    if hasattr(inqueue, '_writer'):
        inqueue._writer.close()
        outqueue._reader.close()

    if initializer is not None:
        initializer(*initargs)

    completed = 0
    while maxtasks is None or (maxtasks and completed < maxtasks):
        try:
            task = get()
        except (EOFError, OSError):
            debug('worker got EOFError or OSError -- exiting')
            break

        if task is None:
            debug('worker got sentinel -- exiting')
            break

        job, i, func, args, kwds = task
        try:
            result = (True, func(*args, **kwds))
        except Exception as e:
            e = ExceptionWithTraceback(e, e.__traceback__)
            result = (False, e)
        try:
            put((job, i, result))
        except Exception as e:
            wrapped = MaybeEncodingError(e, result[1])
            debug("Possible encoding error while sending result: %s" % (
                wrapped))
            put((job, i, (False, wrapped)))
        completed += 1
    debug('worker exiting after %d tasks' % completed)

#
# Class representing a process pool
#

class Pool(object):
    '''
    Class which supports an async version of applying functions to arguments.
    '''
    Process = Process

    def __init__(self, processes=None, initializer=None, initargs=(),
                 maxtasksperchild=None):
        self._setup_queues()
        self._taskqueue = queue.Queue()
        self._cache = {}
        self._state = RUN
        self._maxtasksperchild = maxtasksperchild
        self._initializer = initializer
        self._initargs = initargs

        if processes is None:
            processes = os.cpu_count() or 1
        if processes < 1:
            raise ValueError("Number of processes must be at least 1")

        if initializer is not None and not callable(initializer):
            raise TypeError('initializer must be a callable')

        self._processes = processes
        self._pool = []
        self._repopulate_pool()

        self._worker_handler = threading.Thread(
            target=Pool._handle_workers,
            args=(self, )
            )
        self._worker_handler.daemon = True
        self._worker_handler._state = RUN
        self._worker_handler.start()


        self._task_handler = threading.Thread(
            target=Pool._handle_tasks,
            args=(self._taskqueue, self._quick_put, self._outqueue, self._pool)
            )
        self._task_handler.daemon = True
        self._task_handler._state = RUN
        self._task_handler.start()

        self._result_handler = threading.Thread(
            target=Pool._handle_results,
            args=(self._outqueue, self._quick_get, self._cache)
            )
        self._result_handler.daemon = True
        self._result_handler._state = RUN
        self._result_handler.start()

        self._terminate = Finalize(
            self, self._terminate_pool,
            args=(self._taskqueue, self._inqueue, self._outqueue, self._pool,
                  self._worker_handler, self._task_handler,
                  self._result_handler, self._cache),
            exitpriority=15
            )

    def _join_exited_workers(self):
        """Cleanup after any worker processes which have exited due to reaching
        their specified lifetime.  Returns True if any workers were cleaned up.
        """
        cleaned = False
        for i in reversed(range(len(self._pool))):
            worker = self._pool[i]
            if worker.exitcode is not None:
                # worker exited
                debug('cleaning up worker %d' % i)
                worker.join()
                cleaned = True
                del self._pool[i]
        return cleaned

    def _repopulate_pool(self):
        """Bring the number of pool processes up to the specified number,
        for use after reaping workers which have exited.
        """
        for i in range(self._processes - len(self._pool)):
            w = self.Process(target=worker,
                             args=(self._inqueue, self._outqueue,
                                   self._initializer,
                                   self._initargs, self._maxtasksperchild)
                            )
            self._pool.append(w)
            w.name = w.name.replace('Process', 'PoolWorker')
            w.daemon = True
            w.start()
            debug('added worker')

    def _maintain_pool(self):
        """Clean up any exited workers and start replacements for them.
        """
        if self._join_exited_workers():
            self._repopulate_pool()

    def _setup_queues(self):
        from .queues import SimpleQueue
        self._inqueue = SimpleQueue()
        self._outqueue = SimpleQueue()
        self._quick_put = self._inqueue._writer.send
        self._quick_get = self._outqueue._reader.recv

    def apply(self, func, args=(), kwds={}):
        '''
        Equivalent of `func(*args, **kwds)`.
        '''
        assert self._state == RUN
        return self.apply_async(func, args, kwds).get()

    def map(self, func, iterable, chunksize=None):
        '''
        Apply `func` to each element in `iterable`, collecting the results
        in a list that is returned.
        '''
        return self._map_async(func, iterable, mapstar, chunksize).get()

    def starmap(self, func, iterable, chunksize=None):
        '''
        Like `map()` method but the elements of the `iterable` are expected to
        be iterables as well and will be unpacked as arguments. Hence
        `func` and (a, b) becomes func(a, b).
        '''
        return self._map_async(func, iterable, starmapstar, chunksize).get()

    def starmap_async(self, func, iterable, chunksize=None, callback=None,
            error_callback=None):
        '''
        Asynchronous version of `starmap()` method.
        '''
        return self._map_async(func, iterable, starmapstar, chunksize,
                               callback, error_callback)

    def imap(self, func, iterable, chunksize=1):
        '''
        Equivalent of `map()` -- can be MUCH slower than `Pool.map()`.
        '''
        if self._state != RUN:
            raise ValueError("Pool not running")
        if chunksize == 1:
            result = IMapIterator(self._cache)
            self._taskqueue.put((((result._job, i, func, (x,), {})
                         for i, x in enumerate(iterable)), result._set_length))
            return result
        else:
            assert chunksize > 1
            task_batches = Pool._get_tasks(func, iterable, chunksize)
            result = IMapIterator(self._cache)
            self._taskqueue.put((((result._job, i, mapstar, (x,), {})
                     for i, x in enumerate(task_batches)), result._set_length))
            return (item for chunk in result for item in chunk)

    def imap_unordered(self, func, iterable, chunksize=1):
        '''
        Like `imap()` method but ordering of results is arbitrary.
        '''
        if self._state != RUN:
            raise ValueError("Pool not running")
        if chunksize == 1:
            result = IMapUnorderedIterator(self._cache)
            self._taskqueue.put((((result._job, i, func, (x,), {})
                         for i, x in enumerate(iterable)), result._set_length))
            return result
        else:
            assert chunksize > 1
            task_batches = Pool._get_tasks(func, iterable, chunksize)
            result = IMapUnorderedIterator(self._cache)
            self._taskqueue.put((((result._job, i, mapstar, (x,), {})
                     for i, x in enumerate(task_batches)), result._set_length))
            return (item for chunk in result for item in chunk)

    def apply_async(self, func, args=(), kwds={}, callback=None,
            error_callback=None):
        '''
        Asynchronous version of `apply()` method.
        '''
        if self._state != RUN:
            raise ValueError("Pool not running")
        result = ApplyResult(self._cache, callback, error_callback)
        self._taskqueue.put(([(result._job, None, func, args, kwds)], None))
        return result

    def map_async(self, func, iterable, chunksize=None, callback=None,
            error_callback=None):
        '''
        Asynchronous version of `map()` method.
        '''
        return self._map_async(func, iterable, mapstar, chunksize, callback,
            error_callback)

    def _map_async(self, func, iterable, mapper, chunksize=None, callback=None,
            error_callback=None):
        '''
        Helper function to implement map, starmap and their async counterparts.
        '''
        if self._state != RUN:
            raise ValueError("Pool not running")
        if not hasattr(iterable, '__len__'):
            iterable = list(iterable)

        if chunksize is None:
            chunksize, extra = divmod(len(iterable), len(self._pool) * 4)
            if extra:
                chunksize += 1
        if len(iterable) == 0:
            chunksize = 0

        task_batches = Pool._get_tasks(func, iterable, chunksize)
        result = MapResult(self._cache, chunksize, len(iterable), callback,
                           error_callback=error_callback)
        self._taskqueue.put((((result._job, i, mapper, (x,), {})
                              for i, x in enumerate(task_batches)), None))
        return result

    @staticmethod
    def _handle_workers(pool):
        thread = threading.current_thread()

        # Keep maintaining workers until the cache gets drained, unless the pool
        # is terminated.
        while thread._state == RUN or (pool._cache and thread._state != TERMINATE):
            pool._maintain_pool()
            time.sleep(0.1)
        # send sentinel to stop workers
        pool._taskqueue.put(None)
        debug('worker handler exiting')

    @staticmethod
    def _handle_tasks(taskqueue, put, outqueue, pool):
        thread = threading.current_thread()

        for taskseq, set_length in iter(taskqueue.get, None):
            i = -1
            for i, task in enumerate(taskseq):
                if thread._state:
                    debug('task handler found thread._state != RUN')
                    break
                try:
                    put(task)
                except OSError:
                    debug('could not put task on queue')
                    break
            else:
                if set_length:
                    debug('doing set_length()')
                    set_length(i+1)
                continue
            break
        else:
            debug('task handler got sentinel')


        try:
            # tell result handler to finish when cache is empty
            debug('task handler sending sentinel to result handler')
            outqueue.put(None)

            # tell workers there is no more work
            debug('task handler sending sentinel to workers')
            for p in pool:
                put(None)
        except OSError:
            debug('task handler got OSError when sending sentinels')

        debug('task handler exiting')

    @staticmethod
    def _handle_results(outqueue, get, cache):
        thread = threading.current_thread()

        while 1:
            try:
                task = get()
            except (OSError, EOFError):
                debug('result handler got EOFError/OSError -- exiting')
                return

            if thread._state:
                assert thread._state == TERMINATE
                debug('result handler found thread._state=TERMINATE')
                break

            if task is None:
                debug('result handler got sentinel')
                break

            job, i, obj = task
            try:
                cache[job]._set(i, obj)
            except KeyError:
                pass

        while cache and thread._state != TERMINATE:
            try:
                task = get()
            except (OSError, EOFError):
                debug('result handler got EOFError/OSError -- exiting')
                return

            if task is None:
                debug('result handler ignoring extra sentinel')
                continue
            job, i, obj = task
            try:
                cache[job]._set(i, obj)
            except KeyError:
                pass

        if hasattr(outqueue, '_reader'):
            debug('ensuring that outqueue is not full')
            # If we don't make room available in outqueue then
            # attempts to add the sentinel (None) to outqueue may
            # block.  There is guaranteed to be no more than 2 sentinels.
            try:
                for i in range(10):
                    if not outqueue._reader.poll():
                        break
                    get()
            except (OSError, EOFError):
                pass

        debug('result handler exiting: len(cache)=%s, thread._state=%s',
              len(cache), thread._state)

    @staticmethod
    def _get_tasks(func, it, size):
        it = iter(it)
        while 1:
            x = tuple(itertools.islice(it, size))
            if not x:
                return
            yield (func, x)

    def __reduce__(self):
        raise NotImplementedError(
              'pool objects cannot be passed between processes or pickled'
              )

    def close(self):
        debug('closing pool')
        if self._state == RUN:
            self._state = CLOSE
            self._worker_handler._state = CLOSE

    def terminate(self):
        debug('terminating pool')
        self._state = TERMINATE
        self._worker_handler._state = TERMINATE
        self._terminate()

    def join(self):
        debug('joining pool')
        assert self._state in (CLOSE, TERMINATE)
        self._worker_handler.join()
        self._task_handler.join()
        self._result_handler.join()
        for p in self._pool:
            p.join()

    @staticmethod
    def _help_stuff_finish(inqueue, task_handler, size):
        # task_handler may be blocked trying to put items on inqueue
        debug('removing tasks from inqueue until task handler finished')
        inqueue._rlock.acquire()
        while task_handler.is_alive() and inqueue._reader.poll():
            inqueue._reader.recv()
            time.sleep(0)

    @classmethod
    def _terminate_pool(cls, taskqueue, inqueue, outqueue, pool,
                        worker_handler, task_handler, result_handler, cache):
        # this is guaranteed to only be called once
        debug('finalizing pool')

        worker_handler._state = TERMINATE
        task_handler._state = TERMINATE

        debug('helping task handler/workers to finish')
        cls._help_stuff_finish(inqueue, task_handler, len(pool))

        assert result_handler.is_alive() or len(cache) == 0

        result_handler._state = TERMINATE
        outqueue.put(None)                  # sentinel

        # We must wait for the worker handler to exit before terminating
        # workers because we don't want workers to be restarted behind our back.
        debug('joining worker handler')
        if threading.current_thread() is not worker_handler:
            worker_handler.join()

        # Terminate workers which haven't already finished.
        if pool and hasattr(pool[0], 'terminate'):
            debug('terminating workers')
            for p in pool:
                if p.exitcode is None:
                    p.terminate()

        debug('joining task handler')
        if threading.current_thread() is not task_handler:
            task_handler.join()

        debug('joining result handler')
        if threading.current_thread() is not result_handler:
            result_handler.join()

        if pool and hasattr(pool[0], 'terminate'):
            debug('joining pool workers')
            for p in pool:
                if p.is_alive():
                    # worker has not yet exited
                    debug('cleaning up worker %d' % p.pid)
                    p.join()

    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
        self.terminate()

#
# Class whose instances are returned by `Pool.apply_async()`
#

class ApplyResult(object):

    def __init__(self, cache, callback, error_callback):
        self._event = threading.Event()
        self._job = next(job_counter)
        self._cache = cache
        self._callback = callback
        self._error_callback = error_callback
        cache[self._job] = self

    def ready(self):
        return self._event.is_set()

    def successful(self):
        assert self.ready()
        return self._success

    def wait(self, timeout=None):
        self._event.wait(timeout)

    def get(self, timeout=None):
        self.wait(timeout)
        if not self.ready():
            raise TimeoutError
        if self._success:
            return self._value
        else:
            raise self._value

    def _set(self, i, obj):
        self._success, self._value = obj
        if self._callback and self._success:
            self._callback(self._value)
        if self._error_callback and not self._success:
            self._error_callback(self._value)
        self._event.set()
        del self._cache[self._job]

AsyncResult = ApplyResult       # create alias -- see #17805

#
# Class whose instances are returned by `Pool.map_async()`
#

class MapResult(ApplyResult):

    def __init__(self, cache, chunksize, length, callback, error_callback):
        ApplyResult.__init__(self, cache, callback,
                             error_callback=error_callback)
        self._success = True
        self._value = [None] * length
        self._chunksize = chunksize
        if chunksize <= 0:
            self._number_left = 0
            self._event.set()
            del cache[self._job]
        else:
            self._number_left = length//chunksize + bool(length % chunksize)

    def _set(self, i, success_result):
        success, result = success_result
        if success:
            self._value[i*self._chunksize:(i+1)*self._chunksize] = result
            self._number_left -= 1
            if self._number_left == 0:
                if self._callback:
                    self._callback(self._value)
                del self._cache[self._job]
                self._event.set()
        else:
            self._success = False
            self._value = result
            if self._error_callback:
                self._error_callback(self._value)
            del self._cache[self._job]
            self._event.set()

#
# Class whose instances are returned by `Pool.imap()`
#

class IMapIterator(object):

    def __init__(self, cache):
        self._cond = threading.Condition(threading.Lock())
        self._job = next(job_counter)
        self._cache = cache
        self._items = collections.deque()
        self._index = 0
        self._length = None
        self._unsorted = {}
        cache[self._job] = self

    def __iter__(self):
        return self

    def next(self, timeout=None):
        self._cond.acquire()
        try:
            try:
                item = self._items.popleft()
            except IndexError:
                if self._index == self._length:
                    raise StopIteration
                self._cond.wait(timeout)
                try:
                    item = self._items.popleft()
                except IndexError:
                    if self._index == self._length:
                        raise StopIteration
                    raise TimeoutError
        finally:
            self._cond.release()

        success, value = item
        if success:
            return value
        raise value

    __next__ = next                    # XXX

    def _set(self, i, obj):
        self._cond.acquire()
        try:
            if self._index == i:
                self._items.append(obj)
                self._index += 1
                while self._index in self._unsorted:
                    obj = self._unsorted.pop(self._index)
                    self._items.append(obj)
                    self._index += 1
                self._cond.notify()
            else:
                self._unsorted[i] = obj

            if self._index == self._length:
                del self._cache[self._job]
        finally:
            self._cond.release()

    def _set_length(self, length):
        self._cond.acquire()
        try:
            self._length = length
            if self._index == self._length:
                self._cond.notify()
                del self._cache[self._job]
        finally:
            self._cond.release()

#
# Class whose instances are returned by `Pool.imap_unordered()`
#

class IMapUnorderedIterator(IMapIterator):

    def _set(self, i, obj):
        self._cond.acquire()
        try:
            self._items.append(obj)
            self._index += 1
            self._cond.notify()
            if self._index == self._length:
                del self._cache[self._job]
        finally:
            self._cond.release()

#
#
#

class ThreadPool(Pool):

    from .dummy import Process

    def __init__(self, processes=None, initializer=None, initargs=()):
        Pool.__init__(self, processes, initializer, initargs)

    def _setup_queues(self):
        self._inqueue = queue.Queue()
        self._outqueue = queue.Queue()
        self._quick_put = self._inqueue.put
        self._quick_get = self._outqueue.get

    @staticmethod
    def _help_stuff_finish(inqueue, task_handler, size):
        # put sentinels at head of inqueue to make workers finish
        inqueue.not_empty.acquire()
        try:
            inqueue.queue.clear()
            inqueue.queue.extend([None] * size)
            inqueue.not_empty.notify_all()
        finally:
            inqueue.not_empty.release()
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