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python-clinic / Lib / test / test_builtin.py

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# Python test set -- built-in functions

import ast
import builtins
import collections
import io
import locale
import os
import pickle
import platform
import random
import sys
import traceback
import types
import unittest
import warnings
from operator import neg
from test.support import TESTFN, unlink,  run_unittest, check_warnings
try:
    import pty, signal
except ImportError:
    pty = signal = None


class Squares:

    def __init__(self, max):
        self.max = max
        self.sofar = []

    def __len__(self): return len(self.sofar)

    def __getitem__(self, i):
        if not 0 <= i < self.max: raise IndexError
        n = len(self.sofar)
        while n <= i:
            self.sofar.append(n*n)
            n += 1
        return self.sofar[i]

class StrSquares:

    def __init__(self, max):
        self.max = max
        self.sofar = []

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.sofar)

    def __getitem__(self, i):
        if not 0 <= i < self.max:
            raise IndexError
        n = len(self.sofar)
        while n <= i:
            self.sofar.append(str(n*n))
            n += 1
        return self.sofar[i]

class BitBucket:
    def write(self, line):
        pass

test_conv_no_sign = [
        ('0', 0),
        ('1', 1),
        ('9', 9),
        ('10', 10),
        ('99', 99),
        ('100', 100),
        ('314', 314),
        (' 314', 314),
        ('314 ', 314),
        ('  \t\t  314  \t\t  ', 314),
        (repr(sys.maxsize), sys.maxsize),
        ('  1x', ValueError),
        ('  1  ', 1),
        ('  1\02  ', ValueError),
        ('', ValueError),
        (' ', ValueError),
        ('  \t\t  ', ValueError),
        (str(b'\u0663\u0661\u0664 ','raw-unicode-escape'), 314),
        (chr(0x200), ValueError),
]

test_conv_sign = [
        ('0', 0),
        ('1', 1),
        ('9', 9),
        ('10', 10),
        ('99', 99),
        ('100', 100),
        ('314', 314),
        (' 314', ValueError),
        ('314 ', 314),
        ('  \t\t  314  \t\t  ', ValueError),
        (repr(sys.maxsize), sys.maxsize),
        ('  1x', ValueError),
        ('  1  ', ValueError),
        ('  1\02  ', ValueError),
        ('', ValueError),
        (' ', ValueError),
        ('  \t\t  ', ValueError),
        (str(b'\u0663\u0661\u0664 ','raw-unicode-escape'), 314),
        (chr(0x200), ValueError),
]

class TestFailingBool:
    def __bool__(self):
        raise RuntimeError

class TestFailingIter:
    def __iter__(self):
        raise RuntimeError

def filter_char(arg):
    return ord(arg) > ord("d")

def map_char(arg):
    return chr(ord(arg)+1)

class BuiltinTest(unittest.TestCase):
    # Helper to check picklability
    def check_iter_pickle(self, it, seq):
        itorg = it
        d = pickle.dumps(it)
        it = pickle.loads(d)
        self.assertEqual(type(itorg), type(it))
        self.assertEqual(list(it), seq)

        #test the iterator after dropping one from it
        it = pickle.loads(d)
        try:
            next(it)
        except StopIteration:
            return
        d = pickle.dumps(it)
        it = pickle.loads(d)
        self.assertEqual(list(it), seq[1:])

    def test_import(self):
        __import__('sys')
        __import__('time')
        __import__('string')
        __import__(name='sys')
        __import__(name='time', level=0)
        self.assertRaises(ImportError, __import__, 'spamspam')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, __import__, 1, 2, 3, 4)
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, __import__, '')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, __import__, 'sys', name='sys')

    def test_abs(self):
        # int
        self.assertEqual(abs(0), 0)
        self.assertEqual(abs(1234), 1234)
        self.assertEqual(abs(-1234), 1234)
        self.assertTrue(abs(-sys.maxsize-1) > 0)
        # float
        self.assertEqual(abs(0.0), 0.0)
        self.assertEqual(abs(3.14), 3.14)
        self.assertEqual(abs(-3.14), 3.14)
        # str
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, abs, 'a')
        # bool
        self.assertEqual(abs(True), 1)
        self.assertEqual(abs(False), 0)
        # other
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, abs)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, abs, None)
        class AbsClass(object):
            def __abs__(self):
                return -5
        self.assertEqual(abs(AbsClass()), -5)

    def test_all(self):
        self.assertEqual(all([2, 4, 6]), True)
        self.assertEqual(all([2, None, 6]), False)
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, all, [2, TestFailingBool(), 6])
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, all, TestFailingIter())
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, all, 10)               # Non-iterable
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, all)                   # No args
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, all, [2, 4, 6], [])    # Too many args
        self.assertEqual(all([]), True)                     # Empty iterator
        self.assertEqual(all([0, TestFailingBool()]), False)# Short-circuit
        S = [50, 60]
        self.assertEqual(all(x > 42 for x in S), True)
        S = [50, 40, 60]
        self.assertEqual(all(x > 42 for x in S), False)

    def test_any(self):
        self.assertEqual(any([None, None, None]), False)
        self.assertEqual(any([None, 4, None]), True)
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, any, [None, TestFailingBool(), 6])
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, any, TestFailingIter())
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, any, 10)               # Non-iterable
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, any)                   # No args
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, any, [2, 4, 6], [])    # Too many args
        self.assertEqual(any([]), False)                    # Empty iterator
        self.assertEqual(any([1, TestFailingBool()]), True) # Short-circuit
        S = [40, 60, 30]
        self.assertEqual(any(x > 42 for x in S), True)
        S = [10, 20, 30]
        self.assertEqual(any(x > 42 for x in S), False)

    def test_ascii(self):
        self.assertEqual(ascii(''), '\'\'')
        self.assertEqual(ascii(0), '0')
        self.assertEqual(ascii(()), '()')
        self.assertEqual(ascii([]), '[]')
        self.assertEqual(ascii({}), '{}')
        a = []
        a.append(a)
        self.assertEqual(ascii(a), '[[...]]')
        a = {}
        a[0] = a
        self.assertEqual(ascii(a), '{0: {...}}')
        # Advanced checks for unicode strings
        def _check_uni(s):
            self.assertEqual(ascii(s), repr(s))
        _check_uni("'")
        _check_uni('"')
        _check_uni('"\'')
        _check_uni('\0')
        _check_uni('\r\n\t .')
        # Unprintable non-ASCII characters
        _check_uni('\x85')
        _check_uni('\u1fff')
        _check_uni('\U00012fff')
        # Lone surrogates
        _check_uni('\ud800')
        _check_uni('\udfff')
        # Issue #9804: surrogates should be joined even for printable
        # wide characters (UCS-2 builds).
        self.assertEqual(ascii('\U0001d121'), "'\\U0001d121'")
        # All together
        s = "'\0\"\n\r\t abcd\x85é\U00012fff\uD800\U0001D121xxx."
        self.assertEqual(ascii(s),
            r"""'\'\x00"\n\r\t abcd\x85\xe9\U00012fff\ud800\U0001d121xxx.'""")

    def test_neg(self):
        x = -sys.maxsize-1
        self.assertTrue(isinstance(x, int))
        self.assertEqual(-x, sys.maxsize+1)

    def test_callable(self):
        self.assertTrue(callable(len))
        self.assertFalse(callable("a"))
        self.assertTrue(callable(callable))
        self.assertTrue(callable(lambda x, y: x + y))
        self.assertFalse(callable(__builtins__))
        def f(): pass
        self.assertTrue(callable(f))

        class C1:
            def meth(self): pass
        self.assertTrue(callable(C1))
        c = C1()
        self.assertTrue(callable(c.meth))
        self.assertFalse(callable(c))

        # __call__ is looked up on the class, not the instance
        c.__call__ = None
        self.assertFalse(callable(c))
        c.__call__ = lambda self: 0
        self.assertFalse(callable(c))
        del c.__call__
        self.assertFalse(callable(c))

        class C2(object):
            def __call__(self): pass
        c2 = C2()
        self.assertTrue(callable(c2))
        c2.__call__ = None
        self.assertTrue(callable(c2))
        class C3(C2): pass
        c3 = C3()
        self.assertTrue(callable(c3))

    def test_chr(self):
        self.assertEqual(chr(32), ' ')
        self.assertEqual(chr(65), 'A')
        self.assertEqual(chr(97), 'a')
        self.assertEqual(chr(0xff), '\xff')
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, chr, 1<<24)
        self.assertEqual(chr(sys.maxunicode),
                         str('\\U0010ffff'.encode("ascii"), 'unicode-escape'))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, chr)
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x0000FFFF), "\U0000FFFF")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x00010000), "\U00010000")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x00010001), "\U00010001")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x000FFFFE), "\U000FFFFE")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x000FFFFF), "\U000FFFFF")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x00100000), "\U00100000")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x00100001), "\U00100001")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x0010FFFE), "\U0010FFFE")
        self.assertEqual(chr(0x0010FFFF), "\U0010FFFF")
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, chr, -1)
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, chr, 0x00110000)
        self.assertRaises((OverflowError, ValueError), chr, 2**32)

    def test_cmp(self):
        self.assertTrue(not hasattr(builtins, "cmp"))

    def test_compile(self):
        compile('print(1)\n', '', 'exec')
        bom = b'\xef\xbb\xbf'
        compile(bom + b'print(1)\n', '', 'exec')
        compile(source='pass', filename='?', mode='exec')
        compile(dont_inherit=0, filename='tmp', source='0', mode='eval')
        compile('pass', '?', dont_inherit=1, mode='exec')
        compile(memoryview(b"text"), "name", "exec")
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, compile)
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, compile, 'print(42)\n', '<string>', 'badmode')
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, compile, 'print(42)\n', '<string>', 'single', 0xff)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, compile, chr(0), 'f', 'exec')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, compile, 'pass', '?', 'exec',
                          mode='eval', source='0', filename='tmp')
        compile('print("\xe5")\n', '', 'exec')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, compile, chr(0), 'f', 'exec')
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, compile, str('a = 1'), 'f', 'bad')

        # test the optimize argument

        codestr = '''def f():
        """doc"""
        try:
            assert False
        except AssertionError:
            return (True, f.__doc__)
        else:
            return (False, f.__doc__)
        '''
        def f(): """doc"""
        values = [(-1, __debug__, f.__doc__),
                  (0, True, 'doc'),
                  (1, False, 'doc'),
                  (2, False, None)]
        for optval, debugval, docstring in values:
            # test both direct compilation and compilation via AST
            codeobjs = []
            codeobjs.append(compile(codestr, "<test>", "exec", optimize=optval))
            tree = ast.parse(codestr)
            codeobjs.append(compile(tree, "<test>", "exec", optimize=optval))
            for code in codeobjs:
                ns = {}
                exec(code, ns)
                rv = ns['f']()
                self.assertEqual(rv, (debugval, docstring))

    def test_delattr(self):
        sys.spam = 1
        delattr(sys, 'spam')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, delattr)

    def test_dir(self):
        # dir(wrong number of arguments)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, dir, 42, 42)

        # dir() - local scope
        local_var = 1
        self.assertIn('local_var', dir())

        # dir(module)
        self.assertIn('exit', dir(sys))

        # dir(module_with_invalid__dict__)
        class Foo(types.ModuleType):
            __dict__ = 8
        f = Foo("foo")
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, dir, f)

        # dir(type)
        self.assertIn("strip", dir(str))
        self.assertNotIn("__mro__", dir(str))

        # dir(obj)
        class Foo(object):
            def __init__(self):
                self.x = 7
                self.y = 8
                self.z = 9
        f = Foo()
        self.assertIn("y", dir(f))

        # dir(obj_no__dict__)
        class Foo(object):
            __slots__ = []
        f = Foo()
        self.assertIn("__repr__", dir(f))

        # dir(obj_no__class__with__dict__)
        # (an ugly trick to cause getattr(f, "__class__") to fail)
        class Foo(object):
            __slots__ = ["__class__", "__dict__"]
            def __init__(self):
                self.bar = "wow"
        f = Foo()
        self.assertNotIn("__repr__", dir(f))
        self.assertIn("bar", dir(f))

        # dir(obj_using __dir__)
        class Foo(object):
            def __dir__(self):
                return ["kan", "ga", "roo"]
        f = Foo()
        self.assertTrue(dir(f) == ["ga", "kan", "roo"])

        # dir(obj__dir__tuple)
        class Foo(object):
            def __dir__(self):
                return ("b", "c", "a")
        res = dir(Foo())
        self.assertIsInstance(res, list)
        self.assertTrue(res == ["a", "b", "c"])

        # dir(obj__dir__not_sequence)
        class Foo(object):
            def __dir__(self):
                return 7
        f = Foo()
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, dir, f)

        # dir(traceback)
        try:
            raise IndexError
        except:
            self.assertEqual(len(dir(sys.exc_info()[2])), 4)

        # test that object has a __dir__()
        self.assertEqual(sorted([].__dir__()), dir([]))

    def test_divmod(self):
        self.assertEqual(divmod(12, 7), (1, 5))
        self.assertEqual(divmod(-12, 7), (-2, 2))
        self.assertEqual(divmod(12, -7), (-2, -2))
        self.assertEqual(divmod(-12, -7), (1, -5))

        self.assertEqual(divmod(-sys.maxsize-1, -1), (sys.maxsize+1, 0))

        for num, denom, exp_result in [ (3.25, 1.0, (3.0, 0.25)),
                                        (-3.25, 1.0, (-4.0, 0.75)),
                                        (3.25, -1.0, (-4.0, -0.75)),
                                        (-3.25, -1.0, (3.0, -0.25))]:
            result = divmod(num, denom)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(result[0], exp_result[0])
            self.assertAlmostEqual(result[1], exp_result[1])

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, divmod)

    def test_eval(self):
        self.assertEqual(eval('1+1'), 2)
        self.assertEqual(eval(' 1+1\n'), 2)
        globals = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
        locals = {'b': 200, 'c': 300}
        self.assertEqual(eval('a', globals) , 1)
        self.assertEqual(eval('a', globals, locals), 1)
        self.assertEqual(eval('b', globals, locals), 200)
        self.assertEqual(eval('c', globals, locals), 300)
        globals = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
        locals = {'b': 200, 'c': 300}
        bom = b'\xef\xbb\xbf'
        self.assertEqual(eval(bom + b'a', globals, locals), 1)
        self.assertEqual(eval('"\xe5"', globals), "\xe5")
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, eval)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, eval, ())
        self.assertRaises(SyntaxError, eval, bom[:2] + b'a')

        class X:
            def __getitem__(self, key):
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, eval, "foo", {}, X())

    def test_general_eval(self):
        # Tests that general mappings can be used for the locals argument

        class M:
            "Test mapping interface versus possible calls from eval()."
            def __getitem__(self, key):
                if key == 'a':
                    return 12
                raise KeyError
            def keys(self):
                return list('xyz')

        m = M()
        g = globals()
        self.assertEqual(eval('a', g, m), 12)
        self.assertRaises(NameError, eval, 'b', g, m)
        self.assertEqual(eval('dir()', g, m), list('xyz'))
        self.assertEqual(eval('globals()', g, m), g)
        self.assertEqual(eval('locals()', g, m), m)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, eval, 'a', m)
        class A:
            "Non-mapping"
            pass
        m = A()
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, eval, 'a', g, m)

        # Verify that dict subclasses work as well
        class D(dict):
            def __getitem__(self, key):
                if key == 'a':
                    return 12
                return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
            def keys(self):
                return list('xyz')

        d = D()
        self.assertEqual(eval('a', g, d), 12)
        self.assertRaises(NameError, eval, 'b', g, d)
        self.assertEqual(eval('dir()', g, d), list('xyz'))
        self.assertEqual(eval('globals()', g, d), g)
        self.assertEqual(eval('locals()', g, d), d)

        # Verify locals stores (used by list comps)
        eval('[locals() for i in (2,3)]', g, d)
        eval('[locals() for i in (2,3)]', g, collections.UserDict())

        class SpreadSheet:
            "Sample application showing nested, calculated lookups."
            _cells = {}
            def __setitem__(self, key, formula):
                self._cells[key] = formula
            def __getitem__(self, key):
                return eval(self._cells[key], globals(), self)

        ss = SpreadSheet()
        ss['a1'] = '5'
        ss['a2'] = 'a1*6'
        ss['a3'] = 'a2*7'
        self.assertEqual(ss['a3'], 210)

        # Verify that dir() catches a non-list returned by eval
        # SF bug #1004669
        class C:
            def __getitem__(self, item):
                raise KeyError(item)
            def keys(self):
                return 1 # used to be 'a' but that's no longer an error
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, eval, 'dir()', globals(), C())

    def test_exec(self):
        g = {}
        exec('z = 1', g)
        if '__builtins__' in g:
            del g['__builtins__']
        self.assertEqual(g, {'z': 1})

        exec('z = 1+1', g)
        if '__builtins__' in g:
            del g['__builtins__']
        self.assertEqual(g, {'z': 2})
        g = {}
        l = {}

        with check_warnings():
            warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", "global statement",
                    module="<string>")
            exec('global a; a = 1; b = 2', g, l)
        if '__builtins__' in g:
            del g['__builtins__']
        if '__builtins__' in l:
            del l['__builtins__']
        self.assertEqual((g, l), ({'a': 1}, {'b': 2}))

    def test_exec_globals(self):
        code = compile("print('Hello World!')", "", "exec")
        # no builtin function
        self.assertRaisesRegex(NameError, "name 'print' is not defined",
                               exec, code, {'__builtins__': {}})
        # __builtins__ must be a mapping type
        self.assertRaises(TypeError,
                          exec, code, {'__builtins__': 123})

        # no __build_class__ function
        code = compile("class A: pass", "", "exec")
        self.assertRaisesRegex(NameError, "__build_class__ not found",
                               exec, code, {'__builtins__': {}})

        class frozendict_error(Exception):
            pass

        class frozendict(dict):
            def __setitem__(self, key, value):
                raise frozendict_error("frozendict is readonly")

        # read-only builtins
        frozen_builtins = frozendict(__builtins__)
        code = compile("__builtins__['superglobal']=2; print(superglobal)", "test", "exec")
        self.assertRaises(frozendict_error,
                          exec, code, {'__builtins__': frozen_builtins})

        # read-only globals
        namespace = frozendict({})
        code = compile("x=1", "test", "exec")
        self.assertRaises(frozendict_error,
                          exec, code, namespace)

    def test_exec_redirected(self):
        savestdout = sys.stdout
        sys.stdout = None # Whatever that cannot flush()
        try:
            # Used to raise SystemError('error return without exception set')
            exec('a')
        except NameError:
            pass
        finally:
            sys.stdout = savestdout

    def test_filter(self):
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(lambda c: 'a' <= c <= 'z', 'Hello World')), list('elloorld'))
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(None, [1, 'hello', [], [3], '', None, 9, 0])), [1, 'hello', [3], 9])
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(lambda x: x > 0, [1, -3, 9, 0, 2])), [1, 9, 2])
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(None, Squares(10))), [1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81])
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(lambda x: x%2, Squares(10))), [1, 9, 25, 49, 81])
        def identity(item):
            return 1
        filter(identity, Squares(5))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, filter)
        class BadSeq(object):
            def __getitem__(self, index):
                if index<4:
                    return 42
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, list, filter(lambda x: x, BadSeq()))
        def badfunc():
            pass
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, list, filter(badfunc, range(5)))

        # test bltinmodule.c::filtertuple()
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(None, (1, 2))), [1, 2])
        self.assertEqual(list(filter(lambda x: x>=3, (1, 2, 3, 4))), [3, 4])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, list, filter(42, (1, 2)))

    def test_filter_pickle(self):
        f1 = filter(filter_char, "abcdeabcde")
        f2 = filter(filter_char, "abcdeabcde")
        self.check_iter_pickle(f1, list(f2))

    def test_getattr(self):
        self.assertTrue(getattr(sys, 'stdout') is sys.stdout)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, getattr, sys, 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, getattr, sys, 1, "foo")
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, getattr)
        self.assertRaises(AttributeError, getattr, sys, chr(sys.maxunicode))
        # unicode surrogates are not encodable to the default encoding (utf8)
        self.assertRaises(AttributeError, getattr, 1, "\uDAD1\uD51E")

    def test_hasattr(self):
        self.assertTrue(hasattr(sys, 'stdout'))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, hasattr, sys, 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, hasattr)
        self.assertEqual(False, hasattr(sys, chr(sys.maxunicode)))

        # Check that hasattr propagates all exceptions outside of
        # AttributeError.
        class A:
            def __getattr__(self, what):
                raise SystemExit
        self.assertRaises(SystemExit, hasattr, A(), "b")
        class B:
            def __getattr__(self, what):
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, hasattr, B(), "b")

    def test_hash(self):
        hash(None)
        self.assertEqual(hash(1), hash(1))
        self.assertEqual(hash(1), hash(1.0))
        hash('spam')
        self.assertEqual(hash('spam'), hash(b'spam'))
        hash((0,1,2,3))
        def f(): pass
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, hash, [])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, hash, {})
        # Bug 1536021: Allow hash to return long objects
        class X:
            def __hash__(self):
                return 2**100
        self.assertEqual(type(hash(X())), int)
        class Z(int):
            def __hash__(self):
                return self
        self.assertEqual(hash(Z(42)), hash(42))

    def test_hex(self):
        self.assertEqual(hex(16), '0x10')
        self.assertEqual(hex(-16), '-0x10')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, hex, {})

    def test_id(self):
        id(None)
        id(1)
        id(1.0)
        id('spam')
        id((0,1,2,3))
        id([0,1,2,3])
        id({'spam': 1, 'eggs': 2, 'ham': 3})

    # Test input() later, alphabetized as if it were raw_input

    def test_iter(self):
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, iter)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, iter, 42, 42)
        lists = [("1", "2"), ["1", "2"], "12"]
        for l in lists:
            i = iter(l)
            self.assertEqual(next(i), '1')
            self.assertEqual(next(i), '2')
            self.assertRaises(StopIteration, next, i)

    def test_isinstance(self):
        class C:
            pass
        class D(C):
            pass
        class E:
            pass
        c = C()
        d = D()
        e = E()
        self.assertTrue(isinstance(c, C))
        self.assertTrue(isinstance(d, C))
        self.assertTrue(not isinstance(e, C))
        self.assertTrue(not isinstance(c, D))
        self.assertTrue(not isinstance('foo', E))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, isinstance, E, 'foo')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, isinstance)

    def test_issubclass(self):
        class C:
            pass
        class D(C):
            pass
        class E:
            pass
        c = C()
        d = D()
        e = E()
        self.assertTrue(issubclass(D, C))
        self.assertTrue(issubclass(C, C))
        self.assertTrue(not issubclass(C, D))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, issubclass, 'foo', E)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, issubclass, E, 'foo')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, issubclass)

    def test_len(self):
        self.assertEqual(len('123'), 3)
        self.assertEqual(len(()), 0)
        self.assertEqual(len((1, 2, 3, 4)), 4)
        self.assertEqual(len([1, 2, 3, 4]), 4)
        self.assertEqual(len({}), 0)
        self.assertEqual(len({'a':1, 'b': 2}), 2)
        class BadSeq:
            def __len__(self):
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, len, BadSeq())
        class InvalidLen:
            def __len__(self):
                return None
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, len, InvalidLen())
        class FloatLen:
            def __len__(self):
                return 4.5
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, len, FloatLen())
        class HugeLen:
            def __len__(self):
                return sys.maxsize + 1
        self.assertRaises(OverflowError, len, HugeLen())
        class NoLenMethod(object): pass
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, len, NoLenMethod())

    def test_map(self):
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(lambda x: x*x, range(1,4))),
            [1, 4, 9]
        )
        try:
            from math import sqrt
        except ImportError:
            def sqrt(x):
                return pow(x, 0.5)
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(lambda x: list(map(sqrt, x)), [[16, 4], [81, 9]])),
            [[4.0, 2.0], [9.0, 3.0]]
        )
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(lambda x, y: x+y, [1,3,2], [9,1,4])),
            [10, 4, 6]
        )

        def plus(*v):
            accu = 0
            for i in v: accu = accu + i
            return accu
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(plus, [1, 3, 7])),
            [1, 3, 7]
        )
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(plus, [1, 3, 7], [4, 9, 2])),
            [1+4, 3+9, 7+2]
        )
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(plus, [1, 3, 7], [4, 9, 2], [1, 1, 0])),
            [1+4+1, 3+9+1, 7+2+0]
        )
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(int, Squares(10))),
            [0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81]
        )
        def Max(a, b):
            if a is None:
                return b
            if b is None:
                return a
            return max(a, b)
        self.assertEqual(
            list(map(Max, Squares(3), Squares(2))),
            [0, 1]
        )
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, map)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, map, lambda x: x, 42)
        class BadSeq:
            def __iter__(self):
                raise ValueError
                yield None
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, list, map(lambda x: x, BadSeq()))
        def badfunc(x):
            raise RuntimeError
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, list, map(badfunc, range(5)))

    def test_map_pickle(self):
        m1 = map(map_char, "Is this the real life?")
        m2 = map(map_char, "Is this the real life?")
        self.check_iter_pickle(m1, list(m2))

    def test_max(self):
        self.assertEqual(max('123123'), '3')
        self.assertEqual(max(1, 2, 3), 3)
        self.assertEqual(max((1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3)), 3)
        self.assertEqual(max([1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]), 3)

        self.assertEqual(max(1, 2, 3.0), 3.0)
        self.assertEqual(max(1, 2.0, 3), 3)
        self.assertEqual(max(1.0, 2, 3), 3)

        for stmt in (
            "max(key=int)",                 # no args
            "max(1, key=int)",              # single arg not iterable
            "max(1, 2, keystone=int)",      # wrong keyword
            "max(1, 2, key=int, abc=int)",  # two many keywords
            "max(1, 2, key=1)",             # keyfunc is not callable
            ):
            try:
                exec(stmt, globals())
            except TypeError:
                pass
            else:
                self.fail(stmt)

        self.assertEqual(max((1,), key=neg), 1)     # one elem iterable
        self.assertEqual(max((1,2), key=neg), 1)    # two elem iterable
        self.assertEqual(max(1, 2, key=neg), 1)     # two elems

        data = [random.randrange(200) for i in range(100)]
        keys = dict((elem, random.randrange(50)) for elem in data)
        f = keys.__getitem__
        self.assertEqual(max(data, key=f),
                         sorted(reversed(data), key=f)[-1])

    def test_min(self):
        self.assertEqual(min('123123'), '1')
        self.assertEqual(min(1, 2, 3), 1)
        self.assertEqual(min((1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3)), 1)
        self.assertEqual(min([1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]), 1)

        self.assertEqual(min(1, 2, 3.0), 1)
        self.assertEqual(min(1, 2.0, 3), 1)
        self.assertEqual(min(1.0, 2, 3), 1.0)

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, min)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, min, 42)
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, min, ())
        class BadSeq:
            def __getitem__(self, index):
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, min, BadSeq())

        for stmt in (
            "min(key=int)",                 # no args
            "min(1, key=int)",              # single arg not iterable
            "min(1, 2, keystone=int)",      # wrong keyword
            "min(1, 2, key=int, abc=int)",  # two many keywords
            "min(1, 2, key=1)",             # keyfunc is not callable
            ):
            try:
                exec(stmt, globals())
            except TypeError:
                pass
            else:
                self.fail(stmt)

        self.assertEqual(min((1,), key=neg), 1)     # one elem iterable
        self.assertEqual(min((1,2), key=neg), 2)    # two elem iterable
        self.assertEqual(min(1, 2, key=neg), 2)     # two elems

        data = [random.randrange(200) for i in range(100)]
        keys = dict((elem, random.randrange(50)) for elem in data)
        f = keys.__getitem__
        self.assertEqual(min(data, key=f),
                         sorted(data, key=f)[0])

    def test_next(self):
        it = iter(range(2))
        self.assertEqual(next(it), 0)
        self.assertEqual(next(it), 1)
        self.assertRaises(StopIteration, next, it)
        self.assertRaises(StopIteration, next, it)
        self.assertEqual(next(it, 42), 42)

        class Iter(object):
            def __iter__(self):
                return self
            def __next__(self):
                raise StopIteration

        it = iter(Iter())
        self.assertEqual(next(it, 42), 42)
        self.assertRaises(StopIteration, next, it)

        def gen():
            yield 1
            return

        it = gen()
        self.assertEqual(next(it), 1)
        self.assertRaises(StopIteration, next, it)
        self.assertEqual(next(it, 42), 42)

    def test_oct(self):
        self.assertEqual(oct(100), '0o144')
        self.assertEqual(oct(-100), '-0o144')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, oct, ())

    def write_testfile(self):
        # NB the first 4 lines are also used to test input, below
        fp = open(TESTFN, 'w')
        try:
            fp.write('1+1\n')
            fp.write('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog')
            fp.write('.\n')
            fp.write('Dear John\n')
            fp.write('XXX'*100)
            fp.write('YYY'*100)
        finally:
            fp.close()

    def test_open(self):
        self.write_testfile()
        fp = open(TESTFN, 'r')
        try:
            self.assertEqual(fp.readline(4), '1+1\n')
            self.assertEqual(fp.readline(), 'The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.\n')
            self.assertEqual(fp.readline(4), 'Dear')
            self.assertEqual(fp.readline(100), ' John\n')
            self.assertEqual(fp.read(300), 'XXX'*100)
            self.assertEqual(fp.read(1000), 'YYY'*100)
        finally:
            fp.close()
            unlink(TESTFN)

    def test_open_default_encoding(self):
        old_environ = dict(os.environ)
        try:
            # try to get a user preferred encoding different than the current
            # locale encoding to check that open() uses the current locale
            # encoding and not the user preferred encoding
            for key in ('LC_ALL', 'LANG', 'LC_CTYPE'):
                if key in os.environ:
                    del os.environ[key]

            self.write_testfile()
            current_locale_encoding = locale.getpreferredencoding(False)
            fp = open(TESTFN, 'w')
            try:
                self.assertEqual(fp.encoding, current_locale_encoding)
            finally:
                fp.close()
                unlink(TESTFN)
        finally:
            os.environ.clear()
            os.environ.update(old_environ)

    def test_ord(self):
        self.assertEqual(ord(' '), 32)
        self.assertEqual(ord('A'), 65)
        self.assertEqual(ord('a'), 97)
        self.assertEqual(ord('\x80'), 128)
        self.assertEqual(ord('\xff'), 255)

        self.assertEqual(ord(b' '), 32)
        self.assertEqual(ord(b'A'), 65)
        self.assertEqual(ord(b'a'), 97)
        self.assertEqual(ord(b'\x80'), 128)
        self.assertEqual(ord(b'\xff'), 255)

        self.assertEqual(ord(chr(sys.maxunicode)), sys.maxunicode)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, ord, 42)

        self.assertEqual(ord(chr(0x10FFFF)), 0x10FFFF)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U0000FFFF"), 0x0000FFFF)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U00010000"), 0x00010000)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U00010001"), 0x00010001)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U000FFFFE"), 0x000FFFFE)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U000FFFFF"), 0x000FFFFF)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U00100000"), 0x00100000)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U00100001"), 0x00100001)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U0010FFFE"), 0x0010FFFE)
        self.assertEqual(ord("\U0010FFFF"), 0x0010FFFF)

    def test_pow(self):
        self.assertEqual(pow(0,0), 1)
        self.assertEqual(pow(0,1), 0)
        self.assertEqual(pow(1,0), 1)
        self.assertEqual(pow(1,1), 1)

        self.assertEqual(pow(2,0), 1)
        self.assertEqual(pow(2,10), 1024)
        self.assertEqual(pow(2,20), 1024*1024)
        self.assertEqual(pow(2,30), 1024*1024*1024)

        self.assertEqual(pow(-2,0), 1)
        self.assertEqual(pow(-2,1), -2)
        self.assertEqual(pow(-2,2), 4)
        self.assertEqual(pow(-2,3), -8)

        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(0.,0), 1.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(0.,1), 0.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(1.,0), 1.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(1.,1), 1.)

        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(2.,0), 1.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(2.,10), 1024.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(2.,20), 1024.*1024.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(2.,30), 1024.*1024.*1024.)

        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-2.,0), 1.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-2.,1), -2.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-2.,2), 4.)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-2.,3), -8.)

        for x in 2, 2.0:
            for y in 10, 10.0:
                for z in 1000, 1000.0:
                    if isinstance(x, float) or \
                       isinstance(y, float) or \
                       isinstance(z, float):
                        self.assertRaises(TypeError, pow, x, y, z)
                    else:
                        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(x, y, z), 24.0)

        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-1, 0.5), 1j)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(pow(-1, 1/3), 0.5 + 0.8660254037844386j)

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, pow, -1, -2, 3)
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, pow, 1, 2, 0)

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, pow)

    def test_input(self):
        self.write_testfile()
        fp = open(TESTFN, 'r')
        savestdin = sys.stdin
        savestdout = sys.stdout # Eats the echo
        try:
            sys.stdin = fp
            sys.stdout = BitBucket()
            self.assertEqual(input(), "1+1")
            self.assertEqual(input(), 'The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.')
            self.assertEqual(input('testing\n'), 'Dear John')

            # SF 1535165: don't segfault on closed stdin
            # sys.stdout must be a regular file for triggering
            sys.stdout = savestdout
            sys.stdin.close()
            self.assertRaises(ValueError, input)

            sys.stdout = BitBucket()
            sys.stdin = io.StringIO("NULL\0")
            self.assertRaises(TypeError, input, 42, 42)
            sys.stdin = io.StringIO("    'whitespace'")
            self.assertEqual(input(), "    'whitespace'")
            sys.stdin = io.StringIO()
            self.assertRaises(EOFError, input)

            del sys.stdout
            self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, input, 'prompt')
            del sys.stdin
            self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, input, 'prompt')
        finally:
            sys.stdin = savestdin
            sys.stdout = savestdout
            fp.close()
            unlink(TESTFN)

    @unittest.skipUnless(pty, "the pty and signal modules must be available")
    def check_input_tty(self, prompt, terminal_input, stdio_encoding=None):
        if not sys.stdin.isatty() or not sys.stdout.isatty():
            self.skipTest("stdin and stdout must be ttys")
        r, w = os.pipe()
        try:
            pid, fd = pty.fork()
        except (OSError, AttributeError) as e:
            os.close(r)
            os.close(w)
            self.skipTest("pty.fork() raised {}".format(e))
        if pid == 0:
            # Child
            try:
                # Make sure we don't get stuck if there's a problem
                signal.alarm(2)
                os.close(r)
                # Check the error handlers are accounted for
                if stdio_encoding:
                    sys.stdin = io.TextIOWrapper(sys.stdin.detach(),
                                                 encoding=stdio_encoding,
                                                 errors='surrogateescape')
                    sys.stdout = io.TextIOWrapper(sys.stdout.detach(),
                                                  encoding=stdio_encoding,
                                                  errors='replace')
                with open(w, "w") as wpipe:
                    print("tty =", sys.stdin.isatty() and sys.stdout.isatty(), file=wpipe)
                    print(ascii(input(prompt)), file=wpipe)
            except:
                traceback.print_exc()
            finally:
                # We don't want to return to unittest...
                os._exit(0)
        # Parent
        os.close(w)
        os.write(fd, terminal_input + b"\r\n")
        # Get results from the pipe
        with open(r, "r") as rpipe:
            lines = []
            while True:
                line = rpipe.readline().strip()
                if line == "":
                    # The other end was closed => the child exited
                    break
                lines.append(line)
        # Check the result was got and corresponds to the user's terminal input
        if len(lines) != 2:
            # Something went wrong, try to get at stderr
            with open(fd, "r", encoding="ascii", errors="ignore") as child_output:
                self.fail("got %d lines in pipe but expected 2, child output was:\n%s"
                          % (len(lines), child_output.read()))
        os.close(fd)
        # Check we did exercise the GNU readline path
        self.assertIn(lines[0], {'tty = True', 'tty = False'})
        if lines[0] != 'tty = True':
            self.skipTest("standard IO in should have been a tty")
        input_result = eval(lines[1])   # ascii() -> eval() roundtrip
        if stdio_encoding:
            expected = terminal_input.decode(stdio_encoding, 'surrogateescape')
        else:
            expected = terminal_input.decode(sys.stdin.encoding)  # what else?
        self.assertEqual(input_result, expected)

    def test_input_tty(self):
        # Test input() functionality when wired to a tty (the code path
        # is different and invokes GNU readline if available).
        self.check_input_tty("prompt", b"quux")

    def test_input_tty_non_ascii(self):
        # Check stdin/stdout encoding is used when invoking GNU readline
        self.check_input_tty("prompté", b"quux\xe9", "utf-8")

    def test_input_tty_non_ascii_unicode_errors(self):
        # Check stdin/stdout error handler is used when invoking GNU readline
        self.check_input_tty("prompté", b"quux\xe9", "ascii")

    # test_int(): see test_int.py for tests of built-in function int().

    def test_repr(self):
        self.assertEqual(repr(''), '\'\'')
        self.assertEqual(repr(0), '0')
        self.assertEqual(repr(()), '()')
        self.assertEqual(repr([]), '[]')
        self.assertEqual(repr({}), '{}')
        a = []
        a.append(a)
        self.assertEqual(repr(a), '[[...]]')
        a = {}
        a[0] = a
        self.assertEqual(repr(a), '{0: {...}}')

    def test_round(self):
        self.assertEqual(round(0.0), 0.0)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(0.0)), int)
        self.assertEqual(round(1.0), 1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(10.0), 10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(1000000000.0), 1000000000.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(1e20), 1e20)

        self.assertEqual(round(-1.0), -1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-10.0), -10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-1000000000.0), -1000000000.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-1e20), -1e20)

        self.assertEqual(round(0.1), 0.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(1.1), 1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(10.1), 10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(1000000000.1), 1000000000.0)

        self.assertEqual(round(-1.1), -1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-10.1), -10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-1000000000.1), -1000000000.0)

        self.assertEqual(round(0.9), 1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(9.9), 10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(999999999.9), 1000000000.0)

        self.assertEqual(round(-0.9), -1.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-9.9), -10.0)
        self.assertEqual(round(-999999999.9), -1000000000.0)

        self.assertEqual(round(-8.0, -1), -10.0)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8.0, -1)), float)

        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8.0, 0)), float)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8.0, 1)), float)

        # Check even / odd rounding behaviour
        self.assertEqual(round(5.5), 6)
        self.assertEqual(round(6.5), 6)
        self.assertEqual(round(-5.5), -6)
        self.assertEqual(round(-6.5), -6)

        # Check behavior on ints
        self.assertEqual(round(0), 0)
        self.assertEqual(round(8), 8)
        self.assertEqual(round(-8), -8)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(0)), int)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8, -1)), int)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8, 0)), int)
        self.assertEqual(type(round(-8, 1)), int)

        # test new kwargs
        self.assertEqual(round(number=-8.0, ndigits=-1), -10.0)

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, round)

        # test generic rounding delegation for reals
        class TestRound:
            def __round__(self):
                return 23

        class TestNoRound:
            pass

        self.assertEqual(round(TestRound()), 23)

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, round, 1, 2, 3)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, round, TestNoRound())

        t = TestNoRound()
        t.__round__ = lambda *args: args
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, round, t)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, round, t, 0)

    # Some versions of glibc for alpha have a bug that affects
    # float -> integer rounding (floor, ceil, rint, round) for
    # values in the range [2**52, 2**53).  See:
    #
    #   http://sources.redhat.com/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=5350
    #
    # We skip this test on Linux/alpha if it would fail.
    linux_alpha = (platform.system().startswith('Linux') and
                   platform.machine().startswith('alpha'))
    system_round_bug = round(5e15+1) != 5e15+1
    @unittest.skipIf(linux_alpha and system_round_bug,
                     "test will fail;  failure is probably due to a "
                     "buggy system round function")
    def test_round_large(self):
        # Issue #1869: integral floats should remain unchanged
        self.assertEqual(round(5e15-1), 5e15-1)
        self.assertEqual(round(5e15), 5e15)
        self.assertEqual(round(5e15+1), 5e15+1)
        self.assertEqual(round(5e15+2), 5e15+2)
        self.assertEqual(round(5e15+3), 5e15+3)

    def test_setattr(self):
        setattr(sys, 'spam', 1)
        self.assertEqual(sys.spam, 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, setattr, sys, 1, 'spam')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, setattr)

    # test_str(): see test_unicode.py and test_bytes.py for str() tests.

    def test_sum(self):
        self.assertEqual(sum([]), 0)
        self.assertEqual(sum(list(range(2,8))), 27)
        self.assertEqual(sum(iter(list(range(2,8)))), 27)
        self.assertEqual(sum(Squares(10)), 285)
        self.assertEqual(sum(iter(Squares(10))), 285)
        self.assertEqual(sum([[1], [2], [3]], []), [1, 2, 3])

        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, 42)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, ['a', 'b', 'c'])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, ['a', 'b', 'c'], '')
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, [b'a', b'c'], b'')
        values = [bytearray(b'a'), bytearray(b'b')]
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, values, bytearray(b''))
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, [[1], [2], [3]])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, [{2:3}])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sum, [{2:3}]*2, {2:3})

        class BadSeq:
            def __getitem__(self, index):
                raise ValueError
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, sum, BadSeq())

        empty = []
        sum(([x] for x in range(10)), empty)
        self.assertEqual(empty, [])

    def test_type(self):
        self.assertEqual(type(''),  type('123'))
        self.assertNotEqual(type(''), type(()))

    # We don't want self in vars(), so these are static methods

    @staticmethod
    def get_vars_f0():
        return vars()

    @staticmethod
    def get_vars_f2():
        BuiltinTest.get_vars_f0()
        a = 1
        b = 2
        return vars()

    class C_get_vars(object):
        def getDict(self):
            return {'a':2}
        __dict__ = property(fget=getDict)

    def test_vars(self):
        self.assertEqual(set(vars()), set(dir()))
        self.assertEqual(set(vars(sys)), set(dir(sys)))
        self.assertEqual(self.get_vars_f0(), {})
        self.assertEqual(self.get_vars_f2(), {'a': 1, 'b': 2})
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, vars, 42, 42)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, vars, 42)
        self.assertEqual(vars(self.C_get_vars()), {'a':2})

    def test_zip(self):
        a = (1, 2, 3)
        b = (4, 5, 6)
        t = [(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)]
        self.assertEqual(list(zip(a, b)), t)
        b = [4, 5, 6]
        self.assertEqual(list(zip(a, b)), t)
        b = (4, 5, 6, 7)
        self.assertEqual(list(zip(a, b)), t)
        class I:
            def __getitem__(self, i):
                if i < 0 or i > 2: raise IndexError
                return i + 4
        self.assertEqual(list(zip(a, I())), t)
        self.assertEqual(list(zip()), [])
        self.assertEqual(list(zip(*[])), [])
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, zip, None)
        class G:
            pass
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, zip, a, G())
        self.assertRaises(RuntimeError, zip, a, TestFailingIter())

        # Make sure zip doesn't try to allocate a billion elements for the
        # result list when one of its arguments doesn't say how long it is.
        # A MemoryError is the most likely failure mode.
        class SequenceWithoutALength:
            def __getitem__(self, i):
                if i == 5:
                    raise IndexError
                else:
                    return i
        self.assertEqual(
            list(zip(SequenceWithoutALength(), range(2**30))),
            list(enumerate(range(5)))
        )

        class BadSeq:
            def __getitem__(self, i):
                if i == 5:
                    raise ValueError
                else:
                    return i
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, list, zip(BadSeq(), BadSeq()))

    def test_zip_pickle(self):
        a = (1, 2, 3)
        b = (4, 5, 6)
        t = [(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)]
        z1 = zip(a, b)
        self.check_iter_pickle(z1, t)

    def test_format(self):
        # Test the basic machinery of the format() builtin.  Don't test
        #  the specifics of the various formatters
        self.assertEqual(format(3, ''), '3')

        # Returns some classes to use for various tests.  There's
        #  an old-style version, and a new-style version
        def classes_new():
            class A(object):
                def __init__(self, x):
                    self.x = x
                def __format__(self, format_spec):
                    return str(self.x) + format_spec
            class DerivedFromA(A):
                pass

            class Simple(object): pass
            class DerivedFromSimple(Simple):
                def __init__(self, x):
                    self.x = x
                def __format__(self, format_spec):
                    return str(self.x) + format_spec
            class DerivedFromSimple2(DerivedFromSimple): pass
            return A, DerivedFromA, DerivedFromSimple, DerivedFromSimple2

        def class_test(A, DerivedFromA, DerivedFromSimple, DerivedFromSimple2):
            self.assertEqual(format(A(3), 'spec'), '3spec')
            self.assertEqual(format(DerivedFromA(4), 'spec'), '4spec')
            self.assertEqual(format(DerivedFromSimple(5), 'abc'), '5abc')
            self.assertEqual(format(DerivedFromSimple2(10), 'abcdef'),
                             '10abcdef')

        class_test(*classes_new())

        def empty_format_spec(value):
            # test that:
            #  format(x, '') == str(x)
            #  format(x) == str(x)
            self.assertEqual(format(value, ""), str(value))
            self.assertEqual(format(value), str(value))

        # for builtin types, format(x, "") == str(x)
        empty_format_spec(17**13)
        empty_format_spec(1.0)
        empty_format_spec(3.1415e104)
        empty_format_spec(-3.1415e104)
        empty_format_spec(3.1415e-104)
        empty_format_spec(-3.1415e-104)
        empty_format_spec(object)
        empty_format_spec(None)

        # TypeError because self.__format__ returns the wrong type
        class BadFormatResult:
            def __format__(self, format_spec):
                return 1.0
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, format, BadFormatResult(), "")

        # TypeError because format_spec is not unicode or str
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, format, object(), 4)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, format, object(), object())

        # tests for object.__format__ really belong elsewhere, but
        #  there's no good place to put them
        x = object().__format__('')
        self.assertTrue(x.startswith('<object object at'))

        # first argument to object.__format__ must be string
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, object().__format__, 3)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, object().__format__, object())
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, object().__format__, None)

        # --------------------------------------------------------------------
        # Issue #7994: object.__format__ with a non-empty format string is
        #  deprecated
        def test_deprecated_format_string(obj, fmt_str, should_raise):
            if should_raise:
                self.assertRaises(TypeError, format, obj, fmt_str)
            else:
                format(obj, fmt_str)

        fmt_strs = ['', 's']

        class A:
            def __format__(self, fmt_str):
                return format('', fmt_str)

        for fmt_str in fmt_strs:
            test_deprecated_format_string(A(), fmt_str, False)

        class B:
            pass

        class C(object):
            pass

        for cls in [object, B, C]:
            for fmt_str in fmt_strs:
                test_deprecated_format_string(cls(), fmt_str, len(fmt_str) != 0)
        # --------------------------------------------------------------------

        # make sure we can take a subclass of str as a format spec
        class DerivedFromStr(str): pass
        self.assertEqual(format(0, DerivedFromStr('10')), '         0')

    def test_bin(self):
        self.assertEqual(bin(0), '0b0')
        self.assertEqual(bin(1), '0b1')
        self.assertEqual(bin(-1), '-0b1')
        self.assertEqual(bin(2**65), '0b1' + '0' * 65)
        self.assertEqual(bin(2**65-1), '0b' + '1' * 65)
        self.assertEqual(bin(-(2**65)), '-0b1' + '0' * 65)
        self.assertEqual(bin(-(2**65-1)), '-0b' + '1' * 65)

    def test_bytearray_translate(self):
        x = bytearray(b"abc")
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, x.translate, b"1", 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, x.translate, b"1"*256, 1)

    def test_construct_singletons(self):
        for const in None, Ellipsis, NotImplemented:
            tp = type(const)
            self.assertIs(tp(), const)
            self.assertRaises(TypeError, tp, 1, 2)
            self.assertRaises(TypeError, tp, a=1, b=2)

class TestSorted(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_basic(self):
        data = list(range(100))
        copy = data[:]
        random.shuffle(copy)
        self.assertEqual(data, sorted(copy))
        self.assertNotEqual(data, copy)

        data.reverse()
        random.shuffle(copy)
        self.assertEqual(data, sorted(copy, key=lambda x: -x))
        self.assertNotEqual(data, copy)
        random.shuffle(copy)
        self.assertEqual(data, sorted(copy, reverse=1))
        self.assertNotEqual(data, copy)

    def test_inputtypes(self):
        s = 'abracadabra'
        types = [list, tuple, str]
        for T in types:
            self.assertEqual(sorted(s), sorted(T(s)))

        s = ''.join(set(s))  # unique letters only
        types = [str, set, frozenset, list, tuple, dict.fromkeys]
        for T in types:
            self.assertEqual(sorted(s), sorted(T(s)))

    def test_baddecorator(self):
        data = 'The quick Brown fox Jumped over The lazy Dog'.split()
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, sorted, data, None, lambda x,y: 0)

def test_main(verbose=None):
    test_classes = (BuiltinTest, TestSorted)

    run_unittest(*test_classes)

    # verify reference counting
    if verbose and hasattr(sys, "gettotalrefcount"):
        import gc
        counts = [None] * 5
        for i in range(len(counts)):
            run_unittest(*test_classes)
            gc.collect()
            counts[i] = sys.gettotalrefcount()
        print(counts)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    test_main(verbose=True)