python-clinic / Doc / library / shutil.rst

:mod:`shutil` --- High-level file operations

Source code: :source:`Lib/`

The :mod:`shutil` module offers a number of high-level operations on files and collections of files. In particular, functions are provided which support file copying and removal. For operations on individual files, see also the :mod:`os` module.


Even the higher-level file copying functions (:func:`shutil.copy`, :func:`shutil.copy2`) cannot copy all file metadata.

On POSIX platforms, this means that file owner and group are lost as well as ACLs. On Mac OS, the resource fork and other metadata are not used. This means that resources will be lost and file type and creator codes will not be correct. On Windows, file owners, ACLs and alternate data streams are not copied.

Directory and files operations

copytree example

This example is the implementation of the :func:`copytree` function, described above, with the docstring omitted. It demonstrates many of the other functions provided by this module.

def copytree(src, dst, symlinks=False):
    names = os.listdir(src)
    errors = []
    for name in names:
        srcname = os.path.join(src, name)
        dstname = os.path.join(dst, name)
            if symlinks and os.path.islink(srcname):
                linkto = os.readlink(srcname)
                os.symlink(linkto, dstname)
            elif os.path.isdir(srcname):
                copytree(srcname, dstname, symlinks)
                copy2(srcname, dstname)
            # XXX What about devices, sockets etc.?
        except OSError as why:
            errors.append((srcname, dstname, str(why)))
        # catch the Error from the recursive copytree so that we can
        # continue with other files
        except Error as err:
        copystat(src, dst)
    except OSError as why:
        # can't copy file access times on Windows
        if why.winerror is None:
            errors.extend((src, dst, str(why)))
    if errors:
        raise Error(errors)

Another example that uses the :func:`ignore_patterns` helper:

from shutil import copytree, ignore_patterns

copytree(source, destination, ignore=ignore_patterns('*.pyc', 'tmp*'))

This will copy everything except .pyc files and files or directories whose name starts with tmp.

Another example that uses the ignore argument to add a logging call:

from shutil import copytree
import logging

def _logpath(path, names):'Working in %s' % path)
    return []   # nothing will be ignored

copytree(source, destination, ignore=_logpath)

Archiving operations

High-level utilities to create and read compressed and archived files are also provided. They rely on the :mod:`zipfile` and :mod:`tarfile` modules.

Archiving example

In this example, we create a gzip'ed tar-file archive containing all files found in the :file:`.ssh` directory of the user:

>>> from shutil import make_archive
>>> import os
>>> archive_name = os.path.expanduser(os.path.join('~', 'myarchive'))
>>> root_dir = os.path.expanduser(os.path.join('~', '.ssh'))
>>> make_archive(archive_name, 'gztar', root_dir)

The resulting archive contains:

$ tar -tzvf /Users/tarek/myarchive.tar.gz
drwx------ tarek/staff       0 2010-02-01 16:23:40 ./
-rw-r--r-- tarek/staff     609 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./authorized_keys
-rwxr-xr-x tarek/staff      65 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./config
-rwx------ tarek/staff     668 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./id_dsa
-rwxr-xr-x tarek/staff     609 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./
-rw------- tarek/staff    1675 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./id_rsa
-rw-r--r-- tarek/staff     397 2008-06-09 13:26:54 ./
-rw-r--r-- tarek/staff   37192 2010-02-06 18:23:10 ./known_hosts

Querying the size of the output terminal