Bignum support (Fast Number Theoretic Transform or FNT):
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Bignum arithmetic in libmpdec uses the scheme for fast convolution
of integer sequences from:
J. M. Pollard: The fast Fourier transform in a finite field
http://www.ams.org/journals/mcom/1971-25-114/S0025-5718-1971-0301966-0/home.html
The transform in a finite field can be used for convolution in the same
way as the Fourier Transform. The main advantages of the Number Theoretic
Transform are that it is both exact and very memory efficient.
Convolution in pseudo-code:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
fnt_convolute(a, b):
x = fnt(a) # forward transform of a
y = fnt(b) # forward transform of b
z = pairwise multiply x[i] and y[i]
result = inv_fnt(z) # backward transform of z.
Extending the maximum transform length (Chinese Remainder Theorem):
-------------------------------------------------------------------
The maximum transform length is quite limited when using a single
prime field. However, it is possible to use multiple primes and
recover the result using the Chinese Remainder Theorem.
Multiplication in pseudo-code:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
_mpd_fntmul(u, v):
c1 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P1) # convolute modulo prime1
c2 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P2) # convolute modulo prime2
c3 = fnt_convolute(u, v, P3) # convolute modulo prime3
result = crt3(c1, c2, c3) # Chinese Remainder Theorem
Optimized transform functions:
------------------------------
There are three different fnt() functions:
std_fnt: "standard" decimation in frequency transform for array lengths
of 2**n. Performs well up to 1024 words.
sixstep: Cache-friendly algorithm for array lengths of 2**n. Outperforms
std_fnt for large arrays.
fourstep: Algorithm for array lengths of 3 * 2**n. Also cache friendly
in large parts.
List of bignum-only files:
--------------------------
Functions from these files are only used in _mpd_fntmul().
umodarith.h -> fast low level routines for unsigned modular arithmetic
numbertheory.c -> routines for setting up the FNT
difradix2.c -> decimation in frequency transform, used as the
"base case" by the following three files:
fnt.c -> standard transform for smaller arrays
sixstep.c -> transform large arrays of length 2**n
fourstep.c -> transform arrays of length 3 * 2**n
convolute.c -> do the actual fast convolution, using one of
the three transform functions.
transpose.c -> transpositions needed for the sixstep algorithm.
crt.c -> Chinese Remainder Theorem: use information from three
transforms modulo three different primes to get the
final result.