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pynguin / GettingStarted

Install

See the instructions in the README file.

Windows users may want to look at InstallingPynguinOnWindows

More functions video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R2GsVM3ebns

Interface

  • left side (The canvas) The pynguin lives over here. Give commands and write programs and watch the pynguin move around and draw here.

  • top right (Code editor) Write programs and create new functions for the pynguin here.

  • bottom right (Interactive console) Give commands here.

Commands

draw

forward(distance) : Move the pynguin ahead by the given distance. distance should be a number.

fd(distance) : Same as forward(distance)

backward(distance) : Move the pynguin back by the given distance.

bk(distance) : Same as backward(distance)

lineto(x, y) : Draw a line from the current location to the given coordinates. Line is drawn even if pen has been deactivated with penup()

penup() : Deactivate the pen. Makes the pynguin not draw while moving.

pendown() : Activate the pen. The pynguin will draw lines while moving.

speed(string) : Change how quickly the pynguin moves around the drawing. Choices available are: 'slow', 'medium', 'fast', 'instant'. Note that 'instant' really means 'as fast as possible'.

track() : Keep the pynguin centered in the view as it moves around. Note that it is only the main pynguin that will be tracked, even if it is a different pynguin that calls the track() method. To track a different pynguin, promote() it first.

notrack() : Stop tracking the main pynguin.

turn

right(degrees) : Turn clockwise by given angle. degrees should be a number.

rt(degrees) : Same as right(degrees)

left(degrees) : Turn counter-clockwise by given angle.

lt(degrees) : Same as left(degrees)

turnto(degrees) : Set the heading to the given angle.

h(degrees) : Same as turnto(degrees)

toward(x, y) : Turn to face the given coordinates.

See also: Properties

move

goto(x, y) : Move to the given coordinates. No line is drawn, no matter what the current state of the pen is.

xy(x, y) : Same as goto(x, y)

home() : Move to the home location (0, 0)

reset() : Clear the canvas and set all pynguin attributes to their initial conditions.

clear() : Remove anything that was drawn by the main pynguin.

See also: Properties

info

xy() : Return the current location as a 2-tuple.

xyh() : Return the current location and heading as a 3-tuple.

h() : Return the current heading.

distance(x, y) : Return the distance to the given coordinate.

xyforward(distance) : Return the location where the pynguin would be if it went forward(distance)

onscreen() : Return True if the pynguin is positioned on the canvas.

viewcoords() : Return the coordinates of the corners of the canvas as a 4-tuple (xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax).

See also: Properties

style

color(string) : Change the color of drawn lines. string can be the name of a color (like 'red', 'green', 'blue') or an html-style hex color triple (like '#FF0000', '#00FF00', '#0000FF') or choose a random color with the word 'random'. (Can also choose a light, medium or dark random color with 'rlight', 'rmedium', or 'rdark')

color(red, green, blue) : Change the color of drawn lines. Each of red, green, and blue should be an integer between 0 and 255.

bgcolor(string) : Set the background color. Color choices are the same as those for color(string).

bgcolor(red, green, blue) : Set the background color.

width(px) : Change the width of drawn lines to the specified size. px should be a number.

fill() : Add color to the interior space of drawn lines.

fill(color=...) : Start filling, and also change the fill color. The color

parameter can be a string as in calling color(string) or a 3-tuple of (red, green, blue).

nofill() : Turn off filling.

font() : Return the current font object being used to draw text. This is a Qt font and methods can be called on it to change the font style.

font(family=..., size=..., weight=..., italic=...) : Some characteristics of the current font can be set this way. family is a string like 'Arial' or 'Courier', size is a number, weight is a number between 0 and 99, italic is a boolean.

Shapes and random colors video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SNNQi7Lw2E

shapes

circle(radius, center?) : Draw a circle with given radius. If center is included and is True, center the circle on the current location.

arc(radius, extent, center?, move?, pie?) : Draw a circular arc with given radius and extent. If center is True the arc will be centered on the initial location. If move is True the pynguin will either go to the end of the drawn arc, or if center is also True will finish facing towards the end of the drawn arc. If pie is True the arc will be the circular edge of a pie-shaped figure.

square(size, center?) : Draw a square with side length size. If center is included and is True, center the square on the current location.

write(text) : Draw the given text string at the current location.

avatar(string) : Set the pynguin's onscreen representation to the given choice. Choices for string include 'pynguin', 'arrow', 'robot', and 'turtle'. Custom avatars can also be set this way. For help with the syntax, try using the View -> Custom -> Add new avatar option from the menu first.

stamp() : Draw a copy of the current avatar at the current location.

stamp(string) : Draw a copy of the given avatar at the current location. Choices for string include 'pynguin', 'arrow', 'robot', and 'turtle'.

Properties

Each Pynguin object also has a set of values that can be accessed or set.

x : get or set the x-coordinate

y : get or set the y-coordinate

pos : get or set both x- and y- coordinates

heading : get or set the heading

ang : Same as heading

Multiple Pynguins

You can have more than one pynguin active at any time. Make sure that you keep a reference to any additional pynguins so that you can control them.

Pynguin : instantiate or subclass this class for additional pynguin objects. Keep a reference for later use: p2 = Pynguin(); p2.fd(100)

pyn.remove() : Pynguin method for discarding the given Pynguin object. Also removes everything the pynguin has drawn. If the discarded pynguin was the main pynguin, the next oldest will be promoted to be the main pynguin. That means that the non-qualified commands will control the newly promoted pynguin. For instance if p2 has been promoted, fd(100) will be the same as p2.fd(100)

pyn.promote(other_pyn) : Make other_pyn be the main pynguin. Note that it is not necessary for the main pynguin to perform this command. For instance, any_pyn.promote(any_pyn) is a legal way for any pynguin to promote itself to be the main pynguin.

reap() : remove all other pynguins after first taking ownership of everything the pynguin has drawn. Note the difference between reap() and remove() is that reap() will leave the current drawing unchanged.

util module

The util module is pulled in to the default namespace automatically. There is no need to import util

functions

choose_color()

choose_color() : Return the RGB value of a chosen color. Provides several ways to select a color. This function is used by pynguin methods like color() and bgcolor() but it may be useful to call it directly. Note that choose_color() does not actually set any colors, it only returns the RGB values that can be passed to the color setting methods.

choose_color(string) : string can be the name of a color, like 'red', 'orange', or 'light blue'.

choose\_color(string): string can be one of: *'random'*'rlight'*'rmedium'*'rdark'*'ralpha'`

choose_color(r, g, b) : As long as r, g, and b are in the range 0-255 this function will just return R, G, B and if not, it will raise a ValueError.

choose_color(r, g, b, a) : Similar to choose_color(r, g, b) but with an alpha (transparency) value between 0-255. As long as r, g, b, and a are in the range 0-255 will return R, G, B, A. If not, it will raise ValueError.

nudge_color()

nudge_color() : Return the RGB values of a color that has been modified in the specified way. Note that nudge_color() does not actually set any colors, it only returns the RGB values that can be passed to the color setting methods.

nudge_color(color, r=int, g=int, b=int) : Starting from the initial color (which must be a 3-tuple as returned by the color() method) adjust the color by the given amounts. r, g, and b are all optional. Adds the given integer amount to the selected component. For example, if c = color() = (100, 100, 100) then nudge_color(c, r=10, b=-50) will return (110, 100, 50)

nudge_color(color, r='dr%', g='dg%', b='db%') : Starting from the initial color (which must be a 3-tuple as returned by thecolor()method) adjust the color by the given percents. r, g, and b are all optional. For example, ifc = color() = (100, 100, 100)thennudge_color(c, r='10%', b='150%')will return(10, 100, 150)`

Note that numbers and percents can be mixed freely in nudge_color() so that for instance, if c = color() = (100, 100, 100) then nudge_color(c, r=-20, g='99%', b='105%') will return (80, 99, 105)

Updated