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django-3k-old / docs / releases / 1.1.txt

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========================
Django 1.1 release notes
========================


July 29, 2009

Welcome to Django 1.1!

Django 1.1 includes a number of nifty `new features`_, lots of bug
fixes, and an easy upgrade path from Django 1.0.

.. _new features: `What's new in Django 1.1`_

.. _backwards-incompatible-changes-1.1:

Backwards-incompatible changes in 1.1
=====================================

Django has a policy of :doc:`API stability </misc/api-stability>`. This means
that, in general, code you develop against Django 1.0 should continue to work
against 1.1 unchanged. However, we do sometimes make backwards-incompatible
changes if they're necessary to resolve bugs, and there are a handful of such
(minor) changes between Django 1.0 and Django 1.1.

Before upgrading to Django 1.1 you should double-check that the following
changes don't impact you, and upgrade your code if they do.

Changes to constraint names
---------------------------

Django 1.1 modifies the method used to generate database constraint names so
that names are consistent regardless of machine word size. This change is
backwards incompatible for some users.

If you are using a 32-bit platform, you're off the hook; you'll observe no
differences as a result of this change.

However, **users on 64-bit platforms may experience some problems** using the
:djadmin:`reset` management command. Prior to this change, 64-bit platforms
would generate a 64-bit, 16 character digest in the constraint name; for
example::

    ALTER TABLE myapp_sometable ADD CONSTRAINT object_id_refs_id_5e8f10c132091d1e FOREIGN KEY ...

Following this change, all platforms, regardless of word size, will generate a
32-bit, 8 character digest in the constraint name; for example::

    ALTER TABLE myapp_sometable ADD CONSTRAINT object_id_refs_id_32091d1e FOREIGN KEY ...

As a result of this change, you will not be able to use the :djadmin:`reset`
management command on any table made by a 64-bit machine. This is because the
the new generated name will not match the historically generated name; as a
result, the SQL constructed by the reset command will be invalid.

If you need to reset an application that was created with 64-bit constraints,
you will need to manually drop the old constraint prior to invoking
:djadmin:`reset`.

Test cases are now run in a transaction
---------------------------------------

Django 1.1 runs tests inside a transaction, allowing better test performance
(see `test performance improvements`_ for details).

This change is slightly backwards incompatible if existing tests need to test
transactional behavior, if they rely on invalid assumptions about the test
environment, or if they require a specific test case ordering.

For these cases, :class:`~django.test.TransactionTestCase` can be used instead.
This is a just a quick fix to get around test case errors revealed by the new
rollback approach; in the long-term tests should be rewritten to correct the
test case.

.. _removed-setremoteaddrfromforwardedfor-middleware:

Removed ``SetRemoteAddrFromForwardedFor`` middleware
----------------------------------------------------

For convenience, Django 1.0 included an optional middleware class --
``django.middleware.http.SetRemoteAddrFromForwardedFor`` -- which updated the
value of ``REMOTE_ADDR`` based on the HTTP ``X-Forwarded-For`` header commonly
set by some proxy configurations.

It has been demonstrated that this mechanism cannot be made reliable enough for
general-purpose use, and that (despite documentation to the contrary) its
inclusion in Django may lead application developers to assume that the value of
``REMOTE_ADDR`` is "safe" or in some way reliable as a source of authentication.

While not directly a security issue, we've decided to remove this middleware
with the Django 1.1 release. It has been replaced with a class that does nothing
other than raise a ``DeprecationWarning``.

If you've been relying on this middleware, the easiest upgrade path is:

    * Examine `the code as it existed before it was removed`__.

    * Verify that it works correctly with your upstream proxy, modifying
      it to support your particular proxy (if necessary).

    * Introduce your modified version of ``SetRemoteAddrFromForwardedFor`` as a
      piece of middleware in your own project.

__ http://code.djangoproject.com/browser/django/trunk/django/middleware/http.py?rev=11000#L33

Names of uploaded files are available later
-------------------------------------------

.. currentmodule:: django.db.models

In Django 1.0, files uploaded and stored in a model's :class:`FileField` were
saved to disk before the model was saved to the database. This meant that the
actual file name assigned to the file was available before saving. For example,
it was available in a model's pre-save signal handler.

In Django 1.1 the file is saved as part of saving the model in the database, so
the actual file name used on disk cannot be relied on until *after* the model
has been saved.

Changes to how model formsets are saved
---------------------------------------

.. currentmodule:: django.forms.models

In Django 1.1, :class:`BaseModelFormSet` now calls :meth:`ModelForm.save()`.

This is backwards-incompatible if you were modifying ``self.initial`` in a model
formset's ``__init__``, or if you relied on the internal ``_total_form_count``
or ``_initial_form_count`` attributes of BaseFormSet. Those attributes are now
public methods.

Fixed the ``join`` filter's escaping behavior
---------------------------------------------

The :ttag:`join` filter no longer escapes the literal value that is
passed in for the connector.

This is backwards incompatible for the special situation of the literal string
containing one of the five special HTML characters. Thus, if you were writing
``{{ foo|join:"&" }}``, you now have to write ``{{ foo|join:"&amp;" }}``.

The previous behavior was a bug and contrary to what was documented
and expected.

Permanent redirects and the ``redirect_to()`` generic view
----------------------------------------------------------

Django 1.1 adds a ``permanent`` argument to the
:func:`django.views.generic.simple.redirect_to()` view. This is technically
backwards-incompatible if you were using the ``redirect_to`` view with a
format-string key called 'permanent', which is highly unlikely.

.. _deprecated-features-1.1:

Features deprecated in 1.1
==========================

One feature has been marked as deprecated in Django 1.1:

    * You should no longer use ``AdminSite.root()`` to register that admin
      views. That is, if your URLconf contains the line::

            (r'^admin/(.*)', admin.site.root),

      You should change it to read::

            (r'^admin/', include(admin.site.urls)),

You should begin to remove use of this feature from your code immediately.

``AdminSite.root`` will raise a ``PendingDeprecationWarning`` if used in
Django 1.1. This warning is hidden by default. In Django 1.2, this warning will
be upgraded to a ``DeprecationWarning``, which will be displayed loudly. Django
1.3 will remove ``AdminSite.root()`` entirely.

For more details on our deprecation policies and strategy, see
:doc:`/internals/release-process`.

What's new in Django 1.1
========================

Quite a bit: since Django 1.0, we've made 1,290 code commits, fixed 1,206 bugs,
and added roughly 10,000 lines of documentation.

The major new features in Django 1.1 are:

ORM improvements
----------------

.. currentmodule:: django.db.models

Two major enhancements have been added to Django's object-relational mapper
(ORM): aggregate support, and query expressions.

Aggregate support
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

It's now possible to run SQL aggregate queries (i.e. ``COUNT()``, ``MAX()``,
``MIN()``, etc.) from within Django's ORM. You can choose to either return the
results of the aggregate directly, or else annotate the objects in a
:class:`QuerySet` with the results of the aggregate query.

This feature is available as new :meth:`QuerySet.aggregate()`` and
:meth:`QuerySet.annotate()`` methods, and is covered in detail in :doc:`the ORM
aggregation documentation </topics/db/aggregation>`.

Query expressions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Queries can now refer to a another field on the query and can traverse
relationships to refer to fields on related models. This is implemented in the
new :class:`F` object; for full details, including examples, consult the
:ref:`documentation for F expressions <query-expressions>`.

Model improvements
------------------

A number of features have been added to Django's model layer:

"Unmanaged" models
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can now control whether or not Django manages the life-cycle of the database
tables for a model using the :attr:`~Options.managed` model option. This
defaults to ``True``, meaning that Django will create the appropriate database
tables in :djadmin:`syncdb` and remove them as part of the :djadmin:`reset`
command. That is, Django *manages* the database table's lifecycle.

If you set this to ``False``, however, no database table creating or deletion
will be automatically performed for this model. This is useful if the model
represents an existing table or a database view that has been created by some
other means.

For more details, see the documentation for the :attr:`~Options.managed`
option.

Proxy models
~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can now create :ref:`proxy models <proxy-models>`: subclasses of existing
models that only add Python-level (rather than database-level) behavior and
aren't represented by a new table. That is, the new model is a *proxy* for some
underlying model, which stores all the real data.

All the details can be found in the :ref:`proxy models documentation
<proxy-models>`. This feature is similar on the surface to unmanaged models,
so the documentation has an explanation of :ref:`how proxy models differ from
unmanaged models <proxy-vs-unmanaged-models>`.

Deferred fields
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In some complex situations, your models might contain fields which could
contain a lot of data (for example, large text fields), or require expensive
processing to convert them to Python objects. If you know you don't need those
particular fields, you can now tell Django not to retrieve them from the
database.

You'll do this with the new queryset methods
:meth:`~django.db.models.QuerySet.defer` and
:meth:`~django.db.models.QuerySet.only`.

Testing improvements
--------------------

A few notable improvements have been made to the :doc:`testing framework
</topics/testing>`.

Test performance improvements
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. currentmodule:: django.test

Tests written using Django's :doc:`testing framework </topics/testing>` now run
dramatically faster (as much as 10 times faster in many cases).

This was accomplished through the introduction of transaction-based tests: when
using :class:`django.test.TestCase`, your tests will now be run in a transaction
which is rolled back when finished, instead of by flushing and re-populating the
database. This results in an immense speedup for most types of unit tests. See
the documentation for :class:`TestCase` and :class:`TransactionTestCase` for a
full description, and some important notes on database support.

Test client improvements
------------------------

.. currentmodule:: django.test.client

A couple of small -- but highly useful -- improvements have been made to the
test client:

    * The test :class:`Client` now can automatically follow redirects with the
      ``follow`` argument to :meth:`Client.get` and :meth:`Client.post`. This
      makes testing views that issue redirects simpler.

    * It's now easier to get at the template context in the response returned
      the test client: you'll simply access the context as
      ``request.context[key]``. The old way, which treats ``request.context`` as
      a list of contexts, one for each rendered template in the inheritance
      chain, is still available if you need it.

New admin features
------------------

Django 1.1 adds a couple of nifty new features to Django's admin interface:

Editable fields on the change list
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can now make fields editable on the admin list views via the new
:ref:`list_editable <admin-list-editable>` admin option. These fields will show
up as form widgets on the list pages, and can be edited and saved in bulk.

Admin "actions"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can now define :doc:`admin actions </ref/contrib/admin/actions>` that can
perform some action to a group of models in bulk. Users will be able to select
objects on the change list page and then apply these bulk actions to all
selected objects.

Django ships with one pre-defined admin action to delete a group of objects in
one fell swoop.

Conditional view processing
---------------------------

Django now has much better support for :doc:`conditional view processing
</topics/conditional-view-processing>` using the standard ``ETag`` and
``Last-Modified`` HTTP headers. This means you can now easily short-circuit
view processing by testing less-expensive conditions. For many views this can
lead to a serious improvement in speed and reduction in bandwidth.

URL namespaces
--------------

Django 1.1 improves :ref:`named URL patterns <naming-url-patterns>` with the
introduction of URL "namespaces."

In short, this feature allows the same group of URLs, from the same application,
to be included in a Django URLConf multiple times, with varying (and potentially
nested) named prefixes which will be used when performing reverse resolution. In
other words, reusable applications like Django's admin interface may be
registered multiple times without URL conflicts.

For full details, see :ref:`the documentation on defining URL namespaces
<topics-http-defining-url-namespaces>`.

GeoDjango
---------

In Django 1.1, GeoDjango_ (i.e. ``django.contrib.gis``) has several new
features:

    * Support for SpatiaLite_ -- a spatial database for SQLite -- as a spatial
      backend.

    * Geographic aggregates (``Collect``, ``Extent``, ``MakeLine``, ``Union``)
      and ``F`` expressions.

    * New ``GeoQuerySet`` methods: ``collect``, ``geojson``, and
      ``snap_to_grid``.

    * A new list interface methods for ``GEOSGeometry`` objects.

For more details, see the `GeoDjango documentation`_.

.. _geodjango: http://geodjango.org/
.. _spatialite: http://www.gaia-gis.it/spatialite/
.. _geodjango documentation: http://geodjango.org/docs/

Other improvements
------------------

Other new features and changes introduced since Django 1.0 include:

* The :doc:`CSRF protection middleware </ref/contrib/csrf>` has been split into
  two classes -- ``CsrfViewMiddleware`` checks incoming requests, and
  ``CsrfResponseMiddleware`` processes outgoing responses. The combined
  ``CsrfMiddleware`` class (which does both) remains for
  backwards-compatibility, but using the split classes is now recommended in
  order to allow fine-grained control of when and where the CSRF processing
  takes place.

* :func:`~django.core.urlresolvers.reverse` and code which uses it (e.g., the
  ``{% url %}`` template tag) now works with URLs in Django's administrative
  site, provided that the admin URLs are set up via ``include(admin.site.urls)``
  (sending admin requests to the ``admin.site.root`` view still works, but URLs
  in the admin will not be "reversible" when configured this way).

* The ``include()`` function in Django URLconf modules can now accept sequences
  of URL patterns (generated by ``patterns()``) in addition to module names.

* Instances of Django forms (see :doc:`the forms overview </topics/forms/index>`)
  now have two additional methods, ``hidden_fields()`` and ``visible_fields()``,
  which return the list of hidden -- i.e., ``<input type="hidden">`` -- and
  visible fields on the form, respectively.

* The ``redirect_to`` generic view (see :doc:`the generic views documentation
  </ref/generic-views>`) now accepts an additional keyword argument
  ``permanent``. If ``permanent`` is ``True``, the view will emit an HTTP
  permanent redirect (status code 301). If ``False``, the view will emit an HTTP
  temporary redirect (status code 302).

* A new database lookup type -- ``week_day`` -- has been added for ``DateField``
  and ``DateTimeField``. This type of lookup accepts a number between 1 (Sunday)
  and 7 (Saturday), and returns objects where the field value matches that day
  of the week. See :ref:`the full list of lookup types <field-lookups>` for
  details.

* The ``{% for %}`` tag in Django's template language now accepts an optional
  ``{% empty %}`` clause, to be displayed when ``{% for %}`` is asked to loop
  over an empty sequence. See :doc:`the list of built-in template tags
  </ref/templates/builtins>` for examples of this.

* The :djadmin:`dumpdata` management command now accepts individual
  model names as arguments, allowing you to export the data just from
  particular models.

* There's a new :tfilter:`safeseq` template filter which works just like
  :tfilter:`safe` for lists, marking each item in the list as safe.

* :doc:`Cache backends </topics/cache>` now support ``incr()`` and
  ``decr()`` commands to increment and decrement the value of a cache key.
  On cache backends that support atomic increment/decrement -- most
  notably, the memcached backend -- these operations will be atomic, and
  quite fast.

* Django now can :doc:`easily delegate authentication to the web server
  </howto/auth-remote-user>` via a new authentication backend that supports
  the standard ``REMOTE_USER`` environment variable used for this purpose.

* There's a new :func:`django.shortcuts.redirect` function that makes it
  easier to issue redirects given an object, a view name, or a URL.

* The ``postgresql_psycopg2`` backend now supports :ref:`native PostgreSQL
  autocommit <postgresql-notes>`. This is an advanced, PostgreSQL-specific
  feature, that can make certain read-heavy applications a good deal
  faster.

What's next?
============

We'll take a short break, and then work on Django 1.2 will begin -- no rest for
the weary! If you'd like to help, discussion of Django development, including
progress toward the 1.2 release, takes place daily on the django-developers
mailing list:

    * http://groups.google.com/group/django-developers

... and in the ``#django-dev`` IRC channel on ``irc.freenode.net``. Feel free to
join the discussions!

Django's online documentation also includes pointers on how to contribute to
Django:

    * :doc:`How to contribute to Django </internals/contributing>`

Contributions on any level -- developing code, writing documentation or simply
triaging tickets and helping to test proposed bugfixes -- are always welcome and
appreciated.

And that's the way it is.