sphinx / sphinx / builders / epub.py

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
    sphinx.builders.epub
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    Build epub files.
    Originally derived from qthelp.py.

    :copyright: Copyright 2007-2011 by the Sphinx team, see AUTHORS.
    :license: BSD, see LICENSE for details.
"""

import os
import re
import sys
import time
import codecs
import zipfile
from os import path

try:
    from PIL import Image
except ImportError:
    try:
        import Image
    except ImportError:
        Image = None

from docutils import nodes

from sphinx import addnodes
from sphinx.builders.html import StandaloneHTMLBuilder
from sphinx.util.osutil import ensuredir, EEXIST
from sphinx.util.smartypants import sphinx_smarty_pants as ssp
from sphinx.util.console import brown


# (Fragment) templates from which the metainfo files content.opf, toc.ncx,
# mimetype, and META-INF/container.xml are created.
# This template section also defines strings that are embedded in the html
# output but that may be customized by (re-)setting module attributes,
# e.g. from conf.py.

_mimetype_template = 'application/epub+zip' # no EOL!

_container_template = u'''\
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<container version="1.0"
      xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:opendocument:xmlns:container">
  <rootfiles>
    <rootfile full-path="content.opf"
        media-type="application/oebps-package+xml"/>
  </rootfiles>
</container>
'''

_toc_template = u'''\
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<ncx version="2005-1" xmlns="http://www.daisy.org/z3986/2005/ncx/">
  <head>
    <meta name="dtb:uid" content="%(uid)s"/>
    <meta name="dtb:depth" content="%(level)d"/>
    <meta name="dtb:totalPageCount" content="0"/>
    <meta name="dtb:maxPageNumber" content="0"/>
  </head>
  <docTitle>
    <text>%(title)s</text>
  </docTitle>
  <navMap>
%(navpoints)s
  </navMap>
</ncx>
'''

_navpoint_template = u'''\
%(indent)s  <navPoint id="%(navpoint)s" playOrder="%(playorder)d">
%(indent)s    <navLabel>
%(indent)s      <text>%(text)s</text>
%(indent)s    </navLabel>
%(indent)s    <content src="%(refuri)s" />
%(indent)s  </navPoint>'''

_navpoint_indent = '  '
_navPoint_template = 'navPoint%d'

_content_template = u'''\
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<package xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" version="2.0"
      unique-identifier="%(uid)s">
  <metadata xmlns:opf="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf"
        xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">
    <dc:language>%(lang)s</dc:language>
    <dc:title>%(title)s</dc:title>
    <dc:creator opf:role="aut">%(author)s</dc:creator>
    <dc:publisher>%(publisher)s</dc:publisher>
    <dc:rights>%(copyright)s</dc:rights>
    <dc:identifier id="%(uid)s" opf:scheme="%(scheme)s">%(id)s</dc:identifier>
    <dc:date>%(date)s</dc:date>
  </metadata>
  <manifest>
    <item id="ncx" href="toc.ncx" media-type="application/x-dtbncx+xml" />
%(files)s
  </manifest>
  <spine toc="ncx">
%(spine)s
  </spine>
</package>
'''

_cover_template = u'''\
    <meta name="cover" content="%(cover)s"/>
'''

_coverpage_name = u'epub-cover.html'

_file_template = u'''\
    <item id="%(id)s"
          href="%(href)s"
          media-type="%(media_type)s" />'''

_spine_template = u'''\
    <itemref idref="%(idref)s" />'''

_toctree_template = u'toctree-l%d'

_link_target_template = u' [%(uri)s]'

_css_link_target_class = u'link-target'

_media_types = {
    '.html': 'application/xhtml+xml',
    '.css': 'text/css',
    '.png': 'image/png',
    '.gif': 'image/gif',
    '.svg': 'image/svg+xml',
    '.jpg': 'image/jpeg',
    '.jpeg': 'image/jpeg',
    '.otf': 'application/x-font-otf',
    '.ttf': 'application/x-font-ttf',
}

# Regular expression to match colons only in local fragment identifiers.
# If the URI contains a colon before the #,
# it is an external link that should not change.
_refuri_re = re.compile("([^#:]*#)(.*)")


# The epub publisher

class EpubBuilder(StandaloneHTMLBuilder):
    """
    Builder that outputs epub files.

    It creates the metainfo files container.opf, toc.ncx, mimetype, and
    META-INF/container.xml.  Afterwards, all necessary files are zipped to an
    epub file.
    """
    name = 'epub'

    # don't copy the reST source
    copysource = False
    supported_image_types = ['image/svg+xml', 'image/png', 'image/gif',
                             'image/jpeg']

    # don't add links
    add_permalinks = False
    # don't add sidebar etc.
    embedded = True

    def init(self):
        StandaloneHTMLBuilder.init(self)
        # the output files for epub must be .html only
        self.out_suffix = '.html'
        self.playorder = 0

    def get_theme_config(self):
        return self.config.epub_theme, self.config.epub_theme_options

    # generic support functions
    def make_id(self, name):
        """Replace all characters not allowed for (X)HTML ids."""
        return name.replace('/', '_').replace(' ', '')

    def esc(self, name):
        """Replace all characters not allowed in text an attribute values."""
        # Like cgi.escape, but also replace apostrophe
        name = name.replace('&', '&amp;')
        name = name.replace('<', '&lt;')
        name = name.replace('>', '&gt;')
        name = name.replace('"', '&quot;')
        name = name.replace('\'', '&#39;')
        return name

    def get_refnodes(self, doctree, result):
        """Collect section titles, their depth in the toc and the refuri."""
        # XXX: is there a better way than checking the attribute
        # toctree-l[1-8] on the parent node?
        if isinstance(doctree, nodes.reference) and doctree.has_key('refuri'):
            refuri = doctree['refuri']
            if refuri.startswith('http://') or refuri.startswith('https://') \
                or refuri.startswith('irc:') or refuri.startswith('mailto:'):
                return result
            classes = doctree.parent.attributes['classes']
            for level in range(8, 0, -1): # or range(1, 8)?
                if (_toctree_template % level) in classes:
                    result.append({
                        'level': level,
                        'refuri': self.esc(refuri),
                        'text': ssp(self.esc(doctree.astext()))
                    })
                    break
        else:
            for elem in doctree.children:
                result = self.get_refnodes(elem, result)
        return result

    def get_toc(self):
        """Get the total table of contents, containing the master_doc
        and pre and post files not managed by sphinx.
        """
        doctree = self.env.get_and_resolve_doctree(self.config.master_doc,
            self, prune_toctrees=False, includehidden=True)
        self.refnodes = self.get_refnodes(doctree, [])
        master_dir = os.path.dirname(self.config.master_doc)
        if master_dir:
            master_dir += '/' # XXX or os.sep?
            for item in self.refnodes:
                item['refuri'] = master_dir + item['refuri']
        self.refnodes.insert(0, {
            'level': 1,
            'refuri': self.esc(self.config.master_doc + '.html'),
            'text': ssp(self.esc(
                    self.env.titles[self.config.master_doc].astext()))
        })
        for file, text in reversed(self.config.epub_pre_files):
            self.refnodes.insert(0, {
                'level': 1,
                'refuri': self.esc(file),
                'text': ssp(self.esc(text))
            })
        for file, text in self.config.epub_post_files:
            self.refnodes.append({
                'level': 1,
                'refuri': self.esc(file),
                'text': ssp(self.esc(text))
            })

    def fix_fragment(self, prefix, fragment):
        """Return a href/id attribute with colons replaced by hyphens."""
        return prefix + fragment.replace(':', '-')

    def fix_ids(self, tree):
        """Replace colons with hyphens in href and id attributes.

        Some readers crash because they interpret the part as a
        transport protocol specification.
        """
        for node in tree.traverse(nodes.reference):
            if 'refuri' in node:
                m = _refuri_re.match(node['refuri'])
                if m:
                    node['refuri'] = self.fix_fragment(m.group(1), m.group(2))
            if 'refid' in node:
                node['refid'] = self.fix_fragment('', node['refid'])
        for node in tree.traverse(addnodes.desc_signature):
            ids = node.attributes['ids']
            newids = []
            for id in ids:
                newids.append(self.fix_fragment('', id))
            node.attributes['ids'] = newids

    def add_visible_links(self, tree):
        """Append visible link targets after external links."""
        for node in tree.traverse(nodes.reference):
            uri = node.get('refuri', '')
            if (uri.startswith('http:') or uri.startswith('https:') or
                    uri.startswith('ftp:')) and uri not in node.astext():
                uri = _link_target_template % {'uri': uri}
                if uri:
                    idx = node.parent.index(node) + 1
                    link = nodes.inline(uri, uri)
                    link['classes'].append(_css_link_target_class)
                    node.parent.insert(idx, link)

    def write_doc(self, docname, doctree):
        """Write one document file.

        This method is overwritten in order to fix fragment identifiers
        and to add visible external links.
        """
        self.fix_ids(doctree)
        self.add_visible_links(doctree)
        return StandaloneHTMLBuilder.write_doc(self, docname, doctree)

    def fix_genindex(self, tree):
        """Fix href attributes for genindex pages."""
        # XXX: modifies tree inline
        # Logic modeled from themes/basic/genindex.html
        for key, columns in tree:
            for entryname, (links, subitems) in columns:
                for (i, (ismain, link)) in enumerate(links):
                    m = _refuri_re.match(link)
                    if m:
                        links[i] = (ismain,
                                    self.fix_fragment(m.group(1), m.group(2)))
                for subentryname, subentrylinks in subitems:
                    for (i, (ismain, link)) in enumerate(subentrylinks):
                        m = _refuri_re.match(link)
                        if m:
                            subentrylinks[i] = (ismain,
                                self.fix_fragment(m.group(1), m.group(2)))

    def copy_image_files_pil(self):
        """Copy images using the PIL.
        The method tries to read and write the files with the PIL,
        converting the format and resizing the image if necessary/possible.
        """
        ensuredir(path.join(self.outdir, '_images'))
        for src in self.status_iterator(self.images, 'copying images... ',
                                        brown, len(self.images)):
            dest = self.images[src]
            try:
                img = Image.open(path.join(self.srcdir, src))
            except IOError:
                self.warn('cannot read image file %r: copying it instead' %
                          (path.join(self.srcdir, src), ))
                try:
                    copyfile(path.join(self.srcdir, src),
                             path.join(self.outdir, '_images', dest))
                except Exception, err:
                    self.warn('cannot copy image file %r: %s' %
                              (path.join(self.srcdir, src), err))
                continue
            if self.config.epub_fix_images:
                if img.mode in ('P',):
                    # See PIL documentation for Image.convert()
                    img = img.convert()
            if self.config.epub_max_image_width > 0:
                (width, height) = img.size
                nw = self.config.epub_max_image_width
                if width > nw:
                    nh = (height * nw) / width
                    img = img.resize((nw, nh), Image.BICUBIC)
            try:
                img.save(path.join(self.outdir, '_images', dest))
            except IOError, err:
                self.warn('cannot write image file %r: %s' %
                          (path.join(self.srcdir, src), err))

    def copy_image_files(self):
        """Copy image files to destination directory.
        This overwritten method can use the PIL to convert image files.
        """
        if self.images:
            if self.config.epub_fix_images or self.config.epub_max_image_width:
                if not Image:
                    self.warn('PIL not found - copying image files')
                    super(EpubBuilder, self).copy_image_files()
                else:
                    self.copy_image_files_pil()
            else:
                super(EpubBuilder, self).copy_image_files()

    def handle_page(self, pagename, addctx, templatename='page.html',
                    outfilename=None, event_arg=None):
        """Create a rendered page.

        This method is overwritten for genindex pages in order to fix href link
        attributes.
        """
        if pagename.startswith('genindex'):
            self.fix_genindex(addctx['genindexentries'])
        StandaloneHTMLBuilder.handle_page(self, pagename, addctx, templatename,
            outfilename, event_arg)


    # Finish by building the epub file
    def handle_finish(self):
        """Create the metainfo files and finally the epub."""
        self.get_toc()
        self.build_mimetype(self.outdir, 'mimetype')
        self.build_container(self.outdir, 'META-INF/container.xml')
        self.build_content(self.outdir, 'content.opf')
        self.build_toc(self.outdir, 'toc.ncx')
        self.build_epub(self.outdir, self.config.epub_basename + '.epub')

    def build_mimetype(self, outdir, outname):
        """Write the metainfo file mimetype."""
        self.info('writing %s file...' % outname)
        f = codecs.open(path.join(outdir, outname), 'w', 'utf-8')
        try:
            f.write(_mimetype_template)
        finally:
            f.close()

    def build_container(self, outdir, outname):
        """Write the metainfo file META-INF/cointainer.xml."""
        self.info('writing %s file...' % outname)
        fn = path.join(outdir, outname)
        try:
            os.mkdir(path.dirname(fn))
        except OSError, err:
            if err.errno != EEXIST:
                raise
        f = codecs.open(path.join(outdir, outname), 'w', 'utf-8')
        try:
            f.write(_container_template)
        finally:
            f.close()

    def content_metadata(self, files, spine):
        """Create a dictionary with all metadata for the content.opf
        file properly escaped.
        """
        metadata = {}
        metadata['title'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_title)
        metadata['author'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_author)
        metadata['uid'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_uid)
        metadata['lang'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_language)
        metadata['publisher'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_publisher)
        metadata['copyright'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_copyright)
        metadata['scheme'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_scheme)
        metadata['id'] = self.esc(self.config.epub_identifier)
        metadata['date'] = self.esc(time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d'))
        metadata['files'] = files
        metadata['spine'] = spine
        return metadata

    def build_content(self, outdir, outname):
        """Write the metainfo file content.opf It contains bibliographic data,
        a file list and the spine (the reading order).
        """
        self.info('writing %s file...' % outname)

        # files
        if not outdir.endswith(os.sep):
            outdir += os.sep
        olen = len(outdir)
        projectfiles = []
        self.files = []
        self.ignored_files = ['.buildinfo',
            'mimetype', 'content.opf', 'toc.ncx', 'META-INF/container.xml',
            self.config.epub_basename + '.epub'] + \
            self.config.epub_exclude_files
        for root, dirs, files in os.walk(outdir):
            for fn in files:
                filename = path.join(root, fn)[olen:]
                if filename in self.ignored_files:
                    continue
                ext = path.splitext(filename)[-1]
                if ext not in _media_types:
                    self.warn('unknown mimetype for %s, ignoring' % filename)
                    continue
                projectfiles.append(_file_template % {
                    'href': self.esc(filename),
                    'id': self.esc(self.make_id(filename)),
                    'media_type': self.esc(_media_types[ext])
                })
                self.files.append(filename)

        # spine
        spine = []
        for item in self.refnodes:
            if '#' in item['refuri']:
                continue
            if item['refuri'] in self.ignored_files:
                continue
            spine.append(_spine_template % {
                'idref': self.esc(self.make_id(item['refuri']))
            })
        for info in self.domain_indices:
            spine.append(_spine_template % {
                'idref': self.esc(self.make_id(info[0] + self.out_suffix))
            })
        if self.config.html_use_index:
            spine.append(_spine_template % {
                'idref': self.esc(self.make_id('genindex' + self.out_suffix))
            })

        # add the optional cover
        content_tmpl = _content_template
        if self.config.epub_cover:
            image, tmpl = self.config.epub_cover
            mpos = content_tmpl.rfind('</metadata>')
            cpos = content_tmpl.rfind('\n', 0 , mpos) + 1
            content_tmpl = content_tmpl[:cpos] + \
                _cover_template % {'cover': self.esc(self.make_id(image))} + \
                content_tmpl[cpos:]
            if tmpl:
                spine.insert(0, _spine_template % {
                    'idref': self.esc(self.make_id(_coverpage_name))})
                if _coverpage_name not in self.files:
                    ext = path.splitext(_coverpage_name)[-1]
                    self.files.append(_coverpage_name)
                    projectfiles.append(_file_template % {
                        'href': self.esc(_coverpage_name),
                        'id': self.esc(self.make_id(_coverpage_name)),
                        'media_type': self.esc(_media_types[ext])
                    })
                ctx = {'image': self.esc(image), 'title': self.config.project}
                self.handle_page(
                        os.path.splitext(_coverpage_name)[0], ctx, tmpl)

        projectfiles = '\n'.join(projectfiles)
        spine = '\n'.join(spine)

        # write the project file
        f = codecs.open(path.join(outdir, outname), 'w', 'utf-8')
        try:
            f.write(content_tmpl % \
                self.content_metadata(projectfiles, spine))
        finally:
            f.close()

    def new_navpoint(self, node, level, incr=True):
        """Create a new entry in the toc from the node at given level."""
        # XXX Modifies the node
        if incr:
            self.playorder += 1
        node['indent'] = _navpoint_indent * level
        node['navpoint'] = self.esc(_navPoint_template % self.playorder)
        node['playorder'] = self.playorder
        return _navpoint_template % node

    def insert_subnav(self, node, subnav):
        """Insert nested navpoints for given node.

        The node and subnav are already rendered to text.
        """
        nlist = node.rsplit('\n', 1)
        nlist.insert(-1, subnav)
        return '\n'.join(nlist)

    def build_navpoints(self, nodes):
        """Create the toc navigation structure.

        Subelements of a node are nested inside the navpoint.  For nested nodes
        the parent node is reinserted in the subnav.
        """
        navstack = []
        navlist = []
        level = 1
        lastnode = None
        for node in nodes:
            if not node['text']:
                continue
            file = node['refuri'].split('#')[0]
            if file in self.ignored_files:
                continue
            if node['level'] > self.config.epub_tocdepth:
                continue
            if node['level'] == level:
                navlist.append(self.new_navpoint(node, level))
            elif node['level'] == level + 1:
                navstack.append(navlist)
                navlist = []
                level += 1
                if lastnode and self.config.epub_tocdup:
                    # Insert starting point in subtoc with same playOrder
                    navlist.append(self.new_navpoint(lastnode, level, False))
                navlist.append(self.new_navpoint(node, level))
            else:
                while node['level'] < level:
                    subnav = '\n'.join(navlist)
                    navlist = navstack.pop()
                    navlist[-1] = self.insert_subnav(navlist[-1], subnav)
                    level -= 1
                navlist.append(self.new_navpoint(node, level))
            lastnode = node
        while level != 1:
            subnav = '\n'.join(navlist)
            navlist = navstack.pop()
            navlist[-1] = self.insert_subnav(navlist[-1], subnav)
            level -= 1
        return '\n'.join(navlist)

    def toc_metadata(self, level, navpoints):
        """Create a dictionary with all metadata for the toc.ncx file
        properly escaped.
        """
        metadata = {}
        metadata['uid'] = self.config.epub_uid
        metadata['title'] = self.config.epub_title
        metadata['level'] = level
        metadata['navpoints'] = navpoints
        return metadata

    def build_toc(self, outdir, outname):
        """Write the metainfo file toc.ncx."""
        self.info('writing %s file...' % outname)

        doctree = self.env.get_and_resolve_doctree(self.config.master_doc,
            self, prune_toctrees=False, includehidden=False)
        refnodes = self.get_refnodes(doctree, [])
        if not refnodes:
            refnodes = self.refnodes
        navpoints = self.build_navpoints(refnodes)
        level = max(item['level'] for item in self.refnodes)
        level = min(level, self.config.epub_tocdepth)
        f = codecs.open(path.join(outdir, outname), 'w', 'utf-8')
        try:
            f.write(_toc_template % self.toc_metadata(level, navpoints))
        finally:
            f.close()

    def build_epub(self, outdir, outname):
        """Write the epub file.

        It is a zip file with the mimetype file stored uncompressed as the first
        entry.
        """
        self.info('writing %s file...' % outname)
        projectfiles = ['META-INF/container.xml', 'content.opf', 'toc.ncx'] \
            + self.files
        epub = zipfile.ZipFile(path.join(outdir, outname), 'w', \
            zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED)
        epub.write(path.join(outdir, 'mimetype'), 'mimetype', \
            zipfile.ZIP_STORED)
        for file in projectfiles:
            fp = path.join(outdir, file)
            if isinstance(fp, unicode):
                fp = fp.encode(sys.getfilesystemencoding())
            epub.write(fp, file, zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED)
        epub.close()
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.