Isabelle / NEWS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
==============================================

New in this Isabelle release
----------------------------

*** General ***

* Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

* Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.


*** Document preparation ***

* Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.


*** Pure ***

* Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:

  assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  then guess x and y by clarify

This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
proof tools being involved here.

* Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
`A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
certain special cases of literal facts:

  have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`

* Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

  def x == "t" and y == "u"

* Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support
local fixes and defines on-the-fly.  Thus explicit meta-level
connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
(using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
obsolete anyway).  The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced
techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets
work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).

(1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain
parameters:

  lemma
    fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a
    assumes a: "A n x"
    shows "P n x"
    using a                     -- {* make induct insert fact a *}
  proof (induct n fixing: x)    -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}
    case 0
    show ?case sorry
  next
    case (Suc n)
    note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}
    note `A (Suc n) x`          -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}
    show ?case sorry
  qed

(2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain
form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"
together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get
sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):

  lemma
    fixes a :: "'a => nat"
    assumes a: "A (a x)"
    shows "P (a x)"
    using a
  proof (induct n == "a x" fixing: x)
    ...

See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this
particular technique.

(3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtain') by
induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic encodings:

  fix n :: nat
  obtain x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"
  proof (induct n fixing: thesis)
    case 0
    obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry
    then show thesis by (rule "0.prems")
  next
    case (Suc n)
    obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)
    obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry
    then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)
  qed

Here the 'fixing: thesis' specification essentially modifies the scope
of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole
existence statement through the induction as expected.

* Input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b", where the
body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy patterns
implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes "{_. _}"
match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY --
parse translations need to cope with syntactic constant "_idtdummy" in
the binding position.

* Removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated parse
translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead, for
example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".


*** HOL ***

* Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
"A = B" (with priority 50).

* In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
"t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc").  For backward
compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".

* Tactics 'sat' and 'satx' reimplemented, several improvements: goals
no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences (i.e.
"=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form "lit_<n>"
are no longer reserved, significant speedup.


*** ML ***

* Library: new module Pure/General/rat.ML implementing rational numbers,
replacing the former functions in the Isabelle library.

* Library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library
treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a
have been given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent
of similar functions for alists, tables, etc:

  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a 
  val nth_update: int * 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b

Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln used to.

* Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
achieve the old behaviour.

* Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
statements.

* Internal goals: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
Tactic.prove).  Note that OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been
obsolete, it is ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local
fixes/assumes or in a locale context).

* Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
(solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

* Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

* Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
INCOMPATIBILITY.



New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
----------------------------------

*** General ***

* Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

  theory <name>
  imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  begin

where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax

  theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

* Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
relative and absolute paths.

* Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:

  C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

* Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

* Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
faster.


*** Document preparation ***

* Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

* Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
"invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
\isadroptag.

Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
specified above.

* Several new antiquotations:

  @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

  @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

  @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  argument is a known logical constant;

  @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  theorem applying a "style" to it

  @{ML text}

Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

* Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

* Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
[locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

* Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
a proof context.

* Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

* Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

* isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
-D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.


*** Pure ***

* Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

* Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

* New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

* 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

* Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
INCOMPATIBILITY.

* axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
axclasses vs. locales.

* Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
instead of base 26 numbers.

* New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
marks in schematic variable names.

* In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
\<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

  lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
    by simp

* Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

* Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
annotations as "(00...)".

* Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
"logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
(e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

* Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
specifications.

* Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
locally fixed variables as well.

* Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
Limit.

* Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

* thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

* Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

* New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

* 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

* 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

* More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
theory development.

* Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
must be quoted when used as identifiers.

* New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
quoted when used as identifier.


*** Locales ***

* New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
commands is a follows:

  (1) interpretation expr inst
  (2) interpretation target < expr
  (3) interpret expr inst

Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
'interpret' instead.

* New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
parameters.

* Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
redeclaration.

* Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

* Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
to attribute arguments as expected.

INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
(cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
values to argument tokens explicitly.

* Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
theorem statement in rare situations.

* Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.


*** Provers ***

* Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
still available as 'simplesubst'.

* Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
and quasi orders.

* Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

* Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

* Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.


*** HOL ***

* Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

  syntax (epsilon)
    "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,

* "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
support corresponding Isar calculations.

* "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
instead of ":".

* theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

  Old       New
  {..n(}    {..<n}
  {)n..}    {n<..}
  {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}

The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

  {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}

* Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
interface.

* Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
be a tuple pattern.

Some new syntax forms are available:

  "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

* theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
(insert F x)'.

* The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

* New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

* Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
in unstructured proof scripts.

* Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
<record_name>_ext_type.

Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
quite long.

New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

* typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
type-variables in the term.

* Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
goals than previously.

* Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
just like y <= x.

* Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

* Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

* Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

* Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
inequalities.

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
(INCOMPATIBILITY):

  abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

* Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

* Theory List:

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
(INCOMPATIBILITY):

  list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff

* Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.


*** HOL-Complex ***

* Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
integers in the reals.

The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
(INCOMPATIBILITY):

  exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

* Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

* Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

* Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:

  hypreal = real star
  hypnat = nat star
  hcomplex = complex star

* Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

  star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

  starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

  starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

* Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

  add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

* Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

  STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
    STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

  star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

  star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

* Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

* Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.


*** HOLCF ***

* Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
type-inference.

* New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
instead of exponential time).

* New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

  domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

* New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
syntax and examples.

* New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

* HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

  foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"


*** ZF ***

* ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
of a homomorphism).

* ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.


*** Cube ***

* Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
theories.


*** ML ***

* Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

* Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
suggests how one can translate existing code:

    rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
    nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
    last_elem xs = List.last xs
    flat xss = List.concat xss
    seq fs = List.app fs
    partition P xs = List.partition P xs
    mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

* Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

  x |> f                f #> g
  (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g

* Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

  infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  infix 2 ?;
  infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
infix operators.

* Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
example:

  fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
    y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
    y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

  fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
    f x1 #> ... #> f xN

  (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
    fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

* Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
available:

  the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  the_list:          'a option -> 'a list

* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
The old functions may be expressed as follows:

  assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

* Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

  val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
Naive rewrites:

  make_keylist = AList.make
  keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

* eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

    eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
    eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

* Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  Naive rewrites:

    apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
    apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

* Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
lists.

* Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

* Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
(cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
Output.raw have no effect.

* Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
-> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

* Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
internal and external process view of file names are different.

* Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
Library.sort_strings on result).

* Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
Theory.absolute_path in particular.

* Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
(default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
with earlier declarations.

* Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
(useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

  Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
    parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

  Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
    types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

  Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
    oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
    types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
    Theory.merge, etc.)

The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

* Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

* Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

* Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.

* Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

* Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
(RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

* Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

  Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

* Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

* Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
(both increase the runtime).

* Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

* Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
"Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
for further details.

* ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
scripts for the time being.

* ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
generated HTML files.  For example:

  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";


*** System ***

* Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
isabelle, isatool etc.).

* ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

* isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

* New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
distribution being used.

* HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
(containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
theories.



New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
--------------------------------

*** General ***

* Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  Replaces linorder.ML.

* Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  existing theory and ML files.

* Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

* Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

* Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

* Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

* Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

* Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  (i.e. intersections of classes),

* Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.


*** Isar ***

* Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
    locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
    For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
    emulations.
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
    longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
    This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

* Attributes "where" and "of":
  - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
    the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
    theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

* Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  and derived forms.

* Locales:
  - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
    generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
    "_axioms") in the premise.
    Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
    specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
    [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
        instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
    Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
    taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
    modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
    instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
    <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
      If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
    "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
    are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
    with "locale (open)".
      A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

* HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  (Isar) contexts.


*** HOL ***

* Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

* Simplifier:
  - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
    Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
    "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
    as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
    to solve goals from the assumptions.
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
    of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
    is solved by simplification already.

* Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
    all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

* Numerics:
  - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
    now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
    than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
    Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
    exponentiation).

* Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

* Records:
  - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
    instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
    the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
    (not enabled by default).
  - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
    EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

* 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  introduces the new constants axiomatically.

* arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

* HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

* HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

* HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  matrix theory to linear programming.

* Unions and Intersections:
  The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

* Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

* HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

* ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

* 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

* 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  for examples.


*** HOLCF ***

* Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image



New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
------------------------------

*** General ***

* Provers/simplifier:

  - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
    Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
    not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
    the order of assumptions.

    Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

    -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
       not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

        [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

       now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

        P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

       Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
       kind of problem.

    -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
       are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
       simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
       of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
       in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
       reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
       eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

  - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

  - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
    during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
    conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
    ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
    where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
    the simplifier would diverge.

  - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.

  - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
    congruence is ignored.

* Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

* Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
   PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
(ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

* Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
      PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
(or rather last, the way they are printed).
(ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

* Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
assumption failed.

* Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
on the old view without predicates;

* Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

* Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
be given (the default is 40);

* Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
(batch-mode only);

* Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
"foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

* Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
for slight decrease in efficiency;

* Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!

* Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);


*** HOL ***

* arith(_tac)

 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
   Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
   of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
   In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
   linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
   Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

* simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

* simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
are distributed over a sum of terms;

* New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
"<=", "<" and "=").

* function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

* 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
definition;

* functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
Finite_Set);

* attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
(x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

* induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

* Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
%x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
of the empty set.

* Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
(up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;

* GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

* Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

* HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

* Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
Fleuriot);

* Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

* NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
Gray and Kramer);

* UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

* MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

* Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
assignment, exceptions.


*** ZF ***

* ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
universe, etc.);

* Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;


*** ML ***

* Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

* Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

* Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
up simprocs;


*** Document preparation ***

* uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

* minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
other packages

* \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
broke \Rightarrow)

* normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
textcomp package)



New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
--------------------------------

*** Document preparation ***

* greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
"isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

* theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

* proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
blocks after section headings;

* support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

* \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
better in printed text;

* added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

* isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
location;


*** Isar ***

* Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
    "case (Suc n)");
  - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
    claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
    instantiation of cases;
  - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
    rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
    rules without further ado;
  - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
    rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
    atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
    statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
    slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
    facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
    rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
    scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
    statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
    the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
    rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
    below);
  - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
    success (no backtracking);
  - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
    General versions);
  - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

* Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
"have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
fails:

  assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)

better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

* Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
some examples;

* Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
qualified by the locale name);

* Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

* Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

* Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

* Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
use hard-wired "Trueprop";

* Pure: added 'corollary' command;

* Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

* Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

* Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

* Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
proof *scripts*;

* Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
especially important for locales);

* Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
mode;

* Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
situations;

* Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

* Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
discontinued;

* Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

* Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
INCOMPATIBILITY;

* Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
of introduction rules;

* Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
conditional rules;

* HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

* HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
"(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

* HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

* HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
wf_induct_rule;


*** HOL ***

* HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
follows:

  - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
  numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

  - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
  binary representation internally;

  - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
  over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
are some hints on converting existing sources:

  - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
  entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
  to be spaced properly;

  - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
  even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

  - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

  - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

* HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

* HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

* HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
"term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
"HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

* HOL/record package improvements:
  - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
    "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
    "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
    declared as simp by default;
  - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
    qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
  - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
    INCOMPATIBILITY;
  - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
    methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
    parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
  - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
    theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

* HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
via 'generate_code' theory section;

* HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

* HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
        Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
        String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

* HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
(beware of argument permutation!);

* HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

* HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

* HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

* HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
in this (rare) case use:

  delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
  addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

* HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
MAY FAIL;

* HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

* HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
"comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

* HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
expressions;

* HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

* HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
renamed "Product_Type.unit";

* HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

* HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
the "cases" method);

* HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
Florian Kammller);

* HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

* HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

* HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;


*** HOLCF ***

* Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
operations;

* Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

* theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

* HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;


*** ZF ***

* Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

* theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
your theory on Main_ZFC;

* the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

* ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
typeless version of the formalism;

* ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
format;

* ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
new-style theory format;

* ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;


*** General ***

* Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

* Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
goal_subclass/goal_arity;

* Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
properly;

* Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

* Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
type variable);

* Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
"type_brackets";

* Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
tokens into AST constants;

* Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

* Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
practice);

* Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
addSafter;

* Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
as well;

* system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
(e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
(e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
support requires further installations, e.g. from
http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

* system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

* system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

* system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

* system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

* system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

* system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
"symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

* system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
"xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
terminal);



New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
-----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

* HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

* HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
'split_rule (complete)';

* HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

* HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

* HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

* HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
operation;

* HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

* Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

* Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
(which is now passed through the inductive cases);

* Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
\<gg> to \<ggreater>;


*** Document preparation ***

* \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
\isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
type-writer);

* support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

* some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

* improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
(should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
definitions);

* antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

* proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
fonts;

* no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
generation;

* isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;


*** Isar ***

* Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound
schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof
documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof
checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals
for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

* Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual
rules as well;

* Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into
initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single
steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit
finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

* Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial
instance proofs may be performed by "..";

* Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level
statements as well;

* Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

* Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl
rule (as well as the assumption rule);

* Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and
lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

* Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

* Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

* HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

* HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the
number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);
any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

* HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as
well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for
the result to be shown in each case;

* HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

* isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;


*** HOL ***

* HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together
with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory
by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:
HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While
(as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

* HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical
modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +
Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

* HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has
been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like
'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to
'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical
literature;

* HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"
(infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation
operator \<Sum>;

* HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also
HOL/subset.thy);

* HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is
now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may
require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

* HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule
to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

* HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation
rules with string literals);

* HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals
 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental
 functions for the reals;

* HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;


*** CTT ***

* CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that
"lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

* CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool
and Arith);


*** General ***

* Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule
outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance
penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of
the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

* print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>
(types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

* Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules
as assumptions as well;

* system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

* system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;



New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)
----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

* HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly
recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)
issue the following ML commands:

  Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;
  Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is
controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

* HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

* HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool
fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

  select_equality  -> some_equality
  select_eq_Ex     -> some_eq_ex
  selectI2EX       -> someI2_ex
  selectI2         -> someI2
  selectI          -> someI
  select1_equality -> some1_equality
  Eps_sym_eq       -> some_sym_eq_trivial
  Eps_eq           -> some_eq_trivial

* HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

* HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if
instead);

* HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called
f.simps instead of f.rules;

* HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

* HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may
sometimes be needed;

* HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

* HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

* HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian
product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is
now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

* HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part
of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

* HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;
the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

  syntax (symbols)
    override  :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"
      (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

* HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,
Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names
internally;

* HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation
changed from A/r to A//r;

* ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old
proofs;

* Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,
rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one
should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by
"rule del";

* Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

* Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

* LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see
lib/texinputs);


*** Document preparation ***

* formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now
contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented
according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:
@{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

* isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,
including proper document sources;

* generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run
(isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option
of isatool usedir;

* isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle
style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying
LaTeX debugging;

* old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

* browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put
on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed
graph for 'all sessions';

* several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}
produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by
default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;


*** Isar ***

* Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now
subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this
accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

* Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports
generalized existence reasoning;

* Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'
support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;
useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name
references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2
premises;

* Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new
'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as
produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached
to theorems as "tags";

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from
class/type/const name spaces;

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to
indicate potential overloading;

* Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

* Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write
"{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

* Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest
attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion
with the version in Provers/classical;

* Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via
case name 'antecedent';

* Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms
to the current context is now done automatically);

* Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface
for definining proof methods in ML;

* Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in
most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);
replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

* Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and
'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

* Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'
method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as
well (including splits);

* Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind
of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

* Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination
of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

* Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'
now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,
recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

* Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --
monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of
calculations;

* Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof
method anyway;

* Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =
split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =
foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

* Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"
(potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof
scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:
use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

* Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

* Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

* Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and
ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only
proof states;

* Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit
additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print
proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

* Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof
methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',
'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'
(for HOL datatypes);

* Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st
goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus
'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

* Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

* Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;
should instead use individual commands for printing items
(print_commands, print_methods etc.);

* Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;


*** HOL ***

* HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a
corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode
verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of
type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and
Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at
http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

* HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by
Clemens Ballarin;

* HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese
Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M
Rasmussen;

* HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order
structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic
laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski
Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration
for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and
mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

* HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David
von Oheimb;

* HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually
recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

* HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

* HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and
anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn
representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

* HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed
select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as
well; admit "r" as field name;

* HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with
other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

* HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.
Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

* HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:
   (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to  #7 + (i + j) = k
   i*j + k + j*#3*i     simplifies to  #4*(i*j) + k
  two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u
    (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)
  and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y
    or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

* HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a
powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see
ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

* HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and
"exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer
exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

* HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the
selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to
enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may
remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs
[thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

* HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for
function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all
termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification
rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named
individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for
each equation;

* HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It
permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the
provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the
invariant proof rule for while is applied.

* HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above
some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

* HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

* HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic
induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form
P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

* HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

* HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of
main HOL, but was unused);

* HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to
"Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

* HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output
in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over
tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still
bogus);


*** ZF ***

* ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic
expressions over nat and int;

* ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators
coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,
making the algebraic laws unconditional;

* ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer
using the function intify;

* ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the
orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

* ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic
simplification;

* FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q
to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;


*** General ***

* Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as
assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

* Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning
outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

* Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need
explicit make_elim);

* Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.
  [| inj ?f;          ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
use instead the strong form,
  [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W
in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules
from destruct-rules;

* Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic
Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

* Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

* Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support
for hiding of names;

* system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and
XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most
situations;

* system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c
option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by
Poly/ML);

* system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very
useful for remote X11);

* system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

* ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument
order;

* ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global
timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

* ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations
with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

* ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential
overloading (usually false);

* ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as
results;



New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)
--------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)
are no longer simplified.  (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive
functional programs.)  To restore the old behaviour, declare

    Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

* HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set
complement;

* HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

* HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --
  use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type
arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

* ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer
to constants declared in the same theory;

* HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive
definition package, has lost an argument.  To simplify its result, it
uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

* Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions
        setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver
is now  simpset * solver -> simpset  where `solver' is a new abstract type
for packaging solvers. A solver is created via
        mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver
where the string argument is only a comment.


*** Proof tools ***

* Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a
decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for
types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and
will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

* The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg
     hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y
  They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order
  matching.


*** General ***

* New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional
tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user
interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human
readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated
reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,
src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

* improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup
(including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now
provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual
document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for
new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

* native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and
Isabelle/Isar;

* ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,
using the graph browser tool;

* Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

* theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully
bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,
add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as
update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also
isatool doc ref);

* improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,
option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

* added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);
more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

* the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never
created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or
Isabelle;

* path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

* in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if
empty;

* new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine
long arrows);

* new print_mode "HTML";

* new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are
basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

* Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font
mode and goal output format:

diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el
244c244
<       (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)
---
>       (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)
diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el
181c181
< (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"
---
> (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

* function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

* new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

* qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the
theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the
result still apply;

* theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",
"==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;


*** HOL ***

** HOL arithmetic **

* There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and
int:

1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',
`+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms
are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'
are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are
positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be
invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the
running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and
`max', and `-' on `nat'.

2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes
(negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into
account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and
`max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the
simplifier.

NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed
nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>
int(m) < int(n)'.

* HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded
efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;
INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than
int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional
type constraints;

* integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant
arguments;

* many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder
are now available;

* An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the
tactic svc_tac.  Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic
are proved automatically.  SVC must be installed separately, and its results
must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any
invocation of the underlying oracle).  For SVC see
  http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

* IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;


** HOL misc **

* HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces
(in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

* HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow
analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

* HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization
-- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and
temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to
changed syntax and (many) tactics;

* HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such
  as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity
  theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the
  "mono" attribute);

* HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes
  (using function types) such as

  datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

* HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care
of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer
part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the
simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

  claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;
  Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

* HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type
arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

* HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem
names rather than an ML expression;

* HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be
supplied later.  Program schemes can be defined, such as
    "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"
where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

* HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;
INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of
course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

* HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is
disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to
the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

* HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,
ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

* HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of
All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for
Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

* HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

* HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made
thus available for user theories;

* HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with
HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the
time;

* HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec
several times and then mp;


*** LK ***

* the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of
formulas;

* the simplifier is now installed

* the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

* the classical reasoner now has a default rule database


*** ZF ***

* new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given
directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

* new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case
analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

* the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

* simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype
constructors;

* automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new
type-checking rules;

* datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules
to the claset;

* the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to
if(P,x,y);


*** Internal programming interfaces ***

* tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

* structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient
tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

* AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

* tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids
printing empty lines;

* removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not
include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one
uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:
string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

* Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to
plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'
mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

* refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length
now of type real instead of int;

* theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook
interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep
your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as
opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

* proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);
Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing
extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;
the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply
left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);



New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)
----------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* several changes of automated proof tools;

* HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including
some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

* HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now
called `inj_on';

* HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:
  less_imp_add_less  should be replaced by  trans_less_add1
  le_imp_add_le      should be replaced by  trans_le_add1

* HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be
required);

* HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~.  In
ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is
now taken as an integer constant.

* Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';


*** Proof tools ***

* Simplifier:
  1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.
     1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to
        simplify.
     2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also
        rotate premises to achieve further simplification.
     For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the
     old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.
  2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

* Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now
allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for
wrapper functionals.  This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,
addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,
and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first
one (emitting a warning).
  type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)
  setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by
  addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset
  delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset *  string            -> claset
  getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

* Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE
semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac
etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY
FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac
by Force_tac;

* Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to
compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

* HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing
to split.  Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order
and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.
split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe
wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more
aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.
If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".
Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of
split_all_tac for record fields.

* HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added
permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like
Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like
Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

* HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default
simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences
of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can
either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by
`Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the
simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'.  You can also add/delete
other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype
generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where
t is the name of the datatype).

* Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and
derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical
reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is
aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.


*** General ***

* new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'
and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -
the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned
at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is
recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal
(backup your sources first!);

* new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from
the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

* new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and
definitions that have local scope;

* new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

* new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions
(e.g. package initialization);

* the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see
lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

* isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to
ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

* isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

* print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

* support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

* theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];


*** HOL ***

* there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

* HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual
definitions such as

  inductive EVEN ODD
    intrs
      null "0 : EVEN"
      oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"
      evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the
recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises
correctly (also ZF);

INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component
"mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always
contained in "induct";


* HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now
supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

  datatype
    'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)
            | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)
            | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)
            | NUM 'a
  and
    'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)
            | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)
            | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

  datatype
    ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a
                  | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

The new tactic  mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i  performs
induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via
<function_name>.simps.

INCOMPATIBILITIES:

  - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an
    ancestor.
  - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the
    generic induct_tac instead.
  - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac
    instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable
    names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this
    may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.
  - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm
    have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.
  - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,
    some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit
    sort constraints.
  - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type
    of recursive argument.

Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof
scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).


* HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now
includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems
for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof
support is as follows:

  1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record
constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

  2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are
made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

  3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of
the standard claset (addSWrapper);

To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via
something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is
the name of your record type.

The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

  "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically
blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the
simplifications of 1), 2) apply.  Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall
solve record problems automatically.


* reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by
default; theory Main includes everything;

* automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

* added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

* added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

* many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

* expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now
called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go
with add/delsplits);

* HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting
(?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD
MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider
'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that
unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of
unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by
%u.f();

* HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which
makes more sense);

* HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;
  It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default  claset, giving automatic
  disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

* HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1
to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some
literature);

* HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as
the well-founded relation;

* HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of
    Compl A.  The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this
    release ONLY.

* HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:
    f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x
may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

* HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

* HOL/List:
  - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th
    list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].
  - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list
    [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper
    bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].
  - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

* HOL/Arith:
  - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;
  - generalized some theorems about n-1;
  - many new laws about "div" and "mod";
  - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

* HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"
instead of "inverse";

* HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness
  of the multiset ordering;

* directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts
  (not included by default);

* directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

* directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted
  programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

* calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal
  [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]
  Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).


*** ZF ***

* theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains
  only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

* ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;
  It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default  claset, giving automatic
  disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

* ZF/Update: new theory of function updates
    with default rewrite rule  f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)
  may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

* in  let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

* calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal
  [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]
  Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

* case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL
    (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)


*** Internal programming interfaces ***

* Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see
also src/Pure/README;

* improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data
kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization
key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic
print_data function becomes basically useless;

* removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations
are qualified by default;

* module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation
functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);
see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

* Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->
cterm -> thm;

* new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a
subgoal;

* Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

* standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers
variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the
default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",
"</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,
for example;



New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)
--------------------------------

*** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

* changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long
identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

* simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions
simpset / simpset_ref;

* no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial
implicit merge of thms' signatures;

* most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

* changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);


*** General Changes ***

* hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms
etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of
old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:
isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set
long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs
(special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have
to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe
backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile
time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also
fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'
section;

* reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype
data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are
replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and
simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp
to patch your ML files accordingly;

* HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java
applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool
usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

* defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle
conditional equations;

* defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

* theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always
creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is
restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use
transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

* improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and
ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

* slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named
(e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

* print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and
show_types);

* improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

* subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

* removed old README and Makefiles;

* replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

* removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

* deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by
    fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

* cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~
(which abbreviates $HOME);

* changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:
use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully
qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

* use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always
reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;


*** Classical Reasoner ***

* Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new
tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without
splitting it into several subgoals;

* Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;


*** Simplifier ***

* added simplification meta rules:
    (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

* simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object
logics (again);

* added prems argument to simplification procedures;

* HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':
  instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'
  you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'


*** Syntax ***

* TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

* no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

* pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

* Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;


*** HOL ***

* HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.
  with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

* HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

* HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet
  protocol TLS;

* HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

* HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for
cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or
differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for
cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural
sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by
default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

* HOL/simplifier: terms of the form
  `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)'  (or t=x)
  are rewritten to
  `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',
  and those of the form
  `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)'  (or t=x)
  are rewritten to
  `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

* HOL/datatype
  Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

  P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =
     ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &
        ...
       (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))
     )

  and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

  P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =
    ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |
        ...
       (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))
     )
  which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems
  expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to
  split_list_case and split_option_case.

* HOL/Arithmetic:
  - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.
    Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,
    because it will disappear altogether at some point.
  - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than
    "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this
    `standard'.

* HOL/Lists:
  the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);
  the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and
  has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

* HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

* HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its
  specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone.  Similarly for (INT x.B x);

* HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping
(single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,
still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;


*** HOLCF ***

* removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

* replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of
  handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

* domain package:
  . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,
  . creates hierachical name space,
  . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),
  . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),
  . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,
  . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",
  . improved handling of sort constraints;  now they have to
    appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

* fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

* added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge
adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;


*** FOL and ZF ***

* FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.
  with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

* qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as
in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;



New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)
------------------------------

*** General Changes ***

* new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts
still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

* new 'Isabelle System Manual';

* INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

* reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error
messages and clean internal interface;

* prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of
setting goals_limit);


*** Syntax ***

* supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty
printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

* Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to
be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the
"symbols" syntax table;

* added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in
arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and
the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions
are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds
(Syntax.mark_boundT);

* token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display
names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color
version of xterm);

* infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

* added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may
access type of constant);


*** Classical Reasoner ***

Blast_tac: a new tactic!  It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has
some limitations.  Blast_tac...
  + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic
  + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format
        (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)
  + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail
  + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF
    [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]
  + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

* substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other
assumptions;

* minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed
setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper
(and access functions for it);

* improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:
  + functions for handling clasimpsets
  + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the
    safe steps.
  + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications
    _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple
    instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

*** Simplifier ***

* added interface for simplification procedures (functions that
produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current
redex);

* ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

* new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

* the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.
This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the
functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and
addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;


*** HOL ***

* a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and
also for type `nat';

* a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all
datatypes and also for type `nat';

* each datatype comes with a function `size';

* patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to
constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

* primrec now also works with type nat;

* recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be
defined in theory files.  See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

* the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to
harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

* HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for
infinite lists;

* HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

* HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational
problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

* more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

* more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

* a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

* HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

* HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities
  + axiomatic type classes instead of classes
  + typedef instead of faking type definitions
  + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.
  + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po
  + eliminated the types void, one, tr
  + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr
  + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)
  all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;


*** ZF ***

* ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac.  Union_iff is a now a default
rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs.  eq_cs is gone but can be put back
as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];



New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)
---------------------------------

* allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

* super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

* FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes
quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS
FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @
all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

* improved printing of ==>  :  ~:

* new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK
and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

* HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

* HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many
examples on HOL/Auth);

* HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to
the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

* function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;
regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;



New in Isabelle94-6
-------------------

* oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted
external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

* proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

* Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

* "constdefs" section in theory files;

* "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

* internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";



New in Isabelle94-5
-------------------

* reduced space requirements;

* automatic HTML generation from theories;

* theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

* new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

* non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;



New in Isabelle94-4
-------------------

* greatly reduced space requirements;

* theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

* searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on
page 8 of the Reference Manual);

* new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the
Axiom of Choice;

* The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

* The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax
for functions.  Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

* Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

* In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and
translates to the operator "split";



New in Isabelle94-3
-------------------

* new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to
perform simplification at each step of its search.  Example:
        fast_tac (cs addss ss)

* a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax
for functions.  Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b).  Also pairs
look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

* PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

* In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.
It translates to the operator "split".  A new theory of integers is available;

* In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.
Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting.  See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

* Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents
of the Axiom of Choice;



New in Isabelle94-2
-------------------

* Significantly faster resolution;

* the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated
freely;

* Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF.  New
commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

* Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of
a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in
(theory_of_thm);

* Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

* The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs
and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

* Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1
have been removed;

* Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

* new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

* 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing
types;


$Id$
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.