>>> from dtopt import ELLIPSIS
Status & License
WebOb is an extraction and refinement of pieces from `Paste
<http://pythonpaste.org/>`_. It is under active development.
Discussion should happen on the `Paste mailing lists
<http://pythonpaste.org/community/>`_, and bugs can go on the `Paste
trac instance <http://trac.pythonpaste.org/>`_. It was originally
written by `Ian Bicking <http://ianbicking.org/>`, and the primary
maintainer is now `Sergey Schetinin <http://self.maluke.com/>`.
WebOb is released under an `MIT-style license <license.html>`_.
WebOb is in a Mercurial repository at
<http://bitbucket.org/ianb/webob/>`_, and installable via `easy_install
webob==dev <http://bitbucket.org/ianb/webob/get/tip.gz>`__. You
can check it out with::
$ hg clone http://bitbucket.org/ianb/webob
WebOb provides objects for HTTP requests and responses. Specifically
it does this by wrapping the `WSGI <http://wsgi.org>`_ request
environment and response status/headers/app_iter(body).
The request and response objects provide many conveniences for parsing
HTTP request and forming HTTP responses. Both objects are read/write:
as a result, WebOb is also a nice way to create HTTP requests and
parse HTTP responses; however, we won't cover that use case in this
document. The `reference documentation <reference.html>`_ shows many
examples of creating requests.
The request object is a wrapper around the `WSGI environ dictionary
dictionary contains keys for each header, keys that describe the
request (including the path and query string), a file-like object for
the request body, and a variety of custom keys. You can always access
the environ with ``req.environ``.
Some of the most important/interesting attributes of a request
The request method, e.g., ``'GET'``, ``'POST'``
A `dictionary-like object`_ with all the variables in the query
A `dictionary-like object`_ with all the variables in the request
body. This only has variables if the request was a ``POST`` and
it is a form submission.
A `dictionary-like object`_ with a combination of everything in
``req.GET`` and ``req.POST``.
The contents of the body of the request. This contains the entire
request body as a string. This is useful when the request is a
``POST`` that is *not* a form submission, or a request like a
``PUT``. You can also get ``req.body_file`` for a file-like
A simple dictionary of all the cookies.
A dictionary of all the headers. This is dictionary is case-insensitive.
``req.urlvars`` and ``req.urlargs``:
``req.urlvars`` is the keyword parameters associated with the
request URL. ``req.urlargs`` are the positional parameters.
These are set by products like `Routes
<http://routes.groovie.org/>`_ and `Selector
.. _`dictionary-like object`: #multidict
Also, for standard HTTP request headers there are usually attributes,
for instance: ``req.accept_language``, ``req.content_length``,
``req.user_agent``, as an example. These properties expose the
*parsed* form of each header, for whatever parsing makes sense. For
instance, ``req.if_modified_since`` returns a `datetime
(or None if the header is was not provided). Details are in the
`Request reference <class-webob.Request.html>`_.
In addition to these attributes, there are several ways to get the URL
of the request. I'll show various values for an example URL
``http://localhost/app-root/doc?article_id=10``, where the application
is mounted at ``http://localhost/app-root``.
The full request URL, with query string, e.g.,
The URL of the application (just the SCRIPT_NAME portion of the
path, not PATH_INFO). E.g., ``'http://localhost/app-root'``
The URL with the host, e.g., ``'http://localhost'``
Gives a URL, relative to the current URL. If ``to_application``
is True, then resolves it relative to ``req.application_url``.
There are `several methods <class-webob.Request.html#__init__>`_ but
only a few you'll use often:
Creates a new request with blank information, based at the given
URL. This can be useful for subrequests and artificial requests.
You can also use ``req.copy()`` to copy an existing request, or
for subrequests ``req.copy_get()`` which copies the request but
always turns it into a GET (which is safer to share for
This method calls the given WSGI application with this request,
and returns a `Response`_ object. You can also use this for
subrequests or testing.
Many of the properties in the request object will return unicode
values if the request encoding/charset is provided. The client *can*
indicate the charset with something like ``Content-Type:
application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf8``, but browsers seldom
set this. You can set the charset with ``req.charset = 'utf8'``, or
during instantiation with ``Request(environ, charset='utf8'). If you
subclass ``Request`` you can also set ``charset`` as a class-level
If it is set, then ``req.POST``, ``req.GET``, ``req.params``, and
``req.cookies`` will contain unicode strings. Each has a
corresponding ``req.str_*`` (like ``req.str_POST``) that is always
``str`` and never unicode.
The response object looks a lot like the request object, though with
some differences. The request object wraps a single ``environ``
object; the response object has three fundamental parts (based on
The response code plus message, like ``'200 OK'``. To set the
code without the reason, use ``response.status_int = 200``.
A list of all the headers, like ``[('Content-Type',
'text/html')]``. There's a case-insensitive `dictionary-like
object`_ in ``response.headers`` that also allows you to access
these same headers.
An iterable (such as a list or generator) that will produce the
content of the response. This is also accessible as
``response.body`` (a string), ``response.unicode_body`` (a
unicode object, informed by ``response.charset``), and
``response.body_file`` (a file-like object; writing to it appends
Everything else in the object derives from this underlying state.
Here's the highlights:
The content type *not* including the ``charset`` parameter.
Typical use: ``response.content_type = 'text/html'``. You can
subclass ``Response`` and add a class-level attribute
``default_content_type`` to set this automatically on
The ``charset`` parameter of the content-type, it also informs
encoding in ``response.unicode_body``.
``response.content_type_params`` is a dictionary of all the
This optional attribute can point to the request object associated
with this response object.
``response.set_cookie(key, value, max_age=None, path='/', domain=None, secure=None, httponly=False, version=None, comment=None)``:
Set a cookie. The keyword arguments control the various cookie
parameters. The ``max_age`` argument is the length for the cookie
to live in seconds (you may also use a timedelta object). The
`Expires`` key will also be set based on the value of ``max_age``.
``response.delete_cookie(key, path='/', domain=None)``:
Delete a cookie from the client. This sets ``max_age`` to 0 and
the cookie value to ``''``.
This makes this response cachable for the given number of seconds,
or if ``seconds`` is 0 then the response is uncacheable (this also
sets the ``Expires`` header).
``response(environ, start_response)``: The response object is a WSGI
application. As an application, it acts according to how you
creat it. It *can* do conditional responses if you pass
``conditional_response=True`` when instantiating (or set that
attribute later). It can also do HEAD and Range requests.
Like the request, most HTTP response headers are available as
properties. These are parsed, so you can do things like
``response.last_modified = os.path.getmtime(filename)``.
The details are available in the `extracted Response documentation
Instantiating the Response
Of course most of the time you just want to *make* a response.
Generally any attribute of the response can be passed in as a keyword
argument to the class; e.g.:
.. code-block:: python
response = Response(body='hello world!', content_type='text/plain')
The status defaults to ``'200 OK'``. The content_type does not
default to anything, though if you subclass ``Response`` and set
``default_content_type`` you can override this behavior.
To facilitate error responses like 404 Not Found, the module
``webob.exc`` contains classes for each kind of error response. These
include boring but appropriate error bodies.
Each class is named ``webob.exc.HTTP*``, where ``*`` is the reason for
the error. For instance, ``webob.exc.HTTPNotFound``. It subclasses
``Response``, so you can manipulate the instances in the same way. A
typical example is:
.. code-block:: python
response = HTTPNotFound('There is no such resource')
response = HTTPMovedPermanently(location=new_url)
These are not exceptions unless you are using Python 2.5+, because
they are new-style classes which are not allowed as exceptions until
Python 2.5. To get an exception object use ``response.exception``.
You can use this like:
.. code-block:: python
... stuff ...
raise HTTPNotFound('No such resource').exception
except HTTPException, e:
return e(environ, start_response)
The exceptions are still WSGI applications, but you cannot set
attributes like ``content_type``, ``charset``, etc. on these exception
Several parts of WebOb use a "multidict"; this is a dictionary where a
key can have multiple values. The quintessential example is a query
string like ``?pref=red&pref=blue``; the ``pref`` variable has two
values: ``red`` and ``blue``.
In a multidict, when you do ``request.GET['pref']`` you'll get back
only ``'blue'`` (the last value of ``pref``). Sometimes returning a
string, and sometimes returning a list, is the cause of frequent
exceptions. If you want *all* the values back, use
``request.GET.getall('pref')``. If you want to be sure there is *one
and only one* value, use ``request.GET.getone('pref')``, which will
raise an exception if there is zero or more than one value for
When you use operations like ``request.GET.items()`` you'll get back
something like ``[('pref', 'red'), ('pref', 'blue')]``. All the
key/value pairs will show up. Similarly ``request.GET.keys()``
returns ``['pref', 'pref']``. Multidict is a view on a list of
tuples; all the keys are ordered, and all the values are ordered.
I haven't figured out the example I want to use here. The
`file-serving example <file-example.html>`_ shows how to do more
advanced HTTP techniques, while the `comment middleware example
<comment-example.html>`_ shows middleware. For applications it's more
reasonable to use WebOb in the context of a larger framework. `Pylons
<http://pylonshq.com>`_ uses WebOb in 0.9.7+.