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doc/beamerexample1.pdf

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doc/beamerexample1.tex

-\documentclass{beamer}
-
-% Try the class options [notes], [notesonly], [trans], [handout],
-% [red], [compress], [draft] and see what happens!
-
-% Copyright 2003 by Till Tantau <tantau@cs.tu-berlin.de>.
-%
-% This program can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms
-% of the LaTeX Project Public License Distributed from CTAN
-% archives in directory macros/latex/base/lppl.txt.
-
-% For a green structure color use:
-%\colorlet{structure}{green!50!black}
-
-\usepackage{beamertemplates}
-\usepackage{beamerthemebars}
-\usepackage{pgf,pgfarrows,pgfnodes,pgfautomata,pgfheaps,pgfshade}
-\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
-\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
-\usepackage{colortbl}
-\usepackage[english]{babel}
-
-
-% Use some nice templates
-
-\beamertemplateshadingbackground{red!10}{structure!10}
-\beamertemplatetransparentcovereddynamic
-\beamertemplateballitem
-\beamertemplatesolidbuttons
-
-%
-% The following defintions are peculiar to this particular
-% presetation. They have nothing to do with the beamer class
-%
-
-\newcommand{\Lang}[1]{\operatorname{\text{\textsc{#1}}}}
-
-\newcommand{\Class}[1]{\operatorname{\mathchoice
-  {\text{\small #1}}
-  {\text{\small #1}}
-  {\text{#1}}
-  {\text{#1}}}}
-
-\newcommand{\DOF}{\Class{DOF}}
-\newcommand{\NOF}{\Class{NOF}}
-\newcommand{\DOFpoly}{\Class{DOF}_{\mathsf{poly}}}
-\newcommand{\NOFpoly}{\Class{NOF}_{\mathsf{poly}}}
-
-
-\newcommand{\Nat}{\mathbb{N}}
-\newcommand{\Set}[1]{\{#1\}}
-
-\pgfdeclareimage[width=1.8361cm,height=2cm]{computerimage}{computer}
-\pgfdeclareimage[width=1.8361cm,height=2cm]{computerworkingimage}{computerred}
-\pgfdeclareimage[width=1.625cm,height=2cm]{apple}{g4}
-\pgfdeclareimage[width=1.625cm,height=2cm]{appleworking}{g4red}
-\pgfdeclareimage[width=3.811cm,height=1cm]{ram}{ram}
-
-\newcommand{\tape}[9]{%
-  \pgfputat{#1}{%
-  \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}%
-  \pgfrect[stroke]{\pgfxy(0,0)}{\pgfxy(4,0.5)}%
-  \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(0.5,0)}{\pgfxy(0.5,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(1.0,0)}{\pgfxy(1.0,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(1.5,0)}{\pgfxy(1.5,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(2.0,0)}{\pgfxy(2.0,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(2.5,0)}{\pgfxy(2.5,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(3.0,0)}{\pgfxy(3.0,0.5)}%
-  \pgfline{\pgfxy(3.5,0)}{\pgfxy(3.5,0.5)}%
-  %
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0.25,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#2}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0.75,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#3}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(1.25,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#4}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(1.75,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#5}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(2.25,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#6}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(2.75,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#7}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(3.25,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#8}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(3.75,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{#9}}%
-  %
-  \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0,0.7)}{\pgfbox[left,base]{tape}}%
-  }%
-  %
-  \pgfnodecircle{n1}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0.25,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n2}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0.75,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n3}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(1.25,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n4}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(1.75,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n5}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(2.25,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n6}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(2.75,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n7}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(3.25,0)}}{2pt}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{n8}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(3.75,0)}}{2pt}%
-}
-
-\newcommand{\putmachine}[2]{%
-  \pgfputat{#1}{\pgfbox[center,center]{\pgfuseimage{computerimage}}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,-1.4)}}{\pgfbox[center,base]{#2}}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{machine}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,1)}}{2pt}%
-}
-\newcommand{\putmachineworking}[2]{%
-  \pgfputat{#1}{\pgfbox[center,center]{\pgfuseimage{computerworkingimage}}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,-1.4)}}{\pgfbox[center,base]{#2}}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{machine}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,1)}}{2pt}%
-}
-
-\newcommand{\putmachinea}[2]{%
-  \pgfputat{#1}{\pgfbox[center,center]{\pgfuseimage{apple}}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,-1.4)}}{\pgfbox[center,base]{#2}}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{machine}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,1)}}{2pt}%
-}
-\newcommand{\putmachineworkinga}[2]{%
-  \pgfputat{#1}{\pgfbox[center,center]{\pgfuseimage{appleworking}}}%
-  \pgfputat{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,-1.4)}}{\pgfbox[center,base]{#2}}%
-  \pgfnodecircle{machine}[virtual]{\pgfrelative{#1}{\pgfxy(0,1)}}{2pt}%
-}
-
-\newcommand{\selectpos}[1]{%
-   \pgfsetlinewidth{0.6pt}%
-   \color{structure}%
-   \pgfsetendarrow{\pgfarrowto}%
-   \pgfnodeconncurve{machine}{n#1}{90}{-90}{.5cm}{.5cm}%
-}
-
-%
-% The following info should normally be given in you main file:
-%
-
-\hypersetup{%
-  pdftitle={Computation with Absolutely No Space Overhead},%
-  pdfauthor={Lane Hemaspaandra, Proshanto Mukherji, and Till Tantau},
-  pdfsubject={Theoretical Computer Science},
-  pdfkeywords={overhead-free, context-free, linear space}}
-
-\title[Computation with Absolutely No~Space~Overhead]{Computation~with Absolutely~No~Space~Overhead}
-\author[Hemaspaandra et al.]{%
-  Lane~Hemaspaandra\inst{1} \and
-  Proshanto~Mukherji\inst{1} \and
-  Till~Tantau\inst{2}}
-\institute[Universities of Rochester and Berlin]{
-  \inst{1}%
-  Department of Computer Science\\
-  University of Rochester
-  \and
-  \inst{2}%
-  Fakult�t f�r Elektrotechnik und Informatik\\
-  Technical University of Berlin}
-\date[DLT 2003]{Developments in Language Theory Conference, 2003}
-
-
-\begin{document}
-
-\frame{\titlepage}
-
-
-\section[Outline]{}
-
-\frame{\tableofcontents[pausesections]}
-
-
-\section[Models]{The Model of Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame[handout:0]{\tableofcontents[current]}
-
-
-\subsection[Standard Model]{The Standard Model of Linear Space}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{The Standard Model of Linear Space}
-
-  \begin{columns}
-    \begin{column}{4.5cm}
-      \begin{pgfpicture}{-0.5cm}{1cm}{4cm}{7cm}
-        \pgfonly<1| trans:1>{
-          \putmachine{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{1}}
-        \pgfonly<2| handout:0| trans:2>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{2}}        
-        \pgfonly<3| handout:0| trans:3>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{8}}        
-        \pgfonly<4| handout:0| trans:4>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{\$}
-          \selectpos{7}}      
-        \pgfonly<5| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{\$}
-          \selectpos{2}}      
-        \pgfonly<6| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{\$}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{\$}
-          \selectpos{3}}      
-        \pgfonly<7| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{\$}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{\$}
-          \selectpos{7}}      
-        \pgfonly<8| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{\$}{1}{0}{0}{1}{\$}{\$}
-          \selectpos{6}}      
-        \pgfonly<9| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworking{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}
-          \selectpos{5}}      
-        \pgfonly<10| handout:0| trans:5>{
-          \putmachine{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}{\$}
-          \selectpos{5}}      
-     \end{pgfpicture}
-    \end{column}
-    \begin{column}{6cm}
-      \begin{block}{Characteristics}
-      \begin{itemize}
-      \item
-        Input fills \alert{fixed-size tape}
-      \item
-        Input may be \alert{modified}
-      \item
-        Tape alphabet \alert{is larger than}\\ input alphabet
-      \end{itemize}
-      \end{block}
-    \end{column}
-  \end{columns}
-} 
-\noteitems{
-\item Stress the large tape alphabet.    
-\item Point out that \$ is a marker symbol.}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Linear Space is a Powerful Model}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2cm}{2.5cm}{$\Class{CFL}$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{\raise10pt\hbox{}$\Class{DLINSPACE}$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{4cm}{\raise13pt\hbox{}$\Class{NLINSPACE} = \Class{CSL}$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{6cm}{5cm}{$\Class{PSPACE}$}
-
-    \pgfsetdash{{3pt}{3pt}}{0pt}
-    \pgfheaplabeled{\pgfxy(0,3.3)}{\pgfxy(-5,6)}{\pgfxy(5,6)}{}%
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(-4.6,5.75)}{\pgfbox[left,base]{$\Class{PSPACE}$-hard}}%      
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-\noteitems{
-\item Explain CSL.
-\item Point out the connections to formal language theory.}
-
-
-\subsection[Our Model]{Our Model of Absolutely No Space Overhead}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Our Model of ``Absolutely No Space Overhead''}
-
-  \begin{columns}
-    \begin{column}{4.5cm}
-      \begin{pgfpicture}{-0.5cm}{1cm}{4cm}{7cm}
-        \pgfonly<1| trans:1>{%
-          \putmachinea{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}%
-          \selectpos{1}}%
-        \pgfonly<2| handout:0| trans:2>{%
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}%
-          \selectpos{2}}%      
-        \pgfonly<3| handout:0| trans:3>{%
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}%
-          \selectpos{8}}%      
-        \pgfonly<4| handout:0| trans:0>{%
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}%
-          \selectpos{7}}%      
-        \pgfonly<5| handout:0| trans:0>{%
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}%
-          \selectpos{2}}%      
-        \pgfonly<6| handout:0| trans:0>{%
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{1}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}%
-          \selectpos{3}}%      
-        \pgfonly<7| handout:0| trans:4>{%
-          \putmachinea{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{Turing machine}%
-          \pgfputat{\pgfxy(1.75,5.5)}{\pgfbox[center,center]{\pgfuseimage{ram}}}%
-          \pgfnodecircle{n3}[virtual]{\pgfxy(1.25,5)}{2pt}%
-          \selectpos{3}}%      
-      \end{pgfpicture}
-    \end{column}
-    \begin{column}{6cm}
-      \begin{overprint}
-      \onslide<1-6| trans:1-3| handout:1>
-        \begin{block}{Characteristics}
-          \begin{itemize}
-          \item
-            Input fills \alert{fixed-size tape}
-          \item
-            Input may be \alert{modified}
-          \item
-            Tape alphabet \alert{equals}\\
-            input alphabet
-          \end{itemize}
-        \end{block}
-      \onslide<7-| trans:4| handout:2>
-        \begin{block}{Intuition}
-          \begin{itemize}
-          \item
-            Tape is used like a RAM module.
-          \end{itemize}
-        \end{block}
-      \end{overprint}
-    \end{column}
-  \end{columns}
-}
-\note{Point out that no markers are used.}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Definition of Overhead-Free Computations}
-
-  \begin{Definition}
-    A Turing machine is \alert{overhead-free} if
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item
-      it has only a single tape,
-    \item
-      writes only on input cells,
-    \item
-      writes only symbols drawn from the input alphabet.
-    \end{itemize}
-  \end{Definition}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Overhead-Free Computation Complexity Classes}
- 
-  \begin{Definition}
-    A language $L \subseteq \Sigma^*$ is in
-    \begin{description}
-    \item[\alert<1| handout:0| trans:0>{$\DOF$}]
-      if $L$ is accepted by a deterministic overhead-free machine with
-      input alphabet~$\Sigma$,
-      \pause
-    \item[\alert<2| handout:0| trans:0>{$\DOFpoly$}]
-      if $L$ is accepted by a deterministic overhead-free machine with
-      input alphabet~$\Sigma$ in polynomial time.
-      \pause
-    \item[\alert<3| handout:0| trans:0>{$\NOF$}]
-      is the nondeterministic  version of $\DOF$,
-      \pause
-    \item[\alert<4| handout:0| trans:0>{$\NOFpoly$}]
-      is the nondeterministic version of $\DOFpoly$. 
-    \end{description}
-  \end{Definition}
-}
-\noteitems{
-\item Joke about German pronunciation.
-\item Stress meaning of D and N.}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Simple Relationships among\\ Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{1.75cm}{2cm}{$\DOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOF$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2.5cm}{3.5cm}{$\NOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{4cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{6cm}{5cm}{\raise10pt\hbox{}$\Class{NLINSPACE}$}
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-
-
-\section[Power of the Model]{The Power of Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame[handout:0]{\tableofcontents[current]}
-
-
-\subsection{Palindromes}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Palindromes Can be Accepted in an Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{columns}
-    \begin{column}{4.5cm}
-      \begin{pgfpicture}{-0.5cm}{1cm}{4cm}{7cm}
-        \pgfonly<1| trans:1>{
-          \putmachinea{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{1}}
-        \pgfonly<2| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{2}}      
-        \pgfonly<3| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{8}}
-        \pgfonly<4| handout:0| trans:2>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}
-          \selectpos{7}}      
-        \pgfonly<5| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}
-          \selectpos{1}}      
-        \pgfonly<6| handout:0| trans:3>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{1}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}
-          \selectpos{2}}      
-        \pgfonly<7| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{1}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}
-          \selectpos{8}}      
-        \pgfonly<8| handout:0| trans:4>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{1}{1}{0}{0}{1}{1}{0}
-          \selectpos{7}}      
-        \pgfonly<9| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{1}{1}{0}{0}{1}{1}{0}
-          \selectpos{2}}      
-        \pgfonly<10| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{1}{0}
-          \selectpos{3}}      
-        \pgfonly<11| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{1}{0}
-          \selectpos{7}}      
-        \pgfonly<12| handout:0| trans:5>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{6}}      
-        \pgfonly<13| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{3}}      
-        \pgfonly<14| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{4}}      
-        \pgfonly<15| handout:0| trans:0>{
-          \putmachineworkinga{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{0}{1}{0}{1}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{6}}      
-        \pgfonly<16| handout:0| trans:6>{
-          \putmachinea{\pgfxy(1.75,3)}{overhead-free machine}
-          \tape{\pgfxy(0,5)}{0}{0}{0}{1}{1}{0}{0}{0}
-          \selectpos{5}}      
-      \end{pgfpicture}
-    \end{column}
-    \begin{column}{6cm}
-      \begin{block}{Algorithm}
-        \vskip1em
-
-        \alert<1| handout:0| trans:1>{Phase 1:\\
-        Compare first and last bit}
-
-        \quad \alert<2| handout:0| trans:2>{Place left end marker}
-
-        \quad \alert<3| handout:0| trans:2>{Place right end marker}
-        \vskip1em
-
-        \alert<4| handout:0| trans:3->{Phase 2:\\
-        Compare bits next to end markers}
-        
-        \quad \alert<5,9,13| handout:0| trans:0>{Find left end marker}
-
-        \quad \alert<6,10,14| handout:0| trans:0>{Advance left end marker}
-
-        \quad \alert<7,11,15| handout:0| trans:0>{Find right end marker}
-
-        \quad \alert<8,12,16| handout:0| trans:0>{Advance right end marker}
-        
-      \end{block}
-    \end{column}
-  \end{columns}
-}
-\note{Use 3 minutes.}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Relationships among Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6.5cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{1.75cm}{2cm}{$\DOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOF$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2.5cm}{3.5cm}{$\NOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{4cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0,0.25)}{\pgfbox[center,base]{\alert{Palindromes}}}
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-
-
-\subsection{Linear Languages}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{A Review of Linear Grammars}
-
-  \begin{Definition}<1>
-    A grammar is \alert{linear} if it is context-free and\\ there is
-    only one nonterminal per right-hand side.
-  \end{Definition}
-
-  \begin{Example}<1>
-    $G_1\colon S \to 00S0 \mid 1$.
-    
-    $G_2\colon S \to 0S10 \mid 0$.
-  \end{Example}
-
-  \begin{Definition}<2->
-    A grammar is \alert{deterministic} if\\ ``there is always only one
-    rule that can be applied.''
-  \end{Definition}
-
-  \begin{Example}<2->
-    $G_1$ is deterministic.
-    
-    $G_2$ is \alert{not} deterministic.
-  \end{Example}  
-}
-\note{Just explain intuition using the example.}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Deterministic Linear Languages\\ Can Be Accepted in an
-    Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    Every deterministic linear language is in $\DOFpoly$.
-  \end{Theorem}
-}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{Metalinear Languages\\ Can Be Accepted in an
-    Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{Definition}
-    A language is \alert{metalinear} if it is the concatenation\\ of
-    linear languages.
-  \end{Definition}
-
-  \pause
-  \begin{Example}
-    $\Lang{triple-palindrome} = \Set{uvw \mid \text{$u$, $v$, and $w$ are palindromes}}$.
-  \end{Example}  
-
-  \pause
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    Every metalinear language is in $\NOFpoly$.
-  \end{Theorem}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Relationships among Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6.5cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{4.25cm}{4cm}{$\NOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{5cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \color{red}%
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{1.75cm}{2cm}{\raise10pt\hbox{}deterministic}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2.5cm}{3.5cm}{metalinear}
-
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0,0.6)}{\pgfbox[center,base]{linear}}
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-\note{Skip next subsection if more than 18 minutes have passed.}
-
-
-\subsection[Forbidden Subword]{Context-Free Languages with a Forbidden Subword}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Definition of Almost-Overhead-Free Computations}
-
-  \begin{Definition}
-    A Turing machine is \alert{almost-overhead-free} if
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item
-      it has only a single tape,
-      \pause
-    \item
-      writes only on input cells,
-      \pause
-    \item
-      writes only symbols drawn from the input alphabet\\
-      \alert{plus one special symbol}.
-    \end{itemize}
-  \end{Definition}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Context-Free Languages with a Forbidden Subword\\ Can Be
-    Accepted in an Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    Let $L$ be a context-free language with a forbidden word.\\
-    Then $L  \in \NOFpoly$.
-  \end{Theorem}
-
-  \begin{overprint}
-  \onslide<1| handout:0| trans:0>
-    \hfill\hyperlinkframestartnext{\beamerskipbutton{Skip proof}}
-  \onslide<2| handout:1| trans:1>
-    \begin{proof}
-      Every context-free language can be accepted by a nondeterministic
-      almost-overhead-free machine in polynomial time.
-    \end{proof}
-  \end{overprint}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Relationships among Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-  
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6.5cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{4.25cm}{4cm}{$\NOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{5cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \color{red}%
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2.5cm}{3.5cm}{CFL with}
-
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(0,1.6)}{\pgfbox[center,base]{forbidden subwords}}
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-
-
-\subsection[Complete Languages]{Languages Complete for Polynomial Space}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Some PSPACE-complete Languages\\ Can Be
-    Accepted in an Overhead-Free Way} 
-
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    $\DOF$ contains languages that are complete for
-    $\Class{PSPACE}$. 
-  \end{Theorem}
-  \vskip1em
-
-  \hyperlink{proofdetails}{\beamergotobutton{Proof details}}
-  \nameslide{backfromproofdetails}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Relationships among Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6.5cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{1.75cm}{2cm}{$\DOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOF$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{2.5cm}{3.5cm}{$\NOFpoly$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{4cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \pgfsetdash{{3pt}{3pt}}{0pt}
-    \pgfheaplabeled{\pgfxy(0,2.9)}{\pgfxy(-5,6)}{\pgfxy(5,6)}{}%
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(-4.6,5.75)}{\pgfbox[left,base]{$\Class{PSPACE}$-hard}}%      
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-
-
-\section[Limitations of the Model]{Limitations of Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame[handout:0]{\tableofcontents[current]}
-
-
-\subsection[Strict Inclusion]{Linear Space is Strictly More Powerful}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Some Context-Sensitive Languages\\
-    Cannot be Accepted in an Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    $\DOF \subsetneq \Class{DLINSPACE}$.    
-  \end{Theorem}
-  
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    $\NOF \subsetneq \Class{NLINSPACE}$.    
-  \end{Theorem}
-
-  \vskip1em
-  The proofs are based on old diagonalisations due to Feldman, Owings,
-  and Seiferas.  
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Relationships among Overhead-Free Computation Classes}
-
-  \begin{pgfpicture}{-5.4cm}{0cm}{5.4cm}{6.5cm}
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.8pt}
-    \pgfxyline(-5,0)(5,0)
-    
-    \pgfsetlinewidth{0.4pt}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{3.5cm}{3cm}{$\DOF$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{5cm}{4cm}{$\NOF$}
-
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{4.3cm}{4.5cm}{\raise8pt\hbox{}$\Class{DLINSPACE}$}
-    \pgfheaplabeledcentered{6cm}{5cm}{\raise10pt\hbox{}$\Class{NLINSPACE}$}
-
-    \pgfsetdash{{3pt}{3pt}}{0pt}
-    \pgfheaplabeled{\pgfxy(0,2.9)}{\pgfxy(-5,6)}{\pgfxy(5,6)}{}%
-    \pgfputat{\pgfxy(-4.6,5.75)}{\pgfbox[left,base]{$\Class{PSPACE}$-hard}}%      
-  \end{pgfpicture}
-}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Candidates for Languages that\\
-    Cannot be Accepted in an Overhead-Free Way}
-
-  \begin{block}{Conjecture}
-    $\Lang{double-palindromes} \notin \Class{DOF}$.
-  \end{block}
-
-  \begin{block}{Conjecture}
-    $\Set{ww \mid w\in \Set{0,1}^*} \notin \Class{NOF}$. 
-  \end{block}
-
-  \vskip1em
-  Proving the first conjecture would show $\Class{DOF} \subsetneq
-  \Class{NOF}$. 
-}
-
-
-\section[Summary]{}
-
-
-\subsection[Summary]{}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{Summary}
-
-  \begin{itemize}
-  \item
-    Overhead-free computation is a more faithful\\
-    \alert{model of fixed-size memory}.
-  \item
-    Overhead-free computation is \alert{less powerful} than linear space.
-  \item
-    \alert{Many} context-free languages can be accepted\\
-    by overhead-free machines.
-  \item
-    We conjecture that \alert{all} context-free languages are in
-    $\NOFpoly$.
-  \item
-    Our results can be seen as new results on the power of\\
-    \alert{linear bounded automata with fixed alphabet} size.
-  \end{itemize}
-}
-\noteitems{
-\item Point out result concerning all context-free languages.
-\item Relationship to restart automata.}
-
-
-\subsection[Further Reading]{}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{For Further Reading}
-  
-  \beamertemplatebookbibitems
-  
-  \begin{thebibliography}{10}
-    
-  \bibitem{sal:b:formal-languages}
-    A.~Salomaa.
-    \newblock {\em Formal Languages}.
-    \newblock Academic Press, 1973.
-    \pause
-
-  \beamertemplatearticlebibitems
-  \bibitem{dij:j:smoothsort}
-    E.~Dijkstra.
-    \newblock Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ.
-    \newblock {\em Science of Computer Programming}, 1(3):223--233,
-    1982.
-    \pause
-
-  \bibitem{FeldmanO1973}
-    E.~Feldman and J.~Owings, Jr.
-    \newblock A class of universal linear bounded automata.
-    \newblock {\em Information Sciences}, 6:187--190, 1973.
-    \pause
-
-  \bibitem{JancarMPV1995}
-    P.~Jan{\v c}ar, F.~Mr{\'a}z, M.~Pl{\'a}tek, and J.~Vogel.
-    \newblock Restarting automata.
-    \newblock {\em FCT Conference 1995}, LNCS 985, pages
-    282--292. 1995.
-  \end{thebibliography}
-}
-
-
-%
-% The following appendix material is not shown in the normal course of
-% the presentation 
-%
-
-\appendix
-
-
-\section{\appendixname}
-
-\frame{\tableofcontents}
-
-
-\subsection{Overhead Freeness and Completeness}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{Overhead-Free Languages can be PSPACE-Complete}
-
-  \begin{Theorem}
-    $\DOF$ contains languages that are complete for
-    $\Class{PSPACE}$. 
-  \end{Theorem}
-
-  \begin{proof}
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item
-      Let $A \in \Class{DLINSPACE}$ be $\Class{PSPACE}$-complete.\\
-      Such languages are known to exist.
-    \item
-      Let $M$ be a linear space machine that accepts~$A \subseteq
-      \Set{0,1}^*$ with tape alphabet~$\Gamma$.
-    \item
-      Let $h \colon \Gamma \to \Set{0,1}^*$ be an isometric, injective
-      homomorphism.
-    \item
-      Then $h(L)$ is in $\Class{DOF}$ and it is
-      $\Class{PSPACE}$-complete. 
-    \end{itemize}
-  \end{proof}
-
-  \nameslide<1>{proofdetails}
-  \hfill\hyperlink{backfromproofdetails}{\beamerreturnbutton{Return}}
-}
-
-
-\subsection{Improvements for Context-Free Languages}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{Improvements}
-
-  \begin{theorem}
-    \begin{enumerate}
-    \item
-      $\Class{DCFL} \subseteq \DOFpoly$.
-    \item
-      $\Class{CFL} \subseteq \NOFpoly$.
-    \end{enumerate}
-  \end{theorem}
-}
-
-
-\subsection{Abbreviations}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{Explanation of Different Abbreviations}
-
-  \begin{table}
-    \rowcolors[]{1}{structure!25!averagebackgroundcolor}{structure!10!averagebackgroundcolor}
-    \begin{tabular}{ll}
-      \structure{$\DOF$} & \structure{D}eterministic \structure{O}verhead-\structure{F}ree.\\
-      \structure{$\NOF$} & \structure{N}ondeterministic \structure{O}verhead-\structure{F}ree.\\
-      \structure{$\DOFpoly$} & \structure{D}eterministic
-      \structure{O}verhead-\structure{F}ree, \structure{poly}nomial time.\\
-      \structure{$\DOFpoly$} & \structure{N}ondeterministic \structure{O}verhead-\structure{F}ree, \structure{poly}nomial time.
-    \end{tabular}
-    \caption{Explanation of what different abbreviations mean.}
-  \end{table}
-}
-
-\end{document}
-
-

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-\documentclass[class=article,11pt]{beamer}
-
-\input{beamerexample2.tex}
-
-%%% Local Variables: 
-%%% mode: latex
-%%% TeX-master: "beamerexample2.article"
-%%% End: 

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-\documentclass{beamer}
-
-\input{beamerexample2.tex}
-
-%%% Local Variables: 
-%%% mode: latex
-%%% TeX-master: "beamerexample2.beamer"
-%%% End: 

doc/beamerexample2.tex

-% This file is included by beamerexample2.article.tex and
-% beamerexample2.beamer.tex 
-
-% Copyright 2003 by Till Tantau <tantau@cs.tu-berlin.de>.
-%
-% This program can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms
-% of the LaTeX Project Public License Distributed from CTAN
-% archives in directory macros/latex/base/lppl.txt.
-
-%
-% The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the usage of the
-% nameslide command
-%
-\common
-
-  \usepackage[english]{babel}
- 
-\article
-
-  \usepackage{fullpage}
-  \usepackage{pgf}
-  \setjobnamebeamerversion{beamerexample2.beamer}
-
-\presentation
-
-  \usepackage{beamertemplates}
-  \usepackage{beamerthemetree}
-
-  \beamertemplatetransparentcovereddynamic
-  \beamertemplateballitem
-  \beamertemplatesolidbuttons
-
-  \hypersetup{%
-    pdftitle={Second Beamer Example},%
-    pdfauthor={Till Tantau},
-    pdfsubject={Presentation Programs}}
-
-\common
-
-  \title{Second Beamer Example}
-  \author{Till~Tantau}
-
-\presentation
-  
-  \institute{
-    Fakult�t f�r Elektrotechnik und Informatik\\
-    Technical University of Berlin}
-
-
-\begin{document}
-
-\article
-
-  \maketitle
-
-\presentation
-
-  \frame{\titlepage}
-
-\common
-
-  \section{The first section}
-
-\article
-
-  This is the first section of the article version. In the
-  presentation, there is a frame containing an overlay. The two slides
-  of this overlay are shown in Figures~\ref{figure-example1}
-  and~\ref{figure-example2}.
-
-  \begin{figure}[ht]
-    \begin{center}
-      \includeslide{example1}
-    \end{center}
-    \caption{The first slide. Note the partly covered second item.}
-    \label{figure-example1}
-  \end{figure}
-
-  \begin{figure}[ht]
-    \begin{center}
-      \includeslide{example2}
-    \end{center}
-    \caption{The second slide. Now the second item is also shown.}
-    \label{figure-example2}
-  \end{figure}
-  
-\presentation
-
-  \frame{
-    \nameslide<1>{example1}
-    \nameslide<2>{example2}
-  
-    \frametitle{This is a frame with two overlays.}
-
-    \begin{itemize}
-    \item The first item$\dots$
-      \pause
-    \item $\dots$ and the second one.
-    \end{itemize}
-  }
-
-\end{document}
-
-
-
-%%% Local Variables: 
-%%% mode: latex
-%%% TeX-master: "beamerexample2.article"
-%%% End: 

doc/beamerexample3.pdf

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doc/beamerexample3.tex

-\documentclass{beamer}
-
-% Copyright 2003 by Till Tantau <tantau@cs.tu-berlin.de>.
-%
-% This program can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms
-% of the LaTeX Project Public License Distributed from CTAN
-% archives in directory macros/latex/base/lppl.txt.
-
-%
-% The purpose of this example is to show how \part can be used to
-% organize a lecture.
-%
-
-\usepackage{beamertemplates}
-\usepackage{beamerthemesplit}
-\usepackage[english]{babel}
-
-
-% Use some nice templates
-
-\beamertemplateshadingbackground{red!10}{structure!10}
-\beamertemplatetransparentcovereddynamic
-\beamertemplateballitem
-\beamertemplatesolidbuttons
-
-%
-% The following info should normally be given in you main file:
-%
-
-\hypersetup{%
-  pdftitle={Beamer Exampleon Parts},%
-  pdfauthor={Till Tantau}}
-
-\title{Beamer Example on Parts}
-\author{Till~Tantau}
-\institute{
-  Fakult�t f�r Elektrotechnik und Informatik\\
-  Technical University of Berlin}
-
-
-\begin{document}
-
-\frame{\titlepage}
-
-
-\section[Outlines]{}
-
-
-\subsection{Part I: Review of Previous Lecture}
-
-\frame{
-  \nameslide{outline}
-  \frametitle{Outline of Part I}
-  \tableofcontents[pausesections,part=1]}
-
-
-\subsection{Part II: Today's Lecture}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{Outline of Part II}
-  \tableofcontents[pausesections,part=2]}
-
-\note{At most 1 minute for the outline.}
-
-
-
-\part{Review of Previous Lecture}
-
-\frame{\partpage}
-
-
-\section[Previous Lecture]{Summary of the Previous Lecture}
-
-
-\subsection{Topics}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{This frame shows the topics treated in the last
-    lecture.}
-
-  \begin{itemize}
-  \item This
-    \pause
-  \item and that.    
-  \end{itemize}
-}
-
-
-\subsection{Learning Objectives}
-
-\frame{
-  \frametitle{This frame shows the last lecture's learning objectives.}
-
-  \begin{itemize}
-  \item An objective.
-    \pause
-  \item And another one.
-  \end{itemize}
-}
-
-
-
-\part{Today's Lecture}
-
-\frame{\partpage}
-
-
-\section[Models]{The Model of Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame[handout:0]{\tableofcontents[current]}
-
-
-\subsection[Standard Model]{The Standard Model of Linear Space}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{A frame.}
-}
-
-
-\section[Limitations]{Limitations of Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame[handout:0]{\tableofcontents[current]}
-
-
-\subsection[Linear Space]{Linear Space versus Overhead-Free Computation}
-
-\frame
-{
-  \frametitle{A frame.}
-}
-
-\end{document}
-
-

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