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redis / src / redis.c

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/*
 * Copyright (c) 2009-2012, Salvatore Sanfilippo <antirez at gmail dot com>
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 *
 *   * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
 *     this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *   * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *     documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *   * Neither the name of Redis nor the names of its contributors may be used
 *     to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
 *     specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
 * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
 * LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
 * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
 * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
 * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
 * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
 * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
 * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#include "redis.h"
#include "slowlog.h"
#include "bio.h"

#include <time.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/uio.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <float.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/utsname.h>

/* Our shared "common" objects */

struct sharedObjectsStruct shared;

/* Global vars that are actually used as constants. The following double
 * values are used for double on-disk serialization, and are initialized
 * at runtime to avoid strange compiler optimizations. */

double R_Zero, R_PosInf, R_NegInf, R_Nan;

/*================================= Globals ================================= */

/* Global vars */
struct redisServer server; /* server global state */
struct redisCommand *commandTable;

/* Our command table.
 *
 * Every entry is composed of the following fields:
 *
 * name: a string representing the command name.
 * function: pointer to the C function implementing the command.
 * arity: number of arguments, it is possible to use -N to say >= N
 * sflags: command flags as string. See below for a table of flags.
 * flags: flags as bitmask. Computed by Redis using the 'sflags' field.
 * get_keys_proc: an optional function to get key arguments from a command.
 *                This is only used when the following three fields are not
 *                enough to specify what arguments are keys.
 * first_key_index: first argument that is a key
 * last_key_index: last argument that is a key
 * key_step: step to get all the keys from first to last argument. For instance
 *           in MSET the step is two since arguments are key,val,key,val,...
 * microseconds: microseconds of total execution time for this command.
 * calls: total number of calls of this command.
 *
 * The flags, microseconds and calls fields are computed by Redis and should
 * always be set to zero.
 *
 * Command flags are expressed using strings where every character represents
 * a flag. Later the populateCommandTable() function will take care of
 * populating the real 'flags' field using this characters.
 *
 * This is the meaning of the flags:
 *
 * w: write command (may modify the key space).
 * r: read command  (will never modify the key space).
 * m: may increase memory usage once called. Don't allow if out of memory.
 * a: admin command, like SAVE or SHUTDOWN.
 * p: Pub/Sub related command.
 * f: force replication of this command, regarless of server.dirty.
 * s: command not allowed in scripts.
 * R: random command. Command is not deterministic, that is, the same command
 *    with the same arguments, with the same key space, may have different
 *    results. For instance SPOP and RANDOMKEY are two random commands.
 * S: Sort command output array if called from script, so that the output
 *    is deterministic.
 * l: Allow command while loading the database.
 * t: Allow command while a slave has stale data but is not allowed to
 *    server this data. Normally no command is accepted in this condition
 *    but just a few.
 * M: Do not automatically propagate the command on MONITOR.
 */
struct redisCommand redisCommandTable[] = {
    {"get",getCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"set",setCommand,3,"wm",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"setnx",setnxCommand,3,"wm",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"setex",setexCommand,4,"wm",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"psetex",psetexCommand,4,"wm",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"append",appendCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"strlen",strlenCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"del",delCommand,-2,"w",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"exists",existsCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"setbit",setbitCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"getbit",getbitCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"setrange",setrangeCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"getrange",getrangeCommand,4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"substr",getrangeCommand,4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"incr",incrCommand,2,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"decr",decrCommand,2,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"mget",mgetCommand,-2,"r",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"rpush",rpushCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lpush",lpushCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"rpushx",rpushxCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lpushx",lpushxCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"linsert",linsertCommand,5,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"rpop",rpopCommand,2,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lpop",lpopCommand,2,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"brpop",brpopCommand,-3,"ws",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"brpoplpush",brpoplpushCommand,4,"wms",0,NULL,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"blpop",blpopCommand,-3,"ws",0,NULL,1,-2,1,0,0},
    {"llen",llenCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lindex",lindexCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lset",lsetCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lrange",lrangeCommand,4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"ltrim",ltrimCommand,4,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"lrem",lremCommand,4,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"rpoplpush",rpoplpushCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"sadd",saddCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"srem",sremCommand,-3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"smove",smoveCommand,4,"w",0,NULL,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"sismember",sismemberCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"scard",scardCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"spop",spopCommand,2,"wRs",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"srandmember",srandmemberCommand,-2,"rR",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"sinter",sinterCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sinterstore",sinterstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sunion",sunionCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sunionstore",sunionstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sdiff",sdiffCommand,-2,"rS",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"sdiffstore",sdiffstoreCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"smembers",sinterCommand,2,"rS",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zadd",zaddCommand,-4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zincrby",zincrbyCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrem",zremCommand,-3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zremrangebyscore",zremrangebyscoreCommand,4,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zremrangebyrank",zremrangebyrankCommand,4,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zunionstore",zunionstoreCommand,-4,"wm",0,zunionInterGetKeys,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"zinterstore",zinterstoreCommand,-4,"wm",0,zunionInterGetKeys,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"zrange",zrangeCommand,-4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrangebyscore",zrangebyscoreCommand,-4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrevrangebyscore",zrevrangebyscoreCommand,-4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zcount",zcountCommand,4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrevrange",zrevrangeCommand,-4,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zcard",zcardCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zscore",zscoreCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrank",zrankCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"zrevrank",zrevrankCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hset",hsetCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hsetnx",hsetnxCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hget",hgetCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hmset",hmsetCommand,-4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hmget",hmgetCommand,-3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hincrby",hincrbyCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hincrbyfloat",hincrbyfloatCommand,4,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hdel",hdelCommand,-3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hlen",hlenCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hkeys",hkeysCommand,2,"rS",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hvals",hvalsCommand,2,"rS",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hgetall",hgetallCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"hexists",hexistsCommand,3,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"incrby",incrbyCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"decrby",decrbyCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"incrbyfloat",incrbyfloatCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"getset",getsetCommand,3,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"mset",msetCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,2,0,0},
    {"msetnx",msetnxCommand,-3,"wm",0,NULL,1,-1,2,0,0},
    {"randomkey",randomkeyCommand,1,"rR",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"select",selectCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"move",moveCommand,3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"rename",renameCommand,3,"w",0,renameGetKeys,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"renamenx",renamenxCommand,3,"w",0,renameGetKeys,1,2,1,0,0},
    {"expire",expireCommand,3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"expireat",expireatCommand,3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"pexpire",pexpireCommand,3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"pexpireat",pexpireatCommand,3,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"keys",keysCommand,2,"rS",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"dbsize",dbsizeCommand,1,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"auth",authCommand,2,"rs",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"ping",pingCommand,1,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"echo",echoCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"save",saveCommand,1,"ars",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"bgsave",bgsaveCommand,1,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"bgrewriteaof",bgrewriteaofCommand,1,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"shutdown",shutdownCommand,-1,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"lastsave",lastsaveCommand,1,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"type",typeCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"multi",multiCommand,1,"rs",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"exec",execCommand,1,"sM",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"discard",discardCommand,1,"rs",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"sync",syncCommand,1,"ars",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"replconf",replconfCommand,-1,"ars",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"flushdb",flushdbCommand,1,"w",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"flushall",flushallCommand,1,"w",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"sort",sortCommand,-2,"wm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"info",infoCommand,-1,"rlt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"monitor",monitorCommand,1,"ars",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"ttl",ttlCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"pttl",pttlCommand,2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"persist",persistCommand,2,"w",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"slaveof",slaveofCommand,3,"ast",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"debug",debugCommand,-2,"as",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"config",configCommand,-2,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"subscribe",subscribeCommand,-2,"rpslt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"unsubscribe",unsubscribeCommand,-1,"rpslt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"psubscribe",psubscribeCommand,-2,"rpslt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"punsubscribe",punsubscribeCommand,-1,"rpslt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"publish",publishCommand,3,"pflt",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"watch",watchCommand,-2,"rs",0,noPreloadGetKeys,1,-1,1,0,0},
    {"unwatch",unwatchCommand,1,"rs",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"cluster",clusterCommand,-2,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"restore",restoreCommand,-4,"awm",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"migrate",migrateCommand,-6,"aw",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"asking",askingCommand,1,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"dump",dumpCommand,2,"ar",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0},
    {"object",objectCommand,-2,"r",0,NULL,2,2,2,0,0},
    {"client",clientCommand,-2,"ar",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"eval",evalCommand,-3,"s",0,zunionInterGetKeys,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"evalsha",evalShaCommand,-3,"s",0,zunionInterGetKeys,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"slowlog",slowlogCommand,-2,"r",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"script",scriptCommand,-2,"ras",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"time",timeCommand,1,"rR",0,NULL,0,0,0,0,0},
    {"bitop",bitopCommand,-4,"wm",0,NULL,2,-1,1,0,0},
    {"bitcount",bitcountCommand,-2,"r",0,NULL,1,1,1,0,0}
};

/*============================ Utility functions ============================ */

/* Low level logging. To use only for very big messages, otherwise
 * redisLog() is to prefer. */
void redisLogRaw(int level, const char *msg) {
    const int syslogLevelMap[] = { LOG_DEBUG, LOG_INFO, LOG_NOTICE, LOG_WARNING };
    const char *c = ".-*#";
    FILE *fp;
    char buf[64];
    int rawmode = (level & REDIS_LOG_RAW);

    level &= 0xff; /* clear flags */
    if (level < server.verbosity) return;

    fp = (server.logfile == NULL) ? stdout : fopen(server.logfile,"a");
    if (!fp) return;

    if (rawmode) {
        fprintf(fp,"%s",msg);
    } else {
        int off;
        struct timeval tv;

        gettimeofday(&tv,NULL);
        off = strftime(buf,sizeof(buf),"%d %b %H:%M:%S.",localtime(&tv.tv_sec));
        snprintf(buf+off,sizeof(buf)-off,"%03d",(int)tv.tv_usec/1000);
        fprintf(fp,"[%d] %s %c %s\n",(int)getpid(),buf,c[level],msg);
    }
    fflush(fp);

    if (server.logfile) fclose(fp);

    if (server.syslog_enabled) syslog(syslogLevelMap[level], "%s", msg);
}

/* Like redisLogRaw() but with printf-alike support. This is the funciton that
 * is used across the code. The raw version is only used in order to dump
 * the INFO output on crash. */
void redisLog(int level, const char *fmt, ...) {
    va_list ap;
    char msg[REDIS_MAX_LOGMSG_LEN];

    if ((level&0xff) < server.verbosity) return;

    va_start(ap, fmt);
    vsnprintf(msg, sizeof(msg), fmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);

    redisLogRaw(level,msg);
}

/* Log a fixed message without printf-alike capabilities, in a way that is
 * safe to call from a signal handler.
 *
 * We actually use this only for signals that are not fatal from the point
 * of view of Redis. Signals that are going to kill the server anyway and
 * where we need printf-alike features are served by redisLog(). */
void redisLogFromHandler(int level, const char *msg) {
    int fd;
    char buf[64];

    if ((level&0xff) < server.verbosity ||
        (server.logfile == NULL && server.daemonize)) return;
    fd = server.logfile ?
        open(server.logfile, O_APPEND|O_CREAT|O_WRONLY, 0644) :
        STDOUT_FILENO;
    if (fd == -1) return;
    ll2string(buf,sizeof(buf),getpid());
    if (write(fd,"[",1) == -1) goto err;
    if (write(fd,buf,strlen(buf)) == -1) goto err;
    if (write(fd," | signal handler] (",20) == -1) goto err;
    ll2string(buf,sizeof(buf),time(NULL));
    if (write(fd,buf,strlen(buf)) == -1) goto err;
    if (write(fd,") ",2) == -1) goto err;
    if (write(fd,msg,strlen(msg)) == -1) goto err;
    if (write(fd,"\n",1) == -1) goto err;
err:
    if (server.logfile) close(fd);
}

/* Return the UNIX time in microseconds */
long long ustime(void) {
    struct timeval tv;
    long long ust;

    gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
    ust = ((long long)tv.tv_sec)*1000000;
    ust += tv.tv_usec;
    return ust;
}

/* Return the UNIX time in milliseconds */
long long mstime(void) {
    return ustime()/1000;
}

/* After an RDB dump or AOF rewrite we exit from children using _exit() instead of
 * exit(), because the latter may interact with the same file objects used by
 * the parent process. However if we are testing the coverage normal exit() is
 * used in order to obtain the right coverage information. */
void exitFromChild(int retcode) {
#ifdef COVERAGE_TEST
    exit(retcode);
#else
    _exit(retcode);
#endif
}

/*====================== Hash table type implementation  ==================== */

/* This is an hash table type that uses the SDS dynamic strings libary as
 * keys and radis objects as values (objects can hold SDS strings,
 * lists, sets). */

void dictVanillaFree(void *privdata, void *val)
{
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);
    zfree(val);
}

void dictListDestructor(void *privdata, void *val)
{
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);
    listRelease((list*)val);
}

int dictSdsKeyCompare(void *privdata, const void *key1,
        const void *key2)
{
    int l1,l2;
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);

    l1 = sdslen((sds)key1);
    l2 = sdslen((sds)key2);
    if (l1 != l2) return 0;
    return memcmp(key1, key2, l1) == 0;
}

/* A case insensitive version used for the command lookup table. */
int dictSdsKeyCaseCompare(void *privdata, const void *key1,
        const void *key2)
{
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);

    return strcasecmp(key1, key2) == 0;
}

void dictRedisObjectDestructor(void *privdata, void *val)
{
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);

    if (val == NULL) return; /* Values of swapped out keys as set to NULL */
    decrRefCount(val);
}

void dictSdsDestructor(void *privdata, void *val)
{
    DICT_NOTUSED(privdata);

    sdsfree(val);
}

int dictObjKeyCompare(void *privdata, const void *key1,
        const void *key2)
{
    const robj *o1 = key1, *o2 = key2;
    return dictSdsKeyCompare(privdata,o1->ptr,o2->ptr);
}

unsigned int dictObjHash(const void *key) {
    const robj *o = key;
    return dictGenHashFunction(o->ptr, sdslen((sds)o->ptr));
}

unsigned int dictSdsHash(const void *key) {
    return dictGenHashFunction((unsigned char*)key, sdslen((char*)key));
}

unsigned int dictSdsCaseHash(const void *key) {
    return dictGenCaseHashFunction((unsigned char*)key, sdslen((char*)key));
}

int dictEncObjKeyCompare(void *privdata, const void *key1,
        const void *key2)
{
    robj *o1 = (robj*) key1, *o2 = (robj*) key2;
    int cmp;

    if (o1->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INT &&
        o2->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INT)
            return o1->ptr == o2->ptr;

    o1 = getDecodedObject(o1);
    o2 = getDecodedObject(o2);
    cmp = dictSdsKeyCompare(privdata,o1->ptr,o2->ptr);
    decrRefCount(o1);
    decrRefCount(o2);
    return cmp;
}

unsigned int dictEncObjHash(const void *key) {
    robj *o = (robj*) key;

    if (o->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_RAW) {
        return dictGenHashFunction(o->ptr, sdslen((sds)o->ptr));
    } else {
        if (o->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INT) {
            char buf[32];
            int len;

            len = ll2string(buf,32,(long)o->ptr);
            return dictGenHashFunction((unsigned char*)buf, len);
        } else {
            unsigned int hash;

            o = getDecodedObject(o);
            hash = dictGenHashFunction(o->ptr, sdslen((sds)o->ptr));
            decrRefCount(o);
            return hash;
        }
    }
}

/* Sets type hash table */
dictType setDictType = {
    dictEncObjHash,            /* hash function */
    NULL,                      /* key dup */
    NULL,                      /* val dup */
    dictEncObjKeyCompare,      /* key compare */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor, /* key destructor */
    NULL                       /* val destructor */
};

/* Sorted sets hash (note: a skiplist is used in addition to the hash table) */
dictType zsetDictType = {
    dictEncObjHash,            /* hash function */
    NULL,                      /* key dup */
    NULL,                      /* val dup */
    dictEncObjKeyCompare,      /* key compare */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor, /* key destructor */
    NULL                       /* val destructor */
};

/* Db->dict, keys are sds strings, vals are Redis objects. */
dictType dbDictType = {
    dictSdsHash,                /* hash function */
    NULL,                       /* key dup */
    NULL,                       /* val dup */
    dictSdsKeyCompare,          /* key compare */
    dictSdsDestructor,          /* key destructor */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor   /* val destructor */
};

/* Db->expires */
dictType keyptrDictType = {
    dictSdsHash,               /* hash function */
    NULL,                      /* key dup */
    NULL,                      /* val dup */
    dictSdsKeyCompare,         /* key compare */
    NULL,                      /* key destructor */
    NULL                       /* val destructor */
};

/* Command table. sds string -> command struct pointer. */
dictType commandTableDictType = {
    dictSdsCaseHash,           /* hash function */
    NULL,                      /* key dup */
    NULL,                      /* val dup */
    dictSdsKeyCaseCompare,     /* key compare */
    dictSdsDestructor,         /* key destructor */
    NULL                       /* val destructor */
};

/* Hash type hash table (note that small hashes are represented with zimpaps) */
dictType hashDictType = {
    dictEncObjHash,             /* hash function */
    NULL,                       /* key dup */
    NULL,                       /* val dup */
    dictEncObjKeyCompare,       /* key compare */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor,  /* key destructor */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor   /* val destructor */
};

/* Keylist hash table type has unencoded redis objects as keys and
 * lists as values. It's used for blocking operations (BLPOP) and to
 * map swapped keys to a list of clients waiting for this keys to be loaded. */
dictType keylistDictType = {
    dictObjHash,                /* hash function */
    NULL,                       /* key dup */
    NULL,                       /* val dup */
    dictObjKeyCompare,          /* key compare */
    dictRedisObjectDestructor,  /* key destructor */
    dictListDestructor          /* val destructor */
};

/* Cluster nodes hash table, mapping nodes addresses 1.2.3.4:6379 to
 * clusterNode structures. */
dictType clusterNodesDictType = {
    dictSdsHash,                /* hash function */
    NULL,                       /* key dup */
    NULL,                       /* val dup */
    dictSdsKeyCompare,          /* key compare */
    dictSdsDestructor,          /* key destructor */
    NULL                        /* val destructor */
};

/* Migrate cache dict type. */
dictType migrateCacheDictType = {
    dictSdsHash,                /* hash function */
    NULL,                       /* key dup */
    NULL,                       /* val dup */
    dictSdsKeyCompare,          /* key compare */
    dictSdsDestructor,          /* key destructor */
    NULL                        /* val destructor */
};

int htNeedsResize(dict *dict) {
    long long size, used;

    size = dictSlots(dict);
    used = dictSize(dict);
    return (size && used && size > DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE &&
            (used*100/size < REDIS_HT_MINFILL));
}

/* If the percentage of used slots in the HT reaches REDIS_HT_MINFILL
 * we resize the hash table to save memory */
void tryResizeHashTables(void) {
    int j;

    for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
        if (htNeedsResize(server.db[j].dict))
            dictResize(server.db[j].dict);
        if (htNeedsResize(server.db[j].expires))
            dictResize(server.db[j].expires);
    }
}

/* Our hash table implementation performs rehashing incrementally while
 * we write/read from the hash table. Still if the server is idle, the hash
 * table will use two tables for a long time. So we try to use 1 millisecond
 * of CPU time at every serverCron() loop in order to rehash some key. */
void incrementallyRehash(void) {
    int j;

    for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
        /* Keys dictionary */
        if (dictIsRehashing(server.db[j].dict)) {
            dictRehashMilliseconds(server.db[j].dict,1);
            break; /* already used our millisecond for this loop... */
        }
        /* Expires */
        if (dictIsRehashing(server.db[j].expires)) {
            dictRehashMilliseconds(server.db[j].expires,1);
            break; /* already used our millisecond for this loop... */
        }
    }
}

/* This function is called once a background process of some kind terminates,
 * as we want to avoid resizing the hash tables when there is a child in order
 * to play well with copy-on-write (otherwise when a resize happens lots of
 * memory pages are copied). The goal of this function is to update the ability
 * for dict.c to resize the hash tables accordingly to the fact we have o not
 * running childs. */
void updateDictResizePolicy(void) {
    if (server.rdb_child_pid == -1 && server.aof_child_pid == -1)
        dictEnableResize();
    else
        dictDisableResize();
}

/* ======================= Cron: called every 100 ms ======================== */

/* Try to expire a few timed out keys. The algorithm used is adaptive and
 * will use few CPU cycles if there are few expiring keys, otherwise
 * it will get more aggressive to avoid that too much memory is used by
 * keys that can be removed from the keyspace. */
void activeExpireCycle(void) {
    int j, iteration = 0;
    long long start = ustime(), timelimit;

    /* We can use at max REDIS_EXPIRELOOKUPS_TIME_PERC percentage of CPU time
     * per iteration. Since this function gets called with a frequency of
     * REDIS_HZ times per second, the following is the max amount of
     * microseconds we can spend in this function. */
    timelimit = 1000000*REDIS_EXPIRELOOKUPS_TIME_PERC/REDIS_HZ/100;
    if (timelimit <= 0) timelimit = 1;

    for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
        int expired;
        redisDb *db = server.db+j;

        /* Continue to expire if at the end of the cycle more than 25%
         * of the keys were expired. */
        do {
            unsigned long num = dictSize(db->expires);
            unsigned long slots = dictSlots(db->expires);
            long long now = mstime();

            /* When there are less than 1% filled slots getting random
             * keys is expensive, so stop here waiting for better times...
             * The dictionary will be resized asap. */
            if (num && slots > DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE &&
                (num*100/slots < 1)) break;

            /* The main collection cycle. Sample random keys among keys
             * with an expire set, checking for expired ones. */
            expired = 0;
            if (num > REDIS_EXPIRELOOKUPS_PER_CRON)
                num = REDIS_EXPIRELOOKUPS_PER_CRON;
            while (num--) {
                dictEntry *de;
                long long t;

                if ((de = dictGetRandomKey(db->expires)) == NULL) break;
                t = dictGetSignedIntegerVal(de);
                if (now > t) {
                    sds key = dictGetKey(de);
                    robj *keyobj = createStringObject(key,sdslen(key));

                    propagateExpire(db,keyobj);
                    dbDelete(db,keyobj);
                    decrRefCount(keyobj);
                    expired++;
                    server.stat_expiredkeys++;
                }
            }
            /* We can't block forever here even if there are many keys to
             * expire. So after a given amount of milliseconds return to the
             * caller waiting for the other active expire cycle. */
            iteration++;
            if ((iteration & 0xf) == 0 && /* check once every 16 cycles. */
                (ustime()-start) > timelimit) return;
        } while (expired > REDIS_EXPIRELOOKUPS_PER_CRON/4);
    }
}

void updateLRUClock(void) {
    server.lruclock = (server.unixtime/REDIS_LRU_CLOCK_RESOLUTION) &
                                                REDIS_LRU_CLOCK_MAX;
}


/* Add a sample to the operations per second array of samples. */
void trackOperationsPerSecond(void) {
    long long t = mstime() - server.ops_sec_last_sample_time;
    long long ops = server.stat_numcommands - server.ops_sec_last_sample_ops;
    long long ops_sec;

    ops_sec = t > 0 ? (ops*1000/t) : 0;

    server.ops_sec_samples[server.ops_sec_idx] = ops_sec;
    server.ops_sec_idx = (server.ops_sec_idx+1) % REDIS_OPS_SEC_SAMPLES;
    server.ops_sec_last_sample_time = mstime();
    server.ops_sec_last_sample_ops = server.stat_numcommands;
}

/* Return the mean of all the samples. */
long long getOperationsPerSecond(void) {
    int j;
    long long sum = 0;

    for (j = 0; j < REDIS_OPS_SEC_SAMPLES; j++)
        sum += server.ops_sec_samples[j];
    return sum / REDIS_OPS_SEC_SAMPLES;
}

/* Check for timeouts. Returns non-zero if the client was terminated */
int clientsCronHandleTimeout(redisClient *c) {
    time_t now = server.unixtime;

    if (server.maxidletime &&
        !(c->flags & REDIS_SLAVE) &&    /* no timeout for slaves */
        !(c->flags & REDIS_MASTER) &&   /* no timeout for masters */
        !(c->flags & REDIS_BLOCKED) &&  /* no timeout for BLPOP */
        dictSize(c->pubsub_channels) == 0 && /* no timeout for pubsub */
        listLength(c->pubsub_patterns) == 0 &&
        (now - c->lastinteraction > server.maxidletime))
    {
        redisLog(REDIS_VERBOSE,"Closing idle client");
        freeClient(c);
        return 1;
    } else if (c->flags & REDIS_BLOCKED) {
        if (c->bpop.timeout != 0 && c->bpop.timeout < now) {
            addReply(c,shared.nullmultibulk);
            unblockClientWaitingData(c);
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

/* The client query buffer is an sds.c string that can end with a lot of
 * free space not used, this function reclaims space if needed.
 *
 * The funciton always returns 0 as it never terminates the client. */
int clientsCronResizeQueryBuffer(redisClient *c) {
    size_t querybuf_size = sdsAllocSize(c->querybuf);
    time_t idletime = server.unixtime - c->lastinteraction;

    /* There are two conditions to resize the query buffer:
     * 1) Query buffer is > BIG_ARG and too big for latest peak.
     * 2) Client is inactive and the buffer is bigger than 1k. */
    if (((querybuf_size > REDIS_MBULK_BIG_ARG) &&
         (querybuf_size/(c->querybuf_peak+1)) > 2) ||
         (querybuf_size > 1024 && idletime > 2))
    {
        /* Only resize the query buffer if it is actually wasting space. */
        if (sdsavail(c->querybuf) > 1024) {
            c->querybuf = sdsRemoveFreeSpace(c->querybuf);
        }
    }
    /* Reset the peak again to capture the peak memory usage in the next
     * cycle. */
    c->querybuf_peak = 0;
    return 0;
}

void clientsCron(void) {
    /* Make sure to process at least 1/(REDIS_HZ*10) of clients per call.
     * Since this function is called REDIS_HZ times per second we are sure that
     * in the worst case we process all the clients in 10 seconds.
     * In normal conditions (a reasonable number of clients) we process
     * all the clients in a shorter time. */
    int numclients = listLength(server.clients);
    int iterations = numclients/(REDIS_HZ*10);

    if (iterations < 50)
        iterations = (numclients < 50) ? numclients : 50;
    while(listLength(server.clients) && iterations--) {
        redisClient *c;
        listNode *head;

        /* Rotate the list, take the current head, process.
         * This way if the client must be removed from the list it's the
         * first element and we don't incur into O(N) computation. */
        listRotate(server.clients);
        head = listFirst(server.clients);
        c = listNodeValue(head);
        /* The following functions do different service checks on the client.
         * The protocol is that they return non-zero if the client was
         * terminated. */
        if (clientsCronHandleTimeout(c)) continue;
        if (clientsCronResizeQueryBuffer(c)) continue;
    }
}

/* This is our timer interrupt, called REDIS_HZ times per second.
 * Here is where we do a number of things that need to be done asynchronously.
 * For instance:
 *
 * - Active expired keys collection (it is also performed in a lazy way on
 *   lookup).
 * - Software watchdong.
 * - Update some statistic.
 * - Incremental rehashing of the DBs hash tables.
 * - Triggering BGSAVE / AOF rewrite, and handling of terminated children.
 * - Clients timeout of differnet kinds.
 * - Replication reconnection.
 * - Many more...
 *
 * Everything directly called here will be called REDIS_HZ times per second,
 * so in order to throttle execution of things we want to do less frequently
 * a macro is used: run_with_period(milliseconds) { .... }
 */

int serverCron(struct aeEventLoop *eventLoop, long long id, void *clientData) {
    int j;
    REDIS_NOTUSED(eventLoop);
    REDIS_NOTUSED(id);
    REDIS_NOTUSED(clientData);

    /* Software watchdog: deliver the SIGALRM that will reach the signal
     * handler if we don't return here fast enough. */
    if (server.watchdog_period) watchdogScheduleSignal(server.watchdog_period);

    /* We take a cached value of the unix time in the global state because
     * with virtual memory and aging there is to store the current time
     * in objects at every object access, and accuracy is not needed.
     * To access a global var is faster than calling time(NULL) */
    server.unixtime = time(NULL);

    run_with_period(100) trackOperationsPerSecond();

    /* We have just 22 bits per object for LRU information.
     * So we use an (eventually wrapping) LRU clock with 10 seconds resolution.
     * 2^22 bits with 10 seconds resoluton is more or less 1.5 years.
     *
     * Note that even if this will wrap after 1.5 years it's not a problem,
     * everything will still work but just some object will appear younger
     * to Redis. But for this to happen a given object should never be touched
     * for 1.5 years.
     *
     * Note that you can change the resolution altering the
     * REDIS_LRU_CLOCK_RESOLUTION define.
     */
    updateLRUClock();

    /* Record the max memory used since the server was started. */
    if (zmalloc_used_memory() > server.stat_peak_memory)
        server.stat_peak_memory = zmalloc_used_memory();

    /* We received a SIGTERM, shutting down here in a safe way, as it is
     * not ok doing so inside the signal handler. */
    if (server.shutdown_asap) {
        if (prepareForShutdown(0) == REDIS_OK) exit(0);
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"SIGTERM received but errors trying to shut down the server, check the logs for more information");
    }

    /* Show some info about non-empty databases */
    run_with_period(5000) {
        for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
            long long size, used, vkeys;

            size = dictSlots(server.db[j].dict);
            used = dictSize(server.db[j].dict);
            vkeys = dictSize(server.db[j].expires);
            if (used || vkeys) {
                redisLog(REDIS_VERBOSE,"DB %d: %lld keys (%lld volatile) in %lld slots HT.",j,used,vkeys,size);
                /* dictPrintStats(server.dict); */
            }
        }
    }

    /* We don't want to resize the hash tables while a bacground saving
     * is in progress: the saving child is created using fork() that is
     * implemented with a copy-on-write semantic in most modern systems, so
     * if we resize the HT while there is the saving child at work actually
     * a lot of memory movements in the parent will cause a lot of pages
     * copied. */
    if (server.rdb_child_pid == -1 && server.aof_child_pid == -1) {
        tryResizeHashTables();
        if (server.activerehashing) incrementallyRehash();
    }

    /* Show information about connected clients */
    if (!server.sentinel_mode) {
        run_with_period(5000) {
            redisLog(REDIS_VERBOSE,
                "%d clients connected (%d slaves), %zu bytes in use",
                listLength(server.clients)-listLength(server.slaves),
                listLength(server.slaves),
                zmalloc_used_memory());
        }
    }

    /* We need to do a few operations on clients asynchronously. */
    clientsCron();

    /* Start a scheduled AOF rewrite if this was requested by the user while
     * a BGSAVE was in progress. */
    if (server.rdb_child_pid == -1 && server.aof_child_pid == -1 &&
        server.aof_rewrite_scheduled)
    {
        rewriteAppendOnlyFileBackground();
    }

    /* Check if a background saving or AOF rewrite in progress terminated. */
    if (server.rdb_child_pid != -1 || server.aof_child_pid != -1) {
        int statloc;
        pid_t pid;

        if ((pid = wait3(&statloc,WNOHANG,NULL)) != 0) {
            int exitcode = WEXITSTATUS(statloc);
            int bysignal = 0;
            
            if (WIFSIGNALED(statloc)) bysignal = WTERMSIG(statloc);

            if (pid == server.rdb_child_pid) {
                backgroundSaveDoneHandler(exitcode,bysignal);
            } else if (pid == server.aof_child_pid) {
                backgroundRewriteDoneHandler(exitcode,bysignal);
            } else {
                redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,
                    "Warning, detected child with unmatched pid: %ld",
                    (long)pid);
            }
            updateDictResizePolicy();
        }
    } else {
        /* If there is not a background saving/rewrite in progress check if
         * we have to save/rewrite now */
         for (j = 0; j < server.saveparamslen; j++) {
            struct saveparam *sp = server.saveparams+j;

            if (server.dirty >= sp->changes &&
                server.unixtime-server.lastsave > sp->seconds) {
                redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"%d changes in %d seconds. Saving...",
                    sp->changes, sp->seconds);
                rdbSaveBackground(server.rdb_filename);
                break;
            }
         }

         /* Trigger an AOF rewrite if needed */
         if (server.rdb_child_pid == -1 &&
             server.aof_child_pid == -1 &&
             server.aof_rewrite_perc &&
             server.aof_current_size > server.aof_rewrite_min_size)
         {
            long long base = server.aof_rewrite_base_size ?
                            server.aof_rewrite_base_size : 1;
            long long growth = (server.aof_current_size*100/base) - 100;
            if (growth >= server.aof_rewrite_perc) {
                redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Starting automatic rewriting of AOF on %lld%% growth",growth);
                rewriteAppendOnlyFileBackground();
            }
         }
    }


    /* If we postponed an AOF buffer flush, let's try to do it every time the
     * cron function is called. */
    if (server.aof_flush_postponed_start) flushAppendOnlyFile(0);

    /* Expire a few keys per cycle, only if this is a master.
     * On slaves we wait for DEL operations synthesized by the master
     * in order to guarantee a strict consistency. */
    if (server.masterhost == NULL) activeExpireCycle();

    /* Close clients that need to be closed asynchronous */
    freeClientsInAsyncFreeQueue();

    /* Replication cron function -- used to reconnect to master and
     * to detect transfer failures. */
    run_with_period(1000) replicationCron();

    /* Run the Redis Cluster cron. */
    run_with_period(1000) {
        if (server.cluster_enabled) clusterCron();
    }

    /* Run the Sentinel timer if we are in sentinel mode. */
    run_with_period(100) {
        if (server.sentinel_mode) sentinelTimer();
    }

    /* Cleanup expired MIGRATE cached sockets. */
    run_with_period(1000) {
        migrateCloseTimedoutSockets();
    }

    server.cronloops++;
    return 1000/REDIS_HZ;
}

/* This function gets called every time Redis is entering the
 * main loop of the event driven library, that is, before to sleep
 * for ready file descriptors. */
void beforeSleep(struct aeEventLoop *eventLoop) {
    REDIS_NOTUSED(eventLoop);
    listNode *ln;
    redisClient *c;

    /* Try to process pending commands for clients that were just unblocked. */
    while (listLength(server.unblocked_clients)) {
        ln = listFirst(server.unblocked_clients);
        redisAssert(ln != NULL);
        c = ln->value;
        listDelNode(server.unblocked_clients,ln);
        c->flags &= ~REDIS_UNBLOCKED;

        /* Process remaining data in the input buffer. */
        if (c->querybuf && sdslen(c->querybuf) > 0) {
            server.current_client = c;
            processInputBuffer(c);
            server.current_client = NULL;
        }
    }

    /* Write the AOF buffer on disk */
    flushAppendOnlyFile(0);
}

/* =========================== Server initialization ======================== */

void createSharedObjects(void) {
    int j;

    shared.crlf = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("\r\n"));
    shared.ok = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("+OK\r\n"));
    shared.err = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("-ERR\r\n"));
    shared.emptybulk = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("$0\r\n\r\n"));
    shared.czero = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(":0\r\n"));
    shared.cone = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(":1\r\n"));
    shared.cnegone = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(":-1\r\n"));
    shared.nullbulk = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("$-1\r\n"));
    shared.nullmultibulk = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("*-1\r\n"));
    shared.emptymultibulk = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("*0\r\n"));
    shared.pong = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("+PONG\r\n"));
    shared.queued = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("+QUEUED\r\n"));
    shared.wrongtypeerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-WRONGTYPE Operation against a key holding the wrong kind of value\r\n"));
    shared.nokeyerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-ERR no such key\r\n"));
    shared.syntaxerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-ERR syntax error\r\n"));
    shared.sameobjecterr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-ERR source and destination objects are the same\r\n"));
    shared.outofrangeerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-ERR index out of range\r\n"));
    shared.noscripterr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-NOSCRIPT No matching script. Please use EVAL.\r\n"));
    shared.loadingerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-LOADING Redis is loading the dataset in memory\r\n"));
    shared.slowscripterr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-BUSY Redis is busy running a script. You can only call SCRIPT KILL or SHUTDOWN NOSAVE.\r\n"));
    shared.masterdownerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-MASTERDOWN Link with MASTER is down and slave-serve-stale-data is set to 'no'.\r\n"));
    shared.bgsaveerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-MISCONF Redis is configured to save RDB snapshots, but is currently not able to persist on disk. Commands that may modify the data set are disabled. Please check Redis logs for details about the error.\r\n"));
    shared.roslaveerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-READONLY You can't write against a read only slave.\r\n"));
    shared.oomerr = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(
        "-OOM command not allowed when used memory > 'maxmemory'.\r\n"));
    shared.space = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(" "));
    shared.colon = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew(":"));
    shared.plus = createObject(REDIS_STRING,sdsnew("+"));

    for (j = 0; j < REDIS_SHARED_SELECT_CMDS; j++) {
        shared.select[j] = createObject(REDIS_STRING,
            sdscatprintf(sdsempty(),"select %d\r\n", j));
    }
    shared.messagebulk = createStringObject("$7\r\nmessage\r\n",13);
    shared.pmessagebulk = createStringObject("$8\r\npmessage\r\n",14);
    shared.subscribebulk = createStringObject("$9\r\nsubscribe\r\n",15);
    shared.unsubscribebulk = createStringObject("$11\r\nunsubscribe\r\n",18);
    shared.psubscribebulk = createStringObject("$10\r\npsubscribe\r\n",17);
    shared.punsubscribebulk = createStringObject("$12\r\npunsubscribe\r\n",19);
    shared.del = createStringObject("DEL",3);
    shared.rpop = createStringObject("RPOP",4);
    shared.lpop = createStringObject("LPOP",4);
    shared.lpush = createStringObject("LPUSH",5);
    for (j = 0; j < REDIS_SHARED_INTEGERS; j++) {
        shared.integers[j] = createObject(REDIS_STRING,(void*)(long)j);
        shared.integers[j]->encoding = REDIS_ENCODING_INT;
    }
    for (j = 0; j < REDIS_SHARED_BULKHDR_LEN; j++) {
        shared.mbulkhdr[j] = createObject(REDIS_STRING,
            sdscatprintf(sdsempty(),"*%d\r\n",j));
        shared.bulkhdr[j] = createObject(REDIS_STRING,
            sdscatprintf(sdsempty(),"$%d\r\n",j));
    }
}

void initServerConfig() {
    getRandomHexChars(server.runid,REDIS_RUN_ID_SIZE);
    server.runid[REDIS_RUN_ID_SIZE] = '\0';
    server.arch_bits = (sizeof(long) == 8) ? 64 : 32;
    server.port = REDIS_SERVERPORT;
    server.bindaddr = NULL;
    server.unixsocket = NULL;
    server.unixsocketperm = 0;
    server.ipfd = -1;
    server.sofd = -1;
    server.dbnum = REDIS_DEFAULT_DBNUM;
    server.verbosity = REDIS_NOTICE;
    server.maxidletime = REDIS_MAXIDLETIME;
    server.client_max_querybuf_len = REDIS_MAX_QUERYBUF_LEN;
    server.saveparams = NULL;
    server.loading = 0;
    server.logfile = NULL; /* NULL = log on standard output */
    server.syslog_enabled = 0;
    server.syslog_ident = zstrdup("redis");
    server.syslog_facility = LOG_LOCAL0;
    server.daemonize = 0;
    server.aof_state = REDIS_AOF_OFF;
    server.aof_fsync = AOF_FSYNC_EVERYSEC;
    server.aof_no_fsync_on_rewrite = 0;
    server.aof_rewrite_perc = REDIS_AOF_REWRITE_PERC;
    server.aof_rewrite_min_size = REDIS_AOF_REWRITE_MIN_SIZE;
    server.aof_rewrite_base_size = 0;
    server.aof_rewrite_scheduled = 0;
    server.aof_last_fsync = time(NULL);
    server.aof_rewrite_time_last = -1;
    server.aof_rewrite_time_start = -1;
    server.aof_lastbgrewrite_status = REDIS_OK;
    server.aof_delayed_fsync = 0;
    server.aof_fd = -1;
    server.aof_selected_db = -1; /* Make sure the first time will not match */
    server.aof_flush_postponed_start = 0;
    server.pidfile = zstrdup("/var/run/redis.pid");
    server.rdb_filename = zstrdup("dump.rdb");
    server.aof_filename = zstrdup("appendonly.aof");
    server.requirepass = NULL;
    server.rdb_compression = 1;
    server.rdb_checksum = 1;
    server.activerehashing = 1;
    server.maxclients = REDIS_MAX_CLIENTS;
    server.bpop_blocked_clients = 0;
    server.maxmemory = 0;
    server.maxmemory_policy = REDIS_MAXMEMORY_VOLATILE_LRU;
    server.maxmemory_samples = 3;
    server.hash_max_ziplist_entries = REDIS_HASH_MAX_ZIPLIST_ENTRIES;
    server.hash_max_ziplist_value = REDIS_HASH_MAX_ZIPLIST_VALUE;
    server.list_max_ziplist_entries = REDIS_LIST_MAX_ZIPLIST_ENTRIES;
    server.list_max_ziplist_value = REDIS_LIST_MAX_ZIPLIST_VALUE;
    server.set_max_intset_entries = REDIS_SET_MAX_INTSET_ENTRIES;
    server.zset_max_ziplist_entries = REDIS_ZSET_MAX_ZIPLIST_ENTRIES;
    server.zset_max_ziplist_value = REDIS_ZSET_MAX_ZIPLIST_VALUE;
    server.shutdown_asap = 0;
    server.repl_ping_slave_period = REDIS_REPL_PING_SLAVE_PERIOD;
    server.repl_timeout = REDIS_REPL_TIMEOUT;
    server.cluster_enabled = 0;
    server.cluster.configfile = zstrdup("nodes.conf");
    server.lua_caller = NULL;
    server.lua_time_limit = REDIS_LUA_TIME_LIMIT;
    server.lua_client = NULL;
    server.lua_timedout = 0;
    server.migrate_cached_sockets = dictCreate(&migrateCacheDictType,NULL);

    updateLRUClock();
    resetServerSaveParams();

    appendServerSaveParams(60*60,1);  /* save after 1 hour and 1 change */
    appendServerSaveParams(300,100);  /* save after 5 minutes and 100 changes */
    appendServerSaveParams(60,10000); /* save after 1 minute and 10000 changes */
    /* Replication related */
    server.masterauth = NULL;
    server.masterhost = NULL;
    server.masterport = 6379;
    server.master = NULL;
    server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_NONE;
    server.repl_syncio_timeout = REDIS_REPL_SYNCIO_TIMEOUT;
    server.repl_serve_stale_data = 1;
    server.repl_slave_ro = 1;
    server.repl_down_since = time(NULL);
    server.slave_priority = REDIS_DEFAULT_SLAVE_PRIORITY;

    /* Client output buffer limits */
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_NORMAL].hard_limit_bytes = 0;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_NORMAL].soft_limit_bytes = 0;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_NORMAL].soft_limit_seconds = 0;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_SLAVE].hard_limit_bytes = 1024*1024*256;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_SLAVE].soft_limit_bytes = 1024*1024*64;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_SLAVE].soft_limit_seconds = 60;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_PUBSUB].hard_limit_bytes = 1024*1024*32;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_PUBSUB].soft_limit_bytes = 1024*1024*8;
    server.client_obuf_limits[REDIS_CLIENT_LIMIT_CLASS_PUBSUB].soft_limit_seconds = 60;

    /* Double constants initialization */
    R_Zero = 0.0;
    R_PosInf = 1.0/R_Zero;
    R_NegInf = -1.0/R_Zero;
    R_Nan = R_Zero/R_Zero;

    /* Command table -- we intiialize it here as it is part of the
     * initial configuration, since command names may be changed via
     * redis.conf using the rename-command directive. */
    server.commands = dictCreate(&commandTableDictType,NULL);
    populateCommandTable();
    server.delCommand = lookupCommandByCString("del");
    server.multiCommand = lookupCommandByCString("multi");
    server.lpushCommand = lookupCommandByCString("lpush");
    server.lpopCommand = lookupCommandByCString("lpop");
    server.rpopCommand = lookupCommandByCString("rpop");
    
    /* Slow log */
    server.slowlog_log_slower_than = REDIS_SLOWLOG_LOG_SLOWER_THAN;
    server.slowlog_max_len = REDIS_SLOWLOG_MAX_LEN;

    /* Debugging */
    server.assert_failed = "<no assertion failed>";
    server.assert_file = "<no file>";
    server.assert_line = 0;
    server.bug_report_start = 0;
    server.watchdog_period = 0;
}

/* This function will try to raise the max number of open files accordingly to
 * the configured max number of clients. It will also account for 32 additional
 * file descriptors as we need a few more for persistence, listening
 * sockets, log files and so forth.
 *
 * If it will not be possible to set the limit accordingly to the configured
 * max number of clients, the function will do the reverse setting
 * server.maxclients to the value that we can actually handle. */
void adjustOpenFilesLimit(void) {
    rlim_t maxfiles = server.maxclients+32;
    struct rlimit limit;

    if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE,&limit) == -1) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Unable to obtain the current NOFILE limit (%s), assuming 1024 and setting the max clients configuration accordingly.",
            strerror(errno));
        server.maxclients = 1024-32;
    } else {
        rlim_t oldlimit = limit.rlim_cur;

        /* Set the max number of files if the current limit is not enough
         * for our needs. */
        if (oldlimit < maxfiles) {
            rlim_t f;
            
            f = maxfiles;
            while(f > oldlimit) {
                limit.rlim_cur = f;
                limit.rlim_max = f;
                if (setrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE,&limit) != -1) break;
                f -= 128;
            }
            if (f < oldlimit) f = oldlimit;
            if (f != maxfiles) {
                server.maxclients = f-32;
                redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Unable to set the max number of files limit to %d (%s), setting the max clients configuration to %d.",
                    (int) maxfiles, strerror(errno), (int) server.maxclients);
            } else {
                redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Max number of open files set to %d",
                    (int) maxfiles);
            }
        }
    }
}

void initServer() {
    int j;

    signal(SIGHUP, SIG_IGN);
    signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
    setupSignalHandlers();

    if (server.syslog_enabled) {
        openlog(server.syslog_ident, LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY | LOG_NOWAIT,
            server.syslog_facility);
    }

    server.current_client = NULL;
    server.clients = listCreate();
    server.clients_to_close = listCreate();
    server.slaves = listCreate();
    server.monitors = listCreate();
    server.unblocked_clients = listCreate();
    server.ready_keys = listCreate();

    createSharedObjects();
    adjustOpenFilesLimit();
    server.el = aeCreateEventLoop(server.maxclients+1024);
    server.db = zmalloc(sizeof(redisDb)*server.dbnum);

    if (server.port != 0) {
        server.ipfd = anetTcpServer(server.neterr,server.port,server.bindaddr);
        if (server.ipfd == ANET_ERR) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING, "Opening port %d: %s",
                server.port, server.neterr);
            exit(1);
        }
    }
    if (server.unixsocket != NULL) {
        unlink(server.unixsocket); /* don't care if this fails */
        server.sofd = anetUnixServer(server.neterr,server.unixsocket,server.unixsocketperm);
        if (server.sofd == ANET_ERR) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING, "Opening socket: %s", server.neterr);
            exit(1);
        }
    }
    if (server.ipfd < 0 && server.sofd < 0) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING, "Configured to not listen anywhere, exiting.");
        exit(1);
    }
    for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
        server.db[j].dict = dictCreate(&dbDictType,NULL);
        server.db[j].expires = dictCreate(&keyptrDictType,NULL);
        server.db[j].blocking_keys = dictCreate(&keylistDictType,NULL);
        server.db[j].ready_keys = dictCreate(&setDictType,NULL);
        server.db[j].watched_keys = dictCreate(&keylistDictType,NULL);
        server.db[j].id = j;
    }
    server.pubsub_channels = dictCreate(&keylistDictType,NULL);
    server.pubsub_patterns = listCreate();
    listSetFreeMethod(server.pubsub_patterns,freePubsubPattern);
    listSetMatchMethod(server.pubsub_patterns,listMatchPubsubPattern);
    server.cronloops = 0;
    server.rdb_child_pid = -1;
    server.aof_child_pid = -1;
    aofRewriteBufferReset();
    server.aof_buf = sdsempty();
    server.lastsave = time(NULL);
    server.rdb_save_time_last = -1;
    server.rdb_save_time_start = -1;
    server.dirty = 0;
    server.stat_numcommands = 0;
    server.stat_numconnections = 0;
    server.stat_expiredkeys = 0;
    server.stat_evictedkeys = 0;
    server.stat_starttime = time(NULL);
    server.stat_keyspace_misses = 0;
    server.stat_keyspace_hits = 0;
    server.stat_peak_memory = 0;
    server.stat_fork_time = 0;
    server.stat_rejected_conn = 0;
    memset(server.ops_sec_samples,0,sizeof(server.ops_sec_samples));
    server.ops_sec_idx = 0;
    server.ops_sec_last_sample_time = mstime();
    server.ops_sec_last_sample_ops = 0;
    server.unixtime = time(NULL);
    server.lastbgsave_status = REDIS_OK;
    server.stop_writes_on_bgsave_err = 1;
    aeCreateTimeEvent(server.el, 1, serverCron, NULL, NULL);
    if (server.ipfd > 0 && aeCreateFileEvent(server.el,server.ipfd,AE_READABLE,
        acceptTcpHandler,NULL) == AE_ERR) redisPanic("Unrecoverable error creating server.ipfd file event.");
    if (server.sofd > 0 && aeCreateFileEvent(server.el,server.sofd,AE_READABLE,
        acceptUnixHandler,NULL) == AE_ERR) redisPanic("Unrecoverable error creating server.sofd file event.");

    if (server.aof_state == REDIS_AOF_ON) {
        server.aof_fd = open(server.aof_filename,
                               O_WRONLY|O_APPEND|O_CREAT,0644);
        if (server.aof_fd == -1) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING, "Can't open the append-only file: %s",
                strerror(errno));
            exit(1);
        }
    }

    /* 32 bit instances are limited to 4GB of address space, so if there is
     * no explicit limit in the user provided configuration we set a limit
     * at 3 GB using maxmemory with 'noeviction' policy'. This avoids
     * useless crashes of the Redis instance for out of memory. */
    if (server.arch_bits == 32 && server.maxmemory == 0) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Warning: 32 bit instance detected but no memory limit set. Setting 3 GB maxmemory limit with 'noeviction' policy now.");
        server.maxmemory = 3072LL*(1024*1024); /* 3 GB */
        server.maxmemory_policy = REDIS_MAXMEMORY_NO_EVICTION;
    }

    if (server.cluster_enabled) clusterInit();
    scriptingInit();
    slowlogInit();
    bioInit();
}

/* Populates the Redis Command Table starting from the hard coded list
 * we have on top of redis.c file. */
void populateCommandTable(void) {
    int j;
    int numcommands = sizeof(redisCommandTable)/sizeof(struct redisCommand);

    for (j = 0; j < numcommands; j++) {
        struct redisCommand *c = redisCommandTable+j;
        char *f = c->sflags;
        int retval;

        while(*f != '\0') {
            switch(*f) {
            case 'w': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_WRITE; break;
            case 'r': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_READONLY; break;
            case 'm': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_DENYOOM; break;
            case 'a': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_ADMIN; break;
            case 'p': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_PUBSUB; break;
            case 'f': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_FORCE_REPLICATION; break;
            case 's': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_NOSCRIPT; break;
            case 'R': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_RANDOM; break;
            case 'S': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_SORT_FOR_SCRIPT; break;
            case 'l': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_LOADING; break;
            case 't': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_STALE; break;
            case 'M': c->flags |= REDIS_CMD_SKIP_MONITOR; break;
            default: redisPanic("Unsupported command flag"); break;
            }
            f++;
        }

        retval = dictAdd(server.commands, sdsnew(c->name), c);
        assert(retval == DICT_OK);
    }
}

void resetCommandTableStats(void) {
    int numcommands = sizeof(redisCommandTable)/sizeof(struct redisCommand);
    int j;

    for (j = 0; j < numcommands; j++) {
        struct redisCommand *c = redisCommandTable+j;

        c->microseconds = 0;
        c->calls = 0;
    }
}

/* ========================== Redis OP Array API ============================ */

void redisOpArrayInit(redisOpArray *oa) {
    oa->ops = NULL;
    oa->numops = 0;
}

int redisOpArrayAppend(redisOpArray *oa, struct redisCommand *cmd, int dbid,
                       robj **argv, int argc, int target)
{
    redisOp *op;

    oa->ops = zrealloc(oa->ops,sizeof(redisOp)*(oa->numops+1));
    op = oa->ops+oa->numops;
    op->cmd = cmd;
    op->dbid = dbid;
    op->argv = argv;
    op->argc = argc;
    op->target = target;
    oa->numops++;
    return oa->numops;
}

void redisOpArrayFree(redisOpArray *oa) {
    while(oa->numops) {
        int j;
        redisOp *op;

        oa->numops--;
        op = oa->ops+oa->numops;
        for (j = 0; j < op->argc; j++)
            decrRefCount(op->argv[j]);
        zfree(op->argv);
    }
    zfree(oa->ops);
}

/* ====================== Commands lookup and execution ===================== */

struct redisCommand *lookupCommand(sds name) {
    return dictFetchValue(server.commands, name);
}

struct redisCommand *lookupCommandByCString(char *s) {
    struct redisCommand *cmd;
    sds name = sdsnew(s);

    cmd = dictFetchValue(server.commands, name);
    sdsfree(name);
    return cmd;
}

/* Propagate the specified command (in the context of the specified database id)
 * to AOF and Slaves.
 *
 * flags are an xor between:
 * + REDIS_PROPAGATE_NONE (no propagation of command at all)
 * + REDIS_PROPAGATE_AOF (propagate into the AOF file if is enabled)
 * + REDIS_PROPAGATE_REPL (propagate into the replication link)
 */
void propagate(struct redisCommand *cmd, int dbid, robj **argv, int argc,
               int flags)
{
    if (server.aof_state != REDIS_AOF_OFF && flags & REDIS_PROPAGATE_AOF)
        feedAppendOnlyFile(cmd,dbid,argv,argc);
    if (flags & REDIS_PROPAGATE_REPL && listLength(server.slaves))
        replicationFeedSlaves(server.slaves,dbid,argv,argc);
}

/* Used inside commands to schedule the propagation of additional commands
 * after the current command is propagated to AOF / Replication. */
void alsoPropagate(struct redisCommand *cmd, int dbid, robj **argv, int argc,
                   int target)
{
    redisOpArrayAppend(&server.also_propagate,cmd,dbid,argv,argc,target);
}

/* Call() is the core of Redis execution of a command */
void call(redisClient *c, int flags) {
    long long dirty, start = ustime(), duration;

    /* Sent the command to clients in MONITOR mode, only if the commands are
     * not geneated from reading an AOF. */
    if (listLength(server.monitors) &&
        !server.loading &&
        !(c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_SKIP_MONITOR))
    {
        replicationFeedMonitors(c,server.monitors,c->db->id,c->argv,c->argc);
    }

    /* Call the command. */
    redisOpArrayInit(&server.also_propagate);
    dirty = server.dirty;
    c->cmd->proc(c);
    dirty = server.dirty-dirty;
    duration = ustime()-start;

    /* When EVAL is called loading the AOF we don't want commands called
     * from Lua to go into the slowlog or to populate statistics. */
    if (server.loading && c->flags & REDIS_LUA_CLIENT)
        flags &= ~(REDIS_CALL_SLOWLOG | REDIS_CALL_STATS);

    /* Log the command into the Slow log if needed, and populate the
     * per-command statistics that we show in INFO commandstats. */
    if (flags & REDIS_CALL_SLOWLOG)
        slowlogPushEntryIfNeeded(c->argv,c->argc,duration);
    if (flags & REDIS_CALL_STATS) {
        c->cmd->microseconds += duration;
        c->cmd->calls++;
    }

    /* Propagate the command into the AOF and replication link */
    if (flags & REDIS_CALL_PROPAGATE) {
        int flags = REDIS_PROPAGATE_NONE;

        if (c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_FORCE_REPLICATION)
            flags |= REDIS_PROPAGATE_REPL;
        if (dirty)
            flags |= (REDIS_PROPAGATE_REPL | REDIS_PROPAGATE_AOF);
        if (flags != REDIS_PROPAGATE_NONE)
            propagate(c->cmd,c->db->id,c->argv,c->argc,flags);
    }
    /* Commands such as LPUSH or BRPOPLPUSH may propagate an additional
     * PUSH command. */
    if (server.also_propagate.numops) {
        int j;
        redisOp *rop;

        for (j = 0; j < server.also_propagate.numops; j++) {
            rop = &server.also_propagate.ops[j];
            propagate(rop->cmd, rop->dbid, rop->argv, rop->argc, rop->target);
        }
        redisOpArrayFree(&server.also_propagate);
    }
    server.stat_numcommands++;
}

/* If this function gets called we already read a whole
 * command, arguments are in the client argv/argc fields.
 * processCommand() execute the command or prepare the
 * server for a bulk read from the client.
 *
 * If 1 is returned the client is still alive and valid and
 * and other operations can be performed by the caller. Otherwise
 * if 0 is returned the client was destroied (i.e. after QUIT). */
int processCommand(redisClient *c) {
    /* The QUIT command is handled separately. Normal command procs will
     * go through checking for replication and QUIT will cause trouble
     * when FORCE_REPLICATION is enabled and would be implemented in
     * a regular command proc. */
    if (!strcasecmp(c->argv[0]->ptr,"quit")) {
        addReply(c,shared.ok);
        c->flags |= REDIS_CLOSE_AFTER_REPLY;
        return REDIS_ERR;
    }

    /* Now lookup the command and check ASAP about trivial error conditions
     * such as wrong arity, bad command name and so forth. */
    c->cmd = c->lastcmd = lookupCommand(c->argv[0]->ptr);
    if (!c->cmd) {
        addReplyErrorFormat(c,"unknown command '%s'",
            (char*)c->argv[0]->ptr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    } else if ((c->cmd->arity > 0 && c->cmd->arity != c->argc) ||
               (c->argc < -c->cmd->arity)) {
        addReplyErrorFormat(c,"wrong number of arguments for '%s' command",
            c->cmd->name);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Check if the user is authenticated */
    if (server.requirepass && !c->authenticated && c->cmd->proc != authCommand)
    {
        addReplyError(c,"operation not permitted");
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* If cluster is enabled, redirect here */
    if (server.cluster_enabled &&
                !(c->cmd->getkeys_proc == NULL && c->cmd->firstkey == 0)) {
        int hashslot;

        if (server.cluster.state != REDIS_CLUSTER_OK) {
            addReplyError(c,"The cluster is down. Check with CLUSTER INFO for more information");
            return REDIS_OK;
        } else {
            int ask;
            clusterNode *n = getNodeByQuery(c,c->cmd,c->argv,c->argc,&hashslot,&ask);
            if (n == NULL) {
                addReplyError(c,"Multi keys request invalid in cluster");
                return REDIS_OK;
            } else if (n != server.cluster.myself) {
                addReplySds(c,sdscatprintf(sdsempty(),
                    "-%s %d %s:%d\r\n", ask ? "ASK" : "MOVED",
                    hashslot,n->ip,n->port));
                return REDIS_OK;
            }
        }
    }

    /* Handle the maxmemory directive.
     *
     * First we try to free some memory if possible (if there are volatile
     * keys in the dataset). If there are not the only thing we can do
     * is returning an error. */
    if (server.maxmemory) {
        int retval = freeMemoryIfNeeded();
        if ((c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_DENYOOM) && retval == REDIS_ERR) {
            addReply(c, shared.oomerr);
            return REDIS_OK;
        }
    }

    /* Don't accept write commands if there are problems persisting on disk. */
    if (server.stop_writes_on_bgsave_err &&
        server.saveparamslen > 0
        && server.lastbgsave_status == REDIS_ERR &&
        c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_WRITE)
    {
        addReply(c, shared.bgsaveerr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Don't accept write commands if this is a read only slave. But
     * accept write commands if this is our master. */
    if (server.masterhost && server.repl_slave_ro &&
        !(c->flags & REDIS_MASTER) &&
        c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_WRITE)
    {
        addReply(c, shared.roslaveerr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Only allow SUBSCRIBE and UNSUBSCRIBE in the context of Pub/Sub */
    if ((dictSize(c->pubsub_channels) > 0 || listLength(c->pubsub_patterns) > 0)
        &&
        c->cmd->proc != subscribeCommand &&
        c->cmd->proc != unsubscribeCommand &&
        c->cmd->proc != psubscribeCommand &&
        c->cmd->proc != punsubscribeCommand) {
        addReplyError(c,"only (P)SUBSCRIBE / (P)UNSUBSCRIBE / QUIT allowed in this context");
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Only allow INFO and SLAVEOF when slave-serve-stale-data is no and
     * we are a slave with a broken link with master. */
    if (server.masterhost && server.repl_state != REDIS_REPL_CONNECTED &&
        server.repl_serve_stale_data == 0 &&
        !(c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_STALE))
    {
        addReply(c, shared.masterdownerr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Loading DB? Return an error if the command has not the
     * REDIS_CMD_LOADING flag. */
    if (server.loading && !(c->cmd->flags & REDIS_CMD_LOADING)) {
        addReply(c, shared.loadingerr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Lua script too slow? Only allow commands with REDIS_CMD_STALE flag. */
    if (server.lua_timedout &&
          c->cmd->proc != authCommand &&
        !(c->cmd->proc == shutdownCommand &&
          c->argc == 2 &&
          tolower(((char*)c->argv[1]->ptr)[0]) == 'n') &&
        !(c->cmd->proc == scriptCommand &&
          c->argc == 2 &&
          tolower(((char*)c->argv[1]->ptr)[0]) == 'k'))
    {
        addReply(c, shared.slowscripterr);
        return REDIS_OK;
    }

    /* Exec the command */
    if (c->flags & REDIS_MULTI &&
        c->cmd->proc != execCommand && c->cmd->proc != discardCommand &&
        c->cmd->proc != multiCommand && c->cmd->proc != watchCommand)
    {
        queueMultiCommand(c);
        addReply(c,shared.queued);
    } else {
        call(c,REDIS_CALL_FULL);
        if (listLength(server.ready_keys))
            handleClientsBlockedOnLists();
    }
    return REDIS_OK;
}

/*================================== Shutdown =============================== */

int prepareForShutdown(int flags) {
    int save = flags & REDIS_SHUTDOWN_SAVE;
    int nosave = flags & REDIS_SHUTDOWN_NOSAVE;

    redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"User requested shutdown...");
    /* Kill the saving child if there is a background saving in progress.
       We want to avoid race conditions, for instance our saving child may
       overwrite the synchronous saving did by SHUTDOWN. */
    if (server.rdb_child_pid != -1) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"There is a child saving an .rdb. Killing it!");
        kill(server.rdb_child_pid,SIGKILL);
        rdbRemoveTempFile(server.rdb_child_pid);
    }
    if (server.aof_state != REDIS_AOF_OFF) {
        /* Kill the AOF saving child as the AOF we already have may be longer
         * but contains the full dataset anyway. */
        if (server.aof_child_pid != -1) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,
                "There is a child rewriting the AOF. Killing it!");
            kill(server.aof_child_pid,SIGKILL);
        }
        /* Append only file: fsync() the AOF and exit */
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Calling fsync() on the AOF file.");
        aof_fsync(server.aof_fd);
    }
    if ((server.saveparamslen > 0 && !nosave) || save) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Saving the final RDB snapshot before exiting.");
        /* Snapshotting. Perform a SYNC SAVE and exit */
        if (rdbSave(server.rdb_filename) != REDIS_OK) {
            /* Ooops.. error saving! The best we can do is to continue
             * operating. Note that if there was a background saving process,
             * in the next cron() Redis will be notified that the background
             * saving aborted, handling special stuff like slaves pending for
             * synchronization... */
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Error trying to save the DB, can't exit.");
            return REDIS_ERR;
        }
    }
    if (server.daemonize) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Removing the pid file.");
        unlink(server.pidfile);
    }
    /* Close the listening sockets. Apparently this allows faster restarts. */
    if (server.ipfd != -1) close(server.ipfd);
    if (server.sofd != -1) close(server.sofd);
    if (server.unixsocket) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Removing the unix socket file.");
        unlink(server.unixsocket); /* don't care if this fails */
    }

    redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Redis is now ready to exit, bye bye...");
    return REDIS_OK;
}

/*================================== Commands =============================== */

/* Return zero if strings are the same, non-zero if they are not.
 * The comparison is performed in a way that prevents an attacker to obtain
 * information about the nature of the strings just monitoring the execution
 * time of the function.
 *
 * Note that limiting the comparison length to strings up to 512 bytes we
 * can avoid leaking any information about the password length and any
 * possible branch misprediction related leak.
 */
int time_independent_strcmp(char *a, char *b) {
    char bufa[REDIS_AUTHPASS_MAX_LEN], bufb[REDIS_AUTHPASS_MAX_LEN];
    /* The above two strlen perform len(a) + len(b) operations where either
     * a or b are fixed (our password) length, and the difference is only
     * relative to the length of the user provided string, so no information
     * leak is possible in the following two lines of code. */
    int alen = strlen(a);
    int blen = strlen(b);
    int j;
    int diff = 0;

    /* We can't compare strings longer than our static buffers.
     * Note that this will never pass the first test in practical circumstances
     * so there is no info leak. */
    if (alen > sizeof(bufa) || blen > sizeof(bufb)) return 1;

    memset(bufa,0,sizeof(bufa));        /* Constant time. */
    memset(bufb,0,sizeof(bufb));        /* Constant time. */
    /* Again the time of the following two copies is proportional to
     * len(a) + len(b) so no info is leaked. */
    memcpy(bufa,a,alen);
    memcpy(bufb,b,blen);

    /* Always compare all the chars in the two buffers without
     * conditional expressions. */
    for (j = 0; j < sizeof(bufa); j++) {
        diff |= (bufa[j] ^ bufb[j]);
    }
    /* Length must be equal as well. */
    diff |= alen ^ blen;
    return diff; /* If zero strings are the same. */
}

void authCommand(redisClient *c) {
    if (!server.requirepass) {
        addReplyError(c,"Client sent AUTH, but no password is set");
    } else if (!time_independent_strcmp(c->argv[1]->ptr, server.requirepass)) {
      c->authenticated = 1;
      addReply(c,shared.ok);
    } else {
      c->authenticated = 0;
      addReplyError(c,"invalid password");
    }
}

void pingCommand(redisClient *c) {
    addReply(c,shared.pong);
}

void echoCommand(redisClient *c) {
    addReplyBulk(c,c->argv[1]);
}

void timeCommand(redisClient *c) {
    struct timeval tv;

    /* gettimeofday() can only fail if &tv is a bad addresss so we
     * don't check for errors. */
    gettimeofday(&tv,NULL);
    addReplyMultiBulkLen(c,2);
    addReplyBulkLongLong(c,tv.tv_sec);
    addReplyBulkLongLong(c,tv.tv_usec);
}

/* Convert an amount of bytes into a human readable string in the form
 * of 100B, 2G, 100M, 4K, and so forth. */
void bytesToHuman(char *s, unsigned long long n) {
    double d;

    if (n < 1024) {
        /* Bytes */
        sprintf(s,"%lluB",n);
        return;
    } else if (n < (1024*1024)) {
        d = (double)n/(1024);
        sprintf(s,"%.2fK",d);
    } else if (n < (1024LL*1024*1024)) {
        d = (double)n/(1024*1024);
        sprintf(s,"%.2fM",d);
    } else if (n < (1024LL*1024*1024*1024)) {
        d = (double)n/(1024LL*1024*1024);
        sprintf(s,"%.2fG",d);
    }
}

/* Create the string returned by the INFO command. This is decoupled
 * by the INFO command itself as we need to report the same information
 * on memory corruption problems. */
sds genRedisInfoString(char *section) {
    sds info = sdsempty();
    time_t uptime = server.unixtime-server.stat_starttime;
    int j, numcommands;
    struct rusage self_ru, c_ru;
    unsigned long lol, bib;
    int allsections = 0, defsections = 0;
    int sections = 0;

    if (section) {
        allsections = strcasecmp(section,"all") == 0;
        defsections = strcasecmp(section,"default") == 0;
    }

    getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &self_ru);
    getrusage(RUSAGE_CHILDREN, &c_ru);
    getClientsMaxBuffers(&lol,&bib);

    /* Server */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"server")) {
        struct utsname name;
        char *mode;

        if (server.cluster_enabled) mode = "cluster";
        else if (server.sentinel_mode) mode = "sentinel";
        else mode = "standalone";
    
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        uname(&name);
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Server\r\n"
            "redis_version:%s\r\n"
            "redis_git_sha1:%s\r\n"
            "redis_git_dirty:%d\r\n"
            "redis_mode:%s\r\n"
            "os:%s %s %s\r\n"
            "arch_bits:%d\r\n"
            "multiplexing_api:%s\r\n"
            "gcc_version:%d.%d.%d\r\n"
            "process_id:%ld\r\n"
            "run_id:%s\r\n"
            "tcp_port:%d\r\n"
            "uptime_in_seconds:%ld\r\n"
            "uptime_in_days:%ld\r\n"
            "lru_clock:%ld\r\n",
            REDIS_VERSION,
            redisGitSHA1(),
            strtol(redisGitDirty(),NULL,10) > 0,
            mode,
            name.sysname, name.release, name.machine,
            server.arch_bits,
            aeGetApiName(),
#ifdef __GNUC__
            __GNUC__,__GNUC_MINOR__,__GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__,
#else
            0,0,0,
#endif
            (long) getpid(),
            server.runid,
            server.port,
            uptime,
            uptime/(3600*24),
            (unsigned long) server.lruclock);
    }

    /* Clients */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"clients")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Clients\r\n"
            "connected_clients:%lu\r\n"
            "client_longest_output_list:%lu\r\n"
            "client_biggest_input_buf:%lu\r\n"
            "blocked_clients:%d\r\n",
            listLength(server.clients)-listLength(server.slaves),
            lol, bib,
            server.bpop_blocked_clients);
    }

    /* Memory */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"memory")) {
        char hmem[64];
        char peak_hmem[64];

        bytesToHuman(hmem,zmalloc_used_memory());
        bytesToHuman(peak_hmem,server.stat_peak_memory);
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Memory\r\n"
            "used_memory:%zu\r\n"
            "used_memory_human:%s\r\n"
            "used_memory_rss:%zu\r\n"
            "used_memory_peak:%zu\r\n"
            "used_memory_peak_human:%s\r\n"
            "used_memory_lua:%lld\r\n"
            "mem_fragmentation_ratio:%.2f\r\n"
            "mem_allocator:%s\r\n",
            zmalloc_used_memory(),
            hmem,
            zmalloc_get_rss(),
            server.stat_peak_memory,
            peak_hmem,
            ((long long)lua_gc(server.lua,LUA_GCCOUNT,0))*1024LL,
            zmalloc_get_fragmentation_ratio(),
            ZMALLOC_LIB
            );
    }

    /* Persistence */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"persistence")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Persistence\r\n"
            "loading:%d\r\n"
            "rdb_changes_since_last_save:%lld\r\n"
            "rdb_bgsave_in_progress:%d\r\n"
            "rdb_last_save_time:%ld\r\n"
            "rdb_last_bgsave_status:%s\r\n"
            "rdb_last_bgsave_time_sec:%ld\r\n"
            "rdb_current_bgsave_time_sec:%ld\r\n"
            "aof_enabled:%d\r\n"
            "aof_rewrite_in_progress:%d\r\n"
            "aof_rewrite_scheduled:%d\r\n"
            "aof_last_rewrite_time_sec:%ld\r\n"
            "aof_current_rewrite_time_sec:%ld\r\n"
            "aof_last_bgrewrite_status:%s\r\n",
            server.loading,
            server.dirty,
            server.rdb_child_pid != -1,
            server.lastsave,
            (server.lastbgsave_status == REDIS_OK) ? "ok" : "err",
            server.rdb_save_time_last,
            (server.rdb_child_pid == -1) ?
                -1 : time(NULL)-server.rdb_save_time_start,
            server.aof_state != REDIS_AOF_OFF,
            server.aof_child_pid != -1,
            server.aof_rewrite_scheduled,
            server.aof_rewrite_time_last,
            (server.aof_child_pid == -1) ?
                -1 : time(NULL)-server.aof_rewrite_time_start,
            (server.aof_lastbgrewrite_status == REDIS_OK) ? "ok" : "err");

        if (server.aof_state != REDIS_AOF_OFF) {
            info = sdscatprintf(info,
                "aof_current_size:%lld\r\n"
                "aof_base_size:%lld\r\n"
                "aof_pending_rewrite:%d\r\n"
                "aof_buffer_length:%zu\r\n"
                "aof_rewrite_buffer_length:%lu\r\n"
                "aof_pending_bio_fsync:%llu\r\n"
                "aof_delayed_fsync:%lu\r\n",
                (long long) server.aof_current_size,
                (long long) server.aof_rewrite_base_size,
                server.aof_rewrite_scheduled,
                sdslen(server.aof_buf),
                aofRewriteBufferSize(),
                bioPendingJobsOfType(REDIS_BIO_AOF_FSYNC),
                server.aof_delayed_fsync);
        }

        if (server.loading) {
            double perc;
            time_t eta, elapsed;
            off_t remaining_bytes = server.loading_total_bytes-
                                    server.loading_loaded_bytes;

            perc = ((double)server.loading_loaded_bytes /
                   server.loading_total_bytes) * 100;

            elapsed = server.unixtime-server.loading_start_time;
            if (elapsed == 0) {
                eta = 1; /* A fake 1 second figure if we don't have
                            enough info */
            } else {
                eta = (elapsed*remaining_bytes)/server.loading_loaded_bytes;
            }

            info = sdscatprintf(info,
                "loading_start_time:%ld\r\n"
                "loading_total_bytes:%llu\r\n"
                "loading_loaded_bytes:%llu\r\n"
                "loading_loaded_perc:%.2f\r\n"
                "loading_eta_seconds:%ld\r\n"
                ,(unsigned long) server.loading_start_time,
                (unsigned long long) server.loading_total_bytes,
                (unsigned long long) server.loading_loaded_bytes,
                perc,
                eta
            );
        }
    }

    /* Stats */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"stats")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Stats\r\n"
            "total_connections_received:%lld\r\n"
            "total_commands_processed:%lld\r\n"
            "instantaneous_ops_per_sec:%lld\r\n"
            "rejected_connections:%lld\r\n"
            "expired_keys:%lld\r\n"
            "evicted_keys:%lld\r\n"
            "keyspace_hits:%lld\r\n"
            "keyspace_misses:%lld\r\n"
            "pubsub_channels:%ld\r\n"
            "pubsub_patterns:%lu\r\n"
            "latest_fork_usec:%lld\r\n"
            "migrate_cached_sockets:%ld\r\n",
            server.stat_numconnections,
            server.stat_numcommands,
            getOperationsPerSecond(),
            server.stat_rejected_conn,
            server.stat_expiredkeys,
            server.stat_evictedkeys,
            server.stat_keyspace_hits,
            server.stat_keyspace_misses,
            dictSize(server.pubsub_channels),
            listLength(server.pubsub_patterns),
            server.stat_fork_time,
            dictSize(server.migrate_cached_sockets));
    }

    /* Replication */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"replication")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "# Replication\r\n"
            "role:%s\r\n",
            server.masterhost == NULL ? "master" : "slave");
        if (server.masterhost) {
            info = sdscatprintf(info,
                "master_host:%s\r\n"
                "master_port:%d\r\n"
                "master_link_status:%s\r\n"
                "master_last_io_seconds_ago:%d\r\n"
                "master_sync_in_progress:%d\r\n"
                ,server.masterhost,
                server.masterport,
                (server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_CONNECTED) ?
                    "up" : "down",
                server.master ?
                ((int)(server.unixtime-server.master->lastinteraction)) : -1,
                server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_TRANSFER
            );

            if (server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_TRANSFER) {
                info = sdscatprintf(info,
                    "master_sync_left_bytes:%lld\r\n"
                    "master_sync_last_io_seconds_ago:%d\r\n"
                    , (long long)
                        (server.repl_transfer_size - server.repl_transfer_read),
                    (int)(server.unixtime-server.repl_transfer_lastio)
                );
            }

            if (server.repl_state != REDIS_REPL_CONNECTED) {
                info = sdscatprintf(info,
                    "master_link_down_since_seconds:%ld\r\n",
                    (long)server.unixtime-server.repl_down_since);
            }
            info = sdscatprintf(info,
                "slave_priority:%d\r\n"
                "slave_read_only:%d\r\n",
                server.slave_priority,
                server.repl_slave_ro);
        }
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
            "connected_slaves:%lu\r\n",
            listLength(server.slaves));
        if (listLength(server.slaves)) {
            int slaveid = 0;
            listNode *ln;
            listIter li;

            listRewind(server.slaves,&li);
            while((ln = listNext(&li))) {
                redisClient *slave = listNodeValue(ln);
                char *state = NULL;
                char ip[32];
                int port;

                if (anetPeerToString(slave->fd,ip,&port) == -1) continue;
                switch(slave->replstate) {
                case REDIS_REPL_WAIT_BGSAVE_START:
                case REDIS_REPL_WAIT_BGSAVE_END:
                    state = "wait_bgsave";
                    break;
                case REDIS_REPL_SEND_BULK:
                    state = "send_bulk";
                    break;
                case REDIS_REPL_ONLINE:
                    state = "online";
                    break;
                }
                if (state == NULL) continue;
                info = sdscatprintf(info,"slave%d:%s,%d,%s\r\n",
                    slaveid,ip,slave->slave_listening_port,state);
                slaveid++;
            }
        }
    }

    /* CPU */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"cpu")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
        "# CPU\r\n"
        "used_cpu_sys:%.2f\r\n"
        "used_cpu_user:%.2f\r\n"
        "used_cpu_sys_children:%.2f\r\n"
        "used_cpu_user_children:%.2f\r\n",
        (float)self_ru.ru_stime.tv_sec+(float)self_ru.ru_stime.tv_usec/1000000,
        (float)self_ru.ru_utime.tv_sec+(float)self_ru.ru_utime.tv_usec/1000000,
        (float)c_ru.ru_stime.tv_sec+(float)c_ru.ru_stime.tv_usec/1000000,
        (float)c_ru.ru_utime.tv_sec+(float)c_ru.ru_utime.tv_usec/1000000);
    }

    /* cmdtime */
    if (allsections || !strcasecmp(section,"commandstats")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info, "# Commandstats\r\n");
        numcommands = sizeof(redisCommandTable)/sizeof(struct redisCommand);
        for (j = 0; j < numcommands; j++) {
            struct redisCommand *c = redisCommandTable+j;

            if (!c->calls) continue;
            info = sdscatprintf(info,
                "cmdstat_%s:calls=%lld,usec=%lld,usec_per_call=%.2f\r\n",
                c->name, c->calls, c->microseconds,
                (c->calls == 0) ? 0 : ((float)c->microseconds/c->calls));
        }
    }

    /* Cluster */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"cluster")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info,
        "# Cluster\r\n"
        "cluster_enabled:%d\r\n",
        server.cluster_enabled);
    }

    /* Key space */
    if (allsections || defsections || !strcasecmp(section,"keyspace")) {
        if (sections++) info = sdscat(info,"\r\n");
        info = sdscatprintf(info, "# Keyspace\r\n");
        for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
            long long keys, vkeys;

            keys = dictSize(server.db[j].dict);
            vkeys = dictSize(server.db[j].expires);
            if (keys || vkeys) {
                info = sdscatprintf(info, "db%d:keys=%lld,expires=%lld\r\n",
                    j, keys, vkeys);
            }
        }
    }
    return info;
}

void infoCommand(redisClient *c) {
    char *section = c->argc == 2 ? c->argv[1]->ptr : "default";

    if (c->argc > 2) {
        addReply(c,shared.syntaxerr);
        return;
    }
    sds info = genRedisInfoString(section);
    addReplySds(c,sdscatprintf(sdsempty(),"$%lu\r\n",
        (unsigned long)sdslen(info)));
    addReplySds(c,info);
    addReply(c,shared.crlf);
}

void monitorCommand(redisClient *c) {
    /* ignore MONITOR if already slave or in monitor mode */
    if (c->flags & REDIS_SLAVE) return;

    c->flags |= (REDIS_SLAVE|REDIS_MONITOR);
    c->slaveseldb = 0;
    listAddNodeTail(server.monitors,c);
    addReply(c,shared.ok);
}

/* ============================ Maxmemory directive  ======================== */

/* This function gets called when 'maxmemory' is set on the config file to limit
 * the max memory used by the server, before processing a command.
 *
 * The goal of the function is to free enough memory to keep Redis under the
 * configured memory limit.
 *
 * The function starts calculating how many bytes should be freed to keep
 * Redis under the limit, and enters a loop selecting the best keys to
 * evict accordingly to the configured policy.
 *
 * If all the bytes needed to return back under the limit were freed the
 * function returns REDIS_OK, otherwise REDIS_ERR is returned, and the caller
 * should block the execution of commands that will result in more memory
 * used by the server.
 */
int freeMemoryIfNeeded(void) {
    size_t mem_used, mem_tofree, mem_freed;
    int slaves = listLength(server.slaves);

    /* Remove the size of slaves output buffers and AOF buffer from the
     * count of used memory. */
    mem_used = zmalloc_used_memory();
    if (slaves) {
        listIter li;
        listNode *ln;

        listRewind(server.slaves,&li);
        while((ln = listNext(&li))) {
            redisClient *slave = listNodeValue(ln);
            unsigned long obuf_bytes = getClientOutputBufferMemoryUsage(slave);
            if (obuf_bytes > mem_used)
                mem_used = 0;
            else
                mem_used -= obuf_bytes;
        }
    }
    if (server.aof_state != REDIS_AOF_OFF) {
        mem_used -= sdslen(server.aof_buf);
        mem_used -= aofRewriteBufferSize();
    }

    /* Check if we are over the memory limit. */
    if (mem_used <= server.maxmemory) return REDIS_OK;

    if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_NO_EVICTION)
        return REDIS_ERR; /* We need to free memory, but policy forbids. */

    /* Compute how much memory we need to free. */
    mem_tofree = mem_used - server.maxmemory;
    mem_freed = 0;
    while (mem_freed < mem_tofree) {
        int j, k, keys_freed = 0;

        for (j = 0; j < server.dbnum; j++) {
            long bestval = 0; /* just to prevent warning */
            sds bestkey = NULL;
            struct dictEntry *de;
            redisDb *db = server.db+j;
            dict *dict;

            if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_ALLKEYS_LRU ||
                server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_ALLKEYS_RANDOM)
            {
                dict = server.db[j].dict;
            } else {
                dict = server.db[j].expires;
            }
            if (dictSize(dict) == 0) continue;

            /* volatile-random and allkeys-random policy */
            if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_ALLKEYS_RANDOM ||
                server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_VOLATILE_RANDOM)
            {
                de = dictGetRandomKey(dict);
                bestkey = dictGetKey(de);
            }

            /* volatile-lru and allkeys-lru policy */
            else if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_ALLKEYS_LRU ||
                server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_VOLATILE_LRU)
            {
                for (k = 0; k < server.maxmemory_samples; k++) {
                    sds thiskey;
                    long thisval;
                    robj *o;

                    de = dictGetRandomKey(dict);
                    thiskey = dictGetKey(de);
                    /* When policy is volatile-lru we need an additional lookup
                     * to locate the real key, as dict is set to db->expires. */
                    if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_VOLATILE_LRU)
                        de = dictFind(db->dict, thiskey);
                    o = dictGetVal(de);
                    thisval = estimateObjectIdleTime(o);

                    /* Higher idle time is better candidate for deletion */
                    if (bestkey == NULL || thisval > bestval) {
                        bestkey = thiskey;
                        bestval = thisval;
                    }
                }
            }

            /* volatile-ttl */
            else if (server.maxmemory_policy == REDIS_MAXMEMORY_VOLATILE_TTL) {
                for (k = 0; k < server.maxmemory_samples; k++) {
                    sds thiskey;
                    long thisval;

                    de = dictGetRandomKey(dict);
                    thiskey = dictGetKey(de);
                    thisval = (long) dictGetVal(de);

                    /* Expire sooner (minor expire unix timestamp) is better
                     * candidate for deletion */
                    if (bestkey == NULL || thisval < bestval) {
                        bestkey = thiskey;
                        bestval = thisval;
                    }
                }
            }

            /* Finally remove the selected key. */
            if (bestkey) {
                long long delta;

                robj *keyobj = createStringObject(bestkey,sdslen(bestkey));
                propagateExpire(db,keyobj);
                /* We compute the amount of memory freed by dbDelete() alone.
                 * It is possible that actually the memory needed to propagate
                 * the DEL in AOF and replication link is greater than the one
                 * we are freeing removing the key, but we can't account for
                 * that otherwise we would never exit the loop.
                 *
                 * AOF and Output buffer memory will be freed eventually so
                 * we only care about memory used by the key space. */
                delta = (long long) zmalloc_used_memory();
                dbDelete(db,keyobj);
                delta -= (long long) zmalloc_used_memory();
                mem_freed += delta;
                server.stat_evictedkeys++;
                decrRefCount(keyobj);
                keys_freed++;

                /* When the memory to free starts to be big enough, we may
                 * start spending so much time here that is impossible to
                 * deliver data to the slaves fast enough, so we force the
                 * transmission here inside the loop. */
                if (slaves) flushSlavesOutputBuffers();
            }
        }
        if (!keys_freed) return REDIS_ERR; /* nothing to free... */
    }
    return REDIS_OK;
}

/* =================================== Main! ================================ */

#ifdef __linux__
int linuxOvercommitMemoryValue(void) {
    FILE *fp = fopen("/proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory","r");
    char buf[64];

    if (!fp) return -1;
    if (fgets(buf,64,fp) == NULL) {
        fclose(fp);
        return -1;
    }
    fclose(fp);

    return atoi(buf);
}

void linuxOvercommitMemoryWarning(void) {
    if (linuxOvercommitMemoryValue() == 0) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"WARNING overcommit_memory is set to 0! Background save may fail under low memory condition. To fix this issue add 'vm.overcommit_memory = 1' to /etc/sysctl.conf and then reboot or run the command 'sysctl vm.overcommit_memory=1' for this to take effect.");
    }
}
#endif /* __linux__ */

void createPidFile(void) {
    /* Try to write the pid file in a best-effort way. */
    FILE *fp = fopen(server.pidfile,"w");
    if (fp) {
        fprintf(fp,"%d\n",(int)getpid());
        fclose(fp);
    }
}

void daemonize(void) {
    int fd;

    if (fork() != 0) exit(0); /* parent exits */
    setsid(); /* create a new session */

    /* Every output goes to /dev/null. If Redis is daemonized but
     * the 'logfile' is set to 'stdout' in the configuration file
     * it will not log at all. */
    if ((fd = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR, 0)) != -1) {
        dup2(fd, STDIN_FILENO);
        dup2(fd, STDOUT_FILENO);
        dup2(fd, STDERR_FILENO);
        if (fd > STDERR_FILENO) close(fd);
    }
}

void version() {
    printf("Redis server v=%s sha=%s:%d malloc=%s bits=%d\n",
        REDIS_VERSION,
        redisGitSHA1(),
        atoi(redisGitDirty()) > 0,
        ZMALLOC_LIB,
        sizeof(long) == 4 ? 32 : 64);
    exit(0);
}

void usage() {
    fprintf(stderr,"Usage: ./redis-server [/path/to/redis.conf] [options]\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server - (read config from stdin)\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server -v or --version\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server -h or --help\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server --test-memory <megabytes>\n\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"Examples:\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server (run the server with default conf)\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server /etc/redis/6379.conf\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server --port 7777\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server --port 7777 --slaveof 127.0.0.1 8888\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server /etc/myredis.conf --loglevel verbose\n\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"Sentinel mode:\n");
    fprintf(stderr,"       ./redis-server /etc/sentinel.conf --sentinel\n");
    exit(1);
}

void redisAsciiArt(void) {
#include "asciilogo.h"
    char *buf = zmalloc(1024*16);
    char *mode = "stand alone";

    if (server.cluster_enabled) mode = "cluster";
    else if (server.sentinel_mode) mode = "sentinel";

    snprintf(buf,1024*16,ascii_logo,
        REDIS_VERSION,
        redisGitSHA1(),
        strtol(redisGitDirty(),NULL,10) > 0,
        (sizeof(long) == 8) ? "64" : "32",
        mode, server.port,
        (long) getpid()
    );
    redisLogRaw(REDIS_NOTICE|REDIS_LOG_RAW,buf);
    zfree(buf);
}

static void sigtermHandler(int sig) {
    REDIS_NOTUSED(sig);

    redisLogFromHandler(REDIS_WARNING,"Received SIGTERM, scheduling shutdown...");
    server.shutdown_asap = 1;
}

void setupSignalHandlers(void) {
    struct sigaction act;

    /* When the SA_SIGINFO flag is set in sa_flags then sa_sigaction is used.
     * Otherwise, sa_handler is used. */
    sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask);
    act.sa_flags = 0;
    act.sa_handler = sigtermHandler;
    sigaction(SIGTERM, &act, NULL);

#ifdef HAVE_BACKTRACE
    sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask);
    act.sa_flags = SA_NODEFER | SA_RESETHAND | SA_SIGINFO;
    act.sa_sigaction = sigsegvHandler;
    sigaction(SIGSEGV, &act, NULL);
    sigaction(SIGBUS, &act, NULL);
    sigaction(SIGFPE, &act, NULL);
    sigaction(SIGILL, &act, NULL);
#endif
    return;
}

void memtest(size_t megabytes, int passes);

/* Returns 1 if there is --sentinel among the arguments or if
 * argv[0] is exactly "redis-sentinel". */
int checkForSentinelMode(int argc, char **argv) {
    int j;

    if (strstr(argv[0],"redis-sentinel") != NULL) return 1;
    for (j = 1; j < argc; j++)
        if (!strcmp(argv[j],"--sentinel")) return 1;
    return 0;
}

/* Function called at startup to load RDB or AOF file in memory. */
void loadDataFromDisk(void) {
    long long start = ustime();
    if (server.aof_state == REDIS_AOF_ON) {
        if (loadAppendOnlyFile(server.aof_filename) == REDIS_OK)
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"DB loaded from append only file: %.3f seconds",(float)(ustime()-start)/1000000);
    } else {
        if (rdbLoad(server.rdb_filename) == REDIS_OK) {
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"DB loaded from disk: %.3f seconds",
                (float)(ustime()-start)/1000000);
        } else if (errno != ENOENT) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Fatal error loading the DB. Exiting.");
            exit(1);
        }
    }
}

void redisOutOfMemoryHandler(size_t allocation_size) {
    redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Out Of Memory allocating %zu bytes!",
        allocation_size);
    redisPanic("OOM");
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    struct timeval tv;

    /* We need to initialize our libraries, and the server configuration. */
    zmalloc_enable_thread_safeness();
    zmalloc_set_oom_handler(redisOutOfMemoryHandler);
    srand(time(NULL)^getpid());
    gettimeofday(&tv,NULL);
    dictSetHashFunctionSeed(tv.tv_sec^tv.tv_usec^getpid());
    server.sentinel_mode = checkForSentinelMode(argc,argv);
    initServerConfig();

    /* We need to init sentinel right now as parsing the configuration file
     * in sentinel mode will have the effect of populating the sentinel
     * data structures with master nodes to monitor. */
    if (server.sentinel_mode) {
        initSentinelConfig();
        initSentinel();
    }

    if (argc >= 2) {
        int j = 1; /* First option to parse in argv[] */
        sds options = sdsempty();
        char *configfile = NULL;

        /* Handle special options --help and --version */
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "-v") == 0 ||
            strcmp(argv[1], "--version") == 0) version();
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0 ||
            strcmp(argv[1], "-h") == 0) usage();
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "--test-memory") == 0) {
            if (argc == 3) {
                memtest(atoi(argv[2]),50);
                exit(0);
            } else {
                fprintf(stderr,"Please specify the amount of memory to test in megabytes.\n");
                fprintf(stderr,"Example: ./redis-server --test-memory 4096\n\n");
                exit(1);
            }
        }

        /* First argument is the config file name? */
        if (argv[j][0] != '-' || argv[j][1] != '-')
            configfile = argv[j++];
        /* All the other options are parsed and conceptually appended to the
         * configuration file. For instance --port 6380 will generate the
         * string "port 6380\n" to be parsed after the actual file name
         * is parsed, if any. */
        while(j != argc) {
            if (argv[j][0] == '-' && argv[j][1] == '-') {
                /* Option name */
                if (sdslen(options)) options = sdscat(options,"\n");
                options = sdscat(options,argv[j]+2);
                options = sdscat(options," ");
            } else {
                /* Option argument */
                options = sdscatrepr(options,argv[j],strlen(argv[j]));
                options = sdscat(options," ");
            }
            j++;
        }
        resetServerSaveParams();
        loadServerConfig(configfile,options);
        sdsfree(options);
    } else {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING, "Warning: no config file specified, using the default config. In order to specify a config file use %s /path/to/%s.conf", argv[0], server.sentinel_mode ? "sentinel" : "redis");
    }
    if (server.daemonize) daemonize();
    initServer();
    if (server.daemonize) createPidFile();
    redisAsciiArt();

    if (!server.sentinel_mode) {
        /* Things only needed when not running in Sentinel mode. */
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Server started, Redis version " REDIS_VERSION);
    #ifdef __linux__
        linuxOvercommitMemoryWarning();
    #endif
        loadDataFromDisk();
        if (server.ipfd > 0)
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"The server is now ready to accept connections on port %d", server.port);
        if (server.sofd > 0)
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"The server is now ready to accept connections at %s", server.unixsocket);
    }

    /* Warning the user about suspicious maxmemory setting. */
    if (server.maxmemory > 0 && server.maxmemory < 1024*1024) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"WARNING: You specified a maxmemory value that is less than 1MB (current value is %llu bytes). Are you sure this is what you really want?", server.maxmemory);
    }

    aeSetBeforeSleepProc(server.el,beforeSleep);
    aeMain(server.el);
    aeDeleteEventLoop(server.el);
    return 0;
}

/* The End */