# Commits

committed be0fdf4

Lecture five not a minute too soon.

• Participants
• Parent commits c2708f6

# File code/closure.py

+def greater_than_bound(bound):
+    def greater(x):
+        return x > bound
+    return greater
+
+greater_than_ten = greater_than_bound(10)
+print greater_than_ten(20)
+

# File code/identity.py

+def identity(n):
+    return [[1 if i == j else 0 for i in xrange(n)] for j in xrange(n)]
+
+print identity(3)
+
+print [(i, j) for i in xrange(3) for j in xrange(3)]

# File code/iter.py

+from itertools import chain, takewhile, dropwhile
+from itertools import combinations, permutations
+
+a = [1, 2, 3]
+b = 'abc'
+print [(x, type(x)) for x in chain(a, b)]
+print [u''.join(x) for x in combinations(b, 2)]
+print [u''.join(x) for x in permutations(b, 2)]
+print list(takewhile(lambda x: x % 2 == 1, a))
+print list(dropwhile(lambda x: x in 'aeiou', b))

# File code/keys.py

+from operator import itemgetter, attrgetter, methodcaller
+
+test = [(1, 2), (5, 3), (7, 1), (3, 8)]
+print sorted(test, key=itemgetter(1))
+
+test = ['C', 'a', 'd', 'B', 'E']
+print sorted(test, key=methodcaller('lower'))
+
+test = [1 +  1j, 2 - 1j, -1 + 2j]
+print sorted(test, key=attrgetter('real'))

# File code/listsort.py

+test = ['C', 'a', 'd', 'B', 'E']
+test.sort()
+print test # Default alpha sort
+
+test.sort(key=str.lower)
+print test # Case insensitive alpha sort
+
+test = [(1, 2), (5, 3), (7, 1), (3, 8)]
+test.sort(key=lambda x: x[1])
+print test # Sort by second entry

# File code/matrix.py

+text = '1,0,0;0,1,0;0,0,1'
+rows = text.split(';')
+matrix = []
+for row in rows:
+    matrix.append([float(x) for x in row.split(',')])
+print matrix
+
+matrix = map(lambda x: map(float, x.split(',')), text.split(';'))
+print matrix

# File code/nightmare.py

+def simple(x, y=[]):
+    y.append(x)
+    return y
+
+print simple.func_defaults
+print simple(1)
+print simple(2)
+print simple.func_defaults

# File lectures/five.rst

Also it's fun.

-Anonymous Functions
+Some Notes on Function Parameters
----------------------------------------

-So far we have always defined functions using the ``def`` keyword. You can also
-define anonymous (unnamed) functions with ``lambda``.
+There was a mention about not passing an empty list as a default argument. This is
+not only true of lists but any mutable type such as a set or a dictionary.

-.. code-block:: python
+This is because the function defaults are evaluated when the function is defined. If
+the default type is mutable then it can be changed on subsequent function calls.

-    f = lambda x: x*x # Create a new function and assign to f
-    print f.__class__
-    print f(2)
+
+Function Nightmare (nightmare.py)
+----------------------------------------
+
+.. literalinclude:: /code/nightmare.py

Getting Rid of Logical Blocks
x_place = 'first'
elif x == 2:
x_place = 'second'
-    elif x == 3:
-        x_place = 'third'
print x_place
-    print ((x == 1 and 'first') or (x == 2 and 'second') or
-        (x == 3 and 'third') or 'did not place')
+
+
+Short Circuit Example
+----------------------------------------
+
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    x = 2
+    print (x == 1 and 'first') or (x == 2 and 'second') or 'did not place'
+
+
+Using Short Circuit For Good
+----------------------------------------
+
+One of the best uses of this logical evaluation is handling default arguments
+that you want to be mutable types such as lists or dictionaries.
+
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    def simple(x=None):
+        x = x or {}
+        # Do some more work

Getting Rid of Loops
print [x for x in mix if isinstance(x, basestring)]

+Double List Comprehensions (identity.py)
+----------------------------------------
+
+You can have nested list comprehensions to eliminate nested for loops.
+
+.. literalinclude:: /code/identity.py
+
+
+Anonymous Functions
+----------------------------------------
+
+So far we have always defined functions using the ``def`` keyword. You can also
+define anonymous (unnamed) functions with ``lambda``.
+
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    f = lambda x: x*x # Create a new function and assign to f
+    print f.__class__
+    print f(2)
+
+
More List Filtering
----------------------------------------

Python 3.X.

+Map
+----------------------------------------
+
+``map`` applies a function to each item in an iterable and returns a list of the
+results.
+
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    # Create list of the first four squares
+    squares = []
+    for x in [1, 2, 3, 4]:
+        squares.append(x**2)
+    # Becomes
+    squares = map(lambda x: x**2, [1, 2, 3, 4])
+
+
+Map Example (matrix.py)
+----------------------------------------
+
+.. literalinclude:: /code/matrix.py
+
+
Sorting Lists
----------------------------------------

+The built-in list type has a ``sort`` method which sorts the list in place. ``sort`` can
+also take a ``key`` parameter which is a function which takes one parameter returns the value
+which will be used for the sorting. Passing ``reverse=True`` will reverse the sort order.

-Sorting List Example
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    test = [3, 4, 5, 1, 2]
+    test.sort()
+    print test
+    test = [3, 4, 5, 1, 2]
+    test.sort(key=lambda x: x % 3)
+    print test
+
+
+More List Sorting Examples (listsort.py)
----------------------------------------

+.. literalinclude:: /code/listsort.py
+

Sorting Iterables
----------------------------------------

+``list.sort`` is great but what if you need to sort things that are iterables but not lists.
+For that you can use the built-in ``sorted`` function. The first argument is an iterable and
+the remaining arguments are the same as ``sort``. Unlike ``sort`` which returns ``None`` ``sorted``
+returns the sorted items as a list.

-Sorting Example
+.. code-block:: python
+
+    print sorted((8, 6, 7, 5, 3, 0, 9))
+    print sorted('jenny')
+    print sorted({'got': 'your number', 'need': 'make you mine'})
+
+
+Common Key Functions
----------------------------------------

+There are some common key functions:

-Map
+- Sorting a list of tuples (or nested list) by a given index
+- Sorting by an attribute
+- Sorting by a method
+
+While it isn't difficult to write these functions you can instead use the
+``operator`` module.
+
+
+Key Functions Examples (keys.py)
----------------------------------------

-
-Map Example
-----------------------------------------
+.. literalinclude:: /code/keys.py

``itertools`` Module
----------------------------------------

+The ``itertools`` module defines functions for commonly used iterators.

-Getting Rid of Variables
+- Lists of integers
+- Cycles of sequences
+- Chains of iterators
+- Permutaions of a sequence
+- Combinations of a sequence
+
+
+``itertools`` Examples (iter.py)
----------------------------------------

-
-Debug This Mess
-----------------------------------------
+.. literalinclude:: /code/iter.py

Closures
----------------------------------------

+Closures are combination of a function and an environment. They are named closures because
+they are said to "close over" free variables that are passed when defining the closure.

-``functools`` Module
+Since I'm sure none of that made any sense let's look at some examples.
+
+
+Closure Example (closure.py)
----------------------------------------

+.. literalinclude:: /code/closure.py

-Partial Functions
+
+Why Closures?
----------------------------------------

+Why in the world would you want to do this? Somethings are just too complicated for ``lambda``.
+``lambda`` expressions cannot contain ``if``, ``for`` or ``while`` statements. Though, as we have
+seen, many of these statements can be replaced.
+
+
+Up Next
+----------------------------------------
+
+A tour of the Python standard library.
+

# File slides/Spring2011/five.pdf

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