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Serhiy Storchaka committed 383d852 Merge

Issue #18757: Improved cross-references in the concurrent package.

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Doc/library/concurrent.futures.rst

 
     .. method:: map(func, *iterables, timeout=None)
 
-       Equivalent to ``map(func, *iterables)`` except *func* is executed
+       Equivalent to :func:`map(func, *iterables) <map>` except *func* is executed
        asynchronously and several calls to *func* may be made concurrently.  The
        returned iterator raises a :exc:`TimeoutError` if
        :meth:`~iterator.__next__` is called and the result isn't available

Doc/library/multiprocessing.rst

       Unix daemons or services, they are normal processes that will be
       terminated (and not joined) if non-daemonic processes have exited.
 
-   In addition to the  :class:`Threading.Thread` API, :class:`Process` objects
+   In addition to the  :class:`threading.Thread` API, :class:`Process` objects
    also support the following attributes and methods:
 
    .. attribute:: pid
       The process's authentication key (a byte string).
 
       When :mod:`multiprocessing` is initialized the main process is assigned a
-      random string using :func:`os.random`.
+      random string using :func:`os.urandom`.
 
       When a :class:`Process` object is created, it will inherit the
       authentication key of its parent process, although this may be changed by
    (1) After putting an object on an empty queue there may be an
        infinitesimal delay before the queue's :meth:`~Queue.empty`
        method returns :const:`False` and :meth:`~Queue.get_nowait` can
-       return without raising :exc:`Queue.Empty`.
+       return without raising :exc:`queue.Empty`.
 
    (2) If multiple processes are enqueuing objects, it is possible for
        the objects to be received at the other end out-of-order.
 .. warning::
 
    As mentioned above, if a child process has put items on a queue (and it has
-   not used :meth:`JoinableQueue.cancel_join_thread`), then that process will
+   not used :meth:`JoinableQueue.cancel_join_thread
+   <multiprocessing.Queue.cancel_join_thread>`), then that process will
    not terminate until all buffered items have been flushed to the pipe.
 
    This means that if you try joining that process you may get a deadlock unless
    thread is started which transfers objects from a buffer into the pipe.
 
    The usual :exc:`queue.Empty` and :exc:`queue.Full` exceptions from the
-   standard library's :mod:`Queue` module are raised to signal timeouts.
+   standard library's :mod:`queue` module are raised to signal timeouts.
 
    :class:`Queue` implements all the methods of :class:`queue.Queue` except for
    :meth:`~queue.Queue.task_done` and :meth:`~queue.Queue.join`.
       call to :meth:`task_done` tells the queue that the processing on the task
       is complete.
 
-      If a :meth:`~Queue.join` is currently blocking, it will resume when all
+      If a :meth:`~queue.Queue.join` is currently blocking, it will resume when all
       items have been processed (meaning that a :meth:`task_done` call was
       received for every item that had been :meth:`~Queue.put` into the queue).
 
       queue.  The count goes down whenever a consumer calls
       :meth:`task_done` to indicate that the item was retrieved and all work on
       it is complete.  When the count of unfinished tasks drops to zero,
-      :meth:`~Queue.join` unblocks.
+      :meth:`~queue.Queue.join` unblocks.
 
 
 Miscellaneous
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.3
       Connection objects now support the context manager protocol -- see
-      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`__enter__` returns the
-      connection object, and :meth:`__exit__` calls :meth:`close`.
+      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`~contextmanager.__enter__` returns the
+      connection object, and :meth:`~contextmanager.__exit__` calls :meth:`close`.
 
 For example:
 
    object from :mod:`multiprocessing`.
 
    .. versionchanged:: 3.3
-      The :meth:`wait_for` method was added.
+      The :meth:`~threading.Condition.wait_for` method was added.
 
 .. class:: Event()
 
    array.
 
    If *lock* is ``True`` (the default) then a new lock object is created to
-   synchronize access to the value.  If *lock* is a :class:`Lock` or
-   :class:`RLock` object then that will be used to synchronize access to the
+   synchronize access to the value.  If *lock* is a
+   :class:`~multiprocessing.Lock` or :class:`~multiprocessing.RLock` object
+   then that will be used to synchronize access to the
    value.  If *lock* is ``False`` then access to the returned object will not be
    automatically protected by a lock, so it will not necessarily be
    "process-safe".
    object.
 
    If *lock* is ``True`` (the default) then a new lock object is created to
-   synchronize access to the value.  If *lock* is a :class:`Lock` or
-   :class:`RLock` object then that will be used to synchronize access to the
+   synchronize access to the value.  If *lock* is a :class:`~multiprocessing.Lock` or
+   :class:`~multiprocessing.RLock` object then that will be used to synchronize access to the
    value.  If *lock* is ``False`` then access to the returned object will not be
    automatically protected by a lock, so it will not necessarily be
    "process-safe".
       :attr:`proxytype._exposed_` is used instead if it exists.)  In the case
       where no exposed list is specified, all "public methods" of the shared
       object will be accessible.  (Here a "public method" means any attribute
-      which has a :meth:`__call__` method and whose name does not begin with
-      ``'_'``.)
+      which has a :meth:`~object.__call__` method and whose name does not begin
+      with ``'_'``.)
 
       *method_to_typeid* is a mapping used to specify the return type of those
       exposed methods which should return a proxy.  It maps method names to
 
    .. versionchanged:: 3.3
       Manager objects support the context manager protocol -- see
-      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`__enter__` starts the server
-      process (if it has not already started) and then returns the
-      manager object.  :meth:`__exit__` calls :meth:`shutdown`.
-
-      In previous versions :meth:`__enter__` did not start the
+      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`~contextmanager.__enter__` starts the
+      server process (if it has not already started) and then returns the
+      manager object.  :meth:`~contextmanager.__exit__` calls :meth:`shutdown`.
+
+      In previous versions :meth:`~contextmanager.__enter__` did not start the
       manager's server process if it was not already started.
 
 .. class:: SyncManager
       :class:`threading.Lock` or :class:`threading.RLock` object.
 
       .. versionchanged:: 3.3
-         The :meth:`wait_for` method was added.
+         The :meth:`~threading.Condition.wait_for` method was added.
 
    .. method:: Event()
 
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.3
       Pool objects now support the context manager protocol -- see
-      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`__enter__` returns the pool
-      object, and :meth:`__exit__` calls :meth:`terminate`.
+      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`~contextmanager.__enter__` returns the
+      pool object, and :meth:~contextmanager.`__exit__` calls :meth:`terminate`.
 
 
 .. class:: AsyncResult
    :synopsis: API for dealing with sockets.
 
 Usually message passing between processes is done using queues or by using
-:class:`Connection` objects returned by :func:`Pipe`.
+:class:`~multiprocessing.Connection` objects returned by
+:func:`~multiprocessing.Pipe`.
 
 However, the :mod:`multiprocessing.connection` module allows some extra
 flexibility.  It basically gives a high level message oriented API for dealing
    private temporary directory created using :func:`tempfile.mkstemp`.
 
    If the listener object uses a socket then *backlog* (1 by default) is passed
-   to the :meth:`listen` method of the socket once it has been bound.
+   to the :meth:`~socket.socket.listen` method of the socket once it has been
+   bound.
 
    If *authenticate* is ``True`` (``False`` by default) or *authkey* is not
    ``None`` then digest authentication is used.
    .. method:: accept()
 
       Accept a connection on the bound socket or named pipe of the listener
-      object and return a :class:`Connection` object.  If authentication is
-      attempted and fails, then
+      object and return a :class:`~multiprocessing.Connection` object.  If
+      authentication is attempted and fails, then
       :exc:`~multiprocessing.AuthenticationError` is raised.
 
    .. method:: close()
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.3
       Listener objects now support the context manager protocol -- see
-      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`__enter__` returns the
-      listener object, and :meth:`__exit__` calls :meth:`close`.
+      :ref:`typecontextmanager`.  :meth:`~contextmanager.__enter__` returns the
+      listener object, and :meth:~contextmanager.`__exit__` calls :meth:`close`.
 
 .. function:: wait(object_list, timeout=None)
 
 Authentication keys
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-When one uses :meth:`Connection.recv`, the data received is automatically
+When one uses :meth:`Connection.recv <multiprocessing.Connection.recv>`, the
+data received is automatically
 unpickled.  Unfortunately unpickling data from an untrusted source is a security
 risk.  Therefore :class:`Listener` and :func:`Client` use the :mod:`hmac` module
 to provide digest authentication.
 
     On Unix when a process finishes but has not been joined it becomes a zombie.
     There should never be very many because each time a new process starts (or
-    :func:`active_children` is called) all completed processes which have not
-    yet been joined will be joined.  Also calling a finished process's
-    :meth:`Process.is_alive` will join the process.  Even so it is probably good
+    :func:`~multiprocessing.active_children` is called) all completed processes
+    which have not yet been joined will be joined.  Also calling a finished
+    process's :meth:`Process.is_alive <multiprocessing.Process.is_alive>` will
+    join the process.  Even so it is probably good
     practice to explicitly join all the processes that you start.
 
 Better to inherit than pickle/unpickle
 
 Avoid terminating processes
 
-    Using the :meth:`Process.terminate` method to stop a process is liable to
+    Using the :meth:`Process.terminate <multiprocessing.Process.terminate>`
+    method to stop a process is liable to
     cause any shared resources (such as locks, semaphores, pipes and queues)
     currently being used by the process to become broken or unavailable to other
     processes.
 
     Therefore it is probably best to only consider using
-    :meth:`Process.terminate` on processes which never use any shared resources.
+    :meth:`Process.terminate <multiprocessing.Process.terminate>` on processes
+    which never use any shared resources.
 
 Joining processes that use queues
 
     Bear in mind that a process that has put items in a queue will wait before
     terminating until all the buffered items are fed by the "feeder" thread to
     the underlying pipe.  (The child process can call the
-    :meth:`Queue.cancel_join_thread` method of the queue to avoid this behaviour.)
+    :meth:`Queue.cancel_join_thread <multiprocessing.Queue.cancel_join_thread>`
+    method of the queue to avoid this behaviour.)
 
     This means that whenever you use a queue you need to make sure that all
     items which have been put on the queue will eventually be removed before the
     resulting in a bad file descriptor error, but introduces a potential danger
     to applications which replace :func:`sys.stdin` with a "file-like object"
     with output buffering.  This danger is that if multiple processes call
-    :func:`close()` on this file-like object, it could result in the same
+    :meth:`~io.IOBase.close()` on this file-like object, it could result in the same
     data being flushed to the object multiple times, resulting in corruption.
 
     If you write a file-like object and implement your own caching, you can
     the *fork* start method) --- just define a function and use that
     instead.
 
-    Also, if you subclass :class:`Process` then make sure that instances will be
-    picklable when the :meth:`Process.start` method is called.
+    Also, if you subclass :class:`~multiprocessing.Process` then make sure that
+    instances will be picklable when the :meth:`Process.start
+    <multiprocessing.Process.start>` method is called.
 
 Global variables
 
     Bear in mind that if code run in a child process tries to access a global
     variable, then the value it sees (if any) may not be the same as the value
-    in the parent process at the time that :meth:`Process.start` was called.
+    in the parent process at the time that :meth:`Process.start
+    <multiprocessing.Process.start>` was called.
 
     However, global variables which are just module level constants cause no
     problems.
    :language: python3
 
 
-Using :class:`Pool`:
+Using :class:`~multiprocessing.pool.Pool`:
 
 .. literalinclude:: ../includes/mp_pool.py
    :language: python3

Doc/library/queue.rst

 
 .. exception:: Empty
 
-   Exception raised when non-blocking :meth:`get` (or :meth:`get_nowait`) is called
+   Exception raised when non-blocking :meth:`~Queue.get` (or
+   :meth:`~Queue.get_nowait`) is called
    on a :class:`Queue` object which is empty.
 
 
 .. exception:: Full
 
-   Exception raised when non-blocking :meth:`put` (or :meth:`put_nowait`) is called
+   Exception raised when non-blocking :meth:`~Queue.put` (or
+   :meth:`~Queue.put_nowait`) is called
    on a :class:`Queue` object which is full.
 
 
       context.
 
    :class:`collections.deque` is an alternative implementation of unbounded
-   queues with fast atomic :func:`append` and :func:`popleft` operations that
-   do not require locking.
+   queues with fast atomic :meth:`~collections.deque.append` and
+   :meth:`~collections.deque.popleft` operations that do not require locking.
 

Doc/library/select.rst

    This is a straightforward interface to the Unix :c:func:`select` system call.
    The first three arguments are sequences of 'waitable objects': either
    integers representing file descriptors or objects with a parameterless method
-   named :meth:`fileno` returning such an integer:
+   named :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` returning such an integer:
 
    * *rlist*: wait until ready for reading
    * *wlist*: wait until ready for writing
    objects <file object>` (e.g. ``sys.stdin``, or objects returned by
    :func:`open` or :func:`os.popen`), socket objects returned by
    :func:`socket.socket`.  You may also define a :dfn:`wrapper` class yourself,
-   as long as it has an appropriate :meth:`fileno` method (that really returns
-   a file descriptor, not just a random integer).
+   as long as it has an appropriate :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method (that
+   really returns a file descriptor, not just a random integer).
 
    .. note::
 
 .. attribute:: PIPE_BUF
 
    The minimum number of bytes which can be written without blocking to a pipe
-   when the pipe has been reported as ready for writing by :func:`select`,
+   when the pipe has been reported as ready for writing by :func:`~select.select`,
    :func:`poll` or another interface in this module.  This doesn't apply
    to other kind of file-like objects such as sockets.
 
 .. method:: devpoll.register(fd[, eventmask])
 
    Register a file descriptor with the polling object.  Future calls to the
-   :meth:`poll` method will then check whether the file descriptor has any pending
-   I/O events.  *fd* can be either an integer, or an object with a :meth:`fileno`
-   method that returns an integer.  File objects implement :meth:`fileno`, so they
-   can also be used as the argument.
+   :meth:`poll` method will then check whether the file descriptor has any
+   pending I/O events.  *fd* can be either an integer, or an object with a
+   :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method that returns an integer.  File objects
+   implement :meth:`!fileno`, so they can also be used as the argument.
 
    *eventmask* is an optional bitmask describing the type of events you want to
    check for. The constants are the same that with :c:func:`poll`
 
    Remove a file descriptor being tracked by a polling object.  Just like the
    :meth:`register` method, *fd* can be an integer or an object with a
-   :meth:`fileno` method that returns an integer.
+   :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method that returns an integer.
 
    Attempting to remove a file descriptor that was never registered is
    safely ignored.
 .. method:: poll.register(fd[, eventmask])
 
    Register a file descriptor with the polling object.  Future calls to the
-   :meth:`poll` method will then check whether the file descriptor has any pending
-   I/O events.  *fd* can be either an integer, or an object with a :meth:`fileno`
-   method that returns an integer.  File objects implement :meth:`fileno`, so they
-   can also be used as the argument.
+   :meth:`poll` method will then check whether the file descriptor has any
+   pending I/O events.  *fd* can be either an integer, or an object with a
+   :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method that returns an integer.  File objects
+   implement :meth:`!fileno`, so they can also be used as the argument.
 
    *eventmask* is an optional bitmask describing the type of events you want to
    check for, and can be a combination of the constants :const:`POLLIN`,
 
    Remove a file descriptor being tracked by a polling object.  Just like the
    :meth:`register` method, *fd* can be an integer or an object with a
-   :meth:`fileno` method that returns an integer.
+   :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method that returns an integer.
 
    Attempting to remove a file descriptor that was never registered causes a
    :exc:`KeyError` exception to be raised.
 
    Value used to identify the event. The interpretation depends on the filter
    but it's usually the file descriptor. In the constructor ident can either
-   be an int or an object with a fileno() function. kevent stores the integer
-   internally.
+   be an int or an object with a :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method. kevent
+   stores the integer internally.
 
 .. attribute:: kevent.filter
 

Doc/library/subprocess.rst

    Run command with arguments.  Wait for command to complete. If the return
    code was zero then return, otherwise raise :exc:`CalledProcessError`. The
    :exc:`CalledProcessError` object will have the return code in the
-   :attr:`returncode` attribute.
+   :attr:`~CalledProcessError.returncode` attribute.
 
    The arguments shown above are merely the most common ones, described below
    in :ref:`frequently-used-arguments` (hence the use of keyword-only notation
 
    If the return code was non-zero it raises a :exc:`CalledProcessError`. The
    :exc:`CalledProcessError` object will have the return code in the
-   :attr:`returncode` attribute and any output in the :attr:`output`
-   attribute.
+   :attr:`~CalledProcessError.returncode` attribute and any output in the
+   :attr:`~CalledProcessError.output` attribute.
 
    The arguments shown above are merely the most common ones, described below
    in :ref:`frequently-used-arguments` (hence the use of keyword-only notation
 
 .. method:: Popen.poll()
 
-   Check if child process has terminated.  Set and return :attr:`returncode`
-   attribute.
+   Check if child process has terminated.  Set and return
+   :attr:`~Popen.returncode` attribute.
 
 
 .. method:: Popen.wait(timeout=None)
 
-   Wait for child process to terminate.  Set and return :attr:`returncode`
-   attribute.
+   Wait for child process to terminate.  Set and return
+   :attr:`~Popen.returncode` attribute.
 
    If the process does not terminate after *timeout* seconds, raise a
    :exc:`TimeoutExpired` exception.  It is safe to catch this exception and
 
    In addition, the replacements using :func:`check_output` will fail with a
    :exc:`CalledProcessError` if the requested operation produces a non-zero
-   return code. The output is still available as the ``output`` attribute of
-   the raised exception.
+   return code. The output is still available as the
+   :attr:`~CalledProcessError.output` attribute of the raised exception.
 
 In the following examples, we assume that the relevant functions have already
 been imported from the :mod:`subprocess` module.

Doc/library/threading.rst

 
    Set a trace function for all threads started from the :mod:`threading` module.
    The *func* will be passed to  :func:`sys.settrace` for each thread, before its
-   :meth:`run` method is called.
+   :meth:`~Thread.run` method is called.
 
 
 .. function:: setprofile(func)
 
    Set a profile function for all threads started from the :mod:`threading` module.
    The *func* will be passed to  :func:`sys.setprofile` for each thread, before its
-   :meth:`run` method is called.
+   :meth:`~Thread.run` method is called.
 
 
 .. function:: stack_size([size])
 of time has passed --- a timer.  :class:`Timer` is a subclass of :class:`Thread`
 and as such also functions as an example of creating custom threads.
 
-Timers are started, as with threads, by calling their :meth:`start` method.  The
-timer can be stopped (before its action has begun) by calling the :meth:`cancel`
-method.  The interval the timer will wait before executing its action may not be
-exactly the same as the interval specified by the user.
+Timers are started, as with threads, by calling their :meth:`~Timer.start`
+method.  The timer can be stopped (before its action has begun) by calling the
+:meth:`~Timer.cancel` method.  The interval the timer will wait before
+executing its action may not be exactly the same as the interval specified by
+the user.
 
 For example::