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:mod:`math` --- Mathematical functions

This module is always available. It provides access to the mathematical functions defined by the C standard.

These functions cannot be used with complex numbers; use the functions of the same name from the :mod:`cmath` module if you require support for complex numbers. The distinction between functions which support complex numbers and those which don't is made since most users do not want to learn quite as much mathematics as required to understand complex numbers. Receiving an exception instead of a complex result allows earlier detection of the unexpected complex number used as a parameter, so that the programmer can determine how and why it was generated in the first place.

The following functions are provided by this module. Except when explicitly noted otherwise, all return values are floats.

Number-theoretic and representation functions

Note that :func:`frexp` and :func:`modf` have a different call/return pattern than their C equivalents: they take a single argument and return a pair of values, rather than returning their second return value through an 'output parameter' (there is no such thing in Python).

For the :func:`ceil`, :func:`floor`, and :func:`modf` functions, note that all floating-point numbers of sufficiently large magnitude are exact integers. Python floats typically carry no more than 53 bits of precision (the same as the platform C double type), in which case any float x with abs(x) >= 2**52 necessarily has no fractional bits.

Power and logarithmic functions

Trigonometric functions

Angular conversion

Hyperbolic functions

Hyperbolic functions are analogs of trigonometric functions that are based on hyperbolas instead of circles.

Special functions

Constants