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cpython_sandbox / Lib / test / test_inspect.py

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import re
import sys
import types
import unittest
import inspect
import linecache
import datetime
import collections
import os
import shutil
from os.path import normcase

from test.support import run_unittest, TESTFN, DirsOnSysPath

from test import inspect_fodder as mod
from test import inspect_fodder2 as mod2

# C module for test_findsource_binary
import unicodedata

# Functions tested in this suite:
# ismodule, isclass, ismethod, isfunction, istraceback, isframe, iscode,
# isbuiltin, isroutine, isgenerator, isgeneratorfunction, getmembers,
# getdoc, getfile, getmodule, getsourcefile, getcomments, getsource,
# getclasstree, getargspec, getargvalues, formatargspec, formatargvalues,
# currentframe, stack, trace, isdatadescriptor

# NOTE: There are some additional tests relating to interaction with
#       zipimport in the test_zipimport_support test module.

modfile = mod.__file__
if modfile.endswith(('c', 'o')):
    modfile = modfile[:-1]

# Normalize file names: on Windows, the case of file names of compiled
# modules depends on the path used to start the python executable.
modfile = normcase(modfile)

def revise(filename, *args):
    return (normcase(filename),) + args

import builtins

git = mod.StupidGit()

class IsTestBase(unittest.TestCase):
    predicates = set([inspect.isbuiltin, inspect.isclass, inspect.iscode,
                      inspect.isframe, inspect.isfunction, inspect.ismethod,
                      inspect.ismodule, inspect.istraceback,
                      inspect.isgenerator, inspect.isgeneratorfunction])

    def istest(self, predicate, exp):
        obj = eval(exp)
        self.assertTrue(predicate(obj), '%s(%s)' % (predicate.__name__, exp))

        for other in self.predicates - set([predicate]):
            if predicate == inspect.isgeneratorfunction and\
               other == inspect.isfunction:
                continue
            self.assertFalse(other(obj), 'not %s(%s)' % (other.__name__, exp))

def generator_function_example(self):
    for i in range(2):
        yield i

class TestPredicates(IsTestBase):
    def test_sixteen(self):
        count = len([x for x in dir(inspect) if x.startswith('is')])
        # This test is here for remember you to update Doc/library/inspect.rst
        # which claims there are 16 such functions
        expected = 16
        err_msg = "There are %d (not %d) is* functions" % (count, expected)
        self.assertEqual(count, expected, err_msg)


    def test_excluding_predicates(self):
        global tb
        self.istest(inspect.isbuiltin, 'sys.exit')
        self.istest(inspect.isbuiltin, '[].append')
        self.istest(inspect.iscode, 'mod.spam.__code__')
        try:
            1/0
        except:
            tb = sys.exc_info()[2]
            self.istest(inspect.isframe, 'tb.tb_frame')
            self.istest(inspect.istraceback, 'tb')
            if hasattr(types, 'GetSetDescriptorType'):
                self.istest(inspect.isgetsetdescriptor,
                            'type(tb.tb_frame).f_locals')
            else:
                self.assertFalse(inspect.isgetsetdescriptor(type(tb.tb_frame).f_locals))
        finally:
            # Clear traceback and all the frames and local variables hanging to it.
            tb = None
        self.istest(inspect.isfunction, 'mod.spam')
        self.istest(inspect.isfunction, 'mod.StupidGit.abuse')
        self.istest(inspect.ismethod, 'git.argue')
        self.istest(inspect.ismodule, 'mod')
        self.istest(inspect.isdatadescriptor, 'collections.defaultdict.default_factory')
        self.istest(inspect.isgenerator, '(x for x in range(2))')
        self.istest(inspect.isgeneratorfunction, 'generator_function_example')
        if hasattr(types, 'MemberDescriptorType'):
            self.istest(inspect.ismemberdescriptor, 'datetime.timedelta.days')
        else:
            self.assertFalse(inspect.ismemberdescriptor(datetime.timedelta.days))

    def test_isroutine(self):
        self.assertTrue(inspect.isroutine(mod.spam))
        self.assertTrue(inspect.isroutine([].count))

    def test_isclass(self):
        self.istest(inspect.isclass, 'mod.StupidGit')
        self.assertTrue(inspect.isclass(list))

        class CustomGetattr(object):
            def __getattr__(self, attr):
                return None
        self.assertFalse(inspect.isclass(CustomGetattr()))

    def test_get_slot_members(self):
        class C(object):
            __slots__ = ("a", "b")

        x = C()
        x.a = 42
        members = dict(inspect.getmembers(x))
        self.assertIn('a', members)
        self.assertNotIn('b', members)

    def test_isabstract(self):
        from abc import ABCMeta, abstractmethod

        class AbstractClassExample(metaclass=ABCMeta):

            @abstractmethod
            def foo(self):
                pass

        class ClassExample(AbstractClassExample):
            def foo(self):
                pass

        a = ClassExample()

        # Test general behaviour.
        self.assertTrue(inspect.isabstract(AbstractClassExample))
        self.assertFalse(inspect.isabstract(ClassExample))
        self.assertFalse(inspect.isabstract(a))
        self.assertFalse(inspect.isabstract(int))
        self.assertFalse(inspect.isabstract(5))


class TestInterpreterStack(IsTestBase):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        unittest.TestCase.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

        git.abuse(7, 8, 9)

    def test_abuse_done(self):
        self.istest(inspect.istraceback, 'git.ex[2]')
        self.istest(inspect.isframe, 'mod.fr')

    def test_stack(self):
        self.assertTrue(len(mod.st) >= 5)
        self.assertEqual(revise(*mod.st[0][1:]),
             (modfile, 16, 'eggs', ['    st = inspect.stack()\n'], 0))
        self.assertEqual(revise(*mod.st[1][1:]),
             (modfile, 9, 'spam', ['    eggs(b + d, c + f)\n'], 0))
        self.assertEqual(revise(*mod.st[2][1:]),
             (modfile, 43, 'argue', ['            spam(a, b, c)\n'], 0))
        self.assertEqual(revise(*mod.st[3][1:]),
             (modfile, 39, 'abuse', ['        self.argue(a, b, c)\n'], 0))

    def test_trace(self):
        self.assertEqual(len(git.tr), 3)
        self.assertEqual(revise(*git.tr[0][1:]),
             (modfile, 43, 'argue', ['            spam(a, b, c)\n'], 0))
        self.assertEqual(revise(*git.tr[1][1:]),
             (modfile, 9, 'spam', ['    eggs(b + d, c + f)\n'], 0))
        self.assertEqual(revise(*git.tr[2][1:]),
             (modfile, 18, 'eggs', ['    q = y / 0\n'], 0))

    def test_frame(self):
        args, varargs, varkw, locals = inspect.getargvalues(mod.fr)
        self.assertEqual(args, ['x', 'y'])
        self.assertEqual(varargs, None)
        self.assertEqual(varkw, None)
        self.assertEqual(locals, {'x': 11, 'p': 11, 'y': 14})
        self.assertEqual(inspect.formatargvalues(args, varargs, varkw, locals),
                         '(x=11, y=14)')

    def test_previous_frame(self):
        args, varargs, varkw, locals = inspect.getargvalues(mod.fr.f_back)
        self.assertEqual(args, ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'])
        self.assertEqual(varargs, 'g')
        self.assertEqual(varkw, 'h')
        self.assertEqual(inspect.formatargvalues(args, varargs, varkw, locals),
             '(a=7, b=8, c=9, d=3, e=4, f=5, *g=(), **h={})')

class GetSourceBase(unittest.TestCase):
    # Subclasses must override.
    fodderModule = None

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        unittest.TestCase.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

        with open(inspect.getsourcefile(self.fodderModule)) as fp:
            self.source = fp.read()

    def sourcerange(self, top, bottom):
        lines = self.source.split("\n")
        return "\n".join(lines[top-1:bottom]) + "\n"

    def assertSourceEqual(self, obj, top, bottom):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getsource(obj),
                         self.sourcerange(top, bottom))

class TestRetrievingSourceCode(GetSourceBase):
    fodderModule = mod

    def test_getclasses(self):
        classes = inspect.getmembers(mod, inspect.isclass)
        self.assertEqual(classes,
                         [('FesteringGob', mod.FesteringGob),
                          ('MalodorousPervert', mod.MalodorousPervert),
                          ('ParrotDroppings', mod.ParrotDroppings),
                          ('StupidGit', mod.StupidGit)])
        tree = inspect.getclasstree([cls[1] for cls in classes], 1)
        self.assertEqual(tree,
                         [(object, ()),
                          [(mod.ParrotDroppings, (object,)),
                           (mod.StupidGit, (object,)),
                           [(mod.MalodorousPervert, (mod.StupidGit,)),
                            [(mod.FesteringGob, (mod.MalodorousPervert,
                                                    mod.ParrotDroppings))
                             ]
                            ]
                           ]
                          ])

    def test_getfunctions(self):
        functions = inspect.getmembers(mod, inspect.isfunction)
        self.assertEqual(functions, [('eggs', mod.eggs),
                                     ('spam', mod.spam)])

    @unittest.skipIf(sys.flags.optimize >= 2,
                     "Docstrings are omitted with -O2 and above")
    def test_getdoc(self):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getdoc(mod), 'A module docstring.')
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getdoc(mod.StupidGit),
                         'A longer,\n\nindented\n\ndocstring.')
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getdoc(git.abuse),
                         'Another\n\ndocstring\n\ncontaining\n\ntabs')

    def test_cleandoc(self):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.cleandoc('An\n    indented\n    docstring.'),
                         'An\nindented\ndocstring.')

    def test_getcomments(self):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getcomments(mod), '# line 1\n')
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getcomments(mod.StupidGit), '# line 20\n')

    def test_getmodule(self):
        # Check actual module
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(mod), mod)
        # Check class (uses __module__ attribute)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(mod.StupidGit), mod)
        # Check a method (no __module__ attribute, falls back to filename)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(mod.StupidGit.abuse), mod)
        # Do it again (check the caching isn't broken)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(mod.StupidGit.abuse), mod)
        # Check a builtin
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(str), sys.modules["builtins"])
        # Check filename override
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmodule(None, modfile), mod)

    def test_getsource(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(git.abuse, 29, 39)
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod.StupidGit, 21, 46)

    def test_getsourcefile(self):
        self.assertEqual(normcase(inspect.getsourcefile(mod.spam)), modfile)
        self.assertEqual(normcase(inspect.getsourcefile(git.abuse)), modfile)
        fn = "_non_existing_filename_used_for_sourcefile_test.py"
        co = compile("None", fn, "exec")
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getsourcefile(co), None)
        linecache.cache[co.co_filename] = (1, None, "None", co.co_filename)
        try:
            self.assertEqual(normcase(inspect.getsourcefile(co)), fn)
        finally:
            del linecache.cache[co.co_filename]

    def test_getfile(self):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getfile(mod.StupidGit), mod.__file__)

    def test_getmodule_recursion(self):
        from types import ModuleType
        name = '__inspect_dummy'
        m = sys.modules[name] = ModuleType(name)
        m.__file__ = "<string>" # hopefully not a real filename...
        m.__loader__ = "dummy"  # pretend the filename is understood by a loader
        exec("def x(): pass", m.__dict__)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getsourcefile(m.x.__code__), '<string>')
        del sys.modules[name]
        inspect.getmodule(compile('a=10','','single'))

    def test_proceed_with_fake_filename(self):
        '''doctest monkeypatches linecache to enable inspection'''
        fn, source = '<test>', 'def x(): pass\n'
        getlines = linecache.getlines
        def monkey(filename, module_globals=None):
            if filename == fn:
                return source.splitlines(keepends=True)
            else:
                return getlines(filename, module_globals)
        linecache.getlines = monkey
        try:
            ns = {}
            exec(compile(source, fn, 'single'), ns)
            inspect.getsource(ns["x"])
        finally:
            linecache.getlines = getlines

class TestDecorators(GetSourceBase):
    fodderModule = mod2

    def test_wrapped_decorator(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.wrapped, 14, 17)

    def test_replacing_decorator(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.gone, 9, 10)

class TestOneliners(GetSourceBase):
    fodderModule = mod2
    def test_oneline_lambda(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a one-line lambda function.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.oll, 25, 25)

    def test_threeline_lambda(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a three-line lambda function,
        # where the second and third lines are _not_ indented.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.tll, 28, 30)

    def test_twoline_indented_lambda(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a two-line lambda function,
        # where the second line _is_ indented.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.tlli, 33, 34)

    def test_onelinefunc(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a regular one-line function.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.onelinefunc, 37, 37)

    def test_manyargs(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a regular function where
        # the arguments are on two lines and _not_ indented and
        # the body on the second line with the last arguments.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.manyargs, 40, 41)

    def test_twolinefunc(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a regular function where
        # the body is on two lines, following the argument list and
        # continued on the next line by a \\.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.twolinefunc, 44, 45)

    def test_lambda_in_list(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a one-line lambda function
        # defined in a list, indented.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.a[1], 49, 49)

    def test_anonymous(self):
        # Test inspect.getsource with a lambda function defined
        # as argument to another function.
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.anonymous, 55, 55)

class TestBuggyCases(GetSourceBase):
    fodderModule = mod2

    def test_with_comment(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.with_comment, 58, 59)

    def test_multiline_sig(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.multiline_sig[0], 63, 64)

    def test_nested_class(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.func69().func71, 71, 72)

    def test_one_liner_followed_by_non_name(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.func77, 77, 77)

    def test_one_liner_dedent_non_name(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.cls82.func83, 83, 83)

    def test_with_comment_instead_of_docstring(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.func88, 88, 90)

    def test_method_in_dynamic_class(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(mod2.method_in_dynamic_class, 95, 97)

    @unittest.skipIf(
        not hasattr(unicodedata, '__file__') or
            unicodedata.__file__[-4:] in (".pyc", ".pyo"),
        "unicodedata is not an external binary module")
    def test_findsource_binary(self):
        self.assertRaises(OSError, inspect.getsource, unicodedata)
        self.assertRaises(OSError, inspect.findsource, unicodedata)

    def test_findsource_code_in_linecache(self):
        lines = ["x=1"]
        co = compile(lines[0], "_dynamically_created_file", "exec")
        self.assertRaises(OSError, inspect.findsource, co)
        self.assertRaises(OSError, inspect.getsource, co)
        linecache.cache[co.co_filename] = (1, None, lines, co.co_filename)
        try:
            self.assertEqual(inspect.findsource(co), (lines,0))
            self.assertEqual(inspect.getsource(co), lines[0])
        finally:
            del linecache.cache[co.co_filename]

    def test_findsource_without_filename(self):
        for fname in ['', '<string>']:
            co = compile('x=1', fname, "exec")
            self.assertRaises(IOError, inspect.findsource, co)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, inspect.getsource, co)

class TestNoEOL(GetSourceBase):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.tempdir = TESTFN + '_dir'
        os.mkdir(self.tempdir)
        with open(os.path.join(self.tempdir,
                               'inspect_fodder3%spy' % os.extsep), 'w') as f:
            f.write("class X:\n    pass # No EOL")
        with DirsOnSysPath(self.tempdir):
            import inspect_fodder3 as mod3
        self.fodderModule = mod3
        GetSourceBase.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

    def tearDown(self):
        shutil.rmtree(self.tempdir)

    def test_class(self):
        self.assertSourceEqual(self.fodderModule.X, 1, 2)


class _BrokenDataDescriptor(object):
    """
    A broken data descriptor. See bug #1785.
    """
    def __get__(*args):
        raise AssertionError("should not __get__ data descriptors")

    def __set__(*args):
        raise RuntimeError

    def __getattr__(*args):
        raise AssertionError("should not __getattr__ data descriptors")


class _BrokenMethodDescriptor(object):
    """
    A broken method descriptor. See bug #1785.
    """
    def __get__(*args):
        raise AssertionError("should not __get__ method descriptors")

    def __getattr__(*args):
        raise AssertionError("should not __getattr__ method descriptors")


# Helper for testing classify_class_attrs.
def attrs_wo_objs(cls):
    return [t[:3] for t in inspect.classify_class_attrs(cls)]


class TestClassesAndFunctions(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_newstyle_mro(self):
        # The same w/ new-class MRO.
        class A(object):    pass
        class B(A): pass
        class C(A): pass
        class D(B, C): pass

        expected = (D, B, C, A, object)
        got = inspect.getmro(D)
        self.assertEqual(expected, got)

    def assertArgSpecEquals(self, routine, args_e, varargs_e=None,
                            varkw_e=None, defaults_e=None, formatted=None):
        args, varargs, varkw, defaults = inspect.getargspec(routine)
        self.assertEqual(args, args_e)
        self.assertEqual(varargs, varargs_e)
        self.assertEqual(varkw, varkw_e)
        self.assertEqual(defaults, defaults_e)
        if formatted is not None:
            self.assertEqual(inspect.formatargspec(args, varargs, varkw, defaults),
                             formatted)

    def assertFullArgSpecEquals(self, routine, args_e, varargs_e=None,
                                    varkw_e=None, defaults_e=None,
                                    kwonlyargs_e=[], kwonlydefaults_e=None,
                                    ann_e={}, formatted=None):
        args, varargs, varkw, defaults, kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults, ann = \
            inspect.getfullargspec(routine)
        self.assertEqual(args, args_e)
        self.assertEqual(varargs, varargs_e)
        self.assertEqual(varkw, varkw_e)
        self.assertEqual(defaults, defaults_e)
        self.assertEqual(kwonlyargs, kwonlyargs_e)
        self.assertEqual(kwonlydefaults, kwonlydefaults_e)
        self.assertEqual(ann, ann_e)
        if formatted is not None:
            self.assertEqual(inspect.formatargspec(args, varargs, varkw, defaults,
                                                    kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults, ann),
                             formatted)

    def test_getargspec(self):
        self.assertArgSpecEquals(mod.eggs, ['x', 'y'], formatted='(x, y)')

        self.assertArgSpecEquals(mod.spam,
                                 ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'],
                                 'g', 'h', (3, 4, 5),
                                 '(a, b, c, d=3, e=4, f=5, *g, **h)')

        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.assertArgSpecEquals,
                          mod2.keyworded, [])

        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.assertArgSpecEquals,
                          mod2.annotated, [])
        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.assertArgSpecEquals,
                          mod2.keyword_only_arg, [])


    def test_getfullargspec(self):
        self.assertFullArgSpecEquals(mod2.keyworded, [], varargs_e='arg1',
                                     kwonlyargs_e=['arg2'],
                                     kwonlydefaults_e={'arg2':1},
                                     formatted='(*arg1, arg2=1)')

        self.assertFullArgSpecEquals(mod2.annotated, ['arg1'],
                                     ann_e={'arg1' : list},
                                     formatted='(arg1: list)')
        self.assertFullArgSpecEquals(mod2.keyword_only_arg, [],
                                     kwonlyargs_e=['arg'],
                                     formatted='(*, arg)')


    def test_getargspec_method(self):
        class A(object):
            def m(self):
                pass
        self.assertArgSpecEquals(A.m, ['self'])

    def test_classify_newstyle(self):
        class A(object):

            def s(): pass
            s = staticmethod(s)

            def c(cls): pass
            c = classmethod(c)

            def getp(self): pass
            p = property(getp)

            def m(self): pass

            def m1(self): pass

            datablob = '1'

            dd = _BrokenDataDescriptor()
            md = _BrokenMethodDescriptor()

        attrs = attrs_wo_objs(A)
        self.assertIn(('s', 'static method', A), attrs, 'missing static method')
        self.assertIn(('c', 'class method', A), attrs, 'missing class method')
        self.assertIn(('p', 'property', A), attrs, 'missing property')
        self.assertIn(('m', 'method', A), attrs,
                      'missing plain method: %r' % attrs)
        self.assertIn(('m1', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('datablob', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data')
        self.assertIn(('md', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing method descriptor')
        self.assertIn(('dd', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data descriptor')

        class B(A):

            def m(self): pass

        attrs = attrs_wo_objs(B)
        self.assertIn(('s', 'static method', A), attrs, 'missing static method')
        self.assertIn(('c', 'class method', A), attrs, 'missing class method')
        self.assertIn(('p', 'property', A), attrs, 'missing property')
        self.assertIn(('m', 'method', B), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('m1', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('datablob', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data')
        self.assertIn(('md', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing method descriptor')
        self.assertIn(('dd', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data descriptor')


        class C(A):

            def m(self): pass
            def c(self): pass

        attrs = attrs_wo_objs(C)
        self.assertIn(('s', 'static method', A), attrs, 'missing static method')
        self.assertIn(('c', 'method', C), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('p', 'property', A), attrs, 'missing property')
        self.assertIn(('m', 'method', C), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('m1', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('datablob', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data')
        self.assertIn(('md', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing method descriptor')
        self.assertIn(('dd', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data descriptor')

        class D(B, C):

            def m1(self): pass

        attrs = attrs_wo_objs(D)
        self.assertIn(('s', 'static method', A), attrs, 'missing static method')
        self.assertIn(('c', 'method', C), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('p', 'property', A), attrs, 'missing property')
        self.assertIn(('m', 'method', B), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('m1', 'method', D), attrs, 'missing plain method')
        self.assertIn(('datablob', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data')
        self.assertIn(('md', 'method', A), attrs, 'missing method descriptor')
        self.assertIn(('dd', 'data', A), attrs, 'missing data descriptor')

    def test_classify_builtin_types(self):
        # Simple sanity check that all built-in types can have their
        # attributes classified.
        for name in dir(__builtins__):
            builtin = getattr(__builtins__, name)
            if isinstance(builtin, type):
                inspect.classify_class_attrs(builtin)

    def test_getmembers_descriptors(self):
        class A(object):
            dd = _BrokenDataDescriptor()
            md = _BrokenMethodDescriptor()

        def pred_wrapper(pred):
            # A quick'n'dirty way to discard standard attributes of new-style
            # classes.
            class Empty(object):
                pass
            def wrapped(x):
                if '__name__' in dir(x) and hasattr(Empty, x.__name__):
                    return False
                return pred(x)
            return wrapped

        ismethoddescriptor = pred_wrapper(inspect.ismethoddescriptor)
        isdatadescriptor = pred_wrapper(inspect.isdatadescriptor)

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmembers(A, ismethoddescriptor),
            [('md', A.__dict__['md'])])
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmembers(A, isdatadescriptor),
            [('dd', A.__dict__['dd'])])

        class B(A):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmembers(B, ismethoddescriptor),
            [('md', A.__dict__['md'])])
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getmembers(B, isdatadescriptor),
            [('dd', A.__dict__['dd'])])

    def test_getmembers_method(self):
        class B:
            def f(self):
                pass

        self.assertIn(('f', B.f), inspect.getmembers(B))
        self.assertNotIn(('f', B.f), inspect.getmembers(B, inspect.ismethod))
        b = B()
        self.assertIn(('f', b.f), inspect.getmembers(b))
        self.assertIn(('f', b.f), inspect.getmembers(b, inspect.ismethod))


_global_ref = object()
class TestGetClosureVars(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_name_resolution(self):
        # Basic test of the 4 different resolution mechanisms
        def f(nonlocal_ref):
            def g(local_ref):
                print(local_ref, nonlocal_ref, _global_ref, unbound_ref)
            return g
        _arg = object()
        nonlocal_vars = {"nonlocal_ref": _arg}
        global_vars = {"_global_ref": _global_ref}
        builtin_vars = {"print": print}
        unbound_names = {"unbound_ref"}
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars(nonlocal_vars, global_vars,
                                       builtin_vars, unbound_names)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(f(_arg)), expected)

    def test_generator_closure(self):
        def f(nonlocal_ref):
            def g(local_ref):
                print(local_ref, nonlocal_ref, _global_ref, unbound_ref)
                yield
            return g
        _arg = object()
        nonlocal_vars = {"nonlocal_ref": _arg}
        global_vars = {"_global_ref": _global_ref}
        builtin_vars = {"print": print}
        unbound_names = {"unbound_ref"}
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars(nonlocal_vars, global_vars,
                                       builtin_vars, unbound_names)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(f(_arg)), expected)

    def test_method_closure(self):
        class C:
            def f(self, nonlocal_ref):
                def g(local_ref):
                    print(local_ref, nonlocal_ref, _global_ref, unbound_ref)
                return g
        _arg = object()
        nonlocal_vars = {"nonlocal_ref": _arg}
        global_vars = {"_global_ref": _global_ref}
        builtin_vars = {"print": print}
        unbound_names = {"unbound_ref"}
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars(nonlocal_vars, global_vars,
                                       builtin_vars, unbound_names)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(C().f(_arg)), expected)

    def test_nonlocal_vars(self):
        # More complex tests of nonlocal resolution
        def _nonlocal_vars(f):
            return inspect.getclosurevars(f).nonlocals

        def make_adder(x):
            def add(y):
                return x + y
            return add

        def curry(func, arg1):
            return lambda arg2: func(arg1, arg2)

        def less_than(a, b):
            return a < b

        # The infamous Y combinator.
        def Y(le):
            def g(f):
                return le(lambda x: f(f)(x))
            Y.g_ref = g
            return g(g)

        def check_y_combinator(func):
            self.assertEqual(_nonlocal_vars(func), {'f': Y.g_ref})

        inc = make_adder(1)
        add_two = make_adder(2)
        greater_than_five = curry(less_than, 5)

        self.assertEqual(_nonlocal_vars(inc), {'x': 1})
        self.assertEqual(_nonlocal_vars(add_two), {'x': 2})
        self.assertEqual(_nonlocal_vars(greater_than_five),
                         {'arg1': 5, 'func': less_than})
        self.assertEqual(_nonlocal_vars((lambda x: lambda y: x + y)(3)),
                         {'x': 3})
        Y(check_y_combinator)

    def test_getclosurevars_empty(self):
        def foo(): pass
        _empty = inspect.ClosureVars({}, {}, {}, set())
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(lambda: True), _empty)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(foo), _empty)

    def test_getclosurevars_error(self):
        class T: pass
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getclosurevars, 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getclosurevars, list)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getclosurevars, {})

    def _private_globals(self):
        code = """def f(): print(path)"""
        ns = {}
        exec(code, ns)
        return ns["f"], ns

    def test_builtins_fallback(self):
        f, ns = self._private_globals()
        ns.pop("__builtins__", None)
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars({}, {}, {"print":print}, {"path"})
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(f), expected)

    def test_builtins_as_dict(self):
        f, ns = self._private_globals()
        ns["__builtins__"] = {"path":1}
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars({}, {}, {"path":1}, {"print"})
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(f), expected)

    def test_builtins_as_module(self):
        f, ns = self._private_globals()
        ns["__builtins__"] = os
        expected = inspect.ClosureVars({}, {}, {"path":os.path}, {"print"})
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getclosurevars(f), expected)


class TestGetcallargsFunctions(unittest.TestCase):

    def assertEqualCallArgs(self, func, call_params_string, locs=None):
        locs = dict(locs or {}, func=func)
        r1 = eval('func(%s)' % call_params_string, None, locs)
        r2 = eval('inspect.getcallargs(func, %s)' % call_params_string, None,
                  locs)
        self.assertEqual(r1, r2)

    def assertEqualException(self, func, call_param_string, locs=None):
        locs = dict(locs or {}, func=func)
        try:
            eval('func(%s)' % call_param_string, None, locs)
        except Exception as e:
            ex1 = e
        else:
            self.fail('Exception not raised')
        try:
            eval('inspect.getcallargs(func, %s)' % call_param_string, None,
                 locs)
        except Exception as e:
            ex2 = e
        else:
            self.fail('Exception not raised')
        self.assertIs(type(ex1), type(ex2))
        self.assertEqual(str(ex1), str(ex2))
        del ex1, ex2

    def makeCallable(self, signature):
        """Create a function that returns its locals()"""
        code = "lambda %s: locals()"
        return eval(code % signature)

    def test_plain(self):
        f = self.makeCallable('a, b=1')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'a=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=3, a=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, b=3')
        # expand *iterable / **mapping
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*(2,)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*[2]')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*(2, 3)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*[2, 3]')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '**{"a":2}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=3, **{"a":2}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, **{"b":3}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '**{"b":3, "a":2}')
        # expand UserList / UserDict
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*collections.UserList([2])')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*collections.UserList([2, 3])')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '**collections.UserDict(a=2)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, **collections.UserDict(b=3)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=2, **collections.UserDict(a=3)')

    def test_varargs(self):
        f = self.makeCallable('a, b=1, *c')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, 4')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '*(2,3,4)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, *[3,4]')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, *collections.UserList([4])')

    def test_varkw(self):
        f = self.makeCallable('a, b=1, **c')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'a=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, b=3, c=4')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=3, a=2, c=4')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=4, **{"a":2, "b":3}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, c=4, **{"b":3}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=2, **{"a":3, "c":4}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '**collections.UserDict(a=2, b=3, c=4)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, c=4, **collections.UserDict(b=3)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'b=2, **collections.UserDict(a=3, c=4)')

    def test_varkw_only(self):
        # issue11256:
        f = self.makeCallable('**c')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'a=1')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'a=1, b=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3, **{"a": 1, "b": 2}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '**collections.UserDict(a=1, b=2)')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3, **collections.UserDict(a=1, b=2)')

    def test_keyword_only(self):
        f = self.makeCallable('a=3, *, c, d=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3, a=3')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'a=2, c=4')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '4, c=4')
        self.assertEqualException(f, '')
        self.assertEqualException(f, '3')
        self.assertEqualException(f, 'a=3')
        self.assertEqualException(f, 'd=4')

        f = self.makeCallable('*, c, d=2')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'c=3, d=4')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'd=4, c=3')

    def test_multiple_features(self):
        f = self.makeCallable('a, b=2, *f, **g')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, 7')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, x=8')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, x=8, *[(4,[5,6]), 7]')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, x=8, *[3, (4,[5,6]), 7], y=9')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'x=8, *[2, 3, (4,[5,6])], y=9')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'x=8, *collections.UserList('
                                 '[2, 3, (4,[5,6])]), **{"y":9, "z":10}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, x=8, *collections.UserList([3, '
                                 '(4,[5,6])]), **collections.UserDict('
                                 'y=9, z=10)')

        f = self.makeCallable('a, b=2, *f, x, y=99, **g')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, x=8')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, 3, x=8, *[(4,[5,6]), 7]')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, x=8, *[3, (4,[5,6]), 7], y=9, z=10')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'x=8, *[2, 3, (4,[5,6])], y=9, z=10')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, 'x=8, *collections.UserList('
                                 '[2, 3, (4,[5,6])]), q=0, **{"y":9, "z":10}')
        self.assertEqualCallArgs(f, '2, x=8, *collections.UserList([3, '
                                 '(4,[5,6])]), q=0, **collections.UserDict('
                                 'y=9, z=10)')

    def test_errors(self):
        f0 = self.makeCallable('')
        f1 = self.makeCallable('a, b')
        f2 = self.makeCallable('a, b=1')
        # f0 takes no arguments
        self.assertEqualException(f0, '1')
        self.assertEqualException(f0, 'x=1')
        self.assertEqualException(f0, '1,x=1')
        # f1 takes exactly 2 arguments
        self.assertEqualException(f1, '')
        self.assertEqualException(f1, '1')
        self.assertEqualException(f1, 'a=2')
        self.assertEqualException(f1, 'b=3')
        # f2 takes at least 1 argument
        self.assertEqualException(f2, '')
        self.assertEqualException(f2, 'b=3')
        for f in f1, f2:
            # f1/f2 takes exactly/at most 2 arguments
            self.assertEqualException(f, '2, 3, 4')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '1, 2, 3, a=1')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '2, 3, 4, c=5')
            # XXX: success of this one depends on dict order
            ## self.assertEqualException(f, '2, 3, 4, a=1, c=5')
            # f got an unexpected keyword argument
            self.assertEqualException(f, 'c=2')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '2, c=3')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '2, 3, c=4')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '2, c=4, b=3')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '**{u"\u03c0\u03b9": 4}')
            # f got multiple values for keyword argument
            self.assertEqualException(f, '1, a=2')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '1, **{"a":2}')
            self.assertEqualException(f, '1, 2, b=3')
            # XXX: Python inconsistency
            # - for functions and bound methods: unexpected keyword 'c'
            # - for unbound methods: multiple values for keyword 'a'
            #self.assertEqualException(f, '1, c=3, a=2')
        # issue11256:
        f3 = self.makeCallable('**c')
        self.assertEqualException(f3, '1, 2')
        self.assertEqualException(f3, '1, 2, a=1, b=2')
        f4 = self.makeCallable('*, a, b=0')
        self.assertEqualException(f3, '1, 2')
        self.assertEqualException(f3, '1, 2, a=1, b=2')

class TestGetcallargsMethods(TestGetcallargsFunctions):

    def setUp(self):
        class Foo(object):
            pass
        self.cls = Foo
        self.inst = Foo()

    def makeCallable(self, signature):
        assert 'self' not in signature
        mk = super(TestGetcallargsMethods, self).makeCallable
        self.cls.method = mk('self, ' + signature)
        return self.inst.method

class TestGetcallargsUnboundMethods(TestGetcallargsMethods):

    def makeCallable(self, signature):
        super(TestGetcallargsUnboundMethods, self).makeCallable(signature)
        return self.cls.method

    def assertEqualCallArgs(self, func, call_params_string, locs=None):
        return super(TestGetcallargsUnboundMethods, self).assertEqualCallArgs(
            *self._getAssertEqualParams(func, call_params_string, locs))

    def assertEqualException(self, func, call_params_string, locs=None):
        return super(TestGetcallargsUnboundMethods, self).assertEqualException(
            *self._getAssertEqualParams(func, call_params_string, locs))

    def _getAssertEqualParams(self, func, call_params_string, locs=None):
        assert 'inst' not in call_params_string
        locs = dict(locs or {}, inst=self.inst)
        return (func, 'inst,' + call_params_string, locs)


class TestGetattrStatic(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_basic(self):
        class Thing(object):
            x = object()

        thing = Thing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), Thing.x)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x', None), Thing.x)
        with self.assertRaises(AttributeError):
            inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'y')

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'y', 3), 3)

    def test_inherited(self):
        class Thing(object):
            x = object()
        class OtherThing(Thing):
            pass

        something = OtherThing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(something, 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_instance_attr(self):
        class Thing(object):
            x = 2
            def __init__(self, x):
                self.x = x
        thing = Thing(3)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), 3)
        del thing.x
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), 2)

    def test_property(self):
        class Thing(object):
            @property
            def x(self):
                raise AttributeError("I'm pretending not to exist")
        thing = Thing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_descriptor_raises_AttributeError(self):
        class descriptor(object):
            def __get__(*_):
                raise AttributeError("I'm pretending not to exist")
        desc = descriptor()
        class Thing(object):
            x = desc
        thing = Thing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), desc)

    def test_classAttribute(self):
        class Thing(object):
            x = object()

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Thing, 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_inherited_classattribute(self):
        class Thing(object):
            x = object()
        class OtherThing(Thing):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(OtherThing, 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_slots(self):
        class Thing(object):
            y = 'bar'
            __slots__ = ['x']
            def __init__(self):
                self.x = 'foo'
        thing = Thing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), Thing.x)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'y'), 'bar')

        del thing.x
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(thing, 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_metaclass(self):
        class meta(type):
            attr = 'foo'
        class Thing(object, metaclass=meta):
            pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Thing, 'attr'), 'foo')

        class sub(meta):
            pass
        class OtherThing(object, metaclass=sub):
            x = 3
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(OtherThing, 'attr'), 'foo')

        class OtherOtherThing(OtherThing):
            pass
        # this test is odd, but it was added as it exposed a bug
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(OtherOtherThing, 'x'), 3)

    def test_no_dict_no_slots(self):
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(1, 'foo', None), None)
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.getattr_static('foo', 'lower'), None)

    def test_no_dict_no_slots_instance_member(self):
        # returns descriptor
        with open(__file__) as handle:
            self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(handle, 'name'), type(handle).name)

    def test_inherited_slots(self):
        # returns descriptor
        class Thing(object):
            __slots__ = ['x']
            def __init__(self):
                self.x = 'foo'

        class OtherThing(Thing):
            pass
        # it would be nice if this worked...
        # we get the descriptor instead of the instance attribute
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(OtherThing(), 'x'), Thing.x)

    def test_descriptor(self):
        class descriptor(object):
            def __get__(self, instance, owner):
                return 3
        class Foo(object):
            d = descriptor()

        foo = Foo()

        # for a non data descriptor we return the instance attribute
        foo.__dict__['d'] = 1
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(foo, 'd'), 1)

        # if the descriptor is a data-desciptor we should return the
        # descriptor
        descriptor.__set__ = lambda s, i, v: None
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(foo, 'd'), Foo.__dict__['d'])


    def test_metaclass_with_descriptor(self):
        class descriptor(object):
            def __get__(self, instance, owner):
                return 3
        class meta(type):
            d = descriptor()
        class Thing(object, metaclass=meta):
            pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Thing, 'd'), meta.__dict__['d'])


    def test_class_as_property(self):
        class Base(object):
            foo = 3

        class Something(Base):
            executed = False
            @property
            def __class__(self):
                self.executed = True
                return object

        instance = Something()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(instance, 'foo'), 3)
        self.assertFalse(instance.executed)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Something, 'foo'), 3)

    def test_mro_as_property(self):
        class Meta(type):
            @property
            def __mro__(self):
                return (object,)

        class Base(object):
            foo = 3

        class Something(Base, metaclass=Meta):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Something(), 'foo'), 3)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(Something, 'foo'), 3)

    def test_dict_as_property(self):
        test = self
        test.called = False

        class Foo(dict):
            a = 3
            @property
            def __dict__(self):
                test.called = True
                return {}

        foo = Foo()
        foo.a = 4
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(foo, 'a'), 3)
        self.assertFalse(test.called)

    def test_custom_object_dict(self):
        test = self
        test.called = False

        class Custom(dict):
            def get(self, key, default=None):
                test.called = True
                super().get(key, default)

        class Foo(object):
            a = 3
        foo = Foo()
        foo.__dict__ = Custom()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(foo, 'a'), 3)
        self.assertFalse(test.called)

    def test_metaclass_dict_as_property(self):
        class Meta(type):
            @property
            def __dict__(self):
                self.executed = True

        class Thing(metaclass=Meta):
            executed = False

            def __init__(self):
                self.spam = 42

        instance = Thing()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getattr_static(instance, "spam"), 42)
        self.assertFalse(Thing.executed)

    def test_module(self):
        sentinel = object()
        self.assertIsNot(inspect.getattr_static(sys, "version", sentinel),
                         sentinel)

    def test_metaclass_with_metaclass_with_dict_as_property(self):
        class MetaMeta(type):
            @property
            def __dict__(self):
                self.executed = True
                return dict(spam=42)

        class Meta(type, metaclass=MetaMeta):
            executed = False

        class Thing(metaclass=Meta):
            pass

        with self.assertRaises(AttributeError):
            inspect.getattr_static(Thing, "spam")
        self.assertFalse(Thing.executed)

class TestGetGeneratorState(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        def number_generator():
            for number in range(5):
                yield number
        self.generator = number_generator()

    def _generatorstate(self):
        return inspect.getgeneratorstate(self.generator)

    def test_created(self):
        self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_CREATED)

    def test_suspended(self):
        next(self.generator)
        self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_SUSPENDED)

    def test_closed_after_exhaustion(self):
        for i in self.generator:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_CLOSED)

    def test_closed_after_immediate_exception(self):
        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
            self.generator.throw(RuntimeError)
        self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_CLOSED)

    def test_running(self):
        # As mentioned on issue #10220, checking for the RUNNING state only
        # makes sense inside the generator itself.
        # The following generator checks for this by using the closure's
        # reference to self and the generator state checking helper method
        def running_check_generator():
            for number in range(5):
                self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_RUNNING)
                yield number
                self.assertEqual(self._generatorstate(), inspect.GEN_RUNNING)
        self.generator = running_check_generator()
        # Running up to the first yield
        next(self.generator)
        # Running after the first yield
        next(self.generator)

    def test_easy_debugging(self):
        # repr() and str() of a generator state should contain the state name
        names = 'GEN_CREATED GEN_RUNNING GEN_SUSPENDED GEN_CLOSED'.split()
        for name in names:
            state = getattr(inspect, name)
            self.assertIn(name, repr(state))
            self.assertIn(name, str(state))

    def test_getgeneratorlocals(self):
        def each(lst, a=None):
            b=(1, 2, 3)
            for v in lst:
                if v == 3:
                    c = 12
                yield v

        numbers = each([1, 2, 3])
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(numbers),
                         {'a': None, 'lst': [1, 2, 3]})
        next(numbers)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(numbers),
                         {'a': None, 'lst': [1, 2, 3], 'v': 1,
                          'b': (1, 2, 3)})
        next(numbers)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(numbers),
                         {'a': None, 'lst': [1, 2, 3], 'v': 2,
                          'b': (1, 2, 3)})
        next(numbers)
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(numbers),
                         {'a': None, 'lst': [1, 2, 3], 'v': 3,
                          'b': (1, 2, 3), 'c': 12})
        try:
            next(numbers)
        except StopIteration:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(numbers), {})

    def test_getgeneratorlocals_empty(self):
        def yield_one():
            yield 1
        one = yield_one()
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(one), {})
        try:
            next(one)
        except StopIteration:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.getgeneratorlocals(one), {})

    def test_getgeneratorlocals_error(self):
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getgeneratorlocals, 1)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getgeneratorlocals, lambda x: True)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getgeneratorlocals, set)
        self.assertRaises(TypeError, inspect.getgeneratorlocals, (2,3))


class TestSignatureObject(unittest.TestCase):
    @staticmethod
    def signature(func):
        sig = inspect.signature(func)
        return (tuple((param.name,
                       (... if param.default is param.empty else param.default),
                       (... if param.annotation is param.empty
                                                        else param.annotation),
                       str(param.kind).lower())
                                    for param in sig.parameters.values()),
                (... if sig.return_annotation is sig.empty
                                            else sig.return_annotation))

    def test_signature_object(self):
        S = inspect.Signature
        P = inspect.Parameter

        self.assertEqual(str(S()), '()')

        def test(po, pk, *args, ko, **kwargs):
            pass
        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        po = sig.parameters['po'].replace(kind=P.POSITIONAL_ONLY)
        pk = sig.parameters['pk']
        args = sig.parameters['args']
        ko = sig.parameters['ko']
        kwargs = sig.parameters['kwargs']

        S((po, pk, args, ko, kwargs))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'wrong parameter order'):
            S((pk, po, args, ko, kwargs))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'wrong parameter order'):
            S((po, args, pk, ko, kwargs))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'wrong parameter order'):
            S((args, po, pk, ko, kwargs))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'wrong parameter order'):
            S((po, pk, args, kwargs, ko))

        kwargs2 = kwargs.replace(name='args')
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'duplicate parameter name'):
            S((po, pk, args, kwargs2, ko))

    def test_signature_immutability(self):
        def test(a):
            pass
        sig = inspect.signature(test)

        with self.assertRaises(AttributeError):
            sig.foo = 'bar'

        with self.assertRaises(TypeError):
            sig.parameters['a'] = None

    def test_signature_on_noarg(self):
        def test():
            pass
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(test), ((), ...))

    def test_signature_on_wargs(self):
        def test(a, b:'foo') -> 123:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(test),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', ..., 'foo', "positional_or_keyword")),
                          123))

    def test_signature_on_wkwonly(self):
        def test(*, a:float, b:str) -> int:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(test),
                         ((('a', ..., float, "keyword_only"),
                           ('b', ..., str, "keyword_only")),
                           int))

    def test_signature_on_complex_args(self):
        def test(a, b:'foo'=10, *args:'bar', spam:'baz', ham=123, **kwargs:int):
            pass
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(test),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', 10, 'foo', "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('args', ..., 'bar', "var_positional"),
                           ('spam', ..., 'baz', "keyword_only"),
                           ('ham', 123, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., int, "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_builtin_function(self):
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'not supported by signature'):
            inspect.signature(type)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'not supported by signature'):
            # support for 'wrapper_descriptor'
            inspect.signature(type.__call__)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'not supported by signature'):
            # support for 'method-wrapper'
            inspect.signature(min.__call__)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError,
                                     'no signature found for builtin function'):
            # support for 'method-wrapper'
            inspect.signature(min)

    def test_signature_on_non_function(self):
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'is not a callable object'):
            inspect.signature(42)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'is not a Python function'):
            inspect.Signature.from_function(42)

    def test_signature_on_method(self):
        class Test:
            def foo(self, arg1, arg2=1) -> int:
                pass

        meth = Test().foo

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(meth),
                         ((('arg1', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('arg2', 1, ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          int))

    def test_signature_on_classmethod(self):
        class Test:
            @classmethod
            def foo(cls, arg1, *, arg2=1):
                pass

        meth = Test().foo
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(meth),
                         ((('arg1', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('arg2', 1, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        meth = Test.foo
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(meth),
                         ((('arg1', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('arg2', 1, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_staticmethod(self):
        class Test:
            @staticmethod
            def foo(cls, *, arg):
                pass

        meth = Test().foo
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(meth),
                         ((('cls', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('arg', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        meth = Test.foo
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(meth),
                         ((('cls', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('arg', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_partial(self):
        from functools import partial

        def test():
            pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test)), ((), ...))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, "has incorrect arguments"):
            inspect.signature(partial(test, 1))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, "has incorrect arguments"):
            inspect.signature(partial(test, a=1))

        def test(a, b, *, c, d):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test)),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('d', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1)),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('d', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1, c=2)),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', 2, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('d', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, b=1, c=2)),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', 1, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', 2, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('d', ..., ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 0, b=1, c=2)),
                         ((('b', 1, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', 2, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('d', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),),
                          ...))

        def test(a, *args, b, **kwargs):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1)),
                         ((('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1, 2, 3)),
                         ((('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))


        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1, 2, 3, test=True)),
                         ((('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, 1, 2, 3, test=1, b=0)),
                         ((('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', 0, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, b=0)),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', 0, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(test, b=0, test=1)),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('args', ..., ..., "var_positional"),
                           ('b', 0, ..., "keyword_only"),
                           ('kwargs', ..., ..., "var_keyword")),
                          ...))

        def test(a, b, c:int) -> 42:
            pass

        sig = test.__signature__ = inspect.signature(test)

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(partial(test, 1))),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', ..., int, "positional_or_keyword")),
                          42))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(partial(partial(test, 1), 2)),
                         ((('c', ..., int, "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          42))

        psig = inspect.signature(partial(partial(test, 1), 2))

        def foo(a):
            return a
        _foo = partial(partial(foo, a=10), a=20)
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(_foo),
                         ((('a', 20, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))
        # check that we don't have any side-effects in signature(),
        # and the partial object is still functioning
        self.assertEqual(_foo(), 20)

        def foo(a, b, c):
            return a, b, c
        _foo = partial(partial(foo, 1, b=20), b=30)
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(_foo),
                         ((('b', 30, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          ...))
        self.assertEqual(_foo(c=10), (1, 30, 10))
        _foo = partial(_foo, 2) # now 'b' has two values -
                                # positional and keyword
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, "has incorrect arguments"):
            inspect.signature(_foo)

        def foo(a, b, c, *, d):
            return a, b, c, d
        _foo = partial(partial(foo, d=20, c=20), b=10, d=30)
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(_foo),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', 10, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('c', 20, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('d', 30, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(a=200, b=11)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (200, 11, 20, 30))

        def foo(a=1, b=2, c=3):
            return a, b, c
        _foo = partial(foo, a=10, c=13)
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(11)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (11, 2, 13))
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(11, 12)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (11, 12, 13))
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(11, b=12)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (11, 12, 13))
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(b=12)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (10, 12, 13))
        _foo = partial(_foo, b=10)
        ba = inspect.signature(_foo).bind(12, 14)
        self.assertEqual(_foo(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs), (12, 14, 13))

    def test_signature_on_decorated(self):
        import functools

        def decorator(func):
            @functools.wraps(func)
            def wrapper(*args, **kwargs) -> int:
                return func(*args, **kwargs)
            return wrapper

        class Foo:
            @decorator
            def bar(self, a, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Foo.bar),
                         ((('self', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Foo().bar),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          ...))

        # Test that we handle method wrappers correctly
        def decorator(func):
            @functools.wraps(func)
            def wrapper(*args, **kwargs) -> int:
                return func(42, *args, **kwargs)
            sig = inspect.signature(func)
            new_params = tuple(sig.parameters.values())[1:]
            wrapper.__signature__ = sig.replace(parameters=new_params)
            return wrapper

        class Foo:
            @decorator
            def __call__(self, a, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Foo.__call__),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Foo().__call__),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_class(self):
        class C:
            def __init__(self, a):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(C),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        class CM(type):
            def __call__(cls, a):
                pass
        class C(metaclass=CM):
            def __init__(self, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(C),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        class CM(type):
            def __new__(mcls, name, bases, dct, *, foo=1):
                return super().__new__(mcls, name, bases, dct)
        class C(metaclass=CM):
            def __init__(self, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(C),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(CM),
                         ((('name', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('bases', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('dct', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('foo', 1, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        class CMM(type):
            def __new__(mcls, name, bases, dct, *, foo=1):
                return super().__new__(mcls, name, bases, dct)
            def __call__(cls, nm, bs, dt):
                return type(nm, bs, dt)
        class CM(type, metaclass=CMM):
            def __new__(mcls, name, bases, dct, *, bar=2):
                return super().__new__(mcls, name, bases, dct)
        class C(metaclass=CM):
            def __init__(self, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(CMM),
                         ((('name', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('bases', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('dct', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('foo', 1, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(CM),
                         ((('nm', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('bs', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('dt', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword")),
                          ...))

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(C),
                         ((('b', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        class CM(type):
            def __init__(cls, name, bases, dct, *, bar=2):
                return super().__init__(name, bases, dct)
        class C(metaclass=CM):
            def __init__(self, b):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(CM),
                         ((('name', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('bases', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('dct', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),
                           ('bar', 2, ..., "keyword_only")),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_callable_objects(self):
        class Foo:
            def __call__(self, a):
                pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Foo()),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        class Spam:
            pass
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, "is not a callable object"):
            inspect.signature(Spam())

        class Bar(Spam, Foo):
            pass

        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Bar()),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

        class ToFail:
            __call__ = type
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, "not supported by signature"):
            inspect.signature(ToFail())


        class Wrapped:
            pass
        Wrapped.__wrapped__ = lambda a: None
        self.assertEqual(self.signature(Wrapped),
                         ((('a', ..., ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_on_lambdas(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.signature((lambda a=10: a)),
                         ((('a', 10, ..., "positional_or_keyword"),),
                          ...))

    def test_signature_equality(self):
        def foo(a, *, b:int) -> float: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), 42)

        def bar(a, *, b:int) -> float: pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def bar(a, *, b:int) -> int: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def bar(a, *, b:int): pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def bar(a, *, b:int=42) -> float: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def bar(a, *, c) -> float: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def bar(a, b:int) -> float: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))
        def spam(b:int, a) -> float: pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(spam), inspect.signature(bar))

        def foo(*, a, b, c): pass
        def bar(*, c, b, a): pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def foo(*, a=1, b, c): pass
        def bar(*, c, b, a=1): pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def foo(pos, *, a=1, b, c): pass
        def bar(pos, *, c, b, a=1): pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def foo(pos, *, a, b, c): pass
        def bar(pos, *, c, b, a=1): pass
        self.assertNotEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

        def foo(pos, *args, a=42, b, c, **kwargs:int): pass
        def bar(pos, *args, c, b, a=42, **kwargs:int): pass
        self.assertEqual(inspect.signature(foo), inspect.signature(bar))

    def test_signature_unhashable(self):
        def foo(a): pass
        sig = inspect.signature(foo)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'unhashable type'):
            hash(sig)

    def test_signature_str(self):
        def foo(a:int=1, *, b, c=None, **kwargs) -> 42:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(str(inspect.signature(foo)),
                         '(a:int=1, *, b, c=None, **kwargs) -> 42')

        def foo(a:int=1, *args, b, c=None, **kwargs) -> 42:
            pass
        self.assertEqual(str(inspect.signature(foo)),
                         '(a:int=1, *args, b, c=None, **kwargs) -> 42')

        def foo():
            pass
        self.assertEqual(str(inspect.signature(foo)), '()')

    def test_signature_str_positional_only(self):
        P = inspect.Parameter

        def test(a_po, *, b, **kwargs):
            return a_po, kwargs

        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        new_params = list(sig.parameters.values())
        new_params[0] = new_params[0].replace(kind=P.POSITIONAL_ONLY)
        test.__signature__ = sig.replace(parameters=new_params)

        self.assertEqual(str(inspect.signature(test)),
                         '(<a_po>, *, b, **kwargs)')

        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        new_params = list(sig.parameters.values())
        new_params[0] = new_params[0].replace(name=None)
        test.__signature__ = sig.replace(parameters=new_params)
        self.assertEqual(str(inspect.signature(test)),
                         '(<0>, *, b, **kwargs)')

    def test_signature_replace_anno(self):
        def test() -> 42:
            pass

        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        sig = sig.replace(return_annotation=None)
        self.assertIs(sig.return_annotation, None)
        sig = sig.replace(return_annotation=sig.empty)
        self.assertIs(sig.return_annotation, sig.empty)
        sig = sig.replace(return_annotation=42)
        self.assertEqual(sig.return_annotation, 42)
        self.assertEqual(sig, inspect.signature(test))


class TestParameterObject(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_signature_parameter_kinds(self):
        P = inspect.Parameter
        self.assertTrue(P.POSITIONAL_ONLY < P.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD < \
                        P.VAR_POSITIONAL < P.KEYWORD_ONLY < P.VAR_KEYWORD)

        self.assertEqual(str(P.POSITIONAL_ONLY), 'POSITIONAL_ONLY')
        self.assertTrue('POSITIONAL_ONLY' in repr(P.POSITIONAL_ONLY))

    def test_signature_parameter_object(self):
        p = inspect.Parameter('foo', default=10,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_ONLY)
        self.assertEqual(p.name, 'foo')
        self.assertEqual(p.default, 10)
        self.assertIs(p.annotation, p.empty)
        self.assertEqual(p.kind, inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_ONLY)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'invalid value'):
            inspect.Parameter('foo', default=10, kind='123')

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'not a valid parameter name'):
            inspect.Parameter('1', kind=inspect.Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError,
                                     'non-positional-only parameter'):
            inspect.Parameter(None, kind=inspect.Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'cannot have default values'):
            inspect.Parameter('a', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'cannot have default values'):
            inspect.Parameter('a', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL)

        p = inspect.Parameter('a', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'cannot have default values'):
            p.replace(kind=inspect.Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL)

        self.assertTrue(repr(p).startswith('<Parameter'))

    def test_signature_parameter_equality(self):
        P = inspect.Parameter
        p = P('foo', default=42, kind=inspect.Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY)

        self.assertEqual(p, p)
        self.assertNotEqual(p, 42)

        self.assertEqual(p, P('foo', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY))

    def test_signature_parameter_unhashable(self):
        p = inspect.Parameter('foo', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'unhashable type'):
            hash(p)

    def test_signature_parameter_replace(self):
        p = inspect.Parameter('foo', default=42,
                              kind=inspect.Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY)

        self.assertIsNot(p, p.replace())
        self.assertEqual(p, p.replace())

        p2 = p.replace(annotation=1)
        self.assertEqual(p2.annotation, 1)
        p2 = p2.replace(annotation=p2.empty)
        self.assertEqual(p, p2)

        p2 = p2.replace(name='bar')
        self.assertEqual(p2.name, 'bar')
        self.assertNotEqual(p2, p)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'not a valid parameter name'):
            p2 = p2.replace(name=p2.empty)

        p2 = p2.replace(name='foo', default=None)
        self.assertIs(p2.default, None)
        self.assertNotEqual(p2, p)

        p2 = p2.replace(name='foo', default=p2.empty)
        self.assertIs(p2.default, p2.empty)


        p2 = p2.replace(default=42, kind=p2.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD)
        self.assertEqual(p2.kind, p2.POSITIONAL_OR_KEYWORD)
        self.assertNotEqual(p2, p)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(ValueError, 'invalid value for'):
            p2 = p2.replace(kind=p2.empty)

        p2 = p2.replace(kind=p2.KEYWORD_ONLY)
        self.assertEqual(p2, p)

    def test_signature_parameter_positional_only(self):
        p = inspect.Parameter(None, kind=inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_ONLY)
        self.assertEqual(str(p), '<>')

        p = p.replace(name='1')
        self.assertEqual(str(p), '<1>')

    def test_signature_parameter_immutability(self):
        p = inspect.Parameter(None, kind=inspect.Parameter.POSITIONAL_ONLY)

        with self.assertRaises(AttributeError):
            p.foo = 'bar'

        with self.assertRaises(AttributeError):
            p.kind = 123


class TestSignatureBind(unittest.TestCase):
    @staticmethod
    def call(func, *args, **kwargs):
        sig = inspect.signature(func)
        ba = sig.bind(*args, **kwargs)
        return func(*ba.args, **ba.kwargs)

    def test_signature_bind_empty(self):
        def test():
            return 42

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test), 42)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1, spam=10)
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'too many keyword arguments'):
            self.call(test, spam=1)

    def test_signature_bind_var(self):
        def test(*args, **kwargs):
            return args, kwargs

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test), ((), {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1), ((1,), {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2), ((1, 2), {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, foo='bar'), ((), {'foo': 'bar'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, foo='bar'), ((1,), {'foo': 'bar'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, args=10), ((), {'args': 10}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, foo='bar'),
                         ((1, 2), {'foo': 'bar'}))

    def test_signature_bind_just_args(self):
        def test(a, b, c):
            return a, b, c

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 3))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1, 2, 3, 4)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, "'b' parameter lacking default"):
            self.call(test, 1)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, "'a' parameter lacking default"):
            self.call(test)

        def test(a, b, c=10):
            return a, b, c
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 3))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2), (1, 2, 10))

        def test(a=1, b=2, c=3):
            return a, b, c
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, a=10, c=13), (10, 2, 13))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, a=10), (10, 2, 3))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, b=10), (1, 10, 3))

    def test_signature_bind_varargs_order(self):
        def test(*args):
            return args

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test), ())
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 3))

    def test_signature_bind_args_and_varargs(self):
        def test(a, b, c=3, *args):
            return a, b, c, args

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (1, 2, 3, (4, 5)))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2), (1, 2, 3, ()))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, b=1, a=2), (2, 1, 3, ()))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, b=2), (1, 2, 3, ()))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     "multiple values for argument 'c'"):
            self.call(test, 1, 2, 3, c=4)

    def test_signature_bind_just_kwargs(self):
        def test(**kwargs):
            return kwargs

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test), {})
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'})

    def test_signature_bind_args_and_kwargs(self):
        def test(a, b, c=3, **kwargs):
            return a, b, c, kwargs

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2), (1, 2, 3, {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, 3, {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, b=2, a=1, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, 3, {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, a=1, b=2, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, 3, {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, b=2, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, 3, {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, b=2, c=4, foo='bar', spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, 4, {'foo': 'bar', 'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 4, foo='bar'),
                         (1, 2, 4, {'foo': 'bar'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, c=5, a=4, b=3),
                         (4, 3, 5, {}))

    def test_signature_bind_kwonly(self):
        def test(*, foo):
            return foo
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1)
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, foo=1), 1)

        def test(a, *, foo=1, bar):
            return foo
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     "'bar' parameter lacking default value"):
            self.call(test, 1)

        def test(foo, *, bar):
            return foo, bar
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, bar=2), (1, 2))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, bar=2, foo=1), (1, 2))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     'too many keyword arguments'):
            self.call(test, bar=2, foo=1, spam=10)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1, 2)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     'too many positional arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1, 2, bar=2)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     'too many keyword arguments'):
            self.call(test, 1, bar=2, spam='ham')

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     "'bar' parameter lacking default value"):
            self.call(test, 1)

        def test(foo, *, bar, **bin):
            return foo, bar, bin
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, bar=2), (1, 2, {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, foo=1, bar=2), (1, 2, {}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, bar=2, spam='ham'),
                         (1, 2, {'spam': 'ham'}))
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, spam='ham', foo=1, bar=2),
                         (1, 2, {'spam': 'ham'}))
        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError,
                                     "'foo' parameter lacking default value"):
            self.call(test, spam='ham', bar=2)
        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, bar=2, bin=1, spam=10),
                         (1, 2, {'bin': 1, 'spam': 10}))

    def test_signature_bind_arguments(self):
        def test(a, *args, b, z=100, **kwargs):
            pass
        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        ba = sig.bind(10, 20, b=30, c=40, args=50, kwargs=60)
        # we won't have 'z' argument in the bound arguments object, as we didn't
        # pass it to the 'bind'
        self.assertEqual(tuple(ba.arguments.items()),
                         (('a', 10), ('args', (20,)), ('b', 30),
                          ('kwargs', {'c': 40, 'args': 50, 'kwargs': 60})))
        self.assertEqual(ba.kwargs,
                         {'b': 30, 'c': 40, 'args': 50, 'kwargs': 60})
        self.assertEqual(ba.args, (10, 20))

    def test_signature_bind_positional_only(self):
        P = inspect.Parameter

        def test(a_po, b_po, c_po=3, foo=42, *, bar=50, **kwargs):
            return a_po, b_po, c_po, foo, bar, kwargs

        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        new_params = collections.OrderedDict(tuple(sig.parameters.items()))
        for name in ('a_po', 'b_po', 'c_po'):
            new_params[name] = new_params[name].replace(kind=P.POSITIONAL_ONLY)
        new_sig = sig.replace(parameters=new_params.values())
        test.__signature__ = new_sig

        self.assertEqual(self.call(test, 1, 2, 4, 5, bar=6),
                         (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, {}))

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, "parameter is positional only"):
            self.call(test, 1, 2, c_po=4)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, "parameter is positional only"):
            self.call(test, a_po=1, b_po=2)

    def test_signature_bind_with_self_arg(self):
        # Issue #17071: one of the parameters is named "self
        def test(a, self, b):
            pass
        sig = inspect.signature(test)
        ba = sig.bind(1, 2, 3)
        self.assertEqual(ba.args, (1, 2, 3))
        ba = sig.bind(1, self=2, b=3)
        self.assertEqual(ba.args, (1, 2, 3))


class TestBoundArguments(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_signature_bound_arguments_unhashable(self):
        def foo(a): pass
        ba = inspect.signature(foo).bind(1)

        with self.assertRaisesRegex(TypeError, 'unhashable type'):
            hash(ba)

    def test_signature_bound_arguments_equality(self):
        def foo(a): pass
        ba = inspect.signature(foo).bind(1)
        self.assertEqual(ba, ba)

        ba2 = inspect.signature(foo).bind(1)
        self.assertEqual(ba, ba2)

        ba3 = inspect.signature(foo).bind(2)
        self.assertNotEqual(ba, ba3)
        ba3.arguments['a'] = 1
        self.assertEqual(ba, ba3)

        def bar(b): pass
        ba4 = inspect.signature(bar).bind(1)
        self.assertNotEqual(ba, ba4)


def test_main():
    run_unittest(
        TestDecorators, TestRetrievingSourceCode, TestOneliners, TestBuggyCases,
        TestInterpreterStack, TestClassesAndFunctions, TestPredicates,
        TestGetcallargsFunctions, TestGetcallargsMethods,
        TestGetcallargsUnboundMethods, TestGetattrStatic, TestGetGeneratorState,
        TestNoEOL, TestSignatureObject, TestSignatureBind, TestParameterObject,
        TestBoundArguments, TestGetClosureVars
    )

if __name__ == "__main__":
    test_main()