Source

cpython_sandbox / Python / bootstrap.c

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/* Bootstrap the interpreter from nothing to fully initialized */

/* To help control the interfaces between the startup, execution and
 * shutdown code, the phases are split across separate modules (boostrap,
 * pythonrun, shutdown)
 */

/* TODO: Cull includes following phase split */

#include "Python.h"

#include "Python-ast.h"
#undef Yield /* undefine macro conflicting with winbase.h */
#include "grammar.h"
#include "node.h"
#include "token.h"
#include "parsetok.h"
#include "errcode.h"
#include "code.h"
#include "symtable.h"
#include "ast.h"
#include "marshal.h"
#include "osdefs.h"

#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
#include <signal.h>
#endif

#ifdef MS_WINDOWS
#include "malloc.h" /* for alloca */
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_H
#include <locale.h>
#include <langinfo.h>
#endif

#ifdef MS_WINDOWS
#undef BYTE
#include "windows.h"
#define PATH_MAX MAXPATHLEN
#endif

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

extern wchar_t *Py_GetPath(void);

/* Forward */
static int add_flag(int flag, const char *envs);
static void initimport(PyInterpreterState *interp, PyObject *sysmod);
static void initfsimport(PyInterpreterState *interp);
static void initmain(PyInterpreterState *interp);
static int initfsencoding(PyInterpreterState *interp);
static void initsite(void);
static int initstdio(void);
static void initsigs(void);
extern int _PyUnicode_Init(void);
extern int _PyLong_Init(void);
extern int _PyFaulthandler_Init(void);
extern void _Py_ReadyTypes(void);

#ifdef WITH_THREAD
extern void _PyGILState_Init(PyInterpreterState *, PyThreadState *);
#endif /* WITH_THREAD */

int Py_DebugFlag; /* Needed by parser.c */
int Py_VerboseFlag; /* Needed by import.c */
int Py_QuietFlag; /* Needed by sysmodule.c */
int Py_InteractiveFlag; /* Needed by Py_FdIsInteractive() below */
int Py_InspectFlag; /* Needed to determine whether to exit at SystemExit */
int Py_NoSiteFlag; /* Suppress 'import site' */
int Py_BytesWarningFlag; /* Warn on str(bytes) and str(buffer) */
int Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag; /* Suppress writing bytecode files (*.py[co]) */
int Py_UseClassExceptionsFlag = 1; /* Needed by bltinmodule.c: deprecated */
int Py_FrozenFlag; /* Needed by getpath.c */
int Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag; /* e.g. PYTHONPATH, PYTHONHOME */
int Py_NoUserSiteDirectory = 0; /* for -s and site.py */
int Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag = 0; /* Unbuffered binary std{in,out,err} */
int Py_HashRandomizationFlag = 0; /* for PYTHONHASHSEED */

/* PyModule_GetWarningsModule is no longer necessary as of 2.6
since _warnings is builtin.  This API should not be used. */
PyObject *
PyModule_GetWarningsModule(void)
{
    return PyImport_ImportModule("warnings");
}

int _Py_Initializing = 0;
int _Py_Initialized = 0;
extern PyThreadState *_Py_Finalizing;

/* APIs to access the initialization flags
 *
 * Can be called prior to Py_Initialize.
 */

int
Py_IsInitializing(void)
{
    return _Py_Initializing;
}

int
Py_IsInitialized(void)
{
    return _Py_Initialized;
}

/* Global initializations.  Can be undone by Py_Finalize().  Don't
   call this twice without an intervening Py_Finalize() call.

   Every call to Py_BeginInitialization, Py_Initialize or Py_InitializeEx
   must have a corresponding call to Py_Finalize.

   Locking: you must hold the interpreter lock while calling these APIs.
   (If the lock has not yet been initialized, that's equivalent to
   having the lock, but you cannot use multiple threads.)

*/

/* Begin interpreter initialization
 *
 * On return, the first thread and interpreter state have been created,
 * but the compiler, signal handling, multithreading and
 * multiple interpreter support, and codec infrastructure are not yet
 * available.
 *
 * The import system will support builtin and frozen modules only.
 * The only supported io is writing to sys.stderr
 *
 * If any operation invoked by this function fails, a fatal error is
 * issued and the function does not return.
 *
 * Any code invoked from this function should *not* assume it has access
 * to the Python C API (unless the API is explicitly listed as being
 * safe to call without calling Py_Initialize first)
 */

/* TODO: Progresively move functionality from Py_BeginInitialization to
 * Py_ReadConfig and Py_EndInitialization
 */

void Py_BeginInitialization(const PyCoreConfig *config)
{
    PyInterpreterState *interp;
    PyThreadState *tstate;
    PyObject *bimod, *sysmod, *pstderr;
    char *p;
    PyCoreConfig core_config = PyCoreConfig_INIT;
    PyConfig preinit_config = PyConfig_INIT;

    if (config != NULL) {
        core_config = *config;
    }

    if (_Py_Initialized)
        Py_FatalError("Py_BeginInitialization: already initialized");
    if (_Py_Initializing)
        Py_FatalError("Py_BeginInitialization: already initializing");

    _Py_Initializing = 1;

    /* Py_Finalize leaves _Py_Finalizing set in order to help daemon
     * threads behave a little more gracefully at interpreter shutdown.
     * We clobber it here so the new interpreter can start with a clean
     * slate.
     *
     * However, this may still lead to misbehaviour if there are daemon
     * threads still hanging around from a previous Py_Initialize/Finalize
     * pair :(
     */
    _Py_Finalizing = NULL;

#ifdef WITH_THREAD
    /* We can't call _PyEval_FiniThreads() in Py_Finalize because
       destroying the GIL might fail when it is being referenced from
       another running thread (see issue #9901).
       Instead we destroy the previously created GIL here, which ensures
       that we can call Py_Initialize / Py_Finalize multiple times. */
    _PyEval_FiniThreads();
#endif /* WITH_THREAD */

#if defined(HAVE_LANGINFO_H) && defined(HAVE_SETLOCALE)
    /* Set up the LC_CTYPE locale, so we can obtain
       the locale's charset without having to switch
       locales. */
    setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");
#endif
    /* Whether or not to use environment variables */
    Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag = core_config.ignore_environment;

    if ((p = Py_GETENV("PYTHONDEBUG")) && *p != '\0')
        Py_DebugFlag = add_flag(Py_DebugFlag, p);
    if ((p = Py_GETENV("PYTHONVERBOSE")) && *p != '\0')
        Py_VerboseFlag = add_flag(Py_VerboseFlag, p);
    if ((p = Py_GETENV("PYTHONOPTIMIZE")) && *p != '\0')
        Py_OptimizeFlag = add_flag(Py_OptimizeFlag, p);
    if ((p = Py_GETENV("PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE")) && *p != '\0')
        Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag = add_flag(Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag, p);

    _PyRandomHash_Init(&core_config);

    if (!core_config.use_hash_seed || core_config.hash_seed) {
        /* Random or non-zero hash seed */
        Py_HashRandomizationFlag = 1;
    }

    interp = PyInterpreterState_New();
    if (interp == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't make first interpreter");
    interp->core_config = core_config;
    interp->config = preinit_config;

    tstate = PyThreadState_New(interp);
    if (tstate == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't make first thread");
    (void) PyThreadState_Swap(tstate);

#ifdef WITH_THREAD
    /* Auto-thread-state API */
    _PyGILState_Init(interp, tstate);
#endif /* WITH_THREAD */

    _Py_ReadyTypes();

    if (!_PyFrame_Init())
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't init frames");

    if (!_PyLong_Init())
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't init longs");

    if (!PyByteArray_Init())
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't init bytearray");

    _PyFloat_Init();

    interp->modules = PyDict_New();
    if (interp->modules == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't make modules dictionary");

    /* Init Unicode implementation; relies on the codec registry */
    if (_PyUnicode_Init() < 0)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize unicode");

    bimod = _PyBuiltin_Init();
    if (bimod == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize builtins modules");
    _PyImport_FixupBuiltin(bimod, "builtins");
    interp->builtins = PyModule_GetDict(bimod);
    if (interp->builtins == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize builtins dict");
    Py_INCREF(interp->builtins);

    /* initialize builtin exceptions */
    _PyExc_Init(bimod);

    /* TODO: Split sys module initialization into two parts
     *
     * Create the module core here, but delay setting most attributes until
     * Py_EndInitialization
     */
    sysmod = _PySys_Init();
    if (sysmod == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize sys");
    interp->sysdict = PyModule_GetDict(sysmod);
    if (interp->sysdict == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize sys dict");
    Py_INCREF(interp->sysdict);
    _PyImport_FixupBuiltin(sysmod, "sys");
    PySys_SetPath(Py_GetPath());
    PyDict_SetItemString(interp->sysdict, "modules",
                         interp->modules);

    /* Set up a preliminary stderr printer until we have enough
       infrastructure for the io module in place. */
    pstderr = PyFile_NewStdPrinter(fileno(stderr));
    if (pstderr == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't set preliminary stderr");
    PySys_SetObject("stderr", pstderr);
    PySys_SetObject("__stderr__", pstderr);
    Py_DECREF(pstderr);

    _PyImport_Init();

    _PyImportHooks_Init();

    /* Initialize _warnings. */
    _PyWarnings_Init();

    /* This call sets up builtin and frozen import support */
    if (!interp->core_config._disable_importlib) {
        initimport(interp, sysmod);
    }
}

/* Read configuration settings from standard locations
 *
 * This function doesn't make any changes to the interpreter state - it
 * merely populates any missing configuration settings. This allows an
 * embedding application to completely override a config option by
 * setting it before calling this function, or else modify the default
 * setting before passing the fully populated config to Py_EndInitialization.
 *
 * More advanced selective initialization tricks are possible by calling
 * this function multiple times with various preconfigured settings.
 */


int Py_ReadConfig(PyConfig *config)
{
    /* Signal handlers are installed by default */
    if (config->install_signal_handlers < 0) {
        config->install_signal_handlers = 1;
    }

    return 0;
}

/* Update interpreter state based on supplied configuration settings
 *
 * After calling this function, most of the restrictions on the interpreter
 * are lifted. The only remaining incomplete settings are those related
 * to the main module (sys.argv[0], __main__ metadata)
 *
 * Calling this when the interpreter is not initializing, is already
 * initialized or without a valid current thread state is a fatal error.
 * Other errors should be reported as normal Python exceptions with a
 * non-zero return code.
 */
int Py_EndInitialization(const PyConfig *config)
{
    PyInterpreterState *interp;
    PyThreadState *tstate;

    if (!_Py_Initializing)
        Py_FatalError("Py_EndInitialization: not initializing");
    if (_Py_Initialized)
        Py_FatalError("Py_EndInitialization: already initialized");

    /* Get current thread state and interpreter pointer */
    tstate = PyThreadState_GET();
    if (!tstate)
        Py_FatalError("Py_EndInitialization: failed to read thread state");
    interp = tstate->interp;
    if (!tstate)
        Py_FatalError("Py_EndInitialization: failed to get interpreter");
    interp->config = *config;

    if (interp->core_config._disable_importlib) {
        /* Special mode for freeze_importlib: run with no import system
         *
         * This means anything which needs support from extension modules
         * or pure Python code in the standard library won't work.
         */
        _Py_Initialized = 1;
        _Py_Initializing = 0;
        return 0;
    }
    /* TODO: Report exceptions rather than fatal errors below here */

    /* Finish setting up the import system */
    initfsimport(interp);

    /* initialize the faulthandler module */
    if (_PyFaulthandler_Init())
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't initialize faulthandler");

    _PyTime_Init();

    if (initfsencoding(interp) < 0)
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: unable to load the file system codec");

    if (config->install_signal_handlers)
        initsigs(); /* Signal handling stuff, including initintr() */

    initmain(interp); /* Module __main__ */
    if (initstdio() < 0)
        Py_FatalError(
            "Py_Initialize: can't initialize sys standard streams");

    /* Initialize warnings. */
    if (PySys_HasWarnOptions()) {
        PyObject *warnings_module = PyImport_ImportModule("warnings");
        if (warnings_module == NULL) {
            fprintf(stderr, "'import warnings' failed; traceback:\n");
            PyErr_Print();
        }
        Py_XDECREF(warnings_module);
    }

    _Py_Initialized = 1;
    _Py_Initializing = 0;

    if (!Py_NoSiteFlag)
        initsite(); /* Module site */

    return 0;
}

static int
add_flag(int flag, const char *envs)
{
    int env = atoi(envs);
    if (flag < env)
        flag = env;
    if (flag < 1)
        flag = 1;
    return flag;
}

static char*
get_codec_name(const char *encoding)
{
    char *name_utf8, *name_str;
    PyObject *codec, *name = NULL;
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(name);

    codec = _PyCodec_Lookup(encoding);
    if (!codec)
        goto error;

    name = _PyObject_GetAttrId(codec, &PyId_name);
    Py_CLEAR(codec);
    if (!name)
        goto error;

    name_utf8 = _PyUnicode_AsString(name);
    if (name_utf8 == NULL)
        goto error;
    name_str = strdup(name_utf8);
    Py_DECREF(name);
    if (name_str == NULL) {
        PyErr_NoMemory();
        return NULL;
    }
    return name_str;

error:
    Py_XDECREF(codec);
    Py_XDECREF(name);
    return NULL;
}

static char*
get_locale_encoding(void)
{
#ifdef MS_WINDOWS
    char codepage[100];
    PyOS_snprintf(codepage, sizeof(codepage), "cp%d", GetACP());
    return get_codec_name(codepage);
#elif defined(HAVE_LANGINFO_H) && defined(CODESET)
    char* codeset = nl_langinfo(CODESET);
    if (!codeset || codeset[0] == '\0') {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "CODESET is not set or empty");
        return NULL;
    }
    return get_codec_name(codeset);
#else
    PyErr_SetNone(PyExc_NotImplementedError);
    return NULL;
#endif
}

static void
initimport(PyInterpreterState *interp, PyObject *sysmod)
{
    PyObject *importlib;
    PyObject *impmod;
    PyObject *sys_modules;
    PyObject *value;

    /* Import _importlib through its frozen version, _frozen_importlib. */
    if (PyImport_ImportFrozenModule("_frozen_importlib") <= 0) {
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't import _frozen_importlib");
    }
    else if (Py_VerboseFlag) {
        PySys_FormatStderr("import _frozen_importlib # frozen\n");
    }
    importlib = PyImport_AddModule("_frozen_importlib");
    if (importlib == NULL) {
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: couldn't get _frozen_importlib from "
                      "sys.modules");
    }
    interp->importlib = importlib;
    Py_INCREF(interp->importlib);

    /* Install _importlib as __import__ */
    impmod = PyInit_imp();
    if (impmod == NULL) {
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't import imp");
    }
    else if (Py_VerboseFlag) {
        PySys_FormatStderr("import imp # builtin\n");
    }
    sys_modules = PyImport_GetModuleDict();
    if (Py_VerboseFlag) {
        PySys_FormatStderr("import sys # builtin\n");
    }
    if (PyDict_SetItemString(sys_modules, "_imp", impmod) < 0) {
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't save _imp to sys.modules");
    }

    value = PyObject_CallMethod(importlib, "_install", "OO", sysmod, impmod);
    if (value == NULL) {
        PyErr_Print();
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: importlib install failed");
    }
    Py_DECREF(value);
    Py_DECREF(impmod);

    _PyImportZip_Init();
}

static void
initfsimport(PyInterpreterState *interp)
{
    PyObject *value;
    value = PyObject_CallMethod(interp->importlib,
                                "_install_fs_importers", "");
    if (value == NULL) {
        PyErr_Print();
        Py_FatalError("Py_EndInitialization: filesystem import setup failed");
    }
}

void
_Py_InitializeEx_Private(int install_sigs, int install_importlib)
{
    PyCoreConfig core_config = PyCoreConfig_INIT;
    PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

    /* TODO: Moar config options! */
    core_config.ignore_environment = Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag;
    core_config._disable_importlib = !install_importlib;
    config.install_signal_handlers = install_sigs;
    Py_BeginInitialization(&core_config);
    /* TODO: Print any exceptions raised by these operations */
    if (Py_ReadConfig(&config))
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: Py_ReadConfig failed");
    if (Py_EndInitialization(&config))
        Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: Py_EndInitialization failed");
}

void
Py_InitializeEx(int install_sigs)
{
    _Py_InitializeEx_Private(install_sigs, 1);
}

void
Py_Initialize(void)
{
    Py_InitializeEx(1);
}

/* Create and initialize a new interpreter and thread, and return the
   new thread.  This requires that Py_Initialize() has been called
   first.

   Unsuccessful initialization yields a NULL pointer.  Note that *no*
   exception information is available even in this case -- the
   exception information is held in the thread, and there is no
   thread.

   Locking: as above.

*/

PyThreadState *
Py_NewInterpreter(void)
{
    PyInterpreterState *interp;
    PyThreadState *tstate, *save_tstate;
    PyObject *bimod, *sysmod;

    if (!_Py_Initialized)
        Py_FatalError("Py_NewInterpreter: call Py_Initialize first");

    interp = PyInterpreterState_New();
    if (interp == NULL)
        return NULL;

    tstate = PyThreadState_New(interp);
    if (tstate == NULL) {
        PyInterpreterState_Delete(interp);
        return NULL;
    }

    save_tstate = PyThreadState_Swap(tstate);

    /* Copy the current interpreter config into the new interpreter */
    if (save_tstate != NULL) {
        interp->core_config = save_tstate->interp->core_config;
        interp->config = save_tstate->interp->config;
    } else {
        /* No current thread state, copy from the main interpreter */
        PyInterpreterState *main_interp = PyInterpreterState_Main();
        interp->core_config = main_interp->core_config;
        interp->config = main_interp->config;
    }



    /* XXX The following is lax in error checking */

    interp->modules = PyDict_New();

    bimod = _PyImport_FindBuiltin("builtins");
    if (bimod != NULL) {
        interp->builtins = PyModule_GetDict(bimod);
        if (interp->builtins == NULL)
            goto handle_error;
        Py_INCREF(interp->builtins);
    }

    /* initialize builtin exceptions */
    _PyExc_Init(bimod);

    sysmod = _PyImport_FindBuiltin("sys");
    if (bimod != NULL && sysmod != NULL) {
        PyObject *pstderr;

        interp->sysdict = PyModule_GetDict(sysmod);
        if (interp->sysdict == NULL)
            goto handle_error;
        Py_INCREF(interp->sysdict);
        PySys_SetPath(Py_GetPath());
        PyDict_SetItemString(interp->sysdict, "modules",
                             interp->modules);
        /* Set up a preliminary stderr printer until we have enough
           infrastructure for the io module in place. */
        pstderr = PyFile_NewStdPrinter(fileno(stderr));
        if (pstderr == NULL)
            Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: can't set preliminary stderr");
        PySys_SetObject("stderr", pstderr);
        PySys_SetObject("__stderr__", pstderr);
        Py_DECREF(pstderr);

        _PyImportHooks_Init();

        initimport(interp, sysmod);
        initfsimport(interp);

        if (initfsencoding(interp) < 0)
            goto handle_error;

        if (initstdio() < 0)
            Py_FatalError(
            "Py_Initialize: can't initialize sys standard streams");
        initmain(interp);
        if (!Py_NoSiteFlag)
            initsite();
    }

    if (!PyErr_Occurred())
        return tstate;

handle_error:
    /* Oops, it didn't work.  Undo it all. */

    PyErr_PrintEx(0);
    PyThreadState_Clear(tstate);
    PyThreadState_Swap(save_tstate);
    PyThreadState_Delete(tstate);
    PyInterpreterState_Delete(interp);

    return NULL;
}

#ifdef MS_WINDOWS
static wchar_t *progname = L"python";
#else
static wchar_t *progname = L"python3";
#endif

void
Py_SetProgramName(wchar_t *pn)
{
    if (pn && *pn)
        progname = pn;
}

wchar_t *
Py_GetProgramName(void)
{
    return progname;
}

static wchar_t *default_home = NULL;
static wchar_t env_home[PATH_MAX+1];

void
Py_SetPythonHome(wchar_t *home)
{
    default_home = home;
}

wchar_t *
Py_GetPythonHome(void)
{
    wchar_t *home = default_home;
    if (home == NULL && !Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag) {
        char* chome = Py_GETENV("PYTHONHOME");
        if (chome) {
            size_t r = mbstowcs(env_home, chome, PATH_MAX+1);
            if (r != (size_t)-1 && r <= PATH_MAX)
                home = env_home;
        }

    }
    return home;
}

/* Create __main__ module */

static void
initmain(PyInterpreterState *interp)
{
    PyObject *m, *d, *loader;
    m = PyImport_AddModule("__main__");
    if (m == NULL)
        Py_FatalError("can't create __main__ module");
    d = PyModule_GetDict(m);
    if (PyDict_GetItemString(d, "__builtins__") == NULL) {
        PyObject *bimod = PyImport_ImportModule("builtins");
        if (bimod == NULL) {
            Py_FatalError("Failed to retrieve builtins module");
        }
        if (PyDict_SetItemString(d, "__builtins__", bimod) < 0) {
            Py_FatalError("Failed to initialize __main__.__builtins__");
        }
        Py_DECREF(bimod);
    }
    /* Main is a little special - imp.is_builtin("__main__") will return
     * False, but BuiltinImporter is still the most appropriate initial
     * setting for its __loader__ attribute. A more suitable value will
     * be set if __main__ gets further initialized later in the startup
     * process.
     */
    loader = PyDict_GetItemString(d, "__loader__");
    if (loader == NULL || loader == Py_None) {
        PyObject *loader = PyObject_GetAttrString(interp->importlib,
                                                  "BuiltinImporter");
        if (loader == NULL) {
            Py_FatalError("Failed to retrieve BuiltinImporter");
        }
        if (PyDict_SetItemString(d, "__loader__", loader) < 0) {
            Py_FatalError("Failed to initialize __main__.__loader__");
        }
        Py_DECREF(loader);
    }
}

static int
initfsencoding(PyInterpreterState *interp)
{
    PyObject *codec;

    if (Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding == NULL)
    {
        Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding = get_locale_encoding();
        if (Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding == NULL)
            Py_FatalError("Py_Initialize: Unable to get the locale encoding");

        Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncoding = 0;
        interp->fscodec_initialized = 1;
        return 0;
    }

    /* the encoding is mbcs, utf-8 or ascii */
    codec = _PyCodec_Lookup(Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding);
    if (!codec) {
        /* Such error can only occurs in critical situations: no more
         * memory, import a module of the standard library failed,
         * etc. */
        return -1;
    }
    Py_DECREF(codec);
    interp->fscodec_initialized = 1;
    return 0;
}

/* Import the site module (not into __main__ though) */

static void
initsite(void)
{
    PyObject *m;
    m = PyImport_ImportModule("site");
    if (m == NULL) {
        PyErr_Print();
        Py_Finalize();
        exit(1);
    }
    else {
        Py_DECREF(m);
    }
}

static PyObject*
create_stdio(PyObject* io,
    int fd, int write_mode, char* name,
    char* encoding, char* errors)
{
    PyObject *buf = NULL, *stream = NULL, *text = NULL, *raw = NULL, *res;
    const char* mode;
    const char* newline;
    PyObject *line_buffering;
    int buffering, isatty;
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(open);
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(isatty);
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(TextIOWrapper);
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(name);
    _Py_IDENTIFIER(mode);

    /* stdin is always opened in buffered mode, first because it shouldn't
       make a difference in common use cases, second because TextIOWrapper
       depends on the presence of a read1() method which only exists on
       buffered streams.
    */
    if (Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag && write_mode)
        buffering = 0;
    else
        buffering = -1;
    if (write_mode)
        mode = "wb";
    else
        mode = "rb";
    buf = _PyObject_CallMethodId(io, &PyId_open, "isiOOOi",
                                 fd, mode, buffering,
                                 Py_None, Py_None, Py_None, 0);
    if (buf == NULL)
        goto error;

    if (buffering) {
        _Py_IDENTIFIER(raw);
        raw = _PyObject_GetAttrId(buf, &PyId_raw);
        if (raw == NULL)
            goto error;
    }
    else {
        raw = buf;
        Py_INCREF(raw);
    }

    text = PyUnicode_FromString(name);
    if (text == NULL || _PyObject_SetAttrId(raw, &PyId_name, text) < 0)
        goto error;
    res = _PyObject_CallMethodId(raw, &PyId_isatty, "");
    if (res == NULL)
        goto error;
    isatty = PyObject_IsTrue(res);
    Py_DECREF(res);
    if (isatty == -1)
        goto error;
    if (isatty || Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag)
        line_buffering = Py_True;
    else
        line_buffering = Py_False;

    Py_CLEAR(raw);
    Py_CLEAR(text);

#ifdef MS_WINDOWS
    /* sys.stdin: enable universal newline mode, translate "\r\n" and "\r"
       newlines to "\n".
       sys.stdout and sys.stderr: translate "\n" to "\r\n". */
    newline = NULL;
#else
    /* sys.stdin: split lines at "\n".
       sys.stdout and sys.stderr: don't translate newlines (use "\n"). */
    newline = "\n";
#endif

    stream = _PyObject_CallMethodId(io, &PyId_TextIOWrapper, "OsssO",
                                    buf, encoding, errors,
                                    newline, line_buffering);
    Py_CLEAR(buf);
    if (stream == NULL)
        goto error;

    if (write_mode)
        mode = "w";
    else
        mode = "r";
    text = PyUnicode_FromString(mode);
    if (!text || _PyObject_SetAttrId(stream, &PyId_mode, text) < 0)
        goto error;
    Py_CLEAR(text);
    return stream;

error:
    Py_XDECREF(buf);
    Py_XDECREF(stream);
    Py_XDECREF(text);
    Py_XDECREF(raw);
    return NULL;
}

static int
is_valid_fd(int fd)
{
    int dummy_fd;
    if (fd < 0 || !_PyVerify_fd(fd))
        return 0;
    dummy_fd = dup(fd);
    if (dummy_fd < 0)
        return 0;
    close(dummy_fd);
    return 1;
}

/* Initialize sys.stdin, stdout, stderr and builtins.open */
static int
initstdio(void)
{
    PyObject *iomod = NULL, *wrapper;
    PyObject *bimod = NULL;
    PyObject *m;
    PyObject *std = NULL;
    int status = 0, fd;
    PyObject * encoding_attr;
    char *encoding = NULL, *errors;

    /* Hack to avoid a nasty recursion issue when Python is invoked
       in verbose mode: pre-import the Latin-1 and UTF-8 codecs */
    if ((m = PyImport_ImportModule("encodings.utf_8")) == NULL) {
        goto error;
    }
    Py_DECREF(m);

    if (!(m = PyImport_ImportModule("encodings.latin_1"))) {
        goto error;
    }
    Py_DECREF(m);

    if (!(bimod = PyImport_ImportModule("builtins"))) {
        goto error;
    }

    if (!(iomod = PyImport_ImportModule("io"))) {
        goto error;
    }
    if (!(wrapper = PyObject_GetAttrString(iomod, "OpenWrapper"))) {
        goto error;
    }

    /* Set builtins.open */
    if (PyObject_SetAttrString(bimod, "open", wrapper) == -1) {
        Py_DECREF(wrapper);
        goto error;
    }
    Py_DECREF(wrapper);

    encoding = Py_GETENV("PYTHONIOENCODING");
    errors = NULL;
    if (encoding) {
        encoding = strdup(encoding);
        errors = strchr(encoding, ':');
        if (errors) {
            *errors = '\0';
            errors++;
        }
    }

    /* Set sys.stdin */
    fd = fileno(stdin);
    /* Under some conditions stdin, stdout and stderr may not be connected
     * and fileno() may point to an invalid file descriptor. For example
     * GUI apps don't have valid standard streams by default.
     */
    if (!is_valid_fd(fd)) {
        std = Py_None;
        Py_INCREF(std);
    }
    else {
        std = create_stdio(iomod, fd, 0, "<stdin>", encoding, errors);
        if (std == NULL)
            goto error;
    } /* if (fd < 0) */
    PySys_SetObject("__stdin__", std);
    PySys_SetObject("stdin", std);
    Py_DECREF(std);

    /* Set sys.stdout */
    fd = fileno(stdout);
    if (!is_valid_fd(fd)) {
        std = Py_None;
        Py_INCREF(std);
    }
    else {
        std = create_stdio(iomod, fd, 1, "<stdout>", encoding, errors);
        if (std == NULL)
            goto error;
    } /* if (fd < 0) */
    PySys_SetObject("__stdout__", std);
    PySys_SetObject("stdout", std);
    Py_DECREF(std);

#if 1 /* Disable this if you have trouble debugging bootstrap stuff */
    /* Set sys.stderr, replaces the preliminary stderr */
    fd = fileno(stderr);
    if (!is_valid_fd(fd)) {
        std = Py_None;
        Py_INCREF(std);
    }
    else {
        std = create_stdio(iomod, fd, 1, "<stderr>", encoding, "backslashreplace");
        if (std == NULL)
            goto error;
    } /* if (fd < 0) */

    /* Same as hack above, pre-import stderr's codec to avoid recursion
       when import.c tries to write to stderr in verbose mode. */
    encoding_attr = PyObject_GetAttrString(std, "encoding");
    if (encoding_attr != NULL) {
        const char * encoding;
        encoding = _PyUnicode_AsString(encoding_attr);
        if (encoding != NULL) {
            PyObject *codec_info = _PyCodec_Lookup(encoding);
            Py_XDECREF(codec_info);
        }
        Py_DECREF(encoding_attr);
    }
    PyErr_Clear();  /* Not a fatal error if codec isn't available */

    PySys_SetObject("__stderr__", std);
    PySys_SetObject("stderr", std);
    Py_DECREF(std);
#endif

    if (0) {
  error:
        status = -1;
    }

    if (encoding)
        free(encoding);
    Py_XDECREF(bimod);
    Py_XDECREF(iomod);
    return status;
}

static void
initsigs(void)
{
#ifdef SIGPIPE
    PyOS_setsig(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
#endif
#ifdef SIGXFZ
    PyOS_setsig(SIGXFZ, SIG_IGN);
#endif
#ifdef SIGXFSZ
    PyOS_setsig(SIGXFSZ, SIG_IGN);
#endif
    PyOS_InitInterrupts(); /* May imply initsignal() */
}


/*
 * The file descriptor fd is considered ``interactive'' if either
 *   a) isatty(fd) is TRUE, or
 *   b) the -i flag was given, and the filename associated with
 *      the descriptor is NULL or "<stdin>" or "???".
 */
int
Py_FdIsInteractive(FILE *fp, const char *filename)
{
    if (isatty((int)fileno(fp)))
        return 1;
    if (!Py_InteractiveFlag)
        return 0;
    return (filename == NULL) ||
           (strcmp(filename, "<stdin>") == 0) ||
           (strcmp(filename, "???") == 0);
}


#if defined(USE_STACKCHECK)
#if defined(WIN32) && defined(_MSC_VER)

/* Stack checking for Microsoft C */

#include <malloc.h>
#include <excpt.h>

/*
 * Return non-zero when we run out of memory on the stack; zero otherwise.
 */
int
PyOS_CheckStack(void)
{
    __try {
        /* alloca throws a stack overflow exception if there's
           not enough space left on the stack */
        alloca(PYOS_STACK_MARGIN * sizeof(void*));
        return 0;
    } __except (GetExceptionCode() == STATUS_STACK_OVERFLOW ?
                    EXCEPTION_EXECUTE_HANDLER :
            EXCEPTION_CONTINUE_SEARCH) {
        int errcode = _resetstkoflw();
        if (errcode == 0)
        {
            Py_FatalError("Could not reset the stack!");
        }
    }
    return 1;
}

#endif /* WIN32 && _MSC_VER */

/* Alternate implementations can be added here... */

#endif /* USE_STACKCHECK */


/* Wrappers around sigaction() or signal(). */

PyOS_sighandler_t
PyOS_getsig(int sig)
{
#ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
    struct sigaction context;
    if (sigaction(sig, NULL, &context) == -1)
        return SIG_ERR;
    return context.sa_handler;
#else
    PyOS_sighandler_t handler;
/* Special signal handling for the secure CRT in Visual Studio 2005 */
#if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER >= 1400
    switch (sig) {
    /* Only these signals are valid */
    case SIGINT:
    case SIGILL:
    case SIGFPE:
    case SIGSEGV:
    case SIGTERM:
    case SIGBREAK:
    case SIGABRT:
        break;
    /* Don't call signal() with other values or it will assert */
    default:
        return SIG_ERR;
    }
#endif /* _MSC_VER && _MSC_VER >= 1400 */
    handler = signal(sig, SIG_IGN);
    if (handler != SIG_ERR)
        signal(sig, handler);
    return handler;
#endif
}

/*
 * All of the code in this function must only use async-signal-safe functions,
 * listed at `man 7 signal` or
 * http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/xsh_chap02_04.html.
 */
PyOS_sighandler_t
PyOS_setsig(int sig, PyOS_sighandler_t handler)
{
#ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
    /* Some code in Modules/signalmodule.c depends on sigaction() being
     * used here if HAVE_SIGACTION is defined.  Fix that if this code
     * changes to invalidate that assumption.
     */
    struct sigaction context, ocontext;
    context.sa_handler = handler;
    sigemptyset(&context.sa_mask);
    context.sa_flags = 0;
    if (sigaction(sig, &context, &ocontext) == -1)
        return SIG_ERR;
    return ocontext.sa_handler;
#else
    PyOS_sighandler_t oldhandler;
    oldhandler = signal(sig, handler);
#ifdef HAVE_SIGINTERRUPT
    siginterrupt(sig, 1);
#endif
    return oldhandler;
#endif
}
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif