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Nick Freear committed 6fe6a08

Update bulletin archive from January to June 2014

* Plus, adding Make file

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Files changed (24)

+# GNU Make file for Headstar E-Access Bulletin.
+
+
+e-access:
+	cd perl/;  perl e-access.pl
+
+bulletins:
+	cd perl/;  perl bulletins.pl
+
+
+#End.
   <!--meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en" /-->
 
   <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" href="http://headstar.com/site/favicon.ico" />
+  <link rel="search" title="Search" href="opensearch_desc.xml"
+    type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" />
+
   <link rel="meta" href="http://headstar.com/eab/labels.rdf" type="application/rdf+xml" title="ICRA labels" />
   <meta name="pics-Label" content='(pics-1.1 "http://www.icra.org/pics/vocabularyv03/" l gen true for "http://www.headstar.com" r (n 0 s 0 v 0 l 0 oa 0 ob 0 oc 0 od 0 oe 0 of 0 og 0 oh 0 c 0) gen true for "http://www.headstar.com" r (n 0 s 0 v 0 l 0 oa 0 ob 0 oc 0 od 0 oe 0 of 0 og 0 oh 0 c 0))' />
 	
   </ul>
   
   <h1 id="logo"><span class="accesshide">E-Access Bulletin</span></h1>
+
+  <form id=search role=search method=get action=search.html >
+    <!--<label for=q >Search </label>--><input name=q id=q
+     aria-label="Search Bulletins" placeholder="Search bulletins"  />
+    <input type=submit value=Search />
+  </form>
 </div>
 
 
 <h2 class="accesshide" id="nav-lbl"><a class="Bookmark">Site Menu</a></h2>
 <ul id="menu">
   <li><a href="./"             title="[1] Bulletin Home" accesskey="1" class="Key">Home</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./news.html"    title="[2] What's new"    accesskey="2" class="Key">News</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" accesskey=2 class=Key
+    title="[2] Latest accessibility news on EAB Live" >News</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./news.html" class="Key">News</a>-->
   <li><a href="./archive.html" title="Archive of Bulletins" >Archive</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./subs.html"    title="Subscribe to the Bulletin">Subscribe</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?page_id=80"
+    title="Subscribe to the Bulletin" >Subscribe</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./subs.html" >Subscribe</a>-->
   <li><a href="./language1.html" title="International versions" >International</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./about.html"   title="About the Bulletin">About us</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./contact.html" title="Contact the staff" >Contact us</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/about"
+    title="About Headstar" >About us</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./about.html" >About us</a>-->
+  <a href="http://www.headstar.com/site/scripts/contact.php">Contact us</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./contact.html" title="Contact the staff" >Contact us</a>-->
   <li><a href="./private.html" title="[8] Terms and conditions" accesskey="8" class="Key">Privacy policy</a></li>
 
-  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" title="E-Access Bulletin Live">E-Access Live</a></li>
+  <!--<li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" >E-Access Live</a>-->
 
   <li id="headstar"><a href="http://www.headstar.com/">
     <img src="images/hedstar.gif" alt="headstar.com" /></a>
 <script>
 (function () {
 
-  var el = document.querySelector("#foot .y"),
+  var D = document,
+    page = D.location.pathname.replace(/.+\//, '').replace(/\..+/, ''),
+    el = D.querySelector("#foot .y"),
     year = 1900 + (new Date()).getYear();
 
   el.innerHTML = year;
+  D.body.className += " pg-" + page;
 
 })();
 </script>
   <!--meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en" /-->
 
   <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" href="http://headstar.com/site/favicon.ico" />
+  <link rel="search" title="Search" href="opensearch_desc.xml"
+    type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" />
+
   <link rel="meta" href="http://headstar.com/eab/labels.rdf" type="application/rdf+xml" title="ICRA labels" />
   <meta name="pics-Label" content='(pics-1.1 "http://www.icra.org/pics/vocabularyv03/" l gen true for "http://www.headstar.com" r (n 0 s 0 v 0 l 0 oa 0 ob 0 oc 0 od 0 oe 0 of 0 og 0 oh 0 c 0) gen true for "http://www.headstar.com" r (n 0 s 0 v 0 l 0 oa 0 ob 0 oc 0 od 0 oe 0 of 0 og 0 oh 0 c 0))' />
 	
   </ul>
   
   <h1 id="logo"><span class="accesshide">E-Access Bulletin</span></h1>
+
+  <form id=search role=search method=get action=search.html >
+    <!--<label for=q >Search </label>--><input name=q id=q
+     aria-label="Search Bulletins" placeholder="Search bulletins"  />
+    <input type=submit value=Search />
+  </form>
 </div>
 
 
 <h2 class="accesshide" id="nav-lbl"><a class="Bookmark">Site Menu</a></h2>
 <ul id="menu">
   <li><a href="./"             title="[1] Bulletin Home" accesskey="1" class="Key">Home</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./news.html"    title="[2] What's new"    accesskey="2" class="Key">News</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" accesskey=2 class=Key
+    title="[2] Latest accessibility news on EAB Live" >News</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./news.html" class="Key">News</a>-->
   <li><a href="./archive.html" title="Archive of Bulletins" >Archive</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./subs.html"    title="Subscribe to the Bulletin">Subscribe</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?page_id=80"
+    title="Subscribe to the Bulletin" >Subscribe</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./subs.html" >Subscribe</a>-->
   <li><a href="./language1.html" title="International versions" >International</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./about.html"   title="About the Bulletin">About us</a></li>
-  <li><a href="./contact.html" title="Contact the staff" >Contact us</a></li>
+  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/about"
+    title="About Headstar" >About us</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./about.html" >About us</a>-->
+  <a href="http://www.headstar.com/site/scripts/contact.php">Contact us</a>
+  <!--<li><a href="./contact.html" title="Contact the staff" >Contact us</a>-->
   <li><a href="./private.html" title="[8] Terms and conditions" accesskey="8" class="Key">Privacy policy</a></li>
 
-  <li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" title="E-Access Bulletin Live">E-Access Live</a></li>
+  <!--<li><a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive" >E-Access Live</a>-->
 
   <li id="headstar"><a href="http://www.headstar.com/">
     <img src="images/hedstar.gif" alt="headstar.com" /></a>
 <h2><a class="Tab">Bulletin Archive</a></h2>
 
 <ul id="notes">
-<li>Current issue;  <a href="#current">November 2013<!--December 2014--></a>.</li>
+<li>Recently archived:  <a title='Most recently archived Bulletin' href='#current'>June 2014</a>.</li>
 <li>Years;  <a href="#a2000">2000</a>,
   <a href="#a2001">2001</a>,
   <a href="#a2002">2002</a>,
   <a href="#a2010">2010</a>,
   <a href="#a2011">2011</a>,
   <a href="#a2012">2012</a>,
-  <a href="#a2013">2013</a><!--,
-  <a href="#a2014">2014</a>,-->
+  <a href="#a2013">2013</a>,
+  <a href="#a2014">2014</a>,
 </li>
 <li>Note; <a href="http://www.headstar.com/ten">
   <abbr title="Text Email Newsletter Standard">TENS</abbr></a> introduced issue 36, December 2002.</li>
 </ul>
 
-<!--<h3 id="a2014">2014</h3>
+<h3 id="a2014">2014</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
+<li id="current">Issue 174;  <a href="issues/2014/jun2014.html">June 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/jun2014.txt">June 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Issue 173;  <a href="issues/2014/may2014.html">May 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/may2014.txt">May 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Issue 172;  <a href="issues/2014/apr2014.html">April 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/apr2014.txt">April 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Issue 171;  <a href="issues/2014/mar2014.html">March 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/mar2014.txt">March 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Issue 170;  <a href="issues/2014/feb2014.html">February 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/feb2014.txt">February 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
+<li>Issue 169;  <a href="issues/2014/jan2014.html">January 2014 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2014/jan2014.txt">January 2014 text</a>.
+</li>
 </ul>
--->
 
 <h3 id="a2013">2013</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li id=current >Issue 166;  <a href="issues/2013/nov2013.html">November 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 167;  <a href="issues/2013/nov2013.html">November 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/nov2013.txt">November 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 165;  <a href="issues/2013/oct2013.html">October 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 166;  <a href="issues/2013/oct2013.html">October 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/oct2013.txt">October 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 164;  <a href="issues/2013/sep2013.html">September 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 165;  <a href="issues/2013/sep2013.html">September 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/sep2013.txt">September 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 162;  <a href="issues/2013/jul2013.html">July 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 163;  <a href="issues/2013/jul2013.html">July 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/jul2013.txt">July 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 161;  <a href="issues/2013/jun2013.html">June 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 162;  <a href="issues/2013/jun2013.html">June 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/jun2013.txt">June 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 160;  <a href="issues/2013/may2013.html">May 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 161;  <a href="issues/2013/may2013.html">May 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/may2013.txt">May 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 159;  <a href="issues/2013/apr2013.html">April 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 160;  <a href="issues/2013/apr2013.html">April 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/apr2013.txt">April 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 158;  <a href="issues/2013/mar2013.html">March 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 159;  <a href="issues/2013/mar2013.html">March 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/mar2013.txt">March 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 157;  <a href="issues/2013/feb2013.html">February 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 158;  <a href="issues/2013/feb2013.html">February 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/feb2013.txt">February 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 156;  <a href="issues/2013/jan2013.html">January 2013 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 157;  <a href="issues/2013/jan2013.html">January 2013 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2013/jan2013.txt">January 2013 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2012">2012</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 154;  <a href="issues/2012/nov2012.html">November 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 155;  <a href="issues/2012/nov2012.html">November 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/nov2012.txt">November 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 153;  <a href="issues/2012/oct2012.html">October 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 154;  <a href="issues/2012/oct2012.html">October 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/oct2012.txt">October 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 152;  <a href="issues/2012/sep2012.html">September 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 153;  <a href="issues/2012/sep2012.html">September 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/sep2012.txt">September 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 150;  <a href="issues/2012/jul2012.html">July 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 151;  <a href="issues/2012/jul2012.html">July 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/jul2012.txt">July 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 149;  <a href="issues/2012/jun2012.html">June 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 150;  <a href="issues/2012/jun2012.html">June 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/jun2012.txt">June 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 148;  <a href="issues/2012/may2012.html">May 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 149;  <a href="issues/2012/may2012.html">May 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/may2012.txt">May 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 147;  <a href="issues/2012/apr2012.html">April 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 148;  <a href="issues/2012/apr2012.html">April 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/apr2012.txt">April 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 146;  <a href="issues/2012/mar2012.html">March 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 147;  <a href="issues/2012/mar2012.html">March 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/mar2012.txt">March 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 145;  <a href="issues/2012/feb2012.html">February 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 146;  <a href="issues/2012/feb2012.html">February 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/feb2012.txt">February 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 144;  <a href="issues/2012/jan2012.html">January 2012 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 145;  <a href="issues/2012/jan2012.html">January 2012 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2012/jan2012.txt">January 2012 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2011">2011</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 143;  <a href="issues/2011/dec2011.html">December 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 144;  <a href="issues/2011/dec2011.html">December 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/dec2011.txt">December 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 142;  <a href="issues/2011/nov2011.html">November 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 143;  <a href="issues/2011/nov2011.html">November 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/nov2011.txt">November 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 141;  <a href="issues/2011/oct2011.html">October 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 142;  <a href="issues/2011/oct2011.html">October 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/oct2011.txt">October 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 140;  <a href="issues/2011/sep2011.html">September 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 141;  <a href="issues/2011/sep2011.html">September 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/sep2011.txt">September 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 138;  <a href="issues/2011/jul2011.html">July 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 139;  <a href="issues/2011/jul2011.html">July 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/jul2011.txt">July 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 134;  <a href="issues/2011/mar2011.html">March 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 135;  <a href="issues/2011/mar2011.html">March 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/mar2011.txt">March 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 133;  <a href="issues/2011/feb2011.html">February 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 134;  <a href="issues/2011/feb2011.html">February 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/feb2011.txt">February 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 132;  <a href="issues/2011/jan2011.html">January 2011 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 133;  <a href="issues/2011/jan2011.html">January 2011 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2011/jan2011.txt">January 2011 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2010">2010</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 131;  <a href="issues/2010/dec2010.html">December 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 132;  <a href="issues/2010/dec2010.html">December 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/dec2010.txt">December 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 130;  <a href="issues/2010/nov2010.html">November 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 131;  <a href="issues/2010/nov2010.html">November 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/nov2010.txt">November 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 129;  <a href="issues/2010/oct2010.html">October 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 130;  <a href="issues/2010/oct2010.html">October 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/oct2010.txt">October 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 128;  <a href="issues/2010/sep2010.html">September 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 129;  <a href="issues/2010/sep2010.html">September 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/sep2010.txt">September 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 127;  <a href="issues/2010/aug2010.html">August 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 128;  <a href="issues/2010/aug2010.html">August 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/aug2010.txt">August 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 126;  <a href="issues/2010/jul2010.html">July 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 127;  <a href="issues/2010/jul2010.html">July 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/jul2010.txt">July 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 125;  <a href="issues/2010/jun2010.html">June 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 126;  <a href="issues/2010/jun2010.html">June 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/jun2010.txt">June 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 124;  <a href="issues/2010/may2010.html">May 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 125;  <a href="issues/2010/may2010.html">May 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/may2010.txt">May 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 123;  <a href="issues/2010/apr2010.html">April 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 124;  <a href="issues/2010/apr2010.html">April 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/apr2010.txt">April 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 122;  <a href="issues/2010/mar2010.html">March 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 123;  <a href="issues/2010/mar2010.html">March 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/mar2010.txt">March 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 121;  <a href="issues/2010/feb2010.html">February 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 122;  <a href="issues/2010/feb2010.html">February 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/feb2010.txt">February 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 120;  <a href="issues/2010/jan2010.html">January 2010 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 121;  <a href="issues/2010/jan2010.html">January 2010 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2010/jan2010.txt">January 2010 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2009">2009</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 119;  <a href="issues/2009/dec2009.html">December 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 120;  <a href="issues/2009/dec2009.html">December 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/dec2009.txt">December 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 118;  <a href="issues/2009/nov2009.html">November 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 119;  <a href="issues/2009/nov2009.html">November 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/nov2009.txt">November 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 117;  <a href="issues/2009/oct2009.html">October 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 118;  <a href="issues/2009/oct2009.html">October 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/oct2009.txt">October 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 116;  <a href="issues/2009/sep2009.html">September 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 117;  <a href="issues/2009/sep2009.html">September 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/sep2009.txt">September 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 115;  <a href="issues/2009/aug2009.html">August 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 116;  <a href="issues/2009/aug2009.html">August 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/aug2009.txt">August 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 114;  <a href="issues/2009/jul2009.html">July 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 115;  <a href="issues/2009/jul2009.html">July 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/jul2009.txt">July 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 113;  <a href="issues/2009/jun2009.html">June 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 114;  <a href="issues/2009/jun2009.html">June 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/jun2009.txt">June 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 112;  <a href="issues/2009/may2009.html">May 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 113;  <a href="issues/2009/may2009.html">May 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/may2009.txt">May 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 111;  <a href="issues/2009/apr2009.html">April 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 112;  <a href="issues/2009/apr2009.html">April 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/apr2009.txt">April 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 110;  <a href="issues/2009/mar2009.html">March 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 111;  <a href="issues/2009/mar2009.html">March 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/mar2009.txt">March 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 109;  <a href="issues/2009/feb2009.html">February 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 110;  <a href="issues/2009/feb2009.html">February 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/feb2009.txt">February 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 108;  <a href="issues/2009/jan2009.html">January 2009 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 109;  <a href="issues/2009/jan2009.html">January 2009 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2009/jan2009.txt">January 2009 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2008">2008</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 107;  <a href="issues/2008/dec2008.html">December 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 108;  <a href="issues/2008/dec2008.html">December 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/dec2008.txt">December 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 106;  <a href="issues/2008/nov2008.html">November 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 107;  <a href="issues/2008/nov2008.html">November 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/nov2008.txt">November 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 105;  <a href="issues/2008/oct2008.html">October 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 106;  <a href="issues/2008/oct2008.html">October 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/oct2008.txt">October 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 104;  <a href="issues/2008/sep2008.html">September 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 105;  <a href="issues/2008/sep2008.html">September 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/sep2008.txt">September 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 103;  <a href="issues/2008/aug2008.html">August 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 104;  <a href="issues/2008/aug2008.html">August 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/aug2008.txt">August 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 102;  <a href="issues/2008/jul2008.html">July 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 103;  <a href="issues/2008/jul2008.html">July 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/jul2008.txt">July 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 101;  <a href="issues/2008/jun2008.html">June 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 102;  <a href="issues/2008/jun2008.html">June 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/jun2008.txt">June 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 100;  <a href="issues/2008/may2008.html">May 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 101;  <a href="issues/2008/may2008.html">May 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/may2008.txt">May 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 99;  <a href="issues/2008/apr2008.html">April 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 100;  <a href="issues/2008/apr2008.html">April 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/apr2008.txt">April 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 98;  <a href="issues/2008/mar2008.html">March 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 99;  <a href="issues/2008/mar2008.html">March 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/mar2008.txt">March 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 97;  <a href="issues/2008/feb2008.html">February 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 98;  <a href="issues/2008/feb2008.html">February 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/feb2008.txt">February 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 96;  <a href="issues/2008/jan2008.html">January 2008 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 97;  <a href="issues/2008/jan2008.html">January 2008 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2008/jan2008.txt">January 2008 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2007">2007</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 95;  <a href="issues/2007/dec2007.html">December 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 96;  <a href="issues/2007/dec2007.html">December 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/dec2007.txt">December 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 94;  <a href="issues/2007/nov2007.html">November 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 95;  <a href="issues/2007/nov2007.html">November 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/nov2007.txt">November 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 93;  <a href="issues/2007/oct2007.html">October 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 94;  <a href="issues/2007/oct2007.html">October 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/oct2007.txt">October 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 92;  <a href="issues/2007/sep2007.html">September 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 93;  <a href="issues/2007/sep2007.html">September 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/sep2007.txt">September 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 91;  <a href="issues/2007/aug2007.html">August 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 92;  <a href="issues/2007/aug2007.html">August 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/aug2007.txt">August 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 90;  <a href="issues/2007/jul2007.html">July 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 91;  <a href="issues/2007/jul2007.html">July 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/jul2007.txt">July 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 89;  <a href="issues/2007/jun2007.html">June 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 90;  <a href="issues/2007/jun2007.html">June 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/jun2007.txt">June 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 88;  <a href="issues/2007/may2007.html">May 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 89;  <a href="issues/2007/may2007.html">May 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/may2007.txt">May 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 87;  <a href="issues/2007/apr2007.html">April 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 88;  <a href="issues/2007/apr2007.html">April 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/apr2007.txt">April 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 86;  <a href="issues/2007/mar2007.html">March 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 87;  <a href="issues/2007/mar2007.html">March 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/mar2007.txt">March 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 85;  <a href="issues/2007/feb2007.html">February 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 86;  <a href="issues/2007/feb2007.html">February 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/feb2007.txt">February 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 84;  <a href="issues/2007/jan2007.html">January 2007 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 85;  <a href="issues/2007/jan2007.html">January 2007 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2007/jan2007.txt">January 2007 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2006">2006</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 83;  <a href="issues/2006/dec2006.html">December 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 84;  <a href="issues/2006/dec2006.html">December 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/dec2006.txt">December 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 82;  <a href="issues/2006/nov2006.html">November 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 83;  <a href="issues/2006/nov2006.html">November 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/nov2006.txt">November 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 81;  <a href="issues/2006/oct2006.html">October 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 82;  <a href="issues/2006/oct2006.html">October 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/oct2006.txt">October 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 80;  <a href="issues/2006/sep2006.html">September 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 81;  <a href="issues/2006/sep2006.html">September 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/sep2006.txt">September 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 79;  <a href="issues/2006/aug2006.html">August 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 80;  <a href="issues/2006/aug2006.html">August 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/aug2006.txt">August 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 78;  <a href="issues/2006/jul2006.html">July 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 79;  <a href="issues/2006/jul2006.html">July 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/jul2006.txt">July 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 77;  <a href="issues/2006/jun2006.html">June 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 78;  <a href="issues/2006/jun2006.html">June 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/jun2006.txt">June 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 76;  <a href="issues/2006/may2006.html">May 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 77;  <a href="issues/2006/may2006.html">May 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/may2006.txt">May 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 75;  <a href="issues/2006/apr2006.html">April 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 76;  <a href="issues/2006/apr2006.html">April 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/apr2006.txt">April 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 74;  <a href="issues/2006/mar2006.html">March 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 75;  <a href="issues/2006/mar2006.html">March 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/mar2006.txt">March 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 73;  <a href="issues/2006/feb2006.html">February 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 74;  <a href="issues/2006/feb2006.html">February 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/feb2006.txt">February 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 72;  <a href="issues/2006/jan2006.html">January 2006 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 73;  <a href="issues/2006/jan2006.html">January 2006 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2006/jan2006.txt">January 2006 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2005">2005</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 71;  <a href="issues/2005/dec2005.html">December 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 72;  <a href="issues/2005/dec2005.html">December 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/dec2005.txt">December 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 70;  <a href="issues/2005/nov2005.html">November 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 71;  <a href="issues/2005/nov2005.html">November 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/nov2005.txt">November 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 69;  <a href="issues/2005/oct2005.html">October 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 70;  <a href="issues/2005/oct2005.html">October 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/oct2005.txt">October 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 68;  <a href="issues/2005/sep2005.html">September 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 69;  <a href="issues/2005/sep2005.html">September 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/sep2005.txt">September 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 67;  <a href="issues/2005/aug2005.html">August 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 68;  <a href="issues/2005/aug2005.html">August 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/aug2005.txt">August 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 66;  <a href="issues/2005/jul2005.html">July 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 67;  <a href="issues/2005/jul2005.html">July 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/jul2005.txt">July 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 65;  <a href="issues/2005/jun2005.html">June 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 66;  <a href="issues/2005/jun2005.html">June 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/jun2005.txt">June 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 64;  <a href="issues/2005/may2005.html">May 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 65;  <a href="issues/2005/may2005.html">May 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/may2005.txt">May 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 63;  <a href="issues/2005/apr2005.html">April 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 64;  <a href="issues/2005/apr2005.html">April 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/apr2005.txt">April 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 62;  <a href="issues/2005/mar2005.html">March 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 63;  <a href="issues/2005/mar2005.html">March 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/mar2005.txt">March 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 61;  <a href="issues/2005/feb2005.html">February 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 62;  <a href="issues/2005/feb2005.html">February 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/feb2005.txt">February 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 60;  <a href="issues/2005/jan2005.html">January 2005 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 61;  <a href="issues/2005/jan2005.html">January 2005 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2005/jan2005.txt">January 2005 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2004">2004</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 59;  <a href="issues/2004/dec2004.html">December 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 60;  <a href="issues/2004/dec2004.html">December 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/dec2004.txt">December 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 58;  <a href="issues/2004/nov2004.html">November 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 59;  <a href="issues/2004/nov2004.html">November 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/nov2004.txt">November 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 57;  <a href="issues/2004/oct2004.html">October 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 58;  <a href="issues/2004/oct2004.html">October 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/oct2004.txt">October 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 56;  <a href="issues/2004/sep2004.html">September 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 57;  <a href="issues/2004/sep2004.html">September 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/sep2004.txt">September 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 55;  <a href="issues/2004/aug2004.html">August 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 56;  <a href="issues/2004/aug2004.html">August 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/aug2004.txt">August 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 54;  <a href="issues/2004/jul2004.html">July 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 55;  <a href="issues/2004/jul2004.html">July 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/jul2004.txt">July 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 53;  <a href="issues/2004/jun2004.html">June 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 54;  <a href="issues/2004/jun2004.html">June 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/jun2004.txt">June 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 52;  <a href="issues/2004/may2004.html">May 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 53;  <a href="issues/2004/may2004.html">May 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/may2004.txt">May 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 51;  <a href="issues/2004/apr2004.html">April 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 52;  <a href="issues/2004/apr2004.html">April 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/apr2004.txt">April 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 50;  <a href="issues/2004/mar2004.html">March 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 51;  <a href="issues/2004/mar2004.html">March 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/mar2004.txt">March 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 49;  <a href="issues/2004/feb2004.html">February 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 50;  <a href="issues/2004/feb2004.html">February 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/feb2004.txt">February 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 48;  <a href="issues/2004/jan2004.html">January 2004 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 49;  <a href="issues/2004/jan2004.html">January 2004 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2004/jan2004.txt">January 2004 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2003">2003</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 47;  <a href="issues/2003/dec2003.html">December 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 48;  <a href="issues/2003/dec2003.html">December 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/dec2003.txt">December 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 46;  <a href="issues/2003/nov2003.html">November 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 47;  <a href="issues/2003/nov2003.html">November 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/nov2003.txt">November 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 45;  <a href="issues/2003/oct2003.html">October 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 46;  <a href="issues/2003/oct2003.html">October 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/oct2003.txt">October 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 44;  <a href="issues/2003/sep2003.html">September 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 45;  <a href="issues/2003/sep2003.html">September 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/sep2003.txt">September 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 43;  <a href="issues/2003/aug2003.html">August 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 44;  <a href="issues/2003/aug2003.html">August 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/aug2003.txt">August 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 42;  <a href="issues/2003/jul2003.html">July 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 43;  <a href="issues/2003/jul2003.html">July 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/jul2003.txt">July 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 41;  <a href="issues/2003/jun2003.html">June 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 42;  <a href="issues/2003/jun2003.html">June 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/jun2003.txt">June 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 40;  <a href="issues/2003/may2003.html">May 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 41;  <a href="issues/2003/may2003.html">May 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/may2003.txt">May 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 39;  <a href="issues/2003/apr2003.html">April 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 40;  <a href="issues/2003/apr2003.html">April 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/apr2003.txt">April 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 38;  <a href="issues/2003/mar2003.html">March 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 39;  <a href="issues/2003/mar2003.html">March 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/mar2003.txt">March 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 37;  <a href="issues/2003/feb2003.html">February 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 38;  <a href="issues/2003/feb2003.html">February 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/feb2003.txt">February 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 36;  <a href="issues/2003/jan2003.html">January 2003 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 37;  <a href="issues/2003/jan2003.html">January 2003 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2003/jan2003.txt">January 2003 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2002">2002</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 35;  <a href="issues/2002/dec2002.html">December 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 36;  <a href="issues/2002/dec2002.html">December 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/dec2002.txt">December 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 34;  <a href="issues/2002/nov2002.html">November 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 35;  <a href="issues/2002/nov2002.html">November 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/nov2002.txt">November 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 33;  <a href="issues/2002/oct2002.html">October 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 34;  <a href="issues/2002/oct2002.html">October 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/oct2002.txt">October 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 32;  <a href="issues/2002/sep2002.html">September 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 33;  <a href="issues/2002/sep2002.html">September 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/sep2002.txt">September 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 31;  <a href="issues/2002/aug2002.html">August 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 32;  <a href="issues/2002/aug2002.html">August 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/aug2002.txt">August 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 30;  <a href="issues/2002/jul2002.html">July 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 31;  <a href="issues/2002/jul2002.html">July 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/jul2002.txt">July 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 29;  <a href="issues/2002/jun2002.html">June 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 30;  <a href="issues/2002/jun2002.html">June 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/jun2002.txt">June 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 28;  <a href="issues/2002/may2002.html">May 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 29;  <a href="issues/2002/may2002.html">May 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/may2002.txt">May 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 27;  <a href="issues/2002/apr2002.html">April 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 28;  <a href="issues/2002/apr2002.html">April 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/apr2002.txt">April 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 26;  <a href="issues/2002/mar2002.html">March 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 27;  <a href="issues/2002/mar2002.html">March 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/mar2002.txt">March 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 25;  <a href="issues/2002/feb2002.html">February 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 26;  <a href="issues/2002/feb2002.html">February 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/feb2002.txt">February 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 24;  <a href="issues/2002/jan2002.html">January 2002 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 25;  <a href="issues/2002/jan2002.html">January 2002 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2002/jan2002.txt">January 2002 text</a>.
 </li>
 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2001">2001</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 23;  <a href="issues/2001/dec2001.html">December 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 24;  <a href="issues/2001/dec2001.html">December 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/dec2001.txt">December 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 22;  <a href="issues/2001/nov2001.html">November 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 23;  <a href="issues/2001/nov2001.html">November 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/nov2001.txt">November 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 21;  <a href="issues/2001/oct2001.html">October 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 22;  <a href="issues/2001/oct2001.html">October 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/oct2001.txt">October 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 20;  <a href="issues/2001/sep2001.html">September 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 21;  <a href="issues/2001/sep2001.html">September 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/sep2001.txt">September 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 19;  <a href="issues/2001/aug2001.html">August 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 20;  <a href="issues/2001/aug2001.html">August 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/aug2001.txt">August 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 18;  <a href="issues/2001/jul2001.html">July 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 19;  <a href="issues/2001/jul2001.html">July 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/jul2001.txt">July 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 17;  <a href="issues/2001/jun2001.html">June 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 18;  <a href="issues/2001/jun2001.html">June 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/jun2001.txt">June 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 16;  <a href="issues/2001/may2001.html">May 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 17;  <a href="issues/2001/may2001.html">May 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/may2001.txt">May 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 15;  <a href="issues/2001/apr2001.html">April 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 16;  <a href="issues/2001/apr2001.html">April 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/apr2001.txt">April 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 14;  <a href="issues/2001/mar2001.html">March 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 15;  <a href="issues/2001/mar2001.html">March 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/mar2001.txt">March 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 13;  <a href="issues/2001/feb2001.html">February 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 14;  <a href="issues/2001/feb2001.html">February 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/feb2001.txt">February 2001 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 12;  <a href="issues/2001/jan2001.html">January 2001 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 13;  <a href="issues/2001/jan2001.html">January 2001 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2001/jan2001.txt">January 2001 text</a>.
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 </ul>
 
 <h3 id="a2000">2000</h3>
 <ul class="Archive">
-<li>Issue 11;  <a href="issues/2000/dec2000.html">December 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 12;  <a href="issues/2000/dec2000.html">December 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/dec2000.txt">December 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 10;  <a href="issues/2000/nov2000.html">November 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 11;  <a href="issues/2000/nov2000.html">November 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/nov2000.txt">November 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 09;  <a href="issues/2000/oct2000.html">October 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 10;  <a href="issues/2000/oct2000.html">October 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/oct2000.txt">October 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 08;  <a href="issues/2000/sep2000.html">September 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 09;  <a href="issues/2000/sep2000.html">September 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/sep2000.txt">September 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 07;  <a href="issues/2000/aug2000.html">August 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 08;  <a href="issues/2000/aug2000.html">August 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/aug2000.txt">August 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 06;  <a href="issues/2000/jul2000.html">July 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 07;  <a href="issues/2000/jul2000.html">July 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/jul2000.txt">July 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 05;  <a href="issues/2000/jun2000.html">June 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 06;  <a href="issues/2000/jun2000.html">June 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/jun2000.txt">June 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 04;  <a href="issues/2000/may2000.html">May 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 05;  <a href="issues/2000/may2000.html">May 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/may2000.txt">May 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 03;  <a href="issues/2000/apr2000.html">April 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 04;  <a href="issues/2000/apr2000.html">April 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/apr2000.txt">April 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 02;  <a href="issues/2000/mar2000.html">March 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 03;  <a href="issues/2000/mar2000.html">March 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/mar2000.txt">March 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<li>Issue 01;  <a href="issues/2000/feb2000.html">February 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+<li>Issue 02;  <a href="issues/2000/feb2000.html">February 2000 HTML</a>, <a
   href="issues/2000/feb2000.txt">February 2000 text</a>.
 </li>
-<p id="stamp">Last build: 18 January 2014 22:26 <abbr title="Greenwich Mean Time">GMT</abbr>.</p>
+<li>Issue 01;  <a href="issues/2000/jan2000.html">January 2000 HTML</a>, <a
+  href="issues/2000/jan2000.txt">January 2000 text</a>.
+</li>
+</ul>
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+<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><title>E-Access Bulletin
+- Issue 167, April 2014.
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+<h1><b class="Ps">+++</b>E-Access Bulletin
+- Issue 167, April 2014.
+</h1>
+<p class="strap">Access To Technology For All, Regardless Of Ability</p><ul id='menu' role='navigation'>
+<li><h3><a tabindex='2' class='Bookmark'>Menu</a></h3></li>
+<li><a href='#toc' title='Contents for this issue'>Contents</a></li>
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+</ul>
+<div id="main"><p> 
+ A Headstar Publication.
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eab/">http://www.headstar.com/eab/</a>
+ .</p>
+<p> 
+ Please forward this free bulletin to others (subscription details at the 
+ end).
+</p>
+<div id="contents" role="navigation">
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Issue 167 Contents.</h2>
+<ol id="toc">
+  <li><i class="Ns">01: </i><a href="#i167-01">Application of EU accessibility standard hits roadblock - Law mandating use unlikely to be drafted until the autumn. </a></li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">02: </i><a href="#i167-02">Supply chain collaboration key to accessible e-books - Device makers must work with content producers, publishers told </a></li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">03: </i><a href="#i167-03">E-book access debate continues in US following legal waiver - US communications body offers manufacturers one-year exemption. </a></li>
+  <li>News in Brief: </li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">04: </i><a href="#i167-04">News in Brief: </a>04: </li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">05: </i><a href="#i167-05">May; </a>05: </li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">06: </i><a href="#i167-06">Government Research - what are most popular access tools? 06: Other  Space - pioneering restaurant in Italy. </a></li>
+  <li>Section Two: News Analysis - European Policy and Standards.</li>
+  <li><i class="Ns">07: </i><a href="#i167-07">The slow arm of the law: just as it seems progress is being made in  drawing up European accessibility legislation, further delays appear. Dan  Jellinek talks exclusively to the chairman of a European technical standard  body at the heart of the struggle. </a></li>
+</ol>
+<p class="EndMark">[Contents ends].
+</p>
+</div>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Section One: News.</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<h3 id="i167-01"><b class="Ps">+</b>01: Application Of Eu Accessibility Standard Hits Roadblock</h3>
+<p> 
+ Application of a new European standard on ICT accessibility is being 
+ hampered by delays with an EU directive mandating its use by governments, 
+ the standard's developer has told E-Access Bulletin.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The 'European Standard on accessibility requirements suitable for public 
+ procurement of ICT products and services in Europe' (EN 301 549) was 
+ published in February by ETSI (the European Telecommunications Standards 
+ Institute).
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Currently, however, the standard's use is not mandated by EU law, a fact 
+ which is likely to delay its take-up for some time, Matthias Schneider of 
+ ETSI tells E-Access Bulletin in an exclusive interview published this month 
+ (see Section Two, this issue).
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;The EU has not yet ruled that the standard has to be used for procurement 
+ at European level, and unless a state regulates that the standard has to be 
+ applied by public procurers, I wouldn't expect many organisations will 
+ switch over to using it&quot;, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In 2011, the European Commission did announce it was developing a European 
+ Accessibility Act covering the accessibility requirements of all goods and 
+ services bought and sold in the EU, which would be likely to use the new 
+ standard. However despite several false dawns, it has since been delayed 
+ again and is unlikely to be drafted before the autumn, he said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In a further complication, Schneider said the standard itself might have to 
+ be altered later this year to remain consistent with the revision of Section 
+ 508 of the US Rehabilitation Act, a US law requiring ICT purchased by public 
+ bodies to be accessible. EU standards makers and technology companies are 
+ keen for the two systems to be aligned to boost international trade, but 
+ Section 508 has been undergoing its own review process which is lasting 
+ longer than policymakers originally expected.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ NOTE: For the full story and a chance to comment on it online, see 'The slow 
+ arm of the law', Section Two, this issue.
+</p>
+<h3 id="i167-02"><b class="Ps">+</b>02: Supply Chain Collaboration Key To Accessible E-Books</h3>
+<p> 
+ People in all parts of the publishing chain - from device manufacturers to 
+ those developing content platforms - must work together to improve e-book 
+ accessibility, delegates at the London Book Fair heard this month.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;No one player in the chain between author and reader can solve the problem 
+ of accessibility on their own . only through collaboration can we achieve 
+ our goal of delivering the content in ways and on platforms that suit the 
+ needs of particular readers&quot;, Publishers Licensing Society (PLS) chairman 
+ Mark Bide told the fair's seminar on accessible e-publishing.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The seminar is organised by the book industry standards body EDItEUR with 
+ the Royal National Institute of Blind People and The Publishers Association.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Speaking after the seminar, Bide told E-Access Bulletin the debate over 
+ e-book accessibility has shifted recently towards the need to ensure 
+ mainstream formats are flexible. &quot;We are now increasingly focused on the 
+ importance of making mainstream e-books as accessible as possible, although 
+ we do not forget that there continues to be a need to facilitate access to 
+ specialist formats where no appropriate e-book is accessible&quot;, he said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;As with any other reader, we simply need to deliver the reading experience 
+ that [readers] require - whether it be large print, text-to-speech, 
+ different text or background colours&quot;, Bide said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ NOTE: Comment on this story now, on EAB Live:
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1013">http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1013</a>
+ .</p>
+<h3 id="i167-03"><b class="Ps">+</b>03: E-Book Access Debate Continues In Us Following Legal Waiver</h3>
+<p> 
+ Meanwhile, the debate over whether all e-book readers should be made 
+ accessible - including the addition of sound capabilities - is set to 
+ continue in the US, after the country's Federal Communications Commission 
+ granted reader manufacturers a temporary waiver to one accessibility 
+ regulation.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The FCC has granted a one-year waiver exempting single-purpose e-book 
+ readers from a requirement in the US 21st Century Video and Communications 
+ and Video Accessibility Act that equipment used for advanced communication 
+ services (ACS) be accessible to people with disabilities ( 
+ <a href="http://www.fcc.gov/document/coalition-e-reader-manufacturers-petition-waiver-acs-rules">http://www.fcc.gov/document/coalition-e-reader-manufacturers-petition-waiver-acs-rules</a>
+ )  .
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The move came in response to a petition filed last year by a coalition of 
+ e-reader manufacturers -Amazon, Kobo and Sony - who said that because 
+ e-readers are used almost exclusively for reading, they do not provide ACS 
+ (see <a href="http://bit.ly/16gW53i">http://bit.ly/16gW53i</a>
+ ). The firms also argued that to make such  readers fully accessible would increase their cost and weight and decrease 
+ battery life, essentially turning them into different devices more similar 
+ to tablet computers.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In granting the waiver, the FCC said: &quot;Although capable of accessing ACS 
+ (such as email), we conclude that this narrow class of e-readers is designed 
+ primarily for reading text-based digital works, not for ACS.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ However, the commission limited the waiver to one year, despite the 
+ coalition's request for an indefinite waiver, saying: &quot;given the swift pace 
+ at which technologies are evolving and the expanding role of ACS in 
+ electronic devices, the waiver will expire on January 28, 2015.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ It also limited the waiver to &quot;a distinct, narrow class of e-readers&quot; with 
+ limited features, namely those with no LCD screen; no camera; and no 
+ built-in email, instant messaging or similar ACS applications. Most e-book 
+ manufacturers already also make more sophisticated, tablet PC-style readers 
+ which do comply with accessibility rules, and the new waiver in effect 
+ separates these categories of products from each other for legal purposes - 
+ for one year, at least.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Nate Hoffelder, editor of the e-books blog &quot;Digital reader&quot; ( 
+ <a href="http://www.the-digital-reader.com">http://www.the-digital-reader.com</a>
+ ), told E-Access Bulletin he expected the  waiver to be extended again next year, since its removal would be likely to 
+ result in the simpler class of e-book readers being withdrawn from the 
+ market.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;By the time the new regulation was written in 2011, Amazon, Kobo... and 
+ other device makers all had one or more e-readers on the market which did 
+ not have sound, and thus could not comply with the regulation&quot;, Hoffelder 
+ said. &quot;That put the device makers in the position of filing for a waiver or 
+ simply pulling the e-readers from the market.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ However the American Library Association, which has campaigned against any 
+ waiver, said in a statement it was &quot;pleased that e-reader manufacturers must 
+ file for a waiver next year and re-argue their case, or make their e-reader 
+ ACS features accessible to people with print and other disabilities.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ NOTE: Comment on this story now, on EAB Live:
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1015">http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1015</a>
+ .</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>News in Brief:</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<p> 
+ 04: EGAAD Returns: Thursday 15 May is the second annual Global Accessibility 
+ Awareness Day. The day, launched last year by US-based web developer Joe 
+ Devon, allows organisations and individuals working in the field worldwide 
+ to pool their efforts to boost accessibility awareness. To find out about 
+ events near you and join the campaign, see:
+ <a href="http://www.globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org">http://www.globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org</a>
+ .</p>
+<p> 
+ 05: Government Research: The UK Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) is 
+ trying to profile the types of assistive technology tools in use by citizens 
+ accessing the department's digital services, and would like to hear from 
+ E-Access Bulletin readers who have been involved in or know of similar work. 
+ In particular, managers are interested in finding out what assistive 
+ software tools are the most commonly-used, and if possible an estimate of 
+ the numbers of people using them in the UK. Anyone who can help with this 
+ research should please contact Clare Shepherd on:
+ <a href="mailto:clare.shepherd1@dwp.gsi.gov.uk">clare.shepherd1@dwp.gsi.gov.uk</a>
+</p>
+<p> 
+ 06: Other Space:
+ A restaurant accessible to deafblind people, raising awareness of disability 
+ issues for everyone and showing that blind and deafblind people can live a 
+ normal life, has opened in Bologna, Italy. Features include a tactile map at 
+ the entrance, and regular placing of cutlery, glasses and napkins. L'Altro 
+ Spazio (The Other Space) is run by the local cultural organisation Farm, 
+ which had previously opened the first bar in Italy run by deaf people called 
+ Untitled (Senza Nome), where people who ordered by sign language received a 
+ discount. For more information on L'Altro Spazio in Italian, see:
+ <a href="http://laltrospazio.com/">http://laltrospazio.com/</a>
+
+ https://www.facebook.com/laltrospazio.viapolese .
+</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Section One ends].</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Sponsored Notice: Bee Communications- Specialist Providers of Captioning.
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+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Sponsored Notice: Adept Transcription- Alternative Formats At Affordable Prices.
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+ Tel: 0208 133 5418 (precede with 18001 for typetalk)
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+</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Sponsored Notice ends].</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Section Two: News Analysis- European Policy and Standards.
+</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<h3 ><b class="Ps">+</b>07: The Slow Arm Of The Lawby Dan Jellinek.
+</h3>
+<p> 
+ For many years, the disability community in Europe has been pushing the EU 
+ to write accessibility into its trade rules for ICT goods and services, not 
+ least when it comes to ICT purchased by governments themselves.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Similar rules have long been in place in the US, perhaps surprisingly for 
+ those who like to caricature America as a champion of free trade at any 
+ social cost. Now it seems, some progress is being made in Europe. But is it 
+ fast enough?
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The 'European Standard on accessibility requirements suitable for public 
+ procurement of ICT products and services in Europe' (EN 301 549) was 
+ published in February by ETSI (the European Telecommunications Standards 
+ Institute - <a href="http://www.etsi.org">http://www.etsi.org</a>
+ ) in association with international  groupings of national standards bodies CEN and CENELEC (www.cencenelec.eu). 
+ It had previously been known as Mandate 376, through a drawn-out development 
+ period of some seven years (see EAB, July 2012 - 
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=753">http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=753</a>
+).</p>
+<p> 
+ The standard aims to ensure ICT products and services - including websites, 
+ software and digital devices from computers to smartphones and ticketing 
+ machines - are made more accessible to people of all abilities, either 
+ directly or through compatibility with assistive technologies such as 
+ text-to-speech. It is accompanied by three technical reports (TR 101 550, TR 
+ 101 551 and TR 101 552), adding more detail.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Currently, however, its use is not mandated either by EU law or national law 
+ in any individual country, a fact which is likely to delay its take-up in 
+ most parts of Europe for some time, Matthias Schneider, chairman of the ETSI 
+ technical committee on human factors, told E-Access Bulletin.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;The EU has not yet ruled that the standard has to be used for procurement 
+ at European level, and unless a state regulates that the standard has to be 
+ applied by public procurers, I wouldn't expect many organisations will 
+ switch over to using it&quot;, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In 2011, the European Commission did announce it was developing a European 
+ Accessibility Act covering the accessibility requirements of all goods and 
+ services bought and sold in the EU, which would be likely to use the new 
+ standard. However despite several false dawns - including a promise last 
+ year that the act would finally be drafted in the first quarter of 2014 - it 
+ has since been delayed again.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;So far it has still not been drafted, and there is no clear insight why the 
+ commission has delayed for so long&quot;, Schneider said. &quot;My personal opinion is 
+ that it will not appear prior to the instalment of the next European 
+ Commission in July or August, so I don't see anything happening before 
+ October.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ As and when an accessibility act is passed it will cover both public and 
+ private sector procurement, and it will then be possible for member states 
+ to apply the new accessibility standard across all sectors, after a late 
+ change to it at the urging of the European Commission, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;The original purpose of the standard was very clearly public procurement, 
+ but during its development the commission realised it could be used for many 
+ more purposes&quot;, he said. &quot;The problem was, to change its purpose halfway 
+ through development would have meant asking new groups of interested parties 
+ to comment, which was no longer possible. So in the end, we came up with 
+ something which didn't go all the way to what the commission wanted but 
+ still could also be used in other tasks such as in the private sector, 
+ provided someone mandates it.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The compromise reached can be seen in a small but key change in the standard's 
+ title, from the previous 'Accessibility requirements for public procurement' 
+ to the final 'Accessibility requirements suitable for public procurement', 
+ with the new wording leaving its use open in other fields, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In a bizarre quirk of the European standards system - that could cause 
+ unnecessary expense to the unwary - the new European Standard EN 301 549 is 
+ available free of charge from the ETSI website but costs a significant fee 
+ to buy from some national standards bodies. The latter group includes the 
+ British Standards Institution (BSI), which is charging members &pound;134 and 
+ non-members &pound;264 to buy the same standard (its website does not specify how 
+ much it charges for membership, which depends on how many standards an 
+ organisation uses).
+</p>
+<p> 
+ It is usual for all national European standards bodies to publish their own 
+ copies of European standards, numbered within their own systems - the new 
+ standard is published by BSI as BS EN 301549:2014. However because different 
+ standards bodies have different business models, some charge for their 
+ products, while others do not. ETSI, funded by more than 700 members 
+ worldwide including technology companies, does not charge for its standards.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The situation is made even stranger by the fact that the British and other 
+ national 'versions' of a standard such as this one do not differ in any way 
+ from the pan-European version, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;It might have a different cover page, but the content is identical because 
+ they cannot change it. It is one of the puzzles that the European standards 
+ situation creates every once in a while.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The new standard does not create its own technical specifications from 
+ scratch in most areas, since this groundwork has already been carried out 
+ for existing hardware and software standards in Europe, the US and 
+ elsewhere, he said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ For example there are already standards specifying the range over which 
+ speech volume should be adjustable; and for web accessibility the new 
+ standard refers to level 'AA' of WCAG 2.0, the web content accessibility 
+ guidelines produced by the international World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Likewise for software that runs on desktop computers or other devices and 
+ for documents, the requirements are harmonised with work by the W3C's 
+ WCAG2ICT Task Force (<a href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag2ict">http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag2ict</a>
+). This means that  the requirements for the web, documents and software all follow the same 
+ principles.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ The work on this standard is seen as crucial for global trade and so ETSI 
+ and its partners have worked hard to ensure the accessibility requirements 
+ contained in the new standard are consistent with the revision of Section 
+ 508 of the US Rehabilitation Act, a US law requiring ICT purchased by public 
+ bodies to be accessible, Schneider said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ However, this work has been complicated by the fact that Section 508 has 
+ been undergoing its own review process which is lasting longer than 
+ policymakers originally expected, he said.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;We have tried to synchronise with the newest version of Section 508, but 
+ unfortunately the newest version is not finalised, so we don't know what its 
+ contents will be yet. It could be that in half a year from now, when the US 
+ comes out with the newest version of Section 508, we might have to change 
+ ours again so it is compatible. We hope that this will not be the case.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ &quot;Harmonising our approach with US was extremely difficult and very 
+ time-consuming, but we want it to be harmonised because international 
+ companies such as Nokia, Motorola or Microsoft have no wish to develop 
+ products designed for accessibility requirements in Europe which are 
+ different to the US.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Progress in some areas is happening a bit faster, however. While Europe 
+ continues to wait for a general accessibility directive, one area where the 
+ new standard may be put to use more quickly could be public sector websites. 
+ There is a proposal to use it as part of accessibility guidelines for a new 
+ public sector website accessibility directive already passing through the EU 
+ law-making system
+ (see E-Access Bulletin, February 2014 - 
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=986">http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=986</a>
+).</p>
+<p> 
+ It would also be possible for European nations to pick up on the new 
+ standard individually and embed it in their own policies, Schneider says. 
+ &quot;Member states can act individually, so I would expect that some - probably 
+ Nordic countries and Germany first - will mandate it in their state 
+ procurement rules.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ As well as creating major potential social benefits, European policymakers 
+ also hope the standard, and European Directives or state laws mandating its 
+ use, will help boost the market for technology companies and companies 
+ working in the accessible and assistive technology sectors.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ As Elena Santiago Cid, director general of CEN and CENELEC, said in a 
+ statement: &quot;We believe that including accessibility requirements in European 
+ standards will deliver both societal and economic benefits, by helping to 
+ expand the market for accessible products and services.&quot;
+</p>
+<p> 
+ While the workings of European law move slowly, the new standard is the 
+ latest piece in a jigsaw puzzle which does seem to be finally coming 
+ together.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Despite the long delay in its development, and the new further wait for a 
+ law mandating it to be widely used, the standard's publication - following 
+ on from the directive on public sector websites - marks the beginning of a 
+ breakthrough.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ In the US, Section 508 law is credited with driving the biggest technology 
+ companies including Apple and Microsoft to pay far more attention to the 
+ accessibility of their mainstream products. Step by step, Europe seems to be 
+ catching up.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Comment on this story now, on EAB Live:
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1017">http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1017</a>
+
+</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Section Two ends].</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Sponsored Notice: Accessify Forum- Accessibility Discussion.
+</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<p> 
+ Established in 2003, Accessify Forum is a popular destination for 
+ accessibility discussion. The &quot;site critiques&quot; section has helped hundreds 
+ of people improve their websites, with members offering friendly, no 
+ nonsense advice.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ You'll find discussion of accessibility at all levels, from beginner to 
+ guru. So whether you're looking to learn more about accessibility, want to 
+ help others and improve on your own knowledge, or just to browse the 
+ archives, head over to:
+</p>
+<p> 
+ <a href="http://www.accessifyforum.com/">http://www.accessifyforum.com/</a>
+ .</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Special notice ends].</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>Sponsored notice: Audio book mysteries to relax and enjoy</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<p> 
+ More and more people are using audio books to relax, and to develop and 
+ stimulate their imaginations. My name is Donna J. Jodhan and since 2010 I 
+ have been using my audio mysteries to help thousands from around the world 
+ to do just that - for pennies at a time.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ I am an author who is blind. My audio mystery titles include 'Young, 
+ good-looking, and brilliant!' [plot summary follows]:
+ Who says that success does not come with a price tag? Especially when there 
+ are secrets lurking in the background, and this was Senator Christian 
+ Jansen's downfall. There was one who did not want the senator to run as 
+ president because he would be too difficult to handle. Another wanted the 
+ senator dead for breaking his promise to an oil company. And a Mafia boss 
+ who felt that the senator would be dangerous to them as president.
+ Who could have done it? [plot summary ends] Other titles include 'The 
+ Million Dollar Mansion', 'The Kidnapper's Kid' and many more.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Visit www.donnajodhan.com to learn more, subscribe to my monthly newsletter 
+ or buy the audio mysteries direct at:
+ www.donnajodhan.com/store.html .
+</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Sponsored notice ends].</p>
+<h2><b class="Ps">++</b>End Notes.</h2>
+<p class="Goto"><a href="#toc">Contents</a>.</p>
+<div id="subscribe"><h3><b class="Ps">+</b>How to Receive the Bulletin.</h3>
+<p> +How to Receive the Bulletin.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ To subscribe to this free monthly bulletin, email
+ <a href="mailto:eab-subs@headstar.com">eab-subs@headstar.com</a>
+ with 'subscribe eab' in the subject header. You can list other email 
+ addresses to subscribe in the body of the message. Please encourage all your 
+ colleagues to sign up! To unsubscribe at any time, put 'unsubscribe eab' in 
+ the subject header.
+</p>
+<p> 
+ Please send comments on coverage or leads to Dan Jellinek at:
+ <a href="mailto:dan@headstar.com">dan@headstar.com</a> .</p>
+<p> 
+ Copyright 2014 Headstar Ltd <a href="http://www.headstar.com">http://www.headstar.com</a>
+ . The Bulletin may be reproduced as long as all parts including this copyright 
+ notice are included, and as long as people are always encouraged to 
+ subscribe with us individually by email. Please also inform the editor when 
+ you are reproducing our content. Sections of the bulletin may be quoted as 
+ long as they are clearly sourced as 'taken from e-access bulletin, a free 
+ monthly email newsletter', and our web site address:
+ <a href="http://www.headstar.com/eab">http://www.headstar.com/eab</a>
+
+ is also cited.
+</p>
+<div id="personnel"><h3><b class="Ps">+</b>Personnel:</h3>
+<ul><li>Editor: Dan Jellinek.
+</li><li>Associate Editor: Tristan Parker.
+</li><li>Editorial advisor: Kevin Carey.
+</li></ul></div>
+<p> 
+ ISSN 1476-6337.
+</p>
+<!--TODO: section end-->
+<p class="EndMark">[Issue 167 ends].</p>
+</div>
+<ul id='totop'>
+<li><h3>Menu</h3></li>
+<li><a href='#toc' title='Contents for this issue'>Contents</a></li>
+<li><a href='http://www.headstar.com/eab' title='Bulletin home'>Home</a></li>
+<li><a href='http://www.headstar.com/eab/archive.html'>Archive</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

eab/issues/2014/apr2014.txt

+E-Access Bulletin, April 2014: Application of EU accessibility standard hits roadblock; Accessible e-book debates in UK and US.
+Sent:	 29 April 2014 19:06
+
+++E-ACCESS BULLETIN
+Access To Technology For All, Regardless Of Ability
+- ISSUE 167, April 2014.
+
+A Headstar Publication.
+http://www.headstar.com/eab/ .
+
+Please forward this free bulletin to others (subscription details at the 
+end).
+
+
+++Issue 167 Contents.
+
+01: Application of EU accessibility standard hits roadblock
+- Law mandating use unlikely to be drafted until the autumn.
+
+02: Supply chain collaboration key to accessible e-books
+- Device makers must work with content producers, publishers told
+
+03: E-book access debate continues in US following legal waiver
+- US communications body offers manufacturers one-year exemption.
+
+News in Brief: 04: EGAAD Returns - Global accessibility awareness day in 
+May; 05: Government Research - what are most popular access tools? 06: Other 
+Space - pioneering restaurant in Italy.
+
+Section Two: News Analysis - European Policy and Standards.
+07: The slow arm of the law: just as it seems progress is being made in 
+drawing up European accessibility legislation, further delays appear. Dan 
+Jellinek talks exclusively to the chairman of a European technical standard 
+body at the heart of the struggle.
+
+[Contents ends].
+
+
+++Section One: News.
+
++01: Application of EU accessibility standard hits roadblock
+
+Application of a new European standard on ICT accessibility is being 
+hampered by delays with an EU directive mandating its use by governments, 
+the standard's developer has told E-Access Bulletin.
+
+The 'European Standard on accessibility requirements suitable for public 
+procurement of ICT products and services in Europe' (EN 301 549) was 
+published in February by ETSI (the European Telecommunications Standards 
+Institute).
+
+Currently, however, the standard's use is not mandated by EU law, a fact 
+which is likely to delay its take-up for some time, Matthias Schneider of 
+ETSI tells E-Access Bulletin in an exclusive interview published this month 
+(see Section Two, this issue).
+
+"The EU has not yet ruled that the standard has to be used for procurement 
+at European level, and unless a state regulates that the standard has to be 
+applied by public procurers, I wouldn't expect many organisations will 
+switch over to using it", Schneider said.
+
+In 2011, the European Commission did announce it was developing a European 
+Accessibility Act covering the accessibility requirements of all goods and 
+services bought and sold in the EU, which would be likely to use the new 
+standard. However despite several false dawns, it has since been delayed 
+again and is unlikely to be drafted before the autumn, he said.
+
+In a further complication, Schneider said the standard itself might have to 
+be altered later this year to remain consistent with the revision of Section 
+508 of the US Rehabilitation Act, a US law requiring ICT purchased by public 
+bodies to be accessible. EU standards makers and technology companies are 
+keen for the two systems to be aligned to boost international trade, but 
+Section 508 has been undergoing its own review process which is lasting 
+longer than policymakers originally expected.
+
+NOTE: For the full story and a chance to comment on it online, see 'The slow 
+arm of the law', Section Two, this issue.
+
+
++02: Supply chain collaboration key to accessible e-books
+
+People in all parts of the publishing chain - from device manufacturers to 
+those developing content platforms - must work together to improve e-book 
+accessibility, delegates at the London Book Fair heard this month.
+
+"No one player in the chain between author and reader can solve the problem 
+of accessibility on their own . only through collaboration can we achieve 
+our goal of delivering the content in ways and on platforms that suit the 
+needs of particular readers", Publishers Licensing Society (PLS) chairman 
+Mark Bide told the fair's seminar on accessible e-publishing.
+
+The seminar is organised by the book industry standards body EDItEUR with 
+the Royal National Institute of Blind People and The Publishers Association.
+
+Speaking after the seminar, Bide told E-Access Bulletin the debate over 
+e-book accessibility has shifted recently towards the need to ensure 
+mainstream formats are flexible. "We are now increasingly focused on the 
+importance of making mainstream e-books as accessible as possible, although 
+we do not forget that there continues to be a need to facilitate access to 
+specialist formats where no appropriate e-book is accessible", he said.
+
+"As with any other reader, we simply need to deliver the reading experience 
+that [readers] require - whether it be large print, text-to-speech, 
+different text or background colours", Bide said.
+
+NOTE: Comment on this story now, on EAB Live:
+http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1013 .
+
+
++03: E-book access debate continues in US following legal waiver
+
+Meanwhile, the debate over whether all e-book readers should be made 
+accessible - including the addition of sound capabilities - is set to 
+continue in the US, after the country's Federal Communications Commission 
+granted reader manufacturers a temporary waiver to one accessibility 
+regulation.
+
+The FCC has granted a one-year waiver exempting single-purpose e-book 
+readers from a requirement in the US 21st Century Video and Communications 
+and Video Accessibility Act that equipment used for advanced communication 
+services (ACS) be accessible to people with disabilities ( 
+http://www.fcc.gov/document/coalition-e-reader-manufacturers-petition-waiver-acs-rules ) 
+.
+
+The move came in response to a petition filed last year by a coalition of 
+e-reader manufacturers -Amazon, Kobo and Sony - who said that because 
+e-readers are used almost exclusively for reading, they do not provide ACS 
+(see http://bit.ly/16gW53i ). The firms also argued that to make such 
+readers fully accessible would increase their cost and weight and decrease 
+battery life, essentially turning them into different devices more similar 
+to tablet computers.
+
+In granting the waiver, the FCC said: "Although capable of accessing ACS 
+(such as email), we conclude that this narrow class of e-readers is designed 
+primarily for reading text-based digital works, not for ACS."
+
+However, the commission limited the waiver to one year, despite the 
+coalition's request for an indefinite waiver, saying: "given the swift pace 
+at which technologies are evolving and the expanding role of ACS in 
+electronic devices, the waiver will expire on January 28, 2015."
+
+It also limited the waiver to "a distinct, narrow class of e-readers" with 
+limited features, namely those with no LCD screen; no camera; and no 
+built-in email, instant messaging or similar ACS applications. Most e-book 
+manufacturers already also make more sophisticated, tablet PC-style readers 
+which do comply with accessibility rules, and the new waiver in effect 
+separates these categories of products from each other for legal purposes - 
+for one year, at least.
+
+Nate Hoffelder, editor of the e-books blog "Digital reader" ( 
+http://www.the-digital-reader.com ), told E-Access Bulletin he expected the 
+waiver to be extended again next year, since its removal would be likely to 
+result in the simpler class of e-book readers being withdrawn from the 
+market.
+
+"By the time the new regulation was written in 2011, Amazon, Kobo... and 
+other device makers all had one or more e-readers on the market which did 
+not have sound, and thus could not comply with the regulation", Hoffelder 
+said. "That put the device makers in the position of filing for a waiver or 
+simply pulling the e-readers from the market."
+
+However the American Library Association, which has campaigned against any 
+waiver, said in a statement it was "pleased that e-reader manufacturers must 
+file for a waiver next year and re-argue their case, or make their e-reader 
+ACS features accessible to people with print and other disabilities."
+
+NOTE: Comment on this story now, on EAB Live:
+http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=1015 .
+
+
+++News in Brief:
+
+04: EGAAD Returns: Thursday 15 May is the second annual Global Accessibility 
+Awareness Day. The day, launched last year by US-based web developer Joe 
+Devon, allows organisations and individuals working in the field worldwide 
+to pool their efforts to boost accessibility awareness. To find out about 
+events near you and join the campaign, see:
+http://www.globalaccessibilityawarenessday.org .
+
+
+05: Government Research: The UK Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) is 
+trying to profile the types of assistive technology tools in use by citizens 
+accessing the department's digital services, and would like to hear from 
+E-Access Bulletin readers who have been involved in or know of similar work. 
+In particular, managers are interested in finding out what assistive 
+software tools are the most commonly-used, and if possible an estimate of 
+the numbers of people using them in the UK. Anyone who can help with this 
+research should please contact Clare Shepherd on:
+clare.shepherd1@dwp.gsi.gov.uk
+
+
+06: Other Space:
+A restaurant accessible to deafblind people, raising awareness of disability 
+issues for everyone and showing that blind and deafblind people can live a 
+normal life, has opened in Bologna, Italy. Features include a tactile map at 
+the entrance, and regular placing of cutlery, glasses and napkins. L'Altro 
+Spazio (The Other Space) is run by the local cultural organisation Farm, 
+which had previously opened the first bar in Italy run by deaf people called 
+Untitled (Senza Nome), where people who ordered by sign language received a 
+discount. For more information on L'Altro Spazio in Italian, see:
+http://laltrospazio.com/
+https://www.facebook.com/laltrospazio.viapolese .
+
+[Section One ends].
+
+
+++Sponsored Notice: Bee Communications
+- Specialist Providers of Captioning.
+
+Bee Communications has joined the Ai-Media group and is now able to offer 
+classroom, lecture, meeting or event captioning on the game-changing Ai-Live 
+platform. Real-time captions are streamed to a web-enabled device, and a 
+transcript can also be provided after each session. The system is optimised 
+for tablet use, with significant improvements to dictionary and transcript 
+functionality, enhanced security, and an accessible caption viewer including 
+dyslexic fonts and optimised colour palettes.
+
+Captioning helps people learn and interact by providing equality of access 
+to live content. For more information, please contact:
+beth.abbott@ai-live.com .
+
+[Sponsored Notice ends].
+
+
+++Sponsored Notice: Adept Transcription
+- Alternative Formats At Affordable Prices.
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+When you want alternative formats for disabled colleagues, customers and 
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+[Sponsored Notice ends]
+
+
+++Section Two: News Analysis
+- European Policy and Standards.
+
++07: The slow arm of the law
+by Dan Jellinek.
+
+For many years, the disability community in Europe has been pushing the EU 
+to write accessibility into its trade rules for ICT goods and services, not 
+least when it comes to ICT purchased by governments themselves.
+
+Similar rules have long been in place in the US, perhaps surprisingly for 
+those who like to caricature America as a champion of free trade at any 
+social cost. Now it seems, some progress is being made in Europe. But is it 
+fast enough?
+
+The 'European Standard on accessibility requirements suitable for public 
+procurement of ICT products and services in Europe' (EN 301 549) was 
+published in February by ETSI (the European Telecommunications Standards 
+Institute - http://www.etsi.org ) in association with international 
+groupings of national standards bodies CEN and CENELEC (www.cencenelec.eu). 
+It had previously been known as Mandate 376, through a drawn-out development 
+period of some seven years (see EAB, July 2012 - 
+http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=753).
+
+The standard aims to ensure ICT products and services - including websites, 
+software and digital devices from computers to smartphones and ticketing 
+machines - are made more accessible to people of all abilities, either 
+directly or through compatibility with assistive technologies such as 
+text-to-speech. It is accompanied by three technical reports (TR 101 550, TR 
+101 551 and TR 101 552), adding more detail.
+
+Currently, however, its use is not mandated either by EU law or national law 
+in any individual country, a fact which is likely to delay its take-up in 
+most parts of Europe for some time, Matthias Schneider, chairman of the ETSI 
+technical committee on human factors, told E-Access Bulletin.
+
+"The EU has not yet ruled that the standard has to be used for procurement 
+at European level, and unless a state regulates that the standard has to be 
+applied by public procurers, I wouldn't expect many organisations will 
+switch over to using it", Schneider said.
+
+In 2011, the European Commission did announce it was developing a European 
+Accessibility Act covering the accessibility requirements of all goods and 
+services bought and sold in the EU, which would be likely to use the new 
+standard. However despite several false dawns - including a promise last 
+year that the act would finally be drafted in the first quarter of 2014 - it 
+has since been delayed again.
+
+"So far it has still not been drafted, and there is no clear insight why the 
+commission has delayed for so long", Schneider said. "My personal opinion is 
+that it will not appear prior to the instalment of the next European 
+Commission in July or August, so I don't see anything happening before 
+October."
+
+As and when an accessibility act is passed it will cover both public and 
+private sector procurement, and it will then be possible for member states 
+to apply the new accessibility standard across all sectors, after a late 
+change to it at the urging of the European Commission, Schneider said.
+
+"The original purpose of the standard was very clearly public procurement, 
+but during its development the commission realised it could be used for many 
+more purposes", he said. "The problem was, to change its purpose halfway 
+through development would have meant asking new groups of interested parties 
+to comment, which was no longer possible. So in the end, we came up with 
+something which didn't go all the way to what the commission wanted but 
+still could also be used in other tasks such as in the private sector, 
+provided someone mandates it."
+
+The compromise reached can be seen in a small but key change in the standard's 
+title, from the previous 'Accessibility requirements for public procurement' 
+to the final 'Accessibility requirements suitable for public procurement', 
+with the new wording leaving its use open in other fields, Schneider said.
+
+In a bizarre quirk of the European standards system - that could cause 
+unnecessary expense to the unwary - the new European Standard EN 301 549 is 
+available free of charge from the ETSI website but costs a significant fee 
+to buy from some national standards bodies. The latter group includes the 
+British Standards Institution (BSI), which is charging members £134 and 
+non-members £264 to buy the same standard (its website does not specify how 
+much it charges for membership, which depends on how many standards an 
+organisation uses).
+
+It is usual for all national European standards bodies to publish their own 
+copies of European standards, numbered within their own systems - the new 
+standard is published by BSI as BS EN 301549:2014. However because different 
+standards bodies have different business models, some charge for their 
+products, while others do not. ETSI, funded by more than 700 members 
+worldwide including technology companies, does not charge for its standards.
+
+The situation is made even stranger by the fact that the British and other 
+national 'versions' of a standard such as this one do not differ in any way 
+from the pan-European version, Schneider said.
+
+"It might have a different cover page, but the content is identical because 
+they cannot change it. It is one of the puzzles that the European standards 
+situation creates every once in a while."
+
+The new standard does not create its own technical specifications from 
+scratch in most areas, since this groundwork has already been carried out 
+for existing hardware and software standards in Europe, the US and 
+elsewhere, he said.
+
+For example there are already standards specifying the range over which 
+speech volume should be adjustable; and for web accessibility the new 
+standard refers to level 'AA' of WCAG 2.0, the web content accessibility 
+guidelines produced by the international World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
+
+Likewise for software that runs on desktop computers or other devices and 
+for documents, the requirements are harmonised with work by the W3C's 
+WCAG2ICT Task Force (http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag2ict). This means that 
+the requirements for the web, documents and software all follow the same 
+principles.
+
+The work on this standard is seen as crucial for global trade and so ETSI 
+and its partners have worked hard to ensure the accessibility requirements 
+contained in the new standard are consistent with the revision of Section 
+508 of the US Rehabilitation Act, a US law requiring ICT purchased by public 
+bodies to be accessible, Schneider said.
+
+However, this work has been complicated by the fact that Section 508 has 
+been undergoing its own review process which is lasting longer than 
+policymakers originally expected, he said.
+
+"We have tried to synchronise with the newest version of Section 508, but 
+unfortunately the newest version is not finalised, so we don't know what its 
+contents will be yet. It could be that in half a year from now, when the US 
+comes out with the newest version of Section 508, we might have to change 
+ours again so it is compatible. We hope that this will not be the case.
+
+"Harmonising our approach with US was extremely difficult and very 
+time-consuming, but we want it to be harmonised because international 
+companies such as Nokia, Motorola or Microsoft have no wish to develop 
+products designed for accessibility requirements in Europe which are 
+different to the US."
+
+Progress in some areas is happening a bit faster, however. While Europe 
+continues to wait for a general accessibility directive, one area where the 
+new standard may be put to use more quickly could be public sector websites. 
+There is a proposal to use it as part of accessibility guidelines for a new 
+public sector website accessibility directive already passing through the EU 
+law-making system
+(see E-Access Bulletin, February 2014 - 
+http://www.headstar.com/eablive/?p=986).
+
+It would also be possible for European nations to pick up on the new 
+standard individually and embed it in their own policies, Schneider says. 
+"Member states can act individually, so I would expect that some - probably 
+Nordic countries and Germany first - will mandate it in their state