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Introduction

In this document we demonstrate how to setup and use iGen.

Setup

The source code of iGen is released under the BSD license and can be downloaded using the commands

hg clone https://nguyenthanhvuh@bitbucket.org/nguyenthanhvuh/igen/ 
hg clone https://nguyenthanhvuh@bitbucket.org/nguyenthanhvuh/common_python/

iGen uses Python and uses SMT solving to check results. The tool has been tested using:

  • Debian Linux 7 (Wheezy)
  • Python 2.7.x
  • Microsoft Z3 SMT solver 4.4.1

Note that after building Z3 (using its own build instructions), make sure Z3 is setup correctly so that you can do import z3 in a Python interpreter. In addition, have something like this in ~/.bash_profile

export COMMON_PYTHON=/PATH/TO/common_python
export IGEN=/PATH/TO/igen
export CONFIG=$IGEN/config
export PYTHONPATH=$COMMON_PYTHON/:$CONFIG:/Z3_DIR/build/

Demonstration: A simple example

We demonstrate iGen using a simple example $IGEN/examples/igen/ex.c:

int main(int argc, char **argv){
  // options: s,t,u,v,x,y,z.
  // Option z can take values 0-4 while others are bools
  int s = atoi(argv[1]);
  int t = atoi(argv[2]);
  int u = atoi(argv[3]);
  int v = atoi(argv[4]);

  int x = atoi(argv[5]);
  int y = atoi(argv[6]);
  int z = atoi(argv[7]);

  int max_z = 3;

  if (x&&y){
    printf("L0\n"); //x & y                                                                                                        
    if (!(0 < z && z < max_z)){
      printf("L1\n"); //x & y & (z=0|3|4)                                                                                          
    }
  }
  else{
    printf("L2\n"); // !x|!y                                                                                                       
    printf("L2a\n"); // !x|!y                                                                                                      
  }

  printf("L3\n"); // true                                                                                                          
  if(u&&v){
    printf("L4\n"); //u&v                                                                                                          
    if(s||t){
      printf("L5\n");  // (s|t) & (u&v)                           
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

Next, compile the program

$ cd $IGEN/examples/igen
#compile `ex.c`
$ gcc ex.c -o ex.Linux.exe

Running iGen using its iterative (default) algorithm

We use iGen to automatically generate the interactions annotated next to different program locations, e.g., x & y & (z=0|3|4) at L1, as follows:

$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py -dom_file ex.dom -run_script ex.run -logger_level 2 -seed 0

Thus iGen requires a dom_file that contains the domains of the interested options e.g., z has 4 possible values, and a run_script to obtain program coverage, e.g., running ex on s=1 t=1 ... z=1 covers lines L1, L3, L4, L5. In addition, option -O disables debugging code for faster performance. Option -logger_level N, where N = 0 .. 4, controls the verbosity of iGen. To see other options, use -h.

# the above produces
...
inferred results (6):
1. (0) true (conj): (1) L3
2. (2) (u=1 & v=1) (conj): (1) L4
3. (2) (x=1 & y=1) (conj): (1) L0
4. (2) (x=0 | y=0) (disj): (2) L2,L2a
5. (3) (x=1 & y=1 & z=0,3,4) (conj): (1) L1
6. (4) (s=1 | t=1) & (u=1 & v=1) (mix): (1) L5
... 
* done 1 runs, seed 0.0, time 2.23679900169, results in '/var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt'

For this run, iGen produces 6 interactions, e.g., conjunctive interaction x & y & (z=0|3|4) at L1 and the mixed interaction (s=1 | t=1) & (u=1 & v=1) at 'L4'. We also see that the run takes 2.2s and uses seed 0.0 (which can be used to reproduce the run). Finally, iGen saves all data in the directory /var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt so that it can rerun the experiment (more on this in the Analyze Results section below).

Additional run options

We can run iGen exhaustively by creating all possible configurations using the -do_full option (thus only applicable to programs having small numbers of configurations):

$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py -dom_file ex.dom -run_script ex.run -do_full
...
inferred results (6):
** done 1 runs, seed 0.0, time 9.13450908661, results '/var/tmp/igen_1_full_noname_ZF5kxs'

We can also tell iGen to create configurations randomly using the -rand_n option.

$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py -dom_file ex.dom -run_script ex.run -rand_n 10
inferred results (2):
...
** done 1 runs, seed 0.0, time 0.358823060989, results '/var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_1p8CZz'

Note that iGen can only achieve 2 interactions from the 10 randomly generated configurations.

iGen uses a heuristcs to generate results, thus we can run iGen several times using the -benchmark option:

# run iGen `3` times
$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py -dom_file ex.dom -run_script ex.run -logger_level 2 -seed 0 -benchmark 3
...
** done 3 runs, seed 0.0, time 5.59616589546, results '/var/tmp/igen_3_normal_noname_16OTNe'

Here, iGen saves all data of these runs in the directory /var/tmp/igen_3_normal_noname_16OTNe for later analysis.

Finally, use the -help command to find out about other run options.

Analyze iGen's Results

The directory /var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt generated above run consists of data generated during the run. We can analyze the data in this directory to rerun or replay the experiment:

$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py /var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt
inferred results (6):
...

Similarly, we can analyze results of multiple runs using the directory /var/tmp/igen_3_normal_noname_16OTNe given above:

$ python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py /var/tmp/igen_3_normal_noname_16OTNe
inferred results (6):
...
inferred results (6):
...
inferred results (6):
...
19:54:1:analysis:Info:*** Analysis over 3 runs ***
19:54:1:analysis:Info:iter 9.0 (0.5), ints 6.0 (0.0), time 2.12061905861 (0.0790084600449), xtime 0.792189121246 (0.0222933292389), configs 47.0 (2.0), covs 7.0 (0.0), nminconfigs 0.0 (0.0), nmincovs 0.0 (0.0)
19:54:1:analysis:Info:Int types: conjs 4.0 (0.0), disjs 1.0 (0.0), mixed 1.0 (0.0)
19:54:1:analysis:Info:Int strens: (0, 1.0 (0.0), 1.0 (0.0)), (2, 3.0 (0.0), 4.0 (0.0)), (3, 1.0 (0.0), 1.0 (0.0)), (4, 1.0 (0.0), 1.0 (0.0))

Here, iGen analyzes these 3 runs and computes results such as: the median of the number of generated configurations is 47 (with SIQR 2.0), the median of the number of conjunctive interactions generated is 4 (with SQIR 0.0), etc. For detailed descriptions on these, see the Evaluation section in the paper.

Additional Analyses

We can compare iGen's iterative algorithm to the exhaustive run:

python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py /var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt/ -cmp_dir /var/tmp/igen_1_full_noname_ZF5kxs/run0_AVgFYA/ -evolution
...
fscores (iter, fscore, configs): (1, 0.5624046406655102, 6) -> (2, 0.6984126984126985, 16) -> (3, 0.6984126984126985, 21) -> (4, 0.6984126984126985, 24) -> (5, 0.7067669172932332, 27) -> (6, 0.7142857142857143, 32) -> (7, 0.7142857142857143, 34) -> (8, 0.7142857142857143, 35) -> (9, 0.7142857142857143, 37) -> (10, 0.7142857142857143, 39)
...
configs (47/320) cov (7/7) fscore 1.0

Configs (47/320) shows that we generated 47 configurations (exhaustive run creates 320 configurations), and cov (7/7) shows that we covered 7 lines (exhaustive run also covers 7 lines). Finally, the computed f-score shows the similarity between interations generated by iterative algorithm and those from the exhaustive run (closer to 1.0 indicates ver similiar and closer to 0.0 means very different).

We can also compare iGen's random algorithm to the exhaustive run:

python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py /var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_1p8CZz/ -cmp_dir /var/tmp/igen_1_full_noname_ZF5kxs/run0_AVgFYA/ -evolution
...
configs (10/320), cov (4/7), fscore 0.0909090909091

As expected, we achieve very low f-score indicating the results of the random algorithm (generated from 10 randomly created configurations) are very different than the results of the exhaustive run.

We can use interactions to compute a minimal set of configurations with high coverage

python -O $IGEN/src/igen.py `/var/tmp/igen_1_normal_noname_hPVkLt  -do_minconfig -dom_file ex.dom -run_script ex.run
....
minset: 2 configs cover 7/7 sids (time 0.0823450088501s)
...
1. s=1 t=0 u=1 v=1 x=1 y=1 z=0: (5) L0,L1,L3,L4,L5
2. s=1 t=0 u=0 v=1 x=0 y=1 z=0: (3) L2,L2a,L3

Finally, use the -help command to find out about other analysis options.

Other Wiki's

To setup and run the experiments (Coreutils, Apache Httpd, etc) used in the FSE'16 paper, go to the follow wiki's:

Updated