Source

emacs / man / frames.texi

Full commit
   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 87, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 2000
@c   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Frames, International, Windows, Top
@chapter Frames and X Windows
@cindex frames

  When using the X Window System, you can create multiple windows at the
X level in a single Emacs session.  Each X window that belongs to Emacs
displays a @dfn{frame} which can contain one or several Emacs windows.
A frame initially contains a single general-purpose Emacs window which
you can subdivide vertically or horizontally into smaller windows.  A
frame normally contains its own echo area and minibuffer, but you can
make frames that don't have these---they use the echo area and
minibuffer of another frame.

  Editing you do in one frame also affects the other frames.  For
instance, if you put text in the kill ring in one frame, you can yank it
in another frame.  If you exit Emacs through @kbd{C-x C-c} in one frame,
it terminates all the frames.  To delete just one frame, use @kbd{C-x 5
0}.

  To avoid confusion, we reserve the word ``window'' for the
subdivisions that Emacs implements, and never use it to refer to a
frame.

  Emacs compiled for MS-DOS emulates some aspects of the window system
so that you can use many of the features described in this chapter.
@xref{MS-DOS Input}, for more information.

@cindex MS Windows
  Emacs compiled for MS Windows mostly supports the same features as
under X.

Features which rely on text in multiple faces (such as Font Lock mode)
will also work on non-windowed terminals that can display more than one
face, whether by colors or underlining and emboldening, such as the
Linux console.  Emacs determines automatically whether the terminal has
such support.

@menu
* Mouse Commands::      Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Secondary Selection:: Cutting without altering point and mark.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
* Faces::	        How to change the display style using faces.
* Font Lock::           Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Support Modes::       Font Lock support modes make Font Lock faster.
* Highlight Changes::   Using colors to show where you changed the buffer.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Trailing Whitespace:: Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Tooltips::            Showing `tooltips', AKA `ballon help' for active text.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Misc X::	        Iconifying and deleting frames.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* XTerm Mouse::         Using the mouse in an XTerm terminal emulator.
@end menu

@node Mouse Commands
@section Mouse Commands for Editing
@cindex mouse buttons (what they do)

  The mouse commands for selecting and copying a region are mostly
compatible with the @code{xterm} program.  You can use the same mouse
commands for copying between Emacs and other X client programs.

@kindex DELETE
  If you select a region with any of these mouse commands, and then
immediately afterward type the @key{DELETE} function key, it deletes the
region that you selected.  The @key{BACKSPACE} function key and the
ASCII character @key{DEL} do not do this; if you type any other key
in between the mouse command and @key{DELETE}, it does not do this.

@findex mouse-set-region
@findex mouse-set-point
@findex mouse-yank-at-click
@findex mouse-save-then-click
@kindex Mouse-1
@kindex Mouse-2
@kindex Mouse-3
@table @kbd
@item Mouse-1
Move point to where you click (@code{mouse-set-point}).
This is normally the left button.

@item Drag-Mouse-1
Set the region to the text you select by dragging, and copy it to the
kill ring (@code{mouse-set-region}).  You can specify both ends of the
region with this single command.

@vindex mouse-scroll-min-lines
If you move the mouse off the top or bottom of the window while
dragging, the window scrolls at a steady rate until you move the mouse
back into the window.  This way, you can select regions that don't fit
entirely on the screen.  The number of lines scrolled per step depends
on how far away from the window edge the mouse has gone; the variable
@code{mouse-scroll-min-lines} specifies a minimum step size.

@item Mouse-2
Yank the last killed text, where you click (@code{mouse-yank-at-click}).
This is normally the middle button.

@item Mouse-3
This command, @code{mouse-save-then-kill}, has several functions
depending on where you click and the status of the region.

The most basic case is when you click @kbd{Mouse-1} in one place and
then @kbd{Mouse-3} in another.  This selects the text between those two
positions as the region.  It also copies the new region to the kill
ring, so that you can copy it to someplace else.

If you click @kbd{Mouse-1} in the text, scroll with the scroll bar, and
then click @kbd{Mouse-3}, it remembers where point was before scrolling
(where you put it with @kbd{Mouse-1}), and uses that position as the
other end of the region.  This is so that you can select a region that
doesn't fit entirely on the screen.

More generally, if you do not have a highlighted region, @kbd{Mouse-3}
selects the text between point and the click position as the region.  It
does this by setting the mark where point was, and moving point to where
you click.

If you have a highlighted region, or if the region was set just before
by dragging button 1, @kbd{Mouse-3} adjusts the nearer end of the region
by moving it to where you click.  The adjusted region's text also
replaces the old region's text in the kill ring.

If you originally specified the region using a double or triple
@kbd{Mouse-1}, so that the region is defined to consist of entire words
or lines, then adjusting the region with @kbd{Mouse-3} also proceeds by
entire words or lines.

If you use @kbd{Mouse-3} a second time consecutively, at the same place,
that kills the region already selected.

@item Double-Mouse-1
This key sets the region around the word which you click on.  If you
click on a character with ``symbol'' syntax (such as underscore, in C
mode), it sets the region around the symbol surrounding that character.

If you click on a character with open-parenthesis or close-parenthesis
syntax, it sets the region around the parenthetical grouping (sexp)
which that character starts or ends.  If you click on a character with
string-delimiter syntax (such as a singlequote or doublequote in C), it
sets the region around the string constant (using heuristics to figure
out whether that character is the beginning or the end of it).

@item Double-Drag-Mouse-1
This key selects a region made up of the words you drag across.

@item Triple-Mouse-1
This key sets the region around the line you click on.

@item Triple-Drag-Mouse-1
This key selects a region made up of the lines you drag across.
@end table

  The simplest way to kill text with the mouse is to press @kbd{Mouse-1}
at one end, then press @kbd{Mouse-3} twice at the other end.
@xref{Killing}.  To copy the text into the kill ring without deleting it
from the buffer, press @kbd{Mouse-3} just once---or just drag across the
text with @kbd{Mouse-1}.  Then you can copy it elsewhere by yanking it.

@vindex mouse-yank-at-point
  To yank the killed or copied text somewhere else, move the mouse there
and press @kbd{Mouse-2}.  @xref{Yanking}.  However, if
@code{mouse-yank-at-point} is non-@code{nil}, @kbd{Mouse-2} yanks at
point.  Then it does not matter where you click, or even which of the
frame's windows you click on.  The default value is @code{nil}.  This
variable also affects yanking the secondary selection.

@cindex cutting and X
@cindex pasting and X
@cindex X cutting and pasting
  To copy text to another X window, kill it or save it in the kill ring.
Under X, this also sets the @dfn{primary selection}.  Then use the
``paste'' or ``yank'' command of the program operating the other window
to insert the text from the selection.

  To copy text from another X window, use the ``cut'' or ``copy'' command
of the program operating the other window, to select the text you want.
Then yank it in Emacs with @kbd{C-y} or @kbd{Mouse-2}.

  These cutting and pasting commands also work on MS-Windows.

@cindex primary selection
@cindex cut buffer
@cindex selection, primary
@vindex x-cut-buffer-max
  When Emacs puts text into the kill ring, or rotates text to the front
of the kill ring, it sets the @dfn{primary selection} in the X server.
This is how other X clients can access the text.  Emacs also stores the
text in the cut buffer, but only if the text is short enough
(@code{x-cut-buffer-max} specifies the maximum number of characters);
putting long strings in the cut buffer can be slow.

  The commands to yank the first entry in the kill ring actually check
first for a primary selection in another program; after that, they check
for text in the cut buffer.  If neither of those sources provides text
to yank, the kill ring contents are used.

@node Secondary Selection
@section Secondary Selection
@cindex secondary selection

  The @dfn{secondary selection} is another way of selecting text using
X.  It does not use point or the mark, so you can use it to kill text
without setting point or the mark.

@table @kbd
@findex mouse-set-secondary
@kindex M-Drag-Mouse-1
@item M-Drag-Mouse-1
Set the secondary selection, with one end at the place where you press
down the button, and the other end at the place where you release it
(@code{mouse-set-secondary}).  The highlighting appears and changes as
you drag.

If you move the mouse off the top or bottom of the window while
dragging, the window scrolls at a steady rate until you move the mouse
back into the window.  This way, you can mark regions that don't fit
entirely on the screen.

@findex mouse-start-secondary
@kindex M-Mouse-1
@item M-Mouse-1
Set one endpoint for the @dfn{secondary selection}
(@code{mouse-start-secondary}).

@findex mouse-secondary-save-then-kill
@kindex M-Mouse-3
@item M-Mouse-3
Make a secondary selection, using the place specified with @kbd{M-Mouse-1}
as the other end (@code{mouse-secondary-save-then-kill}).  A second click
at the same place kills the secondary selection just made.

@findex mouse-yank-secondary
@kindex M-Mouse-2
@item M-Mouse-2
Insert the secondary selection where you click
(@code{mouse-yank-secondary}).  This places point at the end of the
yanked text.
@end table

Double or triple clicking of @kbd{M-Mouse-1} operates on words and
lines, much like @kbd{Mouse-1}.

If @code{mouse-yank-at-point} is non-@code{nil}, @kbd{M-Mouse-2}
yanks at point.  Then it does not matter precisely where you click; all
that matters is which window you click on.  @xref{Mouse Commands}.

@node Mouse References
@section Following References with the Mouse
@kindex Mouse-2 @r{(selection)}

  Some Emacs buffers display lists of various sorts.  These include
lists of files, of buffers, of possible completions, of matches for
a pattern, and so on.

  Since yanking text into these buffers is not very useful, most of them
define @kbd{Mouse-2} specially, as a command to use or view the item you
click on.

  For example, if you click @kbd{Mouse-2} on a file name in a Dired
buffer, you visit that file.  If you click @kbd{Mouse-2} on an error
message in the @samp{*Compilation*} buffer, you go to the source code
for that error message.  If you click @kbd{Mouse-2} on a completion in
the @samp{*Completions*} buffer, you choose that completion.

  You can usually tell when @kbd{Mouse-2} has this special sort of
meaning because the sensitive text highlights when you move the mouse
over it.

@node Menu Mouse Clicks
@section Mouse Clicks for Menus

  Mouse clicks modified with the @key{CTRL} and @key{SHIFT} keys
bring up menus.

@table @kbd
@item C-Mouse-1
@kindex C-Mouse-1
@findex msb-mode
@cindex MSB minor mode
@cindex mode, MSB
This menu is for selecting a buffer.

The MSB (`mouse select buffer') global minor mode alters this menu to a
form some people prefer and which is customizable.  See the Custom group
@code{msb}.

@item C-Mouse-2
@kindex C-Mouse-2
This menu is for specifying faces and other text properties
for editing formatted text.  @xref{Formatted Text}.

@item C-Mouse-3
@kindex C-Mouse-3
This menu is mode-specific.  For most modes if Menu-bar mode is on, this
menu has the same items as all the mode-specific menu-bar menus put
together.  Some modes may specify a different menu for this
button.@footnote{Some systems use @kbd{Mouse-3} for a mode-specific
menu.  We took a survey of users, and found they preferred to keep
@kbd{Mouse-3} for selecting and killing regions.  Hence the decision to
use @kbd{C-Mouse-3} for this menu.}  If Menu-bar mode is off, this menu
contains all the items which would be present in the menu bar---not just
the mode-specific ones---so that you can access them without having to
display the menu bar.

@item S-mouse-1
This menu is for specifying the frame's principal font.
@end table

@node Mode Line Mouse
@section Mode Line Mouse Commands
@cindex mode line, mouse
@cindex mouse on mode line

  You can use mouse clicks on window mode lines to select and manipulate
windows.

@table @kbd
@item Mouse-1
@kindex mode-line mouse-1
@kbd{Mouse-1} on a mode line selects the window above.  By dragging
@kbd{Mouse-1} on the mode line, you can move it, thus changing the
height of the windows above and below.

@item Mouse-2
@kindex mode-line mouse-2
@kbd{Mouse-2} on a mode line expands that window to fill its frame.

@item Mouse-3
@kindex mode-line mouse-3
@kbd{Mouse-3} on a mode line deletes the window above.

@item C-Mouse-2
@kindex mode-line C-mouse-2
@kbd{C-Mouse-2} on a mode line splits the window above
horizontally, above the place in the mode line where you click.
@end table

@kindex vertical-scroll-bar mouse-1
  @kbd{C-Mouse-2} on a scroll bar splits the corresponding window
vertically.  @xref{Split Window}.

The commands above apply to areas of the mode line which do not have
mouse bindings of their own.  Normally some areas, such as those
displaying the buffer name and the major mode name, have their own mouse
bindings.  Help on these bindings is echoed when the mouse is positioned
over them.

@node Creating Frames
@section Creating Frames
@cindex creating frames

@kindex C-x 5
  The prefix key @kbd{C-x 5} is analogous to @kbd{C-x 4}, with parallel
subcommands.  The difference is that @kbd{C-x 5} commands create a new
frame rather than just a new window in the selected frame (@pxref{Pop
Up Window}).  If an existing visible or iconified frame already displays
the requested material, these commands use the existing frame, after
raising or deiconifying as necessary. 

  The various @kbd{C-x 5} commands differ in how they find or create the
buffer to select:

@table @kbd
@item C-x 5 1
@kindex C-x 5 1
@findex delete-other-frames
Delete all frames except the selected one (@code{delete-other-frames}).
@item C-x 5 2
@kindex C-x 5 2
@findex make-frame-command
Create a new frame (@code{make-frame-command}).
@item C-x 5 b @var{bufname} @key{RET}
Select buffer @var{bufname} in another frame.  This runs
@code{switch-to-buffer-other-frame}.
@item C-x 5 f @var{filename} @key{RET}
Visit file @var{filename} and select its buffer in another frame.  This
runs @code{find-file-other-frame}.  @xref{Visiting}.
@item C-x 5 d @var{directory} @key{RET}
Select a Dired buffer for directory @var{directory} in another frame.
This runs @code{dired-other-frame}.  @xref{Dired}.
@item C-x 5 m
Start composing a mail message in another frame.  This runs
@code{mail-other-frame}.  It is the other-frame variant of @kbd{C-x m}.
@xref{Sending Mail}.
@item C-x 5 .
Find a tag in the current tag table in another frame.  This runs
@code{find-tag-other-frame}, the multiple-frame variant of @kbd{M-.}.
@xref{Tags}.
@item C-x 5 r @var{filename} @key{RET}
@kindex C-x 5 r
@findex find-file-read-only-other-frame
Visit file @var{filename} read-only, and select its buffer in another
frame.  This runs @code{find-file-read-only-other-frame}.
@xref{Visiting}.
@end table

@cindex default-frame-alist
@cindex initial-frame-alist
  You can control the appearance of new frames you create by setting the
frame parameters in @code{default-frame-alist}.  You can use the
variable @code{initial-frame-alist} to specify parameters that affect
only the initial frame.  @xref{Initial Parameters,,, elisp, The Emacs
Lisp Reference Manual}, for more information.

@cindex font (default)
  The easiest way to specify the principal font for all your Emacs
frames is with an X resource (@pxref{Font X}), but you can also do it by
modifying @code{default-frame-alist} to specify the @code{font}
parameter, as shown here:

@example
(add-to-list 'default-frame-alist '(font . "10x20"))
@end example

@node Speedbar
@section Making and Using a Speedbar Frame
@cindex speedbar

  An Emacs frame can have a @dfn{speedbar}, which is a vertical window
that serves as a scrollable menu of files you could visit and tags
within those files.  To create a speedbar, type @kbd{M-x speedbar}; this
creates a speedbar window for the selected frame.  From then on, you can
click on a file name in the speedbar to visit that file in the
corresponding Emacs frame, or click on a tag name to jump to that tag in
the Emacs frame.

  Initially the speedbar lists the immediate contents of the current
directory, one file per line.  Each line also has a box, @samp{[+]} or
@samp{<+>}, that you can click on with @kbd{Mouse-2} to ``open up'' the
contents of that item.  If the line names a directory, opening it adds
the contents of that directory to the speedbar display, underneath the
directory's own line.  If the line lists an ordinary file, opening it up
adds a list of the tags in that file to the speedbar display.  When a
file is opened up, the @samp{[+]} changes to @samp{[-]}; you can click
on that box to ``close up'' that file (hide its contents).

  Some major modes, including Rmail mode, Info, and GUD, have
specialized ways of putting useful items into the speedbar for you to
select.  For example, in Rmail mode, the speedbar shows a list of Rmail
files, and lets you move the current message to another Rmail file by
clicking on its @samp{<M>} box.

  A speedbar belongs to one Emacs frame, and always operates on that
frame.  If you use multiple frames, you can make a speedbar for some or
all of the frames; type @kbd{M-x speedbar} in any given frame to make a
speedbar for it.

@node Multiple Displays
@section Multiple Displays
@cindex multiple displays

  A single Emacs can talk to more than one X Windows display.
Initially, Emacs uses just one display---the one specified with the
@env{DISPLAY} environment variable or with the @samp{--display} option
(@pxref{Initial Options}).  To connect to another display, use the
command @code{make-frame-on-display}:

@findex make-frame-on-display
@table @kbd
@item M-x make-frame-on-display @key{RET} @var{display} @key{RET}
Create a new frame on display @var{display}.
@end table

  A single X server can handle more than one screen.  When you open
frames on two screens belonging to one server, Emacs knows they share a
single keyboard, and it treats all the commands arriving from these
screens as a single stream of input.

  When you open frames on different X servers, Emacs makes a separate
input stream for each server.  This way, two users can type
simultaneously on the two displays, and Emacs will not garble their
input.  Each server also has its own selected frame.  The commands you
enter with a particular X server apply to that server's selected frame.

  Despite these features, people using the same Emacs job from different
displays can still interfere with each other if they are not careful.
For example, if any one types @kbd{C-x C-c}, that exits the Emacs job
for all of them!

@node Special Buffer Frames
@section Special Buffer Frames

@vindex special-display-buffer-names
  You can make certain chosen buffers, for which Emacs normally creates
a second window when you have just one window, appear in special frames
of their own.  To do this, set the variable
@code{special-display-buffer-names} to a list of buffer names; any
buffer whose name is in that list automatically gets a special frame,
when an Emacs command wants to display it ``in another window.''

  For example, if you set the variable this way,

@example
(setq special-display-buffer-names
      '("*Completions*" "*grep*" "*tex-shell*"))
@end example

@noindent
then completion lists, @code{grep} output and the @TeX{} mode shell
buffer get individual frames of their own.  These frames, and the
windows in them, are never automatically split or reused for any other
buffers.  They continue to show the buffers they were created for,
unless you alter them by hand.  Killing the special buffer deletes its
frame automatically.

@vindex special-display-regexps
  More generally, you can set @code{special-display-regexps} to a list
of regular expressions; then a buffer gets its own frame if its name
matches any of those regular expressions.  (Once again, this applies only
to buffers that normally get displayed for you in a separate window.)

@vindex special-display-frame-alist
  The variable @code{special-display-frame-alist} specifies the frame
parameters for these frames.  It has a default value, so you don't need
to set it.

  For those who know Lisp, an element of
@code{special-display-buffer-names} or @code{special-display-regexps}
can also be a list.  Then the first element is the buffer name or
regular expression; the rest of the list specifies how to create the
frame.  It can be an association list specifying frame parameter values;
these values take precedence over parameter values specified in
@code{special-display-frame-alist}.  Alternatively, it can have this
form:

@example
(@var{function} @var{args}...)
@end example

@noindent
where @var{function} is a symbol.  Then the frame is constructed by
calling @var{function}; its first argument is the buffer, and its
remaining arguments are @var{args}.

   An analogous feature lets you specify buffers which should be
displayed in the selected window.  @xref{Force Same Window}.  The
same-window feature takes precedence over the special-frame feature;
therefore, if you add a buffer name to
@code{special-display-buffer-names} and it has no effect, check to see
whether that feature is also in use for the same buffer name.

@node Frame Parameters
@section Setting Frame Parameters
@cindex colors
@cindex Auto-Raise mode
@cindex Auto-Lower mode

  This section describes commands for altering the display style and
window management behavior of the selected frame.

@findex set-foreground-color
@findex set-background-color
@findex set-cursor-color
@findex set-mouse-color
@findex set-border-color
@findex auto-raise-mode
@findex auto-lower-mode
@table @kbd
@item M-x set-foreground-color @key{RET} @var{color} @key{RET}
Specify color @var{color} for the foreground of the selected frame.
(This also changes the foreground color of the default face.)

@item M-x set-background-color @key{RET} @var{color} @key{RET}
Specify color @var{color} for the background of the selected frame.
(This also changes the background color of the default face.)

@item M-x set-cursor-color @key{RET} @var{color} @key{RET}
Specify color @var{color} for the cursor of the selected frame.

@item M-x set-mouse-color @key{RET} @var{color} @key{RET}
Specify color @var{color} for the mouse cursor when it is over the
selected frame.

@item M-x set-border-color @key{RET} @var{color} @key{RET}
Specify color @var{color} for the border of the selected frame.

@item M-x list-colors-display
Display the defined color names and show what the colors look like.
This command is somewhat slow.

@item M-x auto-raise-mode
Toggle whether or not the selected frame should auto-raise.  Auto-raise
means that every time you move the mouse onto the frame, it raises the
frame.

Note that this auto-raise feature is implemented by Emacs itself.  Some
window managers also implement auto-raise.  If you enable auto-raise for
Emacs frames in your X window manager, it should work, but it is beyond
Emacs's control and therefore @code{auto-raise-mode} has no effect on
it.

@item M-x auto-lower-mode
Toggle whether or not the selected frame should auto-lower.
Auto-lower means that every time you move the mouse off the frame,
the frame moves to the bottom of the stack of X windows.

The command @code{auto-lower-mode} has no effect on auto-lower
implemented by the X window manager.  To control that, you must use
the appropriate window manager features.

@findex set-frame-font
@item M-x set-frame-font @key{RET} @var{font} @key{RET}
@cindex font (principal)
Specify font @var{font} as the principal font for the selected frame.
The principal font controls several face attributes of the
@code{default} face (@pxref{Faces}).  For example, if the principal font
has a height of 12 pt, all text will be drawn in 12 pt fonts, unless you
use another face that specifies a different height.  @xref{Font X}, for
ways to list the available fonts on your system.

@kindex S-Mouse-1
You can also set a frame's principal font through a pop-up menu.
Press @kbd{S-Mouse-1} to activate this menu.
@end table

  In Emacs versions that use an X toolkit, the color-setting and
font-setting functions don't affect menus and the menu bar, since they
are displayed by their own widget classes.  To change the appearance of
the menus and menu bar, you must use X resources (@pxref{Resources X}).
@xref{Colors X}, regarding colors.  @xref{Font X}, regarding choice of
font.

  For information on frame parameters and customization, see @ref{Frame
Parameters,,, elisp, The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.

@node Scroll Bars
@section Scroll Bars
@cindex Scroll Bar mode
@cindex mode, Scroll Bar

  When using X, Emacs normally makes a @dfn{scroll bar} at the left of
each Emacs window.@footnote{Placing it at the left is usually more
useful with overlapping frames with text starting at the left margin.}
The scroll bar runs the height of the window, and shows a moving
rectangular inner box which represents the portion of the buffer
currently displayed.  The entire height of the scroll bar represents the
entire length of the buffer.

  You can use @kbd{Mouse-2} (normally, the middle button) in the scroll
bar to move or drag the inner box up and down.  If you move it to the
top of the scroll bar, you see the top of the buffer.  If you move it to
the bottom of the scroll bar, you see the bottom of the buffer.

  The left and right buttons in the scroll bar scroll by controlled
increments.  @kbd{Mouse-1} (normally, the left button) moves the line at
the level where you click up to the top of the window.  @kbd{Mouse-3}
(normally, the right button) moves the line at the top of the window
down to the level where you click.  By clicking repeatedly in the same
place, you can scroll by the same distance over and over.

  Aside from scrolling, you can also click @kbd{C-Mouse-2} in the scroll
bar to split a window vertically.  The split occurs on the line where
you click.

@findex scroll-bar-mode
@vindex scroll-bar-mode
  You can enable or disable Scroll Bar mode with the command @kbd{M-x
scroll-bar-mode}.  With no argument, it toggles the use of scroll bars.
With an argument, it turns use of scroll bars on if and only if the
argument is positive.  This command applies to all frames, including
frames yet to be created.  Customize the option @code{scroll-bar-mode}
to control the use of scroll bars at startup.  You can use it to specify
that they are placed at the right of windows if you prefer that.  You
can use the X resource @samp{verticalScrollBars} to control the initial
setting of Scroll Bar mode similarly.  @xref{Resources X}.

@findex toggle-scroll-bar
  To enable or disable scroll bars for just the selected frame, use the
@kbd{M-x toggle-scroll-bar} command.

@node Wheeled Mice
@section Scrolling With `Wheeled' Mice

@cindex mouse wheel
@findex mwheel-install
Some mice have a `wheel' instead of a third button.  You can usually
click the wheel to act as @kbd{mouse-3}.  You can also use the wheel to
scroll windows instead of using the scroll bar or keyboard commands.
Use @kbd{M-x mwheel-install} to set up the wheel for scrolling or put
@samp{(require 'mwheel)} in your @file{.emacs}.  (Support for the wheel
depends on the system generating appropriate events for Emacs.)

@vindex mwheel-follow-mouse
@vindex mwheel-scroll-amount
The variables @code{mwheel-follow-mouse} and @code{mwheel-scroll-amount}
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

@node Menu Bars
@section Menu Bars
@cindex Menu Bar mode
@cindex mode, Menu Bar

  You can turn display of menu bars on or off with @kbd{M-x
menu-bar-mode} or by customizing the option @code{menu-bar-mode}.
With no argument, this command toggles Menu Bar mode, a
minor mode.  With an argument, the command turns Menu Bar mode on if the
argument is positive, off if the argument is not positive.  You can use
the X resource @samp{menuBarLines} to control the initial setting of
Menu Bar mode.  @xref{Resources X}.

@kindex C-Mouse-3@r{, when menu bar is turned off}
Expert users often turn off the menu bar, especially on text-only
terminals, where this makes one additional line available for text.  If
the menu bar is off, you can still pop up a menu of its contents with
@kbd{C-mouse-3} on a display which supports popup menus.  @xref{Menu
Mouse Clicks}.

  @xref{Menu Bar}, for information on how to invoke commands with the
menu bar.

@node Tool Bars
@section Tool Bars
@cindex Tool Bar mode
@cindex mode, Tool Bar

You can turn display of tool bars on or off with @kbd{M-x tool-bar-mode}
analogously to @code{menu-bar-mode}.  @xref{Menu Bars}.  This will only
work in an Emacs built with appropriate image support to display the
available tool bar icons.

There is a global tool bar with some useful items and various modes may
define their own tool bars.  More could be added if suitable icons are
contributed.

@node Dialog Boxes
@section Using Dialog Boxes
@cindex dialog boxes

@vindex use-dialog-box
Certain operations invoked from menus will use a window system dialog
box to get information via the mouse if such dialog boxes are supported.
This includes yes/no questions and file selection under Motif/LessTif
and MS Windows.  Customize the option @code{use-dialog-box} to suppress
the use of dialog boxes.

@node Faces
@section Using Multiple Typefaces
@cindex faces

  When using Emacs with X, you can set up multiple styles of displaying
characters.  The aspects of style that you can control are the type
font, the foreground color, the background color, and whether to
underline.  Emacs on MS-DOS supports faces partially by letting you
control the foreground and background colors of each face
(@pxref{MS-DOS}).  On non-windowed terminals faces are supported to the
extent the terminal can display them.

  The way you control display style is by defining named @dfn{faces}.
Each face can specify a type font, a foreground color, a background
color, and an underline flag; but it does not have to specify all of
them.  Then by specifying the face or faces to use for a given part
of the text in the buffer, you control how that text appears.

  The style of display used for a given character in the text is
determined by combining several faces.  Any aspect of the display style
that isn't specified by overlays or text properties comes from the frame
itself.

  Enriched mode, the mode for editing formatted text, includes several
commands and menus for specifying faces.  @xref{Format Faces}, for how
to specify the font for text in the buffer.  @xref{Format Colors}, for
how to specify the foreground and background color.

  To alter the appearance of a face, use the customization buffer.
@xref{Face Customization}.  You can also use X resources to specify
attributes of particular faces (@pxref{Resources X}).

@cindex face colors, setting
@findex set-face-foreground
@findex set-face-background
  Alternatively, you could change the foreground and background colors
of a specific face with @kbd{M-x set-face-foreground} and @kbd{M-x
set-face-background}.  These commands prompt in the minibuffer for a
face name and a color name, with completion, and then setup that face to
use the specified color.

@findex list-faces-display
  To see what faces are currently defined, and what they look like, type
@kbd{M-x list-faces-display}.  It's possible for a given face to look
different in different frames; this command shows the appearance in the
frame in which you type it.  Here's a list of the standardly defined
faces:

@table @code
@item default
This face is used for ordinary text that doesn't specify any other face.
@item modeline
This face is used for mode lines.  By default, it's drawn with shadows
for a `raised' effect under X and set up as the inverse of the default
face on non-windowed terminals.  @xref{Display Vars}.
@item header-line
Similar to @code{modeline} for a window's header line.
@item highlight
This face is used for highlighting portions of text, in various modes.
@item region
This face is used for displaying a selected region (when Transient Mark
mode is enabled---see below).
@item secondary-selection
This face is used for displaying a secondary selection (@pxref{Secondary
Selection}).
@item bold
This face uses a bold variant of the default font, if it has one.
@item italic
This face uses an italic variant of the default font, if it has one.
@item bold-italic
This face uses a bold italic variant of the default font, if it has one.
@item underline
This face underlines text.
@item fixed-pitch
The basic fixed-pitch face.
@item fringe
The face for the fringes to the left and right of windows under X.
@item scroll-bar
This face determines the colors of the scroll bar.
@item border
This face determines the color of the frame border.
@item cursor
This face determines the color of the cursor.
@item mouse
This face determines the color of the mouse pointer.
@item tool-bar
The basic tool-bar face.
@item menu
This face determines the colors and font of Emacs's menus.  Setting the
font of LessTif/Motif menus is currently not supported; attempts to set
the font are ignored in this case.
@item trailing-whitespace
The face for highlighting trailing whitespace when
@code{show-trailing-whitespace} is non-nil.
@item variable-pitch
The basic variable-pitch face.
@end table

@cindex @code{region} face
  When Transient Mark mode is enabled, the text of the region is
highlighted when the mark is active.  This uses the face named
@code{region}; you can control the style of highlighting by changing the
style of this face (@pxref{Face Customization}).  @xref{Transient Mark},
for more information about Transient Mark mode and activation and
deactivation of the mark.

  One easy way to use faces is to turn on Font Lock mode.  This minor
mode, which is always local to a particular buffer, arranges to
choose faces according to the syntax of the text you are editing.  It
can recognize comments and strings in most languages; in several
languages, it can also recognize and properly highlight various other
important constructs.  @xref{Font Lock}, for more information about
Font Lock mode and syntactic highlighting.

  You can print out the buffer with the highlighting that appears
on your screen using the command @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces}.
@xref{PostScript}.

@node Font Lock
@section Font Lock mode
@cindex Font Lock mode
@cindex mode, Font Lock
@cindex syntax highlighting
@cindex syntax coloring

  Font Lock mode is a minor mode, always local to a particular
buffer, which highlights (or ``fontifies'') using various faces
according to the syntax of the text you are editing.  It can
recognize comments and strings in most languages; in several
languages, it can also recognize and properly highlight various other
important constructs---for example, names of functions being defined
or reserved keywords.

@findex font-lock-mode
@findex turn-on-font-lock
  The command @kbd{M-x font-lock-mode} turns Font Lock mode on or off
according to the argument, and toggles the mode when it has no argument.
The function @code{turn-on-font-lock} unconditionally enables Font Lock
mode.  This is useful in mode-hook functions.  For example, to enable
Font Lock mode whenever you edit a C file, you can do this:

@example
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)
@end example

@findex global-font-lock-mode
@vindex global-font-lock-mode
  To turn on Font Lock mode automatically in all modes which support it,
customize the user option @code{global-font-lock-mode} or use the
function @code{global-font-lock-mode}, like this:

@example
(global-font-lock-mode 1)
@end example

  To change the colors or the fonts used by Font Lock mode to fontify
different parts of text, you can use one of the following:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Invoke @kbd{M-x set-face-foreground} or @kbd{M-x set-face-background} to
change the colors of a particular face, such as
@code{font-lock-variable-name-face}, used by Font Lock.  @xref{Faces}.
The command @kbd{M-x list-faces-display} displays all the faces
currently known to Emacs, including those used by Font Lock.

@item
Customize the faces interactively with @kbd{M-x customize-face}, as
described in @ref{Face Customization}.
@end itemize

@kindex M-g M-g
@findex font-lock-fontify-block
  In Font Lock mode, when you edit the text, the highlighting updates
automatically in the line that you changed.  Most changes don't affect
the highlighting of subsequent lines, but occasionally they do.  To
rehighlight a range of lines, use the command @kbd{M-g M-g}
(@code{font-lock-fontify-block}).

@vindex font-lock-mark-block-function
  In certain major modes, @kbd{M-g M-g} refontifies the entire current
function.  (The variable @code{font-lock-mark-block-function} controls
how to find the current function.)  In other major modes, @kbd{M-g M-g}
refontifies 16 lines above and below point.

  With a prefix argument @var{n}, @kbd{M-g M-g} refontifies @var{n}
lines above and below point, regardless of the mode.

  To get the full benefit of Font Lock mode, you need to choose a
default font which has bold, italic, and bold-italic variants; or else
you need to have a color or gray-scale screen.

@vindex font-lock-maximum-decoration
  The variable @code{font-lock-maximum-decoration} specifies the
preferred level of fontification, for modes that provide multiple
levels.  Level 1 is the least amount of fontification; some modes
support levels as high as 3.  The normal default is ``as high as
possible.''  You can specify an integer, which applies to all modes, or
you can specify different numbers for particular major modes; for
example, to use level 1 for C/C++ modes, and the default level
otherwise, use this:

@example
(setq font-lock-maximum-decoration
      '((c-mode . 1) (c++-mode . 1)))
@end example

@vindex font-lock-maximum-size
  Fontification can be too slow for large buffers, so you can suppress
it.  The variable @code{font-lock-maximum-size} specifies a buffer size,
beyond which buffer fontification is suppressed.

@c @w is used below to prevent a bad page-break.
@vindex font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function
  Comment and string fontification (or ``syntactic'' fontification)
relies on analysis of the syntactic structure of the buffer text.  For
the purposes of speed, some modes including C mode and Lisp mode rely on
a special convention: an open-parenthesis in the leftmost column always
defines the @w{beginning} of a defun, and is thus always outside any string
or comment.  (@xref{Defuns}.)  If you don't follow this convention,
then Font Lock mode can misfontify the text after an open-parenthesis in
the leftmost column that is inside a string or comment.

  The variable @code{font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function} (always
buffer-local) specifies how Font Lock mode can find a position
guaranteed to be outside any comment or string.  In modes which use the
leftmost column parenthesis convention, the default value of the variable
is @code{beginning-of-defun}---that tells Font Lock mode to use the
convention.  If you set this variable to @code{nil}, Font Lock no longer
relies on the convention.  This avoids incorrect results, but the price
is that, in some cases, fontification for a changed text must rescan
buffer text from the beginning of the buffer.

@findex font-lock-add-keywords
  Font Lock highlighting patterns already exist for many modes, but you
may want to fontify additional patterns.  You can use the function
@code{font-lock-add-keywords}, to add your own highlighting patterns for
a particular mode.  For example, to highlight @samp{FIXME:} words in C
comments, use this:

@example
(font-lock-add-keywords
 'c-mode
 '(("\\<\\(FIXME\\):" 1 font-lock-warning-face t)))
@end example

@node Support Modes
@section Font Lock Support Modes

  Font Lock support modes make Font Lock mode faster for large buffers.
There are two support modes: Fast Lock mode and Lazy Lock mode.  They
use two different methods of speeding up Font Lock mode.

@menu
* Fast Lock Mode::      Saving font information in files.
* Lazy Lock Mode::      Fontifying only text that is actually displayed.
* JIT Lock Mode::       Like Lazy Lock, but generally faster.
* Fast or Lazy::        Which support mode is best for you?
@end menu

@node Fast Lock Mode
@subsection Fast Lock Mode

@cindex Fast Lock mode
@cindex mode, Fast Lock
  To make Font Lock mode faster for buffers visiting large files, you
can use Fast Lock mode.  Fast Lock mode saves the font information for
each file in a separate cache file; each time you visit the file, it
rereads the font information from the cache file instead of refontifying
the text from scratch.

@findex fast-lock-mode
  The command @kbd{M-x fast-lock-mode} turns Fast Lock mode on or off,
according to the argument (with no argument, it toggles).  You can also
arrange to enable Fast Lock mode whenever you use Font Lock mode, like
this:

@example
(setq font-lock-support-mode 'fast-lock-mode)
@end example

@vindex fast-lock-minimum-size
  It is not worth writing a cache file for small buffers.  Therefore,
the variable @code{fast-lock-minimum-size} specifies a minimum file size
for caching font information.

@vindex fast-lock-cache-directories
  The variable @code{fast-lock-cache-directories} specifies where to put
the cache files.  Its value is a list of directories to try; @code{"."}
means the same directory as the file being edited.  The default value is
@w{@code{("." "~/.emacs-flc")}}, which means to use the same directory if
possible, and otherwise the directory @file{~/.emacs-flc}.

@vindex fast-lock-save-others
  The variable @code{fast-lock-save-others} specifies whether Fast Lock
mode should save cache files for files that you do not own.  A
non-@code{nil} value means yes (and that is the default).

@node Lazy Lock Mode
@subsection Lazy Lock Mode
@cindex Lazy Lock mode
@cindex mode, Lazy Lock

  To make Font Lock mode faster for large buffers, you can use Lazy Lock
mode to reduce the amount of text that is fontified.  In Lazy Lock mode,
buffer fontification is demand-driven; it happens to portions of the
buffer that are about to be displayed.  And fontification of your
changes is deferred; it happens only when Emacs has been idle for a
certain short period of time.

@findex lazy-lock-mode
  The command @kbd{M-x lazy-lock-mode} turns Lazy Lock mode on or off,
according to the argument (with no argument, it toggles).  You can also
arrange to enable Lazy Lock mode whenever you use Font Lock mode, like
this:

@example
(setq font-lock-support-mode 'lazy-lock-mode)
@end example

@vindex lazy-lock-minimum-size
  It is not worth avoiding buffer fontification for small buffers.
Therefore, the variable @code{lazy-lock-minimum-size} specifies a
minimum buffer size for demand-driven buffer fontification.  Buffers
smaller than that are fontified all at once, as in plain Font Lock mode.

@vindex lazy-lock-defer-time
  When you alter the buffer, Lazy Lock mode defers fontification of the
text you changed.  The variable @code{lazy-lock-defer-time} specifies
how many seconds Emacs must be idle before it starts fontifying your
changes.  If the value is 0, then changes are fontified immediately, as
in plain Font Lock mode.

@vindex lazy-lock-defer-on-scrolling
  Lazy Lock mode normally fontifies newly visible portions of the buffer
before they are first displayed.  However, if the value of
@code{lazy-lock-defer-on-scrolling} is non-@code{nil}, newly visible
text is fontified only when Emacs is idle for
@code{lazy-lock-defer-time} seconds.

@vindex lazy-lock-defer-contextually
  In some modes, including C mode and Emacs Lisp mode, changes in one
line's contents can alter the context for subsequent lines, and thus
change how they ought to be fontified.  Ordinarily, you must type
@kbd{M-g M-g} to refontify the subsequent lines.  However, if you set
the variable @code{lazy-lock-defer-contextually} to non-@code{nil}, Lazy
Lock mode does this automatically, after @code{lazy-lock-defer-time}
seconds.

@cindex stealth fontification
  When Emacs is idle for a long time, Lazy Lock fontifies additional
portions of the buffer, not yet displayed, in case you will display them
later.  This is called @dfn{stealth fontification}.

@vindex lazy-lock-stealth-time
@vindex lazy-lock-stealth-lines
@vindex lazy-lock-stealth-verbose
  The variable @code{lazy-lock-stealth-time} specifies how many seconds
Emacs has to be idle before stealth fontification starts.  A value of
@code{nil} means no stealth fontification.  The variables
@code{lazy-lock-stealth-lines} and @code{lazy-lock-stealth-verbose}
specify the granularity and verbosity of stealth fontification.

@node JIT Lock Mode
@subsection JIT Lock Mode

@findex jit-lock-mode
This Just-In-time support mode is roughly equivalent to Lazy Lock but is
generally faster and more robust.  It supports stealth and deferred
contextual fontification.

Font-lock uses @code{jit-lock-mode} as default support mode, so you
don't have to do anything to activate it.

@node Fast or Lazy
@subsection Fast Lock or Lazy Lock?

  Here is a simple guide to help you choose one of the Font Lock support
modes.

@itemize @bullet
@item
Fast Lock mode intervenes only during file visiting and buffer
killing (and related events); therefore buffer editing and window
scrolling are no faster or slower than in plain Font Lock mode.

@item
Fast Lock mode is slower at reading a cache file than Lazy Lock
mode is at fontifying a window; therefore Fast Lock mode is slower at
visiting a file than Lazy Lock mode.

@item
Lazy Lock mode intervenes during window scrolling to fontify text that
scrolls onto the screen; therefore, scrolling is slower than in plain
Font Lock mode.

@item
Lazy Lock mode doesn't fontify during buffer editing (it defers
fontification of changes); therefore, editing is faster than in plain
Font Lock mode.

@item
Fast Lock mode can be fooled by a file that is kept under version
control software; therefore buffer fontification may occur even when
a cache file exists for the file.

@item
Fast Lock mode only works with a buffer visiting a file; Lazy Lock
mode works with any buffer.

@item
Fast Lock mode generates cache files; Lazy Lock mode does not.
@end itemize

@vindex font-lock-support-mode
  The variable @code{font-lock-support-mode} specifies which of these
support modes to use; for example, to specify that Fast Lock mode is
used for C/C++ modes, and Lazy Lock mode otherwise, set the variable
like this:

@example
(setq font-lock-support-mode
      '((c-mode . fast-lock-mode) (c++-mode . fast-lock-mode)
        (t . lazy-lock-mode)))
@end example

@node Highlight Changes
@section Highlight Changes Mode

@findex highlight-changes-mode
  Use @kbd{M-x highlight-changes-mode} to enable a minor mode
that uses faces (colors, typically) to indicate which parts of
the buffer were changed most recently.

@node Highlight Interactively
@section Interactive Highlighting of Arbitrary Text

@cindex highlighting, arbitrary text
@cindex interactive highlighting
  Sometimes, you could need to highlight arbitrary strings in the
buffer.  For example, you might wish to see all the references to a
certain variable in a program source file or highlight certain parts in
a voluminous output of some program, or make certain cliches stand out.

@findex hi-lock-mode
  Use the @kbd{M-x hi-lock-mode} command to turn on a minor mode that
allows you to specify regular expressions of the text to be highlighted.
@code{hi-lock-mode} works like Font Lock (@pxref{Font Lock}), except
that it lets you control what parts of text are highlighted.
@code{hi-lock-mode} provides several functions:

@table @kbd
@item C-x w h
@kindex C-x w i
@findex highlight-regexp
Specify the regular expression (@pxref{Regexps}) for the parts of buffer
text that are to be highlighted (@code{highlight-regexp}).  It prompts
for the regular expression, then for the name of the face with which to
highlight the text that matches.

@item C-x w r
@kindex C-x w r
@findex unhighlight-regexp
Unhighlight @var{regexp} (@code{unhighlight-regexp}).  Prompts for the
regular expression, and will accept only one of the regexps inserted by
other @code{hi-lock} commands.

@item C-x w l
@kindex C-x w l
@findex highlight-lines-matching-regexp
@cindex lines, highlighting
@cindex highlighting lines of text
Specify the regular expression (@pxref{Regexps}) for the lines of buffer
text that are to be highlighted
(@code{highlight-lines-matching-regexp}).  It prompts for the regular
expression, then for the name of the face with which to highlight the
matching lines.

@item C-x w b
@kindex C-x w b
@findex hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns
This runs the @code{hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns} command which
inserts the patterns added by @kbd{M-x highlight-regexp} and @kbd{M-x
highlight-lines-matching-regexp} into the current buffer at point, as
comments.  These patterns will be read the next time the file is
visited, or when the @kbd{M-x hi-lock-find-patterns} command is issued.

@item C-x w i
@kindex C-x w i
@findex hi-lock-find-patterns
@vindex hi-lock-exclude-modes
Re-read patterns stored in a buffer in the format produced by @kbd{M-x
hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns}
(@code{hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns}.  If you invoke this command
in a buffer whose major mode is a member of the list that is the value
of the variable @code{hi-lock-exclude-modes}, this command has no
effect.
@end table


@node Trailing Whitespace
@section Trailing Whitespace

@cindex trailing whitespace
@cindex whitespace, trailing
@vindex show-trailing-whitespace
The option @code{show-trailing-whitespace} can be customized so that
Emacs displays trailing whitespace in the face
@code{trailing-whitespace}.  Trailing whitespace is defined as spaces or
tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy highlighting when entering new
text, trailing whitespace is not displayed if point is at the end of the
line containing the whitespace.

@node Tooltips
@section Tooltips (or `Balloon Help')

@cindex balloon help
@findex tooltip-mode
Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position, typically over text---including the mode line---which
can be activated with the mouse or other keys.  (This facility is
sometimes known as `balloon help'.)  Tooltips may be available for menu
items too.

To use tooltips, customize the user option @code{tooltip-mode}.  The
customization group @code{tooltip} controls various aspects of their
display.  If Tooltip mode is not activated, the help text is displayed
in the echo area instead.

@node Mouse Avoidance
@section Mouse Avoidance

Mouse Avoidance mode keeps the window system mouse pointer away from
point to avoid obscuring text.  Whenever the mouse is moved, the frame
is also raised.  To use it, customize the option
@code{mouse-avoidance-mode}.  You can set this to various values to move
the mouse in several ways:

@table @code
@item banish
Move the mouse to the upper-right corner on any keypress;
@item exile
Move the mouse to the corner only if the cursor gets too close,
and allow it to return once the cursor is out of the way;
@item jump
If the cursor gets too close to the mouse, displace the mouse
a random distance & direction;
@item animate
As @code{jump}, but shows steps along the way for illusion of motion;
@item cat-and-mouse
The same as @code{animate};
@item proteus
As @code{animate}, but changes the shape of the mouse pointer too.
@end table

You can also use the command @kbd{M-x mouse-avoidance-mode} to turn on
the mode.

@node Misc X
@section Miscellaneous X Window Features

  The following commands let you create, delete and operate on frames:

@table @kbd
@item C-z
@kindex C-z @r{(X windows)}
@findex iconify-or-deiconify-frame
Iconify the selected Emacs frame (@code{iconify-or-deiconify-frame}).
The normal meaning of @kbd{C-z}, to suspend Emacs, is not useful under a
window system, so it has a different binding in that case.

If you type this command on an Emacs frame's icon, it deiconifies the frame.

@item C-x 5 0
@kindex C-x 5 0
@findex delete-frame
Delete the selected frame (@code{delete-frame}).  This is not allowed if
there is only one frame.

@item C-x 5 o
@kindex C-x 5 o
@findex other-frame
Select another frame, raise it, and warp the mouse to it so that it
stays selected.  If you repeat this command, it cycles through all the
frames on your terminal.

@item C-x 5 1
@kindex C-x 5 1
@findex delete-other-frames
Delete all frames except the selected one.
@end table

@cindex busy-cursor display
@vindex busy-cursor-delay
  Emacs can optionally display a busy cursor on X and other window
systems.  To turn this on or off, customize the group @code{cursor}.
You can also control the amount of time Emacs is busy before the
busy-cursor is displayed, by customizing the value of the variable
@code{busy-cursor-delay}.

@vindex x-stretch-cursor
@cindex wide block cursor
  Emacs on X can draw the block cursor as wide as the glyph under the
cursor.  For example, if the cursor is on a TAB character, it is drawn
as wide as that TAB is on the display.  To turn on this feature, set the
variable @code{x-stretch-cursor} to a non-nil value.

@vindex indicate-empty-lines
@vindex default-indicate-empty-lines
@cindex empty lines
  Empty display lines at the end of the buffer can be optionally marked
with a special bitmap on the left fringe of the window.  This is
activated by setting the buffer-local variable
@code{indicate-empty-lines} to a non-nil value.  The default value of
this variable is found in @code{default-indicate-empty-lines}.

@node Non-Window Terminals
@section Non-Window Terminals
@cindex non-window terminals
@cindex single-frame terminals

  If your terminal does not have a window system that Emacs supports,
then it can display only one Emacs frame at a time.  However, you can
still create multiple Emacs frames, and switch between them.  Switching
frames on these terminals is much like switching between different
window configurations.

  Use @kbd{C-x 5 2} to create a new frame and switch to it; use @kbd{C-x
5 o} to cycle through the existing frames; use @kbd{C-x 5 0} to delete
the current frame.

  Each frame has a number to distinguish it.  If your terminal can
display only one frame at a time, the selected frame's number @var{n}
appears near the beginning of the mode line, in the form
@samp{F@var{n}}.

@findex set-frame-name
@findex select-frame-by-name
  @samp{F@var{n}} is actually the frame's name.  You can also specify a
different name if you wish, and you can select a frame by its name.  Use
the command @kbd{M-x set-frame-name @key{RET} @var{name} @key{RET}} to
specify a new name for the selected frame, and use @kbd{M-x
select-frame-by-name @key{RET} @var{name} @key{RET}} to select a frame
according to its name.  The name you specify appears in the mode line
when the frame is selected.

@node XTerm Mouse
@section Using a Mouse in Terminal Emulators
@cindex xterm, mouse support
@cindex terminal emulators, mouse support

Some terminal emulators under X support mouse clicks in the terminal
window.  In a terminal emulator which is compatible with @code{xterm},
you can use @kbd{M-x xterm-mouse-mode} to enable simple use of the
mouse---only single clicks are supported.  The normal @code{xterm} mouse
functionality is still available by holding down the @kbd{SHIFT} key
when you press the mouse button.