emacs / man / org.texi

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
@setfilename ../info/org
@settitle Org Mode Manual

@set VERSION 4.56
@set DATE November 2006

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Org Mode: (org).      outline-based notes management and organizer
@end direntry

@c Version and Contact Info
@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/,maintainers webpage}
@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{dominik at science dot uva dot nl}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:dominik at science dot uva dot nl,contact the maintainer}
@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions

@c Subheadings inside a table.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
This manual is for Org-mode (version @value{VERSION}).

Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006 Free Software Foundation

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License.''

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
@title Org Mode Manual

@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::                Getting started
* Document structure::          A tree works like your brain
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
* TODO items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
* Timestamps::                  Assign date and time to items
* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
* Agenda views::                Collecting information into views
* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX fragments and formulas
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org-mode files
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Extensions and Hacking::      It is possible to write add-on code
* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org-mode came into being 
* Index::                       The fast road to specific information
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org-mode
* Activation::                  How to activate Org-mode for certain buffers.
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.

Document Structure

* Outlines::                    Org-mode is based on outline-mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset org-tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry

Archiving

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables   
* Table calculations::          Compute a field from other fields
* orgtbl-mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* table.el::                    Complex tables

Calculations in tables

* Formula syntax::              How to write a formula
* Lisp formulas::               An alternative way to write formulas
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for all fields in a column
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
* Named-field formulas::        Formulas valid in single fields
* Editing/debugging formulas::  Changing a stored formula
* Appetizer::                   Taste the power of calc

Hyperlinks

* Link format::                 How links in Org-mode are formatted
* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes

Internal links

* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text.
* CamelCase links::             Activating CamelCase words as links

TODO items

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into managable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements

Timestamps

* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Custom time format::          If you cannot work with the ISO format
* Progress logging::            Documenting when what work was done.

Creating timestamps

* The date/time prompt::        How org-mode helps you entering date and time

Progress Logging

* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Clocking work time::          When exactly did you work on this item?

Tags

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

Agenda Views

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Weekly/Daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching headline tags::      Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views

The weekly/daily agenda

* Calendar/Diary integration::  Integrating Anniversaries and more

Presentation and sorting

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

Custom agenda views

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
* Batch processing::            Agenda views from the command line

Embedded LaTeX

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
* Subscripts and Superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

Exporting

* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
* Text interpretation::         How the exporter looks at the file

Text interpretation by the exporter

* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported
* Enhancing text::              Subscripts, symbols and more
* Export options::              How to influence the export settings

Publishing

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

Configuration

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

Sample configuration

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Customization::               Adapting Org-mode to your taste
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org-mode on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

Interaction with other packages

* Cooperation::                 Packages Org-mode cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

Extensions, Hooks and Hacking

* Extensions::                  Existing 3rd-part extensions
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks

@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, Document structure, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

@menu
* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org-mode
* Activation::                  How to activate Org-mode for certain buffers.
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
@end menu

@node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Summary
@cindex summary

Org-mode is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining ToDo lists, and doing
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

Org-mode develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org-mode is
implemented on top of outline-mode, which makes it possible to keep the
content of large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and
structure editing help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created
with a built-in table editor.  Org-mode supports ToDo items, deadlines,
time stamps, and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an
agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
and diary.  Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
For printing and sharing of notes, an Org-mode file can be exported as a
structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (todo and agenda items only) as an
iCalendar file.  It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
linked webpages.

An important design aspect that distinguishes Org-mode from for example
Planner/Muse is that it encougages to store every piece of information
only once.  In Planner, you have project pages, day pages and possibly
other files, duplicating some information such as tasks.  In Org-mode,
you only have notes files.  In your notes you mark entries as tasks,
label them with tags and timestamps.  All necessary lists like a
schedule for the day, the agenda for a meeting, tasks lists selected by
tags etc are created dynamically when you need them.

Org-mode keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should
feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
it.  Org-mode can be used on different levels and in different ways, for
example:

@example
@r{@bullet{} as an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} as an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
@r{@bullet{} as an ASCII table editor with spreadsheet-like capabilities}
@r{@bullet{} as a TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} as a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@r{@bullet{} as an environment to implement David Allen's GTD system}
@r{@bullet{} as a simple hypertext system, with HTML export}
@r{@bullet{} as a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
@end example

Org-mode's automatic, context sensitive table editor can be integrated
into any major mode by activating the minor Orgtbl-mode.

@cindex FAQ
There is a website for Org-mode which provides links to the newest
version of Org-mode, as well as additional information, frequently asked
questions (FAQ), links to tutorials etc.  This page is located at
@uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/}.

@page

@node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
@section Installation
@cindex installation
@cindex XEmacs

@b{Important:} If Org-mode is part of the Emacs distribution or an
XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to
@ref{Activation}.

If you have downloaded Org-mode from the Web, you must take the
following steps to install it: Go into the Org-mode distribution
directory and edit the top section of the file @file{Makefile}.  You
must set the name of the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or
@file{xemacs}), and the paths to the directories where local Lisp and
Info files are kept.  If you don't have access to the system-wide
directories, create your own two directories for these files, enter them
into the Makefile, and make sure Emacs finds the Lisp files by adding
the following line to @file{.emacs}:

@example
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/lispdir" load-path))
@end example

@b{XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
the @file{xemacs} subdirectory of the Org-mode distribution.  Use the
command:}

@example
@b{make install-noutline}
@end example

@noindent Now byte-compile and install the Lisp files with the shell
commands:

@example
make
make install
@end example

@noindent If you want to install the info documentation, use this command:

@example
make install-info
@end example

@noindent Then add to @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
;; This line only if org-mode is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
(require 'org-install)
@end lisp

@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation
@cindex activation
@cindex autoload
@cindex global keybindings
@cindex keybindings, global

Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last two lines
define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link} and
@command{org-agenda} - please choose suitable keys yourself.

@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org$" . org-mode))
(define-key global-map "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(define-key global-map "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
@end lisp

Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in org-mode
buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
active.  You can do this with either one of the following two lines
(XEmacs user must use the second option):
@lisp
(global-font-lock-mode 1)                     ; for all buffers
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)  ; org-mode buffers only
@end lisp

@cindex org-mode, turning on
With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
into Org-mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
like this:

@example
MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-
@end example

@noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
the file's name is.  See also the variable
@code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.

@node Feedback,  , Activation, Introduction
@section Feedback
@cindex feedback
@cindex bug reports
@cindex maintainer
@cindex author

If you find problems with Org-mode, or if you have questions, remarks,
or ideas about it, please contact the maintainer @value{MAINTAINER} at
@value{MAINTAINEREMAIL}.

For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible,
including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{C-h v emacs-version
@key{RET}}) and Org-mode (@kbd{C-h v org-version @key{RET}}), as well as
the Org-mode related setup in @file{.emacs}.  If an error occurs, a
backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to create one).  Often a
small example file helps, along with clear information about:

@enumerate
@item What exactly did you do?
@item What did you expect to happen?
@item What happened instead?
@end enumerate
@noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode.

@subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace

@cindex backtrace of an error
If working with Org-mode produces an error with a message you don't
understand, you may have hit a bug.  The best way to report this is by
providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{Backtrace}.
This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
error occurred.  Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:

@enumerate
@item
Start a fresh Emacs or XEmacs, and make sure that it will load the
original Lisp code in @file{org.el} instead of the compiled version in
@file{org.elc}.  The backtrace contains much more information if it is
produced with uncompiled code.  To do this, either rename @file{org.elc}
to something else before starting Emacs, or ask Emacs explicitly to load
@file{org.el} by using the command line
@example
emacs -l /path/to/org.el
@end example
@item
Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
(XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
@item
Do whatever you have to do to hit the error.  Don't forget to
document the steps you take.
@item
When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
screen.  Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
attach it to your bug report.
@end enumerate

@node Document structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
@chapter Document Structure
@cindex document structure
@cindex structure of document

Org-mode is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to
edit the structure of the document.

@menu
* Outlines::                    Org-mode is based on outline-mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset org-tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
@end menu

@node Outlines, Headlines, Document structure, Document structure
@section Outlines
@cindex outlines
@cindex outline-mode

Org-mode is implemented on top of outline-mode.  Outlines allow to
organize a document in a hierarchical structure, which (at least for
me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  Overview over
this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
currently being worked on.  Org-mode greatly simplifies the use of
outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a
single command @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB}
key.

@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document structure
@section Headlines
@cindex headlines
@cindex outline tree

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
Org-mode start with one or more stars, on the left margin.  For
example:

@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text
* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
starters.  @ref{Clean view} describes a setup to realize this.

@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document structure
@section Visibility cycling
@cindex cycling, visibility
@cindex visibility cycling
@cindex trees, visibility
@cindex show hidden text
@cindex hide text

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
Org-mode uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

@cindex subtree visibility states
@cindex subtree cycling
@cindex folded, subtree visibility state
@cindex children, subtree visibility state
@cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
@emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree between the states

@example
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end example

The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.  When the cursor is at the
beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
@key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}.  Also when called with a prefix
argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.

@cindex global visibility states
@cindex global cycling
@cindex overview, global visibility state
@cindex contents, global visibility state
@cindex show all, global visibility state
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
@itemx C-u @key{TAB}
@emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer between the states

@example
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end example

Note that inside tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.

@cindex show all, command
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show all.
@kindex C-c C-r
@item C-c C-r
Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following
heading and the hierarchy above.  Useful for working near a location
exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda
command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@end table

When Emacs first visits an Org-mode file, the global state is set to
OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
buffer:

@example
#+STARTUP: overview
#+STARTUP: content
#+STARTUP: showall
@end example

@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document structure
@section Motion
@cindex motion, between headlines
@cindex jumping, to headlines
@cindex headline navigation
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@kindex C-c C-p
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-b
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-u
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@kindex C-c C-j
@item C-c C-j
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
you can use visibility cycling (@key{TAB}) to find your destination.
After pressing @key{RET}, the cursor moves to the selected location in
the original buffer, and the headings hierarchy above it is made
visible.
@end table

@node Structure editing, Archiving, Motion, Document structure
@section Structure editing
@cindex structure editing
@cindex headline, promotion and demotion
@cindex promotion, of subtrees
@cindex demotion, of subtrees
@cindex subtree, cut and paste
@cindex pasting, of subtrees
@cindex cutting, of subtrees
@cindex copying, of subtrees
@cindex subtrees, cut and paste

@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is in a
plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}).  To force
creation of a new headline, use a prefix arg, or first press @key{RET}
to get to the beginning of the next line.  When this command is used in
the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
the new headline.  If the command is used at the beginning of a
headline, the new headline is created before the current line.  If at
the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
new heading.  If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree
(i.e. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline
like the current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
@kindex M-@key{left}
@item M-@key{left}
Promote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{right}
Demote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Promote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Demote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
level).
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
@kindex C-c C-x C-w
@kindex C-c C-x C-k
@item C-c C-x C-w
@itemx C-c C-x C-k
Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
@kindex C-c C-x M-w
@item C-c C-x M-w
Copy subtree to kill ring.
@kindex C-c C-x C-y
@item C-c C-x C-y
Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the subtree to
make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.  The yank
level can also be specified with a prefix arg, or by yanking after a
headline marker like @samp{****}.
@end table

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
When there is an active region (transient-mark-mode), promotion and
demotion work on all headlines in the region.  To select a region of
headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
just after the last headline to change.  Note that when the cursor is
inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
functionality.

@node Archiving, Sparse trees, Structure editing, Document structure
@section Archiving
@cindex archiving

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
agenda.  Org-mode knows two ways of archiving.  You can mark a tree with
the ARCHIVE tag, or you can move an entire (sub)tree to a different
location.

@menu
* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file
@end menu

@node ARCHIVE tag, Moving subtrees, Archiving, Archiving
@subsection The ARCHIVE tag
@cindex internal archiving

A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
@itemize @minus
@item
It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}).  You can force cycling archived
subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
@code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}.  Also normal outline commands like
@code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
@item
During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
@code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
@item
During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda views}), the content of
archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
@code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}.
@item
Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
is.  Configure the details using the variable
@code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
@end itemize

The following commands help managing the ARCHIVE tag:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-a
@item C-c C-x C-a
Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.  When the tag is set,
the headline changes to a shadowish face, and the subtree below it is
hidden.
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-a
@item C-u C-c C-x C-a
Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.  If none are
found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child.  If the
cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
level 1 trees will be checked.
@kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
@item C-@kbd{TAB}
Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
@end table

@node Moving subtrees,  , ARCHIVE tag, Archiving
@subsection Moving subtrees
@cindex external archiving

Once an entire project is finished, you may want to move it to a
different location, either in the current file, or even in a different
file, the archive file.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c $
@item C-c $
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by @code{org-archive-location}.
@kindex C-u C-c $
@item C-u C-c $
Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
the archive.  To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
location.  If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
@end table

@cindex archive locations
The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change this,
see the documentation string of the variable
@code{org-archive-location}.

@node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Archiving, Document structure
@section Sparse trees
@cindex sparse trees
@cindex trees, sparse
@cindex folding, sparse trees
@cindex occur, command

An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct
@emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree.  A
sparse tree means that the entire document is folded as much as
possible, but the selected information is made visible along with the
headline structure above it@footnote{See also the variables
@code{org-show-hierarchy-above} and
@code{org-show-following-heading}.}.  Just try it out and you will see
immediately how it works.

Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees.  The most
basic one is @command{org-occur}:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c /
@item C-c /
Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.
If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible.  If the
match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible.
In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of
headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following
the match.  Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear
when the bufer is changes an editing command, or by pressing @kbd{C-c
C-c}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights
are kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked.
@end table
@noindent
For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
keyboard access to specific sparse trees.  These commands will then be
accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
For example:

@lisp
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
@end lisp

@noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.

Other commands use sparse trees as well.  For example @kbd{C-c
C-v} creates a sparse TODO tree (@pxref{TODO basics}).

@kindex C-c C-e v
@cindex printing sparse trees
@cindex visible text, printing
To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
@code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
part of the document and print the resulting file.

@node Plain lists,  , Sparse trees, Document structure
@section Plain lists
@cindex plain lists
@cindex lists, plain
@cindex lists, ordered
@cindex ordered lists

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}).  Org-mode supports editing such lists,
and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) does parse and format them.

Org-mode knows ordered and unordered lists.  Unordered list items start
with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a
bullet, lines must be indented or they will be seen as top-level
headlines.  Also, when you are hiding leading stars to get a clean
outline view, plain list items starting with a star are visually
indistinguishable from true headlines.  In short: even though @samp{*}
is supported, it may be better not to use it for plain list items} as
bullets.  Ordered list items start with @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}.  Items
belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
line.  In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then
the 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers
in the list.  Indentation also determines the end of a list item.  It
ends before the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or
less.  For example:

@example
@group
** Lord of the Rings
   My favorite scenes are (in this order)
   1. The attack of the Rohirrim
   2. Eowyns fight with the witch king
      + this was already my favorite scene in the book
      + I really like Miranda Otto.
   3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
       - on DVD only
      He makes a really funny face when it happens.
   But in the end, not individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
@end group
@end example

Org-mode supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to
deal with them correctly@footnote{Org-mode only changes the filling
settings for Emacs.  For XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones'
@file{filladapt.el}.  To turn this on,  put into @file{.emacs}:
@example
(require 'filladapt)
@end example
}.

The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
of an item (the line with the bullet or number).

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Items can be folded just like headline levels if you set the variable
@code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}.  The level of an item is then
given by the indentation of the bullet/number.  Items are always
subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain
completely separated.
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new item at current level.  With prefix arg, force a new heading
(@pxref{Structure editing}).  If this command is used in the middle of a
line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
item.  If this command is executed in the @emph{whitespace before a bullet or
number}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current item.  If the
command is executed in the white space before the text that is part of
an item but does not contain the bullet, a bullet is added to the
current line.
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Jump to the previous/next item in the current list.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{up}
@itemx M-S-@key{down}
Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
automatic.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{left}
@itemx M-S-@key{right}
Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
would imply a different hierarchy.  To use the new hierarchy, break
the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
state of the checkbox.  Otherwise, if this is an ordered list, renumber
the ordered list at the cursor.
@end table

@node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document structure, Top
@chapter Tables
@cindex tables
@cindex editing tables

Org-mode has a very fast and intuitive table editor built-in.
Spreadsheet-like calculations are supported in connection with the
Emacs @file{calc} package.

@menu
* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables   
* Table calculations::          Compute a field from other fields
* orgtbl-mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* table.el::                    Complex tables
@end menu

@node Built-in table editor, Narrow columns, Tables, Tables
@section The built-in table editor
@cindex table editor, builtin

Org-mode makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII.  Any line with
@samp{|} as the first non-white character is considered part of a
table.  @samp{|} is also the column separator.  A table might look
like this:

@example
| Name  | Phone | Age |
|-------+-------+-----|
| Peter |  1234 |  17 |
| Anna  |  4321 |  25 |
@end example

A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
@key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table.  @key{TAB} also moves to
the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
at the end of the table or before horizontal lines.  The indentation
of the table is set by the first line.  Any line starting with
@samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width.  So, to
create the above table, you would only type

@example
|Name|Phone|Age|
|-
@end example

@noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
fields.

When typing text into a field, Org-mode treats @key{DEL},
@key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields.  Also, when
typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
field is automatically made blank.  If this behavior is too
unpredictable for you, configure the variables
@code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.

@table @kbd
@tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
@kindex C-c |
@item C-c |
Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields.  You can use a prefix
argument to indicate the minimum number of consecutive spaces required
to identify a field separator (default: just one).@* 
If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org-mode
table.  But it's easier just to start typing, like
@kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.

@tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Re-align the table without moving the cursor.

@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Re-align the table, move to the next field.  Creates a new row if
necessary.

@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
Re-align, move to previous field.

@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Re-align the table and move down to next row.  Creates a new row if
necessary.  At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.

@tsubheading{Column and row editing}
@kindex M-@key{left}
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{left}
@itemx M-@key{right}
Move the current column left/right.

@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Kill the current column.

@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.

@kindex M-@key{up}
@kindex M-@key{down}
@item M-@key{up}
@itemx M-@key{down}
Move the current row up/down.

@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Kill the current row or horizontal line.

@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Insert a new row above (with arg: below) the current row.

@kindex C-c -
@item C-c -
Insert a horizontal line below current row. With prefix arg, the line
is created above the current line.

@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
Sort the table lines in the region.  Point and mark must be in the first
and last line to be included, and must be in the column that should be
used for sorting.  The command prompts for numerical versus
alphanumerical sorting.

@tsubheading{Regions}
@kindex C-c C-x M-w
@item C-c C-x M-w
Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard.  Point
and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle.  The process ignores
horizontal separator lines.
@kindex C-c C-x C-w
@item C-c C-x C-w
Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
blank all fields in the rectangle.  So this is the ``cut'' operation.
@kindex C-c C-x C-y
@item C-c C-x C-y
Paste a rectangular region into a table.
The upper right corner ends up in the current field.  All involved fields
will be overwritten.  If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
the table is enlarged as needed.  The process ignores horizontal separator
lines.
@kindex C-c C-q
@item C-c C-q
Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph.  If there is an active
region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the
column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines.  A
prefix ARG may be used to change the number of desired lines.  If there
is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the
text fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one
line down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix ARG, the
current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
above.

@tsubheading{Calculations}
@cindex formula, in tables
@cindex calculations, in tables
@kindex C-c =
@item C-c =
Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field
with the result of the formula.

@kindex C-u C-c =
@item C-u C-c =
Install a new formula for the current field, which must be a named
field.  Evaluate the formula and replace the field content with the
result.

@kindex C-c '
@item C-c '
Edit all formulas associated with the current table in a separate
buffer.

@kindex C-c *
@item C-c *
Recalculate the current row by applying the stored formulas from left
to right.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, recalculate the
entire table, starting with the first non-header line (i.e. below the
first horizontal separator line).  For details, see @ref{Table calculations}.

@kindex C-#
@item C-#
Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states
@samp{}, @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}.  For the meaning of
these marks see @ref{Advanced features}.  When there is an active
region, change all marks in the region.

@kindex C-c ?
@item C-c ?
Which table column is the cursor in?  Displays number >0 in echo
area.

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
@kindex C-c +
@item C-c +
Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
the active region.  The result is shown in the echo area and can
be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.

@kindex S-@key{RET}
@item S-@key{RET}
When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above.
When not empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor
along with it.  Depending on the variable
@code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field values will be
incremented during copy.  This key is also used by CUA-mode
(@pxref{Cooperation}).

@tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
@kindex C-c `
@item C-c `
Edit the current field in a separate window.  This is useful for fields
that are not fully visible (@pxref{Narrow columns}).  When called with a
@kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
edited in place.

@kindex C-c @key{TAB}
@item C-c @key{TAB}
This is an alias for @kbd{C-u C-c `} to make the current field fully
visible.

@item M-x org-table-import
Import a file as a table.  The table should be TAB- or whitespace
separated.  Useful, for example, to import an Excel table or data from a
database, because these programs generally can write TAB-separated text
files.  This command works by inserting the file into the buffer and
then converting the region to a table.  Any prefix argument is passed on
to the converter, which uses it to determine the separator.

@item M-x org-table-export
Export the table as a TAB-separated file.  Useful for data exchange with,
for example, Excel or database programs.

@end table

If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
it off with

@lisp
(setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
@end lisp

@noindent Then the only table command that still works is
@kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.

@node Narrow columns, Table calculations, Built-in table editor, Tables
@section Narrow columns
@cindex narrow columns in tables

The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor.
Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text,
leading to inconveniently wide columns.  To limit@footnote{This feature
does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere in
the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
integer specifying the width of the column in characters.  The next
re-align will then set the width of this column to no more than this
value.

@example
|---+------------------------------|               |---+--------|
|   |                              |               |   | <6>    |
| 1 | one                          |               | 1 | one    |
| 2 | two                          |     ----\     | 2 | two    |
| 3 | This is a long chunk of text |     ----/     | 3 | This=> |
| 4 | four                         |               | 4 | four   |
|---+------------------------------|               |---+--------|
@end example

@noindent
Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
Note that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible.
To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field - a tooltip window
will show the full content.  To edit such a field, use the command
@kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote).  This will
open a new window with the full field.  Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
C-c}.

When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
be aligned before it looks nice.  Setting the option
@code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
upon visiting, but also slow down startup.  You can also set this option
on a per-file basis with:

@example
#+STARTUP: align
#+STARTUP: noalign
@end example

@node Table calculations, orgtbl-mode, Narrow columns, Tables
@section Calculations in tables
@cindex calculations, in tables
@cindex spreadsheet capabilities
@cindex @file{calc} package

The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
spreadsheet-like capabilities.  It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
derive fields from other fields.  Org-mode has two levels of complexity
for table calculations.  On the basic level, tables do only horizontal
computations, so a field can be computed from other fields @emph{in the
same row}, and Org-mode assumes that there is only one formula for each
column.  This is very efficient to work with and enough for many tasks.
On the complex level, columns and individual fields can be named for
easier referencing in formulas, individual named fields can have their
own formula associated with them, and recalculation can be automated.

@menu
* Formula syntax::              How to write a formula
* Lisp formulas::               An alternative way to write formulas
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for all fields in a column
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
* Named-field formulas::        Formulas valid in single fields
* Editing/debugging formulas::  Changing a stored formula
* Appetizer::                   Taste the power of calc
@end menu

@node Formula syntax, Lisp formulas, Table calculations, Table calculations
@subsection Formula syntax
@cindex formula syntax
@cindex syntax, of formulas

A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
@file{calc} package.  Note that @file{calc} has the slightly
non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
@samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.  Before
evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from Your
Programs,calc-eval,Calling calc from Your Lisp Programs,calc,GNU Emacs
Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place:

@example
  $        @r{refers to the current field}
  $3       @r{refers to the field in column 3 of the current row}
  $3..$7   @r{a vector of the fields in columns 3-7 of current row}
  $P1..$P3 @r{vector of column range, using column names}
  &2       @r{second data field above the current, in same column}
  &5-2     @r{vector from fifth to second field above current}
  &III-II  @r{vector of fields between 2nd and 3rd hline above}
  &III     @r{vector of fields between third hline above and current field}
  $name    @r{a named field, parameter or constant}
@end example

@cindex vectors, in table calculations
The range vectors can be directly fed into the calc vector functions
like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.

@cindex name, of column or field
@cindex constants, in calculations
@samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
constant.  Constants are defined globally through the variable
@code{org-table-formula-constants}.  If you have the
@file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve
constants, including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's
constant, and units like @samp{$km} for kilometers.  Column names and
parameters can be specified in special table lines.  These are
described below, see @ref{Advanced features}.

@cindex format specifier
@cindex mode, for @file{calc}
A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon.  This
string consists of flags to influence calc's modes@footnote{By
default, Org-mode uses the standard calc modes (precision 12, angular
units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off).  The display format,
however, has been changed to @code{(float 5)} to keep tables compact.
The default settings can be configured using the variable
@code{org-calc-default-modes}.} during execution, e.g.  @samp{p20} to
switch the internal precision to 20 digits, @samp{n3}, @samp{s3},
@samp{e2} or @samp{f4} to switch to normal, scientific, engineering,
or fixed display format, respectively, and @samp{D}, @samp{R}, @samp{F},
and @samp{S} to turn on degrees, radians, fraction and symbolic modes,
respectively.  In addition, you may provide a @code{printf} format
specifier to reformat the final result.  A few examples:

@example
$1+$2                @r{Sum of first and second field}
$1+$2;%.2f           @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
exp($2)+exp($1)      @r{Math functions can be used}
$;%.1f               @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
($3-32)*5/9          @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
$c/$1/$cm            @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
tan($1);Dp3s1        @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
sin($1);Dp3%.1e      @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
vmean($2..$7)        @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
vsum(&III)           @r{Sum numbers from 3rd hline above, up to here}
taylor($3,x=7,2)     @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
@end example

@node Lisp formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax, Table calculations
@subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
@cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas

It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs lisp; this can be useful
for string manipulation and control structures.  If a formula starts
with a single quote followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is
evaluated as a lisp form.  The evaluation should return either a string
or a number.  Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can provide a
format specifier after a semicolon.  A few examples:

@example
@r{swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
'(concat (substring "$1" 1 2) (substring "$1" 0 1) (substring "$1" 2))
@r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to the calc's @code{$1+$2}}
'(+ $1 $2)
@end example

@node Column formulas, Advanced features, Lisp formulas, Table calculations
@subsection Column formulas
@cindex column formula
@cindex formula, for table column

To apply a formula to a field, type it directly into the field,
preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}.  When you press
@key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the
field, the formula will be stored as the formula for the current
column, evaluated and the current field replaced with the result.  If
the field contains only @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for
this column is used.

For each column, Org-mode will remember the most recently used
formula.  The information is stored in a special line starting with
@samp{#+TBLFM} directly below the table.  When adding/deleting/moving
columns with the appropriate commands, the stored equations will be
modified accordingly.  When a column used in a calculation is removed,
references to this column become invalid and will cause an error upon
applying the equation.

Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
command @kbd{C-c =}.  It prompts for a formula (with default taken
from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line) and applies it to the current field.  A
numerical prefix (e.g. @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) will apply it to that many
consecutive fields in the current column.

@cindex recomputing table fields
To recompute all the fields in a line, use the command @kbd{C-c *}.
It re-applies all stored equations to the current row, from left to
right.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, this will be done to every line in
the table, so use this command it you want to make sure the entire
table is up-to-date. @kbd{C-u C-c C-c} is another way to update the
entire table.  Global updating does not touch the line(s) above the
first horizontal separator line, assuming that this is the table
header.

@node Advanced features, Named-field formulas, Column formulas, Table calculations
@subsection Advanced features

If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically,
or if you want to be able to assign a formula to an individual field
(instead of an entire column) you need to reserve the first column of
the table for special marking characters.  Here is an example of a
table that collects exam results of students and makes use of these
features:

@example
@group
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
|   | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
| ! |         |     P1 |     P2 |     P3 |   Tot |      |
| # | Maximum |     10 |     15 |     25 |    50 | 10.0 |
| ^ |         |     m1 |     m2 |     m3 |    mt |      |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
| # | Peter   |     10 |      8 |     23 |    41 |  8.2 |
| # | Sara    |      6 |     14 |     19 |    39 |  7.8 |
| # | Sam     |      2 |      4 |      3 |     9 |  1.8 |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
|   | Average |        |        |        |  29.7 |      |
| ^ |         |        |        |        |    at |      |
| $ | max=50  |        |        |        |       |      |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
#+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(&II);%.1f
@end group
@end example

@noindent @b{Important}: Please note that for these special tables,
recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows
that are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and named fields.  The column
formulas are not applied in rows with empty first field.

@cindex marking characters, tables
The marking characters have the following meaning:
@table @samp
@item !
The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
@item ^
This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row.  With such
a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
the value @samp{10}.  Also, named fields can have their own formula
associated with them.
@item _
Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
@emph{below}.
@item $
Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas.  For
example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
a per-table basis.  Changing a parameter and then recalculating the
table can be useful.
@item #
Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
@key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row.  Also, this row
is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.  Unmarked
lines will be left alone by this command.
@item *
Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
not for automatic recalculation.  Use this when automatic
recalculation slows down editing too much.
@item
Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
or @samp{*}.
@end table

@node Named-field formulas, Editing/debugging formulas, Advanced features, Table calculations
@subsection Named-field formulas
@cindex named field formula
@cindex formula, for named table field

A named field can have its own formula associated with it.  In the
example above, this is used for the @samp{at} field that contains
the average result of the students.  To enter a formula for a named
field, just type it into the buffer, preceded by @samp{:=}.  Or use
@kbd{C-u C-c =}.  This equation will be stored below the table like
@samp{$name=...}.  Any recalculation in the table (even if only
requested for the current line) will also update all named field
formulas.

@node Editing/debugging formulas, Appetizer, Named-field formulas, Table calculations
@subsection Editing and debugging formulas
@cindex formula editing
@cindex editing, of table formulas

To edit a column or field formula, use the commands @kbd{C-c
=} and @kbd{C-u C-c =}, respectively.  The currently active expression
is then presented as default in the minibuffer, where it may be edited.

Note that making a table field blank does not remove the formula
associated with the field - during the next recalculation the field
will be filled again.  To remove a formula from a field, you have to
give an empty reply when prompted for the formula, or to edit the
@samp{#+TBLFM} line.

@kindex C-c C-c
You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply
the changed equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line, or with the
normal recalculation commands in the table.

@kindex C-c '
@kindex C-c C-c
@kindex C-c C-q
@kindex C-c ?
In particular for large tables with many formulas, it is convenient to
use the command @kbd{C-c '} to edit the formulas of the current table
in a separate buffer.  That buffer will show the formulas one per
line, and you are free to edit, add and remove formulas.  Press
@kbd{C-c ?} on a @samp{$...}  expression to get information about its
interpretation.  Exiting the buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} only stores the
modified formulas below the table.  Exiting with @kbd{C-u C-c C-c}
also applies them to the entire table.  @kbd{C-c C-q} exits without
installing the changes.

When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}.  If you would like see what is going
on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a
bug, turn on formula debugging in the menu and repeat the calculation,
for example by pressing @kbd{C-c = @key{RET}} in a field.
Detailed information will be displayed.

@node Appetizer,  , Editing/debugging formulas, Table calculations
@subsection Appetizer

Finally, just to whet your appetite on what can be done with the fantastic
@file{calc} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor series
for a couple of functions (homework: try that with Excel :-)

@example
@group
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
|   | Func        | n | x   | Result                               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
| # | exp(x)      | 1 | x   | 1 + x                                |
| # | exp(x)      | 2 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2                      |
| # | exp(x)      | 3 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6            |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2    |
| * | tan(x)      | 3 | x   | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
#+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
@end group
@end example

@node orgtbl-mode, table.el, Table calculations, Tables
@section The Orgtbl minor mode
@cindex orgtbl-mode
@cindex minor mode for tables

If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode table editor works, you
might also want to use it in other modes like text-mode or mail-mode.
The minor mode Orgtbl-mode makes this possible.  You can always toggle
the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}.  To turn it on by default, for
example in mail mode, use

@lisp
(add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
@end lisp

@node table.el,  , orgtbl-mode, Tables
@section The @file{table.el} package
@kindex C-c C-c
@cindex table editor, @file{table.el}
@cindex @file{table.el}

Complex ASCII tables with automatic line wrapping, column- and
row-spanning, and alignment can be created using the Emacs table
package by Takaaki Ota (@uref{http://sourceforge.net/projects/table},
and also part of Emacs 22).
When @key{TAB} or @kbd{C-c C-c} is pressed in such a table, Org-mode
will call @command{table-recognize-table} and move the cursor into the
table.  Inside a table, the keymap of Org-mode is inactive.  In order
to execute Org-mode-related commands, leave the table.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Recognize @file{table.el} table.  Works when the cursor is in a
table.el table.

@kindex C-c ~
@item C-c ~
Insert a table.el table.  If there is already a table at point, this
command converts it between the table.el format and the Org-mode
format.  See the documentation string of the command
@code{org-convert-table} for the restrictions under which this is
possible.
@end table

@node Hyperlinks, TODO items, Tables, Top
@chapter Hyperlinks
@cindex hyperlinks

Just like HTML, Org-mode provides links inside a file, and external
links to other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.

@menu
* Link format::                 How links in Org-mode are formatted
* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes
@end menu

@node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
@section Link format
@cindex link format
@cindex format, of links

Org-mode will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
clickable links.  The general link format, however, looks like this:

@example
[[link][description]]       @r{or alternatively}           [[link]]  
@end example

Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org-mode
will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
@samp{[[link]]}.  Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
which by default is an underlined face.  You can directly edit the
visible part of a link.  Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part.  To
edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
cursor on the link.

If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
(invisible) bracket at that location.  This makes the link incomplete
and the internals are again displayed as plain text.  Inserting the
missing bracket hides the link internals again.  To show the
internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
@code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.

@node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
@section Internal links
@cindex internal links
@cindex links, internal
@cindex CamelCase links
@cindex targets, for links

If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in
the current file.  Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My
Target][Find my target]]} lead to a text search in the current file.
The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the
link, or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}).  The preferred
match for such a link is a dedicated target: the same string in double
angular brackets.  Targets may be located anywhere; often it is
convenient to put them into a comment line. For example

@example
# <<My Target>>
@end example

@noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note
that text before the first headline will never be exported, so the first
such target must be after the first headline.}.

If no dedicated target exists, Org-mode will search for the words in the
link.  In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
Links starting with a star like @samp{*My Target} restrict the search to
headlines.  When searching, Org-mode will first try an exact match, but
then move on to more and more lenient searches.  For example, the link
@samp{[[*My Targets]]} will find any of the following:

@example
** My targets
** TODO my targets are bright
** my 20 targets are
@end example

To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used.
Just type a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and
press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.  All headlines in the current buffer will be
offered as completions.  @xref{Handling links}, for more commands
creating links.

Following a link pushes a mark onto Org-mode's own mark ring.  You can
return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}.  Using this command
several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
earlier.

@menu
* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text.
* CamelCase links::             Activating CamelCase words as links
@end menu

@node Radio targets, CamelCase links, Internal links, Internal links
@subsection Radio targets
@cindex radio targets
@cindex targets, radio
@cindex links, radio targets

You can configure Org-mode to link any occurrences of certain target
names in normal text.  So without explicitly creating a link, the text
connects to the target radioing its position.  Radio targets are
enclosed by triple angular brackets.  For example, a target
@samp{<<<My Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in
normal text to become activated as a link.  The Org-mode file is
scanned automatically for radio targets only when the file is first
loaded into Emacs.  To update the target list during editing, press
@kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor on or at a target.

@node CamelCase links,  , Radio targets, Internal links
@subsection CamelCase words as links
@cindex completion, of CamelCase links
@cindex CamelCase links, completion of

Org-mode also supports CamelCase words as links.  This feature is not
turned on by default because of the inconsistencies this system suffers
from.  It is also possible that this feature will disappear entirely in
a future version of Org-mode.  To activate CamelCase words as links, you
need to customize the option @code{org-activate-links}.  A CamelCase
word then leads to a text search such that @samp{CamelCaseLink} is
equivalent to @samp{[[camel case link]]}.

@node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
@section External links
@cindex links, external
@cindex external links
@cindex links, external
@cindex GNUS links
@cindex BBDB links
@cindex URL links
@cindex file links
@cindex VM links
@cindex RMAIL links
@cindex WANDERLUST links
@cindex MH-E links
@cindex USENET links
@cindex SHELL links
@cindex Info links
@cindex elisp links

Org-mode supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
and BBDB database entries.  External links are URL-like locators.  They
start with a short identifying string followed by a colon.  There can be
no space after the colon.  The following list shows examples for each
link type.

@example
http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik          @r{on the web}
file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg     @r{file, absolute path}
file:papers/last.pdf                      @r{file, relative path}
news:comp.emacs                           @r{Usenet link}
mailto:adent@@galaxy.net                   @r{Mail link}
vm:folder                                 @r{VM folder link}
vm:folder#id                              @r{VM message link}
vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id      @r{VM on remote machine}
wl:folder                                 @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
wl:folder#id                              @r{WANDERLUST message link}
mhe:folder                                @r{MH-E folder link}
mhe:folder#id                             @r{MH-E message link}
rmail:folder                              @r{RMAIL folder link}
rmail:folder#id                           @r{RMAIL message link}
gnus:group                                @r{GNUS group link}
gnus:group#id                             @r{GNUS article link}
bbdb:Richard Stallman                     @r{BBDB link}
shell:ls *.org                            @r{A shell command}
elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{An elisp form to evaluate}
@end example

A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
descriptive text to be displayed instead of the url (@pxref{Link
format}), for example:

@example
[[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
@end example

@cindex angular brackets, around links
@cindex plain text external links
Org-mode also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
as links.  If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
@samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or you need to remove ambiguities about the end of
the link, enclose them in angular brackets.

@node Handling links, Link abbreviations, External links, Hyperlinks
@section Handling links
@cindex links, handling

Org-mode provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
insert it into an org-mode file, and to follow the link.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c l
@cindex storing links
@item C-c l
Store a link to the current location.  This is a @emph{global} command
which can be used in any buffer to create a link.  The link will be
stored for later insertion into an Org-mode buffer (see below).  For
Org-mode files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link
points to the target.  Otherwise it points to the current headline.  For
VM, RMAIL, WANDERLUST, MH-E, GNUS and BBDB buffers, the link will
indicate the current article/entry.  For W3 and W3M buffers, the link
goes to the current URL.  For any other files, the link will point to
the file, with a search string (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the
contents of the current line.  If there is an active region, the
selected words will form the basis of the search string.  If the
automatically created link is not working correctly or accurately
enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string and
to do the search for particular file types - see @ref{Custom searches}.
The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion - see @ref{Installation}.

@kindex C-c C-l
@cindex link completion
@cindex completion, of links
@cindex inserting links
@item C-c C-l
Insert a link.  This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the
link type prefixes mentioned in the examples above.  Through completion,
all links stored during the current session can be
accessed@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
removed from the list of stored links.  To keep it in the list later
use, use a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the
option @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}.  The link
will be inserted into the buffer, along with a descriptive text.  Note
that you don't have to use this command to insert a link.  Links in
Org-mode are plain text, and you can type or paste them straight into
the buffer.  By using this command, the links are automatically enclosed
in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional descriptive
text.  If the link is a @samp{file:} link and the linked file is located
in the same directory as the current file or a subdirectory of it, the
path of the file will be inserted relative to the current directory.

@kindex C-u C-c C-l
@cindex file name completion
@cindex completion, of file names
@item C-u C-c C-l
When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
the name of the file.  The path to the file is inserted relative to the
directory of the current org file, if the linked file is in the current
directory or in a subdirectory of it, or if the path is written relative
to the current directory using @samp{../}.  Otherwise an absolute path
is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory.  You can
force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.

@item C-c C-l @r{with cursor on existing link}
When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
link and description parts of the link.

@cindex following links
@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Open link at point.  This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
@command{browse-url-at-point}), run vm/mh-e/wanderlust/rmail/gnus/bbdb
for the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link.
When the cursor is on an internal link, this commands runs the
corresponding search.  When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline,
it creates the corresponding TAGS view.  If the cursor is on a time
stamp, it compiles the agenda for that date.  Furthermore, it will visit
text and remote files in @samp{file:} links with Emacs and select a
suitable application for local non-text files.  Classification of files
is based on file extension only.  See option @code{org-file-apps}.  If
you want to override the default application and visit the file with
Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix.

@kindex mouse-2
@kindex mouse-1
@item mouse-2
@itemx mouse-1
On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
would.  Under Emacs 22, also @kbd{mouse-1} will follow a link.

@kindex mouse-3
@item mouse-3
Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.

@cindex mark ring
@kindex C-c %
@item C-c %
Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.

@cindex links, returning to
@kindex C-c &
@item C-c &
Jump back to a recorded position.  A position is recorded by the
commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}.  Using this
command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
previously recorded positions.
@end table

@node Link abbreviations, Search options, Handling links, Hyperlinks
@section Link abbreviatons
@cindex link abbreviations
@cindex abbreviation, links

Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
needed in a document.  For this you can use link abbreviations.  An
abbreviated link looks like this

@example
[[linkword::tag][description]]
@end example

@noindent
where the tag is optional.  Such abbreviations are resolved according to
the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist} that
relates the linkwords to replacement text.  Here is an example:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
    ("google"   . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
    ("ads"      . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/
                   nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
@end group
@end lisp

If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
replaced with the tag.  Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
in order to create the link.  You may also specify a function that will
be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.

With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
@code{[[bugzilla::129]]}, search the web for OrgMode with
@code{[[google::OrgMode]]} and find out what the Org-mode author is
doing besides Emacs hacking with @code{[[ads::Dominik,C]]}.

If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org-mode buffer, you
can define them in the file with

@example
#+LINK: bugzilla  http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
#+LINK: google    http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
@end example

@noindent
In-buffer completion @pxref{Completion} can be used after @samp{[} to
complete link abbreviations.

@node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
@section Search options in file links
@cindex search option in file links
@cindex file links, searching

File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
particular location in the file when following a link.  This can be a
line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
link with @kbd{C-c C-o}. 

Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
link, together with an explanation:

@example
[[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
[[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
[[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
[[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
@end example

@table @code
@item 255
Jump to line 255.
@item My Target
Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
@samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
@ref{Internal links}.  In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
the linked file.
@item *My Target
In an Org-mode file, restrict search to headlines.
@item /regexp/
Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}.  This uses the Emacs
command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window.  If the
target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
sparse tree with the matches.
@c If the target file is a directory,
@c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
@end table

As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
to search the current file.  For example, @code{<file:::find me>} does
a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
@samp{[[find me]]} would.

@node Custom searches, Remember, Search options, Hyperlinks
@section Custom Searches
@cindex custom search strings
@cindex search strings, custom

The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
cases.  For example, BibTeX database files have many entries like
@samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
because the only unique identification for a BibTeX entry is the
citation key.

If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
for the string in the file.  Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
to be added to the hook variables
@code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
@code{org-execute-file-search-functions}.  See the docstring for these
variables for more information.  Org-mode actually uses this mechanism
for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
an implementation example.  Search for @samp{BibTeX links} in the source
file.


@node Remember,  , Custom searches, Hyperlinks
@section Remember
@cindex @file{remember.el}

Another way to create org entries with links to other files is through
the @emph{Remember} package by John Wiegley.  @emph{Remember} lets you
store quick notes with little interruption of your work flow.  See
@uref{http://www.emacswiki.org/cgi-bin/wiki/RememberMode} for more
information.  The notes produced by @emph{Remember} can be stored in
different ways, and Org-mode files are a good target.  Org-mode allows
you to file away notes either to a default file, or directly to the correct
location in your Org-mode outline tree.  The following customization
will tell @emph{Remember} to use org files as target, and to create
annotations compatible with Org-mode links.

@example
(setq org-directory "~/path/to/my/orgfiles/")
(setq org-default-notes-file "~/.notes")
(setq remember-annotation-functions '(org-remember-annotation))
(setq remember-handler-functions '(org-remember-handler))
(add-hook 'remember-mode-hook 'org-remember-apply-template)
@end example

@cindex templates, for remember
In combination with Org-mode, you can use templates to generate
different types of remember notes.  For example, if you would like to
use one template to create general TODO entries, and another one for
journal entries, you could use:

@example
(setq org-remember-templates
      '((?t "* TODO %?\n  %i\n  %a" "~/org/TODO.org")
        (?j "* %U %?\n\n  %i\n  %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org")))
@end example

@noindent In these entries, the character specifies how to select the
template, the first string specifies the template, and the (optional)
second string specifies a default file (overruling
@code{org-default-notes-file}) as a target for this note.

When you call @kbd{M-x remember} to remember something, org will prompt
for a key to select the template and then prepare the buffer like
@example
* TODO
  <file:link to where you called remember>
@end example

@noindent or

@example
* [2006-03-21 Tue 15:37]

  <file:link to where you called remember>
@end example

@noindent See the variable @code{org-remember-templates} for more details.

When you are finished composing a note with remember, you have to press
@kbd{C-c C-c} to file the note away.  The handler first prompts for a
target file - if you press @key{RET}, the value of
@code{org-default-notes-file} is used.  Then the command offers the
headings tree of the selected file.  You can either immediately press
@key{RET} to get the note appended to the file.  Or you can use vertical
cursor motion (@key{up} and @key{down}) and visibility cycling
(@key{TAB}) to find a better place.  Pressing @key{RET} or @key{left} or
@key{right} leads to the following result.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.1 0.7
@item @b{Cursor position} @tab @b{Key} @tab @b{Note gets inserted}
@item buffer-start @tab @key{RET} @tab as level 2 heading at end of file
@item on headline @tab @key{RET} @tab as sublevel of the heading at cursor
@item             @tab @key{left}  @tab as same level, before current heading
@item             @tab @key{right} @tab as same level, after current heading
@item not on headline @tab @key{RET}
      @tab at cursor position, level taken from context.
           Or use prefix arg to specify level manually.
@end multitable

So a fast way to store the note is to press @kbd{C-c C-c @key{RET}
@key{RET}} to append it to the default file.  Even shorter would be
@kbd{C-u C-c C-c}, which does the same without even showing the tree.
But with little extra effort, you can push it directly to the correct
location.

Before inserting the text into a tree, the function ensures that the
text has a headline, i.e. a first line that starts with a @samp{*}.
If not, a headline is constructed from the current date and some
additional data.  If the variable @code{org-adapt-indentation} is
non-nil, the entire text is also indented so that it starts in the
same column as the headline (after the asterisks).


@node TODO items, Timestamps, Hyperlinks, Top
@chapter TODO items
@cindex TODO items

Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as a separate document.  TODO
items are an integral part of the notes file, because TODO items
usually come up while taking notes!  With Org-mode, you simply mark
any entry in a tree as being a TODO item.  In this way, the
information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the
item emerged is always present when you check.

Of course, this technique causes TODO items to be scattered throughout
your file.  Org-mode provides methods to give you an overview over all
things you have to do.

@menu
* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into managable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists
@end menu

@node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO items, TODO items
@section Basic TODO functionality

Any headline can become a TODO item by starting it with the word TODO,
for example:

@example
*** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-t
@cindex cycling, of TODO states
@item C-c C-t
Rotate the TODO state of the current item between

@example
,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
'--------------------------------'
@end example

The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@kindex S-@key{right}
@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{right}
@itemx S-@key{left}
Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.  Mostly
useful if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO extensions}).
@kindex C-c C-v
@cindex sparse tree, for TODO
@item C-c C-v
View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}).  Folds
the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy
above them.  With prefix arg, show also the DONE entries.  With
numerical prefix N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
@code{org-todo-keywords}.
@kindex C-c a t
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer.  The buffer is in
@code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate
the TODO entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
@c @item @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo}
@c If you would like to have all your TODO items listed as part of your
@c agenda, customize the variable @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo}.
@end table


@node TODO extensions, Priorities, TODO basics, TODO items
@section Extended use of TODO keywords
@cindex extended TODO keywords

The default implementation of TODO entries is just two states: TODO and
DONE.  You can, however, use the TODO feature for more complicated
things by configuring the variables @code{org-todo-keywords} and
@code{org-todo-interpretation}.  Using special setup, you can even use
TODO keywords in different ways in different org files.

Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).

@menu
* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
@end menu

@node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
@cindex TODO workflow
@cindex workflow states as TODO keywords

You can use TODO keywords to indicate different states in the process
of working on an item, for example:

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "DONE")
      org-todo-interpretation 'sequence)
@end lisp

@cindex completion, of TODO keywords
Changing these variables only becomes effective in a new Emacs session.
With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from
TODO to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE.  You may also
use a prefix argument to quickly select a specific state.  For example
@kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
If you define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion (see
@ref{Completion}) to insert these words into the buffer.

@node TODO types, Per file keywords, Workflow states, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as types
@cindex TODO types
@cindex names as TODO keywords
@cindex types as TODO keywords

The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
types of action items.  For example, you might want to indicate that
items are for ``work'' or ``home''.  If you are into David Allen's
@emph{Getting Things DONE}, you might want to use todo types
@samp{NEXTACTION}, @samp{WAITING}, @samp{MAYBE}.  Or, when you work
with several people on a single project, you might want to assign
action items directly to persons, by using their names as TODO
keywords.  This would be set up like this:

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "Mike" "DONE")
      org-todo-interpretation 'type)
@end lisp

In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but
rather different types.  So it is normally not useful to change from
one type to another.  Therefore, in this case the behavior of the
command @kbd{C-c C-t} is changed slightly@footnote{This is also true
for the @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}.  When
used several times in succession, it will still cycle through all
names.  But when you return to the item after some time and execute
@kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from each name directly to DONE.
Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c C-v}.  For example, to see all
things Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c C-v}.  To collect
Lucy's items from all agenda files into a single buffer, you
would use the prefix arg as well when creating the global todo list:
@kbd{C-3 C-c t}.

@node Per file keywords,  , TODO types, TODO extensions
@subsection Setting up TODO keywords for individual files
@cindex keyword options
@cindex per file keywords

It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism
in different files, which is not possible with the global settings
described above.  For file-local settings, you need to add special
lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that
file only.  For example, to set one of the two examples discussed
above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero
anywhere in the file:

@example
#+SEQ_TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY DONE
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike DONE
@end example

@cindex Completion, of option keywords
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
@samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.

@cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
Remember that the last keyword must always mean that the item is DONE
(although you may use a different word).  Also note that in each file,
only one of the two aspects of TODO keywords can be used.  After
changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still
in the line to make the changes known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode
parses these lines only when Org-mode is activated after visiting a
file.  @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+}
is simply restarting Org-mode for the current buffer.}.

If you want to use very many keywords, for example when working with a
large group of people, you may split the names over several lines:

@example
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike
#+TYP_TODO: Luis George Jules Jessica
#+TYP_TODO: Kim Arnold Peter
#+TYP_TODO: DONE
@end example

@node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, TODO extensions, TODO items
@section Priorities
@cindex priorities

If you use Org-mode extensively to organize your work, you may end up
with a number of TODO entries so large that you'd like to prioritize
them.  This can be done by placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the
headline, like this

@example
*** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
With its standard setup, Org-mode supports priorities @samp{A},
@samp{B}, and @samp{C}.  @samp{A} is the highest priority.  An entry
without a cookie is treated as priority @samp{B}.  Priorities make a
difference only in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).

@table @kbd
@kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
@item @kbd{C-c ,}
Set the priority of the current headline.  The command prompts for a
priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.  When you press
@key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline.
The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).

@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Increase/decrease priority of current headline.  Note that these keys
are also used to modify time stamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}).
Furthermore, these keys are also used by CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).
@end table

@node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO items
@section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
@cindex tasks, breaking down

It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, managable
subtasks.  You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO
item, with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out
of the global TODO list, see the
@code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}.  Another possibility is the use
of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a large number of subtasks
(@pxref{Checkboxes}).


@node Checkboxes,  , Breaking down tasks, TODO items
@section Checkboxes
@cindex checkboxes

Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made a checkbox
by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}.  This feature is similar to
TODO items (@pxref{TODO items}), but more lightweight.  Checkboxes are
not included into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split
a task into a number of simple steps.  Or you can use them in a shopping
list.  To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or try Piotr Zielinski's
@file{org-mouse.el}.  Here is an example of a checkbox list.

@example
* TODO Organize party [3/6]
  - call people [1/3]
    - [ ] Peter
    - [X] Sarah
    - [ ] Sam
  - [X] order food
  - [ ] think about what music to play
  - [X] talk to the neighbors
@end example

@cindex statistics, for checkboxes
@cindex checkbox statistics
The @samp{[3/6]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are
cookies indicating how many checkboxes are present in this entry, and
how many of them have been checked off.  This can give you an idea on
how many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry.  The
cookies can be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a
plain list item. Each cookie covers all checkboxes structurally below
that headline/item.  You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing
either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}.  In the first case you get an @samp{n
out of m} result, in the second case you get information about the
percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
@samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%], respectively}).

@noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Toggle checkbox at point.
@kindex C-c C-x C-b
@item C-c C-x C-b
Toggle checkbox at point.
@itemize @minus
@item
If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first.  If you
want to toggle all boxes in the region independently, use a prefix
argument.
@item
If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
@item
If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
@end itemize
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox.
This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
(@pxref{Plain lists}).
@kindex C-c #
@item C-c #
Update the checkbox statistics in the current outline entry.  When
called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file.  Checkbox
statistic cookies are updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes
with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}.  If you
delete boxes or add/change them by hand, use this command to get things
back into synch.  Or simply toggle any checkbox twice with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@end table

@node Timestamps, Tags, TODO items, Top
@chapter Timestamps
@cindex time stamps
@cindex date stamps

Items can be labeled with timestamps to make them useful for project
planning.

@menu
* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Custom time format::          If you cannot work with the ISO format
* Progress logging::            Documenting when what work was done.
@end menu


@node Time stamps, Creating timestamps, Timestamps, Timestamps
@section Time stamps, deadlines and scheduling
@cindex time stamps
@cindex ranges, time
@cindex date stamps
@cindex deadlines
@cindex scheduling

A time stamp is a specification of a date (possibly with time) in a
special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
09:39>}@footnote{This is the standard ISO date/time format.  If you
cannot get used to these, see @ref{Custom time format}}.  A time stamp
can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an org-tree entry.  Its
presence allows entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
(@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).  We distinguish:

@table @var
@item Plain time stamp
@cindex timestamp
A simple time stamp just assigns a date/time to an item.  This is just
like writing down an appointment in a paper agenda, or like writing down
an event in a diary, when you want to take note of when something
happened.  In the timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry
associated with a plain time stamp will be shown exactly on that date.

@example
* Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
@end example

@item Inactive time stamp
@cindex timestamp, inactive
@cindex inactive timestamp
Just like a plain time stamp, but with square brackets instead of
angular ones.  These time stamps are inactive in the sense that they do
@emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.

@example
* Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
@end example

@item Time stamp range
@cindex timerange
Two time stamps connected by @samp{--} denote a time range.  The
headline will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on
any dates that are displayed and fall in the range.  Here is an
example:

@example
** Meeting in Amsterdam
   <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
@end example

@item Time stamp with SCHEDULED keyword
@cindex SCHEDULED keyword
If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{SCHEDULED:}, it means you
are planning to start working on that task on the given date. So this is
not about recording an event, but about planning your work.  The
headline will be listed under the given date.  In addition, a reminder
that the scheduled date has passed will be present in the compilation
for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.  I.e., the task will
automatically be forwarded until completed.

@example
*** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
    SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
@end example

@item Time stamp with DEADLINE keyword
@cindex DEADLINE keyword
If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{DEADLINE:}, the task
(most likely a TODO item) is supposed to be finished on that date, and
it will be listed then.  In addition, the compilation for @emph{today}
will carry a warning about the approaching or missed deadline,
starting @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and
continuing until the entry is marked DONE.  An example:

@example
*** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
    The editor in charge is <bbdb:Ford Prefect>
    DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
@end example
@item Time stamp with CLOSED keyword
@cindex CLOSED keyword
When @code{org-log-done} is non-nil, Org-mode will automatically insert
a special time stamp each time a TODO entry is marked done
(@pxref{Progress logging}).  This time stamp is enclosed in square
brackets instead of angular brackets.

@item Time range with CLOCK keyword
@cindex CLOCK keyword
When using the clock to time the work that is being done on specific
items, time ranges preceded by the CLOCK keyword are inserted
automatically into the file.  The time stamps are enclosed in square
brackets instead of angular brackets.  @xref{Clocking work time}.
@end table

@node Creating timestamps, Custom time format, Time stamps, Timestamps
@section Creating timestamps
@cindex creating timestamps
@cindex timestamps, creating

For Org-mode to recognize time stamps, they need to be in the specific
format.  All commands listed below produce time stamps in the correct
format.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c .
@item C-c .
Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding time stamp.  When the
cursor is at a previously used time stamp, it is updated to NOW.  When
this command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted.

@kindex C-u C-c .
@item C-u C-c .
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but use the alternative format which contains date
and time.  The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5 minutes,
see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.

@kindex C-c !
@item C-c !
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive time stamp not triggering the
agenda.

@kindex C-c <
@item C-c <
Insert a time stamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.

@kindex C-c >
@item C-c >
Access the Emacs calendar for the current date.  If there is a
timestamp in the current line, goto the corresponding date
instead.

@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Access the agenda for the date given by the time stamp or -range at
point (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp.  The insertion will
happen in the line directly following the headline.  
@c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????

@kindex C-c C-w
@cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
@item C-c C-w
Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file.  With a numeric
prefix, check that many days.  For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c C-w} shows
all deadlines due tomorrow.

@kindex C-c C-s
@item C-c C-s
Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp.  The insertion will
happen in the line directly following the headline.  Any CLOSED
timestamp will be removed.

@kindex S-@key{left}
@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{left}
@itemx S-@key{right}
Change date at cursor by one day.  These key bindings conflict with
CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).

@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp.  The cursor can be on a
year, month, day, hour or minute.  Note that if the cursor is in a
headline and not at a time stamp, these same keys modify the priority of
an item.  (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with
CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).


@kindex C-c C-y
@cindex evaluate time range
@item C-c C-y
Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and
end.  With prefix arg, insert result after the time range (in a table:
into the following column).
@end table


@menu
* The date/time prompt::        How org-mode helps you entering date and time
@end menu

@node The date/time prompt,  , Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
@subsection The date/time prompt
@cindex date, reading in minibuffer
@cindex time, reading in minibuffer

When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the prompt suggests to enter an
ISO date.  But it will in fact accept any string containing some date
and/or time information.  You can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a
(possibly multi-line) string copied from an email message.  Org-mode
will find whatever information is in there and will replace anything not
specified with the current date and time.  For example:

@example
  3-2-5         --> 2003-02-05
  feb 15        --> currentyear-02-15
  sep 12 9      --> 2009-09-12
  12:45         --> today 12:45
  22 sept 0:34  --> currentyear-09-22 0:34
  12            --> currentyear-currentmonth-12
  Fri           --> nearest Friday (today or later)
@end example

The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations.  If
you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.

@cindex calendar, for selecting date
Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
@code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}.  You can control the
calendar fully from the minibuffer:

@table @kbd
@kindex <
@item <
Scroll calendar backwards by one month.
@kindex >
@item >
Scroll calendar forwards by one month.
@kindex mouse-1
@item mouse-1
Select date by clicking on it.
@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{right}
One day forward.
@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{left}
One day back.
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{down}
One week forward.
@kindex S-@key{up}
@item S-@key{up}
One week back.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
One month forward.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
One month back.
@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Choose date in calendar (only if nothing was typed into minibuffer).
@end table

@node Custom time format, Progress logging, Creating timestamps, Timestamps
@section Custom time format
@cindex custom date/time format
@cindex time format, custom
@cindex date format, custom

Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
defined in ISO 8601.  If you cannot get used to this and require another
representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
@code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-t
@item C-c C-x C-t
Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
@end table

@noindent
Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
format does not @emph{replace} the default format - instead it is put
@emph{over} the default format using text properties.  This has the
following consequences:
@itemize @bullet
@item 
You cannot place the cursor onto a time stamp anymore, only before or
after.
@item
The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
each component of a time stamp.  If the cursor is at the beginning of
the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}.  At the end of the stamp, the
time will be changed by one minute.
@item
When you delete a time stamp character-by-character, it will only
disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
@item
If the custom time stamp format is longer than the default and you are
using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up.  If the custom
format is shorter, things do work as expected.
@end itemize

@node Progress logging,  , Custom time format, Timestamps
@section Progress Logging
@cindex progress logging
@cindex logging, of progress

Org-mode can automatically record a time stamp when you mark a TODO item
as DONE.  You can also measure precisely the time you spent on specific
items in a project by starting and stopping a clock when you start and
stop working on an aspect of a project.

@menu
* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Clocking work time::          When exactly did you work on this item?
@end menu

@node Closing items, Clocking work time, Progress logging, Progress logging
@subsection Closing items

If you want to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO item was
finished, turn on logging with

@lisp
(setq org-log-done t)
@end lisp

@noindent
Then each time you turn a TODO entry into DONE using either @kbd{C-c
C-t} in the Org-mode buffer or @kbd{t} in the agenda buffer, a line
@samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after the headline.
If you turn the entry back into a TODO item again through further
state cycling, that line will be removed again.  In the timeline
(@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}),
you can then use the @kbd{l} key to display the TODO items closed on
each day, giving you an overview of what has been done on a day.
See the variable @code{org-log-done} for the possibility to record an
additional note together with a timestamp.

@node Clocking work time,  , Closing items, Progress logging
@subsection Clocking work time

Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spent on specific tasks in a
project.  When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded.  It
also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-i
@item C-c C-x C-i
Start the clock on the current item (clock-in).  This inserts the CLOCK
keyword together with a timestamp.
@kindex C-c C-x C-o
@item C-c C-x C-o
Stop the clock (clock-out).  The inserts another timestamp at the same
location where the clock was last started.  It also directly computes
the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
HH:MM}.  See the variable @code{org-log-done} for the possibility to
record an additional note together with the clock-out time stamp.
@kindex C-c C-y
@item C-c C-y
Recompute the time interval after changing one of the time stamps.  This
is only necessary if you edit the time stamps directly.  If you change
them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
@kindex C-c C-t
@item C-c C-t
Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
if it is running in this same item.
@kindex C-c C-x C-x
@item C-c C-x C-x
Cancel the current clock.  This is useful if a clock was started by
mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
@kindex C-c C-x C-d
@item C-c C-x C-d
Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer.  This
puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
when you change the buffer (see variable
@code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@kindex C-c C-x C-r
@item C-c C-x C-r
Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
report as an org-mode table into the current file.
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil

#+END: clocktable
@end example
@noindent
If such a block already exists, its content is replaced by the new
table.  The @samp{BEGIN} line can specify options:
@example
:maxlevels   @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
:emphasize   @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items}
:block       @r{The time block to consider.  This block is specified relative}
             @r{to the current time and may be any of these keywords:}
             @r{@code{today}, @code{yesterday}, @code{thisweek}, @code{lastweek},}
             @r{@code{thismonth}, @code{lastmonth}, @code{thisyear}, or @code{lastyear}}.
:tstart      @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times}
:tend        @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times}
@end example
So to get a clock summary for the current day, you could write
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today

#+END: clocktable
@end example
and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
parameters must be specified in a single line - the line is broken here
only to fit it onto the manual.}
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>" 
                    :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"

#+END: clocktable
@end example
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
@item C-u C-c C-x C-u
Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}).  This is useful if
you have several clocktable blocks in a buffer.
@end table

The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
worked on or closed during a day.

@node Tags, Agenda views, Timestamps, Top
@chapter Tags
@cindex tags
@cindex headline tagging
@cindex matching, tags
@cindex sparse tree, tag based

If you wish to implement a system of labels and contexts for
cross-correlating information, an excellent way is to assign @i{tags} to
headlines.  Org-mode has extensive support for using tags.

Every headline can contain a list of tags, at the end of the headline.
Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
@samp{@@}.  Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon; like
@samp{:WORK:}.  Several tags can be specified like @samp{:WORK:URGENT:}.

@menu
* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags
@end menu

@node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
@section Tag inheritance
@cindex inheritance, of tags
@cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match

@i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees.  If a
heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
well.  For example, in the list

@example
* Meeting with the French group      :WORK:
** Summary by Frank                  :BOSS:NOTES:
*** TODO Prepare slides for him      :ACTION:
@end example

@noindent
the final heading will have the tags @samp{:WORK:}, @samp{:BOSS:},
@samp{:NOTES:}, and @samp{:ACTION:}.  When executing tag searches and
Org-mode finds that a certain headline matches the search criterion, it
will not check any sublevel headline, assuming that these likely also
match, and that the list of matches can become very long.  This may
not be what you want, however, and you can influence inheritance and
searching using the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}.

@node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
@section Setting tags
@cindex setting tags
@cindex tags, setting

@kindex M-@key{TAB}
Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags.  There is
also a special command for inserting tags:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
@cindex completion, of tags
Enter new tags for the current headline.  Org-mode will either offer
completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
below.  After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
to @code{org-tags-column}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
things look nice.  TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
@end table

Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}.  By
default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
currently used in the buffer.  You may also globally specify a hard list
of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}.  Finally you can set
the default tags for a given file with lines like

@example
#+TAGS: @@WORK @@HOME @@TENNISCLUB
#+TAGS: Laptop Car PC Sailboat
@end example

If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
in a specific file: Just add an empty TAGS option line to that file:

@example
#+TAGS:
@end example

The default support method for entering tags is minibuffer completion.
However, Org-mode also implements a much better method: @emph{fast tag
selection}.  This method allows to select and deselect tags with a
single key per tag.  To function efficiently, you should assign unique
keys to most tags.  This can be done globally with

@lisp
(setq org-tag-alist '(("@@WORK" . ?w) ("@@HOME" . ?h) ("Laptop" . ?l)))
@end lisp

@noindent or on a per-file basis with

@example
#+TAGS: @@WORK(w)  @@HOME(h)  @@TENNISCLUB(t)  Laptop(l)  PC(p)
@end example

@noindent
You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive.  With
curly braces@footnote{In @code{org-mode-alist} use
@code{'(:startgroup)} and @code{'(:endgroup)}, respectively.  Several
groups are allowed.}

@example
#+TAGS: @{ @@WORK(w)  @@HOME(h)  @@TENNISCLUB(t) @}  Laptop(l)  PC(p)
@end example

@noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@WORK}, @samp{@@HOME},
and @samp{@@TENNISCLUB} should be selected.

@noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
these lines to activate any changes.

If at least one tag has a selection key, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited
tags, the tags of the current headline, and a list of all legal tags
with corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to
tags which have no configured keys.}.  In this interface, you can use
the following keys:

@table @kbd
@item a-z...
Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
tags in the current line.  Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
list.  You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item @key{SPC}
Clear all tags for this line.
@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Accept the modified set.
@item C-g
Abort without installing changes.
@item q
If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
@item !
Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags.  Use this to (as an
exception) assign several tags from such a group.
@item C-c
Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
@end table

@noindent
This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys.  With
the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@HOME},
@samp{Laptop} and @samp{PC} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}.  Switching from @samp{@@HOME} to
@samp{@@WORK} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}.  Adding the non-predefined tag
@samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
@key{RET} @key{RET}}.

If you find that most of the time, you need only a single keypress to
modify your list of tags, set the variable
@code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.  Then you no longer have to
press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection - it will immediately exit
after the first change.  If you then occasionally need more keys, press
@kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process.

@node Tag searches,  , Setting tags, Tags
@section Tag searches
@cindex tag searches
@cindex searching for tags

Once a tags system has been set up, it can be used to collect related
information into special lists.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c \
@item C-c \
Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search.
@kindex C-c a m
@item C-c a m
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
@xref{Matching headline tags}.
@kindex C-c a M
@item C-c a M
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
@end table

@cindex Boolean logic, for tag searches
A @i{tags} search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and
@samp{|} for OR.  @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}.
Parenthesis are currently not implemented.  A tag may also be preceded
by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic sugar for
positive selection.  The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when @samp{+}
or @samp{-} is present.  Examples:

@table @samp
@item +WORK-BOSS
Select all headlines that are tagged @samp{:WORK:}, but discard those also tagged
@samp{:BOSS:}.
@item WORK|LAPTOP
Selects lines tagged @samp{:WORK:} or @samp{:LAPTOP:}.
@item WORK|LAPTOP&NIGHT
Like the previous example, but require  the @samp{:LAPTOP:} lines to be
tagged also @samp{NIGHT}.
@end table

@cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
If you are using multi-state TODO keywords (@pxref{TODO extensions}), it
can be useful to also match on the TODO keyword.  This can be done by
adding a condition after a slash to a tags match.  The syntax is similar
to the tag matches, but should be applied with consideration: For
example, a positive selection on several TODO keywords can not
meaningfully be combined with boolean AND.  However, @emph{negative
selection} combined with AND can be meaningful.  Examples:

@table @samp
@item WORK/WAITING
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
keyword @samp{WAITING}.
@item WORK/-WAITING-NEXT
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines that are neither @samp{WAITING}
nor @samp{NEXT}
@item WORK/+WAITING|+NEXT
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines that are either @samp{WAITING} or
@samp{NEXT}.
@end table

@node Agenda views, Embedded LaTeX, Tags, Top
@chapter Agenda Views
@cindex agenda views

Due to the way Org-mode works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
files.  To get an overview over open action items, or over events that
are important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
sorted and displayed in an organized way.

Org-mode can select items based on various criteria, and display them
in a separate buffer.  Five different view types are provided:

@itemize @bullet
@item
an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
for specific dates
@item
a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
action items,
@item
a @emph{tags view} that shows information based on
the tags associated with headlines in the outline tree,
@item
a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org-mode file,
in time-sorted view
@item
@emph{custom views} that are special tag and keyword searches and
combinations of different views.
@end itemize

@noindent
The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
buffer}.  This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
corresponding locations in the original Org-mode files, and even to
edit these files remotely.  

Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
@code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
@code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.

@menu
* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Weekly/Daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching headline tags::      Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views
@end menu

@node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda views, Agenda views
@section Agenda files
@cindex agenda files
@cindex files for agenda

The information to be shown is collected from all @emph{agenda files},
the files listed in the variable @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the
value of that variable is not a list, but a single file name, then the
list of agenda files will be maintained in that external file.}.  Thus even
if you only work with a single Org-mode file, this file should be put
into that list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing @kbd{1}
before selecting a command will actually limit the command to the
current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
dispatcher command.}.  You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands

@cindex files, adding to agenda list
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c [
@item C-c [
Add current file to the list of agenda files.  The file is added to
the front of the list.  If it was already in the list, it is moved to
the front.  With prefix arg, file is added/moved to the end.
@kindex C-c ]
@item C-c ]
Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
@kindex C-,
@item C-,
Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
@end table

@noindent
The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
to visit any of them.

@node Agenda dispatcher, Weekly/Daily agenda, Agenda files, Agenda views
@section The agenda dispatcher
@cindex agenda dispatcher
@cindex dispatching agenda commands
The views are created through a dispatcher that should be bound to a
global key, for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}).  In the
following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly.  After
pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
command.  The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
@table @kbd
@item a
Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).
@item t / T
Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
@item m / M
Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
headline tags}).
@item L
Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
@item 1
Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer.  After pressing
@kbd{1}, you still need to press the character selecting the command.
@item 0
If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
the region.  Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree.  After
pressing @kbd{0}, you still need to press the character selecting the
command.
@end table

You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
dispatcher, just like the default commands.  This includes the
possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
a number of special tags matches.  @xref{Custom agenda views}.

@node Weekly/Daily agenda, Global TODO list, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda views
@section The weekly/daily agenda
@cindex agenda
@cindex weekly agenda
@cindex daily agenda

The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.

@table @kbd
@cindex org-agenda, command
@kindex C-c a a
@item C-c a a
Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of org files.  The
agenda shows the entries for each day.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix (or
when the variable @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo} is @code{t}), all
unfinished TODO items (including those without a date) are also listed at
the beginning of the buffer, before the first date.@*
@end table

Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@menu
* Calendar/Diary integration::  Integrating Anniversaries and more
@end menu


@node Calendar/Diary integration,  , Weekly/Daily agenda, Weekly/Daily agenda
@subsection Calendar/Diary integration
@cindex calendar integration
@cindex diary integration

Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold.  The
calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
countries and cultures.  The diary allows you to keep track of
anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
(weekly, monthly) and more.  In this way, it is quite complementary to
Org-mode.  It can be very useful to combine output from Org-mode with
the diary.

In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
agenda, you only need to customize the variable

@lisp
(setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
@end lisp

@noindent After that, everything will happen automatically.  All diary
entries including holidays, anniversaries etc will be included in the
agenda buffer created by Org-mode.  @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
@key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
file in order to edit existing diary entries.  The @kbd{i} command to
insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
calendars, respectively.  @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
between calendar and agenda.


@node Global TODO list, Matching headline tags, Weekly/Daily agenda, Agenda views
@section The global TODO list
@cindex global TODO list
@cindex TODO list, global

The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items, formatted and
collected into a single place.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c a t
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer.  The buffer is in
@code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate
the TODO entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@kindex C-c a T
@item C-c a T
@cindex TODO keyword matching
Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword.  You can
also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}.  With a
@kbd{C-u} prefix you are prompted for a keyword.  With a numeric
prefix, the Nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
@kindex r
The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
for example @kbd{3 r}.  If you often need a search for a specific
keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
@end table

Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
TODO entry with a single key press.  The commands available in the
TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.

@cindex sublevels, inclusion into todo list
Normally the global todo list simply shows all headlines with TODO
keywords.  This list can become very long.  There are two ways to keep
it more compact:
@itemize @minus
@item
Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for
execution (@pxref{Time stamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.  Configure the
variable @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled} to exclude scheduled
items from the global TODO list.
@item
TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks.  In
such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
and omit the sublevels from the global list.  Configure the variable
@code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
@end itemize

@node Matching headline tags, Timeline, Global TODO list, Agenda views
@section Matching headline tags
@cindex matching, of tags
@cindex tags view

If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags}
(@pxref{Tags}), you can select headlines based on the tags that apply
to them and collect them into an agenda buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c a m
@item C-c a m
Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags.  The
command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
expression with tags, like @samp{+WORK+URGENT-WITHBOSS} or
@samp{WORK|HOME} (@pxref{Tags}).  If you often need a specific search,
define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
@kindex C-c a M
@item C-c a M
Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items
and force checking subitems (see variable
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).  Matching specific todo keywords
together with a tags match is also possible, see @ref{Tag searches}.
@end table

The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@node Timeline, Presentation and sorting, Matching headline tags, Agenda views
@section Timeline for a single file
@cindex timeline, single file
@cindex time-sorted view

The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org-mode
file in a @emph{time-sorted view}.  The main purpose of this command is
to give an overview over events in a project.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-a a L
@item C-c a L
Show a time-sorted view of the org file, with all time-stamped items.
When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
(scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
@end table

@noindent
The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in
@ref{Agenda commands}.


@node Presentation and sorting, Agenda commands, Timeline, Agenda views
@section Presentation and sorting
@cindex presentation, of agenda items

Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org-mode visually prepares
the items and sorts them.  Each item occupies a single line.  The line
starts with a @emph{prefix} that contains the @emph{category}
(@pxref{Categories}) of the item and other important information.  You can
customize the prefix using the option @code{org-agenda-prefix-format}.
The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline
associated with the item.

@menu
* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things
@end menu

@node Categories, Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Categories

@cindex category
The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item.  By default,
the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also
specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this:

@example
#+CATEGORY: Thesis
@end example

If there are several such lines in a file, each specifies the category
for the text below it (but the first category also applies to any text
before the first CATEGORY line).  The display in the agenda buffer looks
best if the category is not longer than 10 characters.

@node Time-of-day specifications, Sorting of agenda items, Categories, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Time-of-Day Specifications
@cindex time-of-day specification

Org-mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification.  The
time can be part of the time stamp that triggered inclusion into the
agenda, for example as in @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>}}.  Time
ranges can be specified with two time stamps, like
@c
@w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>}}.

In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as
plain text (like @samp{12:45} or a @samp{8:30-1pm}.  If the agenda
integrates the Emacs diary (@pxref{Calendar/Diary integration}), time
specifications in diary entries are recognized as well.

For agenda display, Org-mode extracts the time and displays it in a
standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix.  The example times in
the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this:

@example
    8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
   12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
   19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
   20:30-22:15 Marwin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
@end example

@cindex time grid
If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the
timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like

@example
    8:00...... ------------------
    8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
   10:00...... ------------------
   12:00...... ------------------
   12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
   14:00...... ------------------
   16:00...... ------------------
   18:00...... ------------------
   19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
   20:00...... ------------------
   20:30-22:15 Marwin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
@end example

The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable
@code{org-agenda-use-time-grid}, and can be configured with
@code{org-agenda-time-grid}.

@node Sorting of agenda items,  , Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Sorting of agenda items
@cindex sorting, of agenda items
@cindex priorities, of agenda items
Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted.  How this is
done depends on the type of view.
@itemize @bullet
@item
For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted.  The
default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit
time-of-day specification.  These entries will be shown at the beginning
of the list, as a @emph{schedule} for the day.  After that, items remain
grouped in categories, in the sequence given by @code{org-agenda-files}.
Within each category, items are sorted by priority (@pxref{Priorities}),
which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority @samp{A}, 1000
for @samp{B}, and 0 for @samp{C}), plus additional increments for
overdue scheduled or deadline items.
@item 
For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within
each category, sorting takes place according to priority
(@pxref{Priorities}).
@item
For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the
sequence in which they are found in the agenda files.
@end itemize

Sorting can be customized using the variable
@code{org-agenda-sorting-strategy}.


@node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda views
@section Commands in the agenda buffer
@cindex commands, in agenda buffer

Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the org file or diary
file where they originate.  You are not allowed to edit the agenda
buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
original entry location, and to edit the org-files ``remotely'' from
the agenda buffer.  In this way, all information is stored only once,
removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge.

Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines.  For
the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line.

@table @kbd
@tsubheading{Motion}
@cindex motion commands in agenda
@kindex n
@item n
Next line (same as @key{up}).
@kindex p
@item p
Previous line (same as @key{down}).
@tsubheading{View/GoTo org file}
@kindex mouse-3
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item mouse-3
@itemx @key{SPC}
Display the original location of the item in another window.

@kindex L
@item L
Display original location and recenter that window.

@kindex mouse-2
@kindex mouse-1
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item mouse-2
@itemx mouse-1
@itemx @key{TAB}
Go to the original location of the item in another window.  Under Emacs
22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also works for this.

@kindex @key{RET}
@itemx @key{RET}
Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.

@kindex f
@item f
Toggle Follow mode.  In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through
the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding
location in the org file.  The initial setting for this mode in new
agenda buffers can be set with the variable
@code{org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode}.

@kindex l
@item l
Toggle Logbook mode.  In Logbook mode, entries that where marked DONE while
logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda,
as are entries that have been clocked on that day.

@tsubheading{Change display}
@cindex display changing, in agenda
@kindex o
@item o
Delete other windows.

@kindex w
@item w
Switch to weekly view (7 days displayed together).

@kindex d
@item d
Switch to daily view (just one day displayed).

@kindex D
@item D
Toggle the inclusion of diary entries.  See @ref{Calendar/Diary integration}.

@kindex g
@item g
Toggle the time grid on and off.  See also the variables
@code{org-agenda-use-time-grid} and @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.

@kindex r
@item r
Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes
after modification of the time stamps of items with S-@key{left} and
S-@key{right}.  When the buffer is the global todo list, a prefix
argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO
keyword.

@kindex s
@item s
Save all Org-mode buffers in the current Emacs session.

@kindex @key{right}
@item @key{right}
Display the following @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.  For example, if
the display covers a week, switch to the following week.  With prefix
arg, go forward that many times @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.

@kindex @key{left}
@item @key{left}
Display the previous dates.

@kindex .
@item .
Goto today.

@tsubheading{Remote editing}
@cindex remote editing, from agenda

@item 0-9
Digit argument.

@kindex t
@item t
Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the
original org file.

@kindex C-k
@item C-k
Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
to it in the original Org-mode file.  If the text to be deleted remotely
is longer than one line, the kill needs to be confirmed by the user.  See
variable @code{org-agenda-confirm-kill}.

@kindex T
@item T
Show all tags associated with the current item.  Because of
inheritance, this may be more than the tags listed in the line itself.

@kindex :
@item :
Set tags for the current headline.

@kindex a
@item a
Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.

@kindex ,
@item ,
Set the priority for the current item.  Org-mode prompts for the
priority character. If you reply with @key{SPC}, the priority cookie
is removed from the entry.

@kindex P
@item p
Display weighted priority of current item.

@kindex +
@kindex S-@key{up}
@item +
@itemx S-@key{up}
Increase the priority of the current item.  The priority is changed in
the original buffer, but the agenda is not resorted.  Use the @kbd{r}
key for this.

@kindex -
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item -
@itemx S-@key{down}
Decrease the priority of the current item.

@kindex C-c C-s
@item C-c C-s
Schedule this item

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Set a deadline for this item.

@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{right}
Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day into
the future.  With prefix argument, change it by that many days.  For
example, @kbd{3 6 5 S-@key{right}} will change it by a year.  The
stamp is changed in the original org file, but the change is not
directly reflected in the agenda buffer.  Use the
@kbd{r} key to update the buffer.

@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{left}
Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day
into the past.

@kindex >
@item >
Change the time stamp associated with the current line to today.
The key @kbd{>} has been chosen, because it is the same as @kbd{S-.}
on my keyboard.

@kindex I
@item I
Start the clock on the current item.  If a clock is running already, it
is stopped first.
@kindex O
@item O
Stop the previously started clock.
@kindex X
@item X
Cancel the currently running clock.

@tsubheading{Calendar commands}
@cindex calendar commands, from agenda
@kindex c
@item c
Open the Emacs calendar and move to the date at the agenda cursor.

@item c
When in the calendar, compute and show the Org-mode agenda for the
date at the cursor.

@cindex diary entries, creating from agenda
@kindex i
@item i
Insert a new entry into the diary.  Prompts for the type of entry
(day, weekly, monthly, yearly, anniversary, cyclic) and creates a new
entry in the diary, just as @kbd{i d} etc. would do in the calendar.
The date is taken from the cursor position.

@kindex M
@item M
Show the phases of the moon for the three months around current date.

@kindex S
@item S
Show sunrise and sunset times.  The geographical location must be set
with calendar variables, see documentation of the Emacs calendar.

@kindex C
@item C
Convert the date at cursor into many other cultural and historic
calendars.

@kindex H
@item H
Show holidays for three month around the cursor date.

@c FIXME:  This should be a different key.
@kindex C-c C-x C-c
@item C-c C-x C-c
Export a single iCalendar file containing entries from all agenda files.

@tsubheading{Quit and Exit}
@kindex q
@item q
Quit agenda, remove the agenda buffer.

@kindex x
@cindex agenda files, removing buffers
@item x
Exit agenda, remove the agenda buffer and all buffers loaded by Emacs
for the compilation of the agenda.  Buffers created by the user to
visit org files will not be removed.

@end table


@node Custom agenda views,  , Agenda commands, Agenda views
@section Custom agenda views
@cindex custom agenda views
@cindex agenda views, custom

Custom agenda commands serve two purposes: to store and quickly access
frequently used TODO and tags searches, and to create special composite
agenda buffers.  Custom agenda commands will be accessible through the
dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}), just like the default commands.

@menu
* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
* Batch processing::            Agenda views from the command line
@end menu

@node Storing searches, Block agenda, Custom agenda views, Custom agenda views
@subsection Storing searches

The first application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard
shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda
buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the current
buffer).
@kindex C-c a C
Custom commands are configured in the variable
@code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  You can customize this variable, for
example by pressing @kbd{C-c a C}.  You can also directly set it with
Emacs Lisp in @file{.emacs}.  The following example contains all valid
search types:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("w" todo "WAITING")
        ("W" todo-tree "WAITING")
        ("u" tags "+BOSS-URGENT")
        ("v" tags-todo "+BOSS-URGENT")
        ("U" tags-tree "+BOSS-URGENT")
        ("f" occur-tree "\\<FIXME\\>")))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
The initial single-character string in each entry defines the character
you have to press after the dispatcher command @kbd{C-c a} in order to
access the command.   The second parameter is the search type, followed
by the string or regular expression to be used for the matching.  The
example above will therefore define:

@table @kbd
@item C-c a w
as a global search for TODO entries with @samp{WAITING} as the TODO
keyword
@item C-c a W
as the same search, but only in the current buffer and displaying the
results as a sparse tree
@item C-c a u
as a global tags search for headlines marked @samp{:BOSS:} but not
@samp{:URGENT:}
@item C-c a v
as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but limiting the search to
headlines that are also TODO items
@item C-c a U
as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but only in the current buffer and
displaying the result as a sparse tree
@item C-c a f
to create a sparse tree (again: current buffer only) with all entries
containing the word @samp{FIXME}.
@end table

@node Block agenda, Setting Options, Storing searches, Custom agenda views
@subsection Block agenda
@cindex block agenda
@cindex agenda, with block views

Another possibility is the construction of agenda views that comprise
the results of @emph{several} commands, each of which creates a block in
the agenda buffer.  The available commands include @code{agenda} for the
daily or weekly agenda (as created with @kbd{C-c a a}), @code{alltodo}
for the global todo list (as constructed with @kbd{C-c a t}), and the
matching commands discussed above: @code{todo}, @code{tags}, and
@code{tags-todo}.  Here are two examples:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("h" "Agenda and Home-related tasks"
         ((agenda)
          (tags-todo "HOME")
          (tags "GARDEN")))
        ("o" "Agenda and Office-related tasks"
         ((agenda)
          (tags-todo "WORK")
          (tags "OFFICE")))))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
This will define @kbd{C-c a h} to create a multi-block view for stuff
you need to attend to at home.  The resulting agenda buffer will contain
your agenda for the current week, all TODO items that carry the tag
@samp{HOME}, and also all lines tagged with @samp{GARDEN}.  Finally the
command @kbd{C-c a o} provides a similar view for office tasks.


@node Setting Options, Batch processing, Block agenda, Custom agenda views
@subsection Setting Options for custom commands
@cindex options, for custom agenda views

Org-mode contains a number of variables regulating agenda construction
and display.  The global variables define the behavior for all agenda
commands, including the custom commands.  However, if you want to change
some settings just for a single custom view, you can do so.  Setting
options requires inserting a list of variable names and values at the
right spot in @code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  For example:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("w" todo "WAITING"
         ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down))
          (org-agenda-prefix-format "  Mixed: ")))
        ("U" tags-tree "+BOSS-URGENT"
         ((org-show-following-heading nil)
          (org-show-hierarchy-above nil)))))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
Now the @kbd{C-c a w} command will sort the collected entries only by
priority, and the prefix format is modified to just say @samp{  Mixed:}
instead of giving the category of the entry.  The sparse tags tree of
@kbd{C-c a U} will now turn out ultra-compact, because neither the
headline hierarchy above the match, nor the headline following the match
will be shown.

For command sets creating a block agenda,
@code{org-agenda-custom-commands} has two separate spots for setting
options.  You can add options that should be valid for just a single
command in the set, and options that should be valid for all commands in
the set.  The former are just added to the command entry, the latter
must come after the list of command entries.  Going back to the block
agenda example (@pxref{Block agenda}), let's change the sorting strategy
for the @kbd{C-c a h} commands to @code{priority-down}, but let's sort
the results for GARDEN tags query in the opposite order,
@code{priority-up}.  This would look like this:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("h" "Agenda and Home-related tasks"
         ((agenda)
          (tags-todo "HOME")
          (tags "GARDEN" ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-up)))))
         ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down))))
        ("o" "Agenda and Office-related tasks"
         ((agenda)
          (tags-todo "WORK")
          (tags "OFFICE")))))
@end group
@end lisp

As you see, the values and parenthesis setting is a little complex.
When in doubt, use the customize interface to set this variable - it
fully supports its structure.  Just one caveat: When setting options in
this interface, the @emph{values} are just lisp expressions.  So if the
value is a string, you need to add the double quotes around the value
yourself.

@node Batch processing,  , Setting Options, Custom agenda views
@subsection Creating agenda views in batch processing
@cindex agenda, batch production

If you want to print or otherwise reprocess agenda views, it can be
useful to create an agenda from the command line.  This is the purpose
of the function @code{org-batch-agenda}.  It takes as a parameter one of
the strings that are the keys in @code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  For
example, to directly print the current TODO list, you could use

@example
emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -eval '(org-batch-agenda "t")' | lpr
@end example

@noindent
You may also modify parameters on the fly like this:

@example
emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs                                      \
   -eval '(org-batch-agenda "a"                               \
            org-agenda-ndays 300                              \
            org-agenda-include-diary nil                      \
            org-agenda-files (quote ("~/org/project.org")))'  \
   | lpr
@end example

@noindent
which will produce a 300 day agenda, fully restricted to the Org file
@file{~/org/projects.org}, not even including the diary.

@node Embedded LaTeX, Exporting, Agenda views, Top
@chapter Embedded LaTeX
@cindex @TeX{} interpretation
@cindex La@TeX{} interpretation

Plain ASCII is normally sufficient for almost all note taking.  One
exception, however, are scientific notes which need to be able to
contain mathematical symbols and the occasional formula.
La@TeX{}@footnote{La@TeX{} is a macro system based on Donald E. Knuth's
@TeX{} system.  Many of the features described here as ``La@TeX{}'' are
really from @TeX{}, but for simplicity I am blurring this distinction.}
is widely used to typeset scientific documents. Org-mode supports
embedding La@TeX{} code into its files, because many academics are used
to read La@TeX{} source code, and because it can be readily processed
into images for HTML production.

It is not necessary to mark La@TeX{} macros and code in any special way.
If you observe a few conventions, Org-mode knows how to find it and what
to do with it.

@menu
* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
* Subscripts and Superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas
@end menu

@node Math symbols, Subscripts and Superscripts, Embedded LaTeX, Embedded LaTeX
@section Math symbols
@cindex math symbols
@cindex TeX macros

You can use La@TeX{} macros to insert special symbols like @samp{\alpha}
to indicate the Greek letter, or @samp{\to} to indicate an arrow.
Completion for these macros is available, just type @samp{\} and maybe a
few letters, and press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to see possible completions.
Unlike La@TeX{} code, Org-mode allows these macros to be present
without surrounding math delimiters, for example:

@example
Angles are written as Greek letters \alpha, \beta and \gamma.
@end example

During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), these symbols are translated
into the proper syntax for HTML, for the above examples this is
@samp{&alpha;} and @samp{&rarr;}, respectively.

@node Subscripts and Superscripts, LaTeX fragments, Math symbols, Embedded LaTeX
@section Subscripts and Superscripts
@cindex subscript
@cindex superscript

Just like in La@TeX{}, @samp{^} and @samp{_} are used to indicate super-
and subscripts.  Again, these can be used without embedding them in
math-mode delimiters.  To increase the readability of ASCII text, it is
not necessary (but OK) to surround multi-character sub- and superscripts
with curly braces.  For example

@example
The mass if the sun is M_sun = 1.989 x 10^30 kg.  The radius of
the sun is R_@{sun@} = 6.96 x 10^8 m.
@end example

To avoid interpretation as raised or lowered text, you can quote
@samp{^} and @samp{_} with a backslash: @samp{\_} and @samp{\^}.

During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), subscript and superscripts
are surrounded with @code{<sub>} and @code{<sup>} tags, respectively.

@node LaTeX fragments, Processing LaTeX fragments, Subscripts and Superscripts, Embedded LaTeX
@section LaTeX fragments
@cindex LaTeX fragments

With symbols, sub- and superscripts, HTML is pretty much at its end when
it comes to representing mathematical formulas@footnote{Yes, there is
MathML, but that is not yet fully supported by many browsers, and there
is no decent converter for turning LaTeX of ASCII representations of
formulas into MathML.  So for the time being, converting formulas into
images seems the way to go.}.  More complex
expressions need a dedicated formula processor.  To this end, Org-mode
can contain arbitrary La@TeX{} fragments.  It provides commands to
preview the typeset result of these fragments, and upon export to HTML,
all fragments will be converted to images and inlined into the HTML
document.  For this to work you need to be on a system with a working
La@TeX{} installation.  You also need the @file{dvipng} program,
available at @url{http://sourceforge.net/projects/dvipng/}.

La@TeX{} fragments don't need any special marking at all.  The following
snippets will be identified as LaTeX source code:
@itemize @bullet
@item
Environments of any kind.  The only requirement is that the
@code{\begin} statement appears on a new line, preceded by only
whitespace.
@item
Text within the usual La@TeX{} math delimiters.  To avoid conflicts with
currency specifications, single @samp{$} characters are only recognized
as math delimiters if the enclosed text contains at most two line breaks,
is directly attached to the @samp{$} characters with no whitespace in
between, and if the closing @samp{$} is followed by whitespace or
punctuation.  For the other delimiters, there is no such restriction, so
when in doubt, use @samp{\(...\)} as inline math delimiters.
@end itemize

@noindent For example:

@example
\begin@{equation@}                          % arbitrary environments,
x=\sqrt@{b@}                                % even tables, figures
\end@{equation@}                            % etc

If $a^2=b$ and \( b=2 \), then the solution must be
either $$ a=+\sqrt@{2@} $$ or \[ a=-\sqrt@{2@} \].
@end example

@noindent
If you need any of the delimiter ASCII sequences for other purposes, you
can configure the option @code{org-format-latex-options} to deselect the
ones you do not wish to have interpreted by the La@TeX{} converter.

@node Processing LaTeX fragments, CDLaTeX mode, LaTeX fragments, Embedded LaTeX
@section Processing LaTeX fragments
@cindex LaTeX fragments, preview

La@TeX{} fragments can be processed to produce a preview images of the
typeset expressions:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-l
@item C-c C-x C-l
Produce a preview image of the La@TeX{} fragment at point and overlay it
over the source code.  If there is no fragment at point, process all
fragments in the current entry (between two headlines).  When called
with a prefix argument, process the entire subtree.  When called with
two prefix arguments, or when the cursor is before the first headline,
process the entire buffer.
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Remove the overlay preview images.
@end table

During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), all La@TeX{} fragments are
converted into images and inlined into the document if the following
setting is active:

@lisp
(setq org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments t)
@end lisp

@node CDLaTeX mode,  , Processing LaTeX fragments, Embedded LaTeX
@section Using CDLaTeX to enter math
@cindex CDLaTeX

CDLaTeX-mode is a minor mode that is normally used in combination with a
major LaTeX mode like AUCTeX in order to speed-up insertion of
environments and math templates.  Inside Org-mode, you can make use of
some of the features of cdlatex-mode.  You need to install
@file{cdlatex.el} and @file{texmathp.el} (the latter comes also with
AUCTeX) from @url{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/cdlatex}.
Don't turn cdlatex-mode itself under Org-mode, but use the light
version @code{org-cdlatex-mode} that comes as part of Org-mode.  Turn it
on for the current buffer with @code{M-x org-cdlatex-mode}, or for all
Org-mode files with

@lisp
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-org-cdlatex)
@end lisp

When this mode is enabled, the following features are present (for more
details see the documentation of cdlatex-mode):
@itemize @bullet
@kindex C-c @{
@item
Environment templates can be inserted with @kbd{C-c @{}.
@item
@kindex @key{TAB}
The @key{TAB} key will do template expansion if the cursor is inside a
LaTeX fragment@footnote{Org-mode has a method to test if the cursor is
inside such a fragment, see the documentation of the function
@code{org-inside-LaTeX-fragment-p}.}.  For example, @key{TAB} will
expand @code{fr} to @code{\frac@{@}@{@}} and position the cursor
correctly inside the first brace.  Another @key{TAB} will get you into
the second brace.  Even outside fragments, @key{TAB} will expand
environment abbreviations at the beginning of a line.  For example, if
you write @samp{equ} at the beginning of a line and press @key{TAB},
this abbreviation will be expanded to an @code{equation} environment.
To get a list of all abbreviations, type @kbd{M-x cdlatex-command-help}.
@item
@kindex _
@kindex ^
Pressing @kbd{_} and @kbd{^} inside a LaTeX fragment will insert these
characters together with a pair of braces.  If you use @key{TAB} to move
out of the braces, and if the braces surround only a single character or
macro, they are removed again (depending on the variable
@code{cdlatex-simplify-sub-super-scripts}).
@item
@kindex `
Pressing the backquote @kbd{`} followed by a character inserts math
macros, also outside LaTeX fragments.  If you wait more than 1.5 seconds
after the backquote, a help window will pop up.
@item
@kindex '
Pressing the normal quote @kbd{'} followed by another character modifies
the symbol before point with an accent or a font.  If you wait more than
1.5 seconds after the backquote, a help window will pop up.  Character
modification will work only inside La@TeX{} fragments, outside the quote
is normal.
@end itemize

@node Exporting, Publishing, Embedded LaTeX, Top
@chapter Exporting
@cindex exporting

Org-mode documents can be exported into a variety of other formats.  For
printing and sharing of notes, ASCII export produces a readable and
simple version of an Org-mode file.  HTML export allows you to publish a
notes file on the web, while the XOXO format provides a solid base for
exchange with a broad range of other applications.  To incorporate
entries with associated times like deadlines or appointments into a
desktop calendar program like iCal, Org-mode can also produce extracts
in the iCalendar format.  Currently Org-mode only supports export, not
import of these different formats.

When exporting, Org-mode uses special conventions to enrich the output
produced.  @xref{Text interpretation}, for more details.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e
@item C-c C-e
Dispatcher for export and publishing commands.  Displays a help-window
listing the additional key(s) needed to launch an export or publishing
command.
@end table

@menu
* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
* Text interpretation::         How the exporter looks at the file
@end menu

@node ASCII export, HTML export, Exporting, Exporting
@section ASCII export
@cindex ASCII export

ASCII export produces a simple and very readable version of an Org-mode
file.

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e a
@item C-c C-e a
Export as ASCII file.  If there is an active region, only the region
will be exported.  For an org file @file{myfile.org}, the ASCII file
will be @file{myfile.txt}.  The file will be overwritten without
warning.
@kindex C-c C-e v a
@item C-c C-e v a
Export only the visible part of the document.
@end table

@cindex headline levels, for exporting
In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become
headlines, defining a general document structure.  Additional levels
will be exported as itemized lists.  If you want that transition to occur
at a different level, specify it with a prefix argument.  For example,

@example
@kbd{C-1 C-c C-e a}
@end example

@noindent
creates only top level headlines and does the rest as items.  When
headlines are converted to items, the indentation of the text following
the headline is changed to fit nicely under the item.  This is done with
the assumption that the first bodyline indicates the base indentation of
the body text.  Any indentation larger than this is adjusted to preserve
the layout relative to the first line.  Should there be lines with less
indentation than the first, these are left alone.

@node HTML export, XOXO export, ASCII export, Exporting
@section HTML export
@cindex HTML export

Org-mode contains an HTML (XHTML 1.0 strict) exporter with extensive
HTML formatting, in ways similar to John Grubers @emph{markdown}
language, but with additional support for tables.

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e h
@item C-c C-e h
Export as HTML file @file{myfile.html}.
@kindex C-c C-e b
@item C-c C-e b
Export as HTML file and open it with a browser.
@kindex C-c C-e v h
@kindex C-c C-e v b
@item C-c C-e v h
@item C-c C-e v b
Export only the visible part of the document.
@end table

@cindex headline levels, for exporting
In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become
headlines, defining a general document structure.  Additional levels
will be exported as itemized lists.  If you want that transition to occur
at a different level, specify it with a prefix argument.  For example,

@example
@kbd{C-2 C-c C-e b}
@end example

@noindent
creates two levels of headings and does the rest as items.

If you want to include HTML tags which should be interpreted as such,
mark them with @samp{@@} as in @samp{@@<b>bold text@@</b>}.
Plain @samp{<} and @samp{>} are always transformed to @samp{&lt;} and
@samp{&gt;} in HTML export.

@cindex links, in HTML export
@cindex internal links, in HTML export
@cindex external links, in HTML export
Internal links (@pxref{Internal links}) will continue to work in HTML
files only if they match a dedicated @samp{<<target>>}.  Automatic links
created by radio targets (@pxref{Radio targets}) will also work in the
HTML file.  Links to external files will still work if the HTML file is
in the same directory as the Org-mode file.  Links to other @file{.org}
files will be translated into HTML links under the assumption that an
HTML version also exists of the linked file.  For information related to
linking files while publishing them to a publishing directory see
@ref{Publishing links}.

You can also give style information for the exported file.  The HTML
exporter assigns the following CSS classes to appropriate parts of the
document - your style specifications may change these:
@example
.todo           @r{TODO keywords}
.done           @r{the DONE keyword}
.timestamp      @r{time stamp}
.timestamp-kwd  @r{keyword associated with a time stamp, like SCHEDULED}
.tag            @r{tag in a headline}
.target         @r{target for links}
@end example

The default style specification can be configured through the option
@code{org-export-html-style}.  If you want to use a file-local style,
you may use file variables, best wrapped into a COMMENT section at the
end of the outline tree.  For example:

@example
* COMMENT HTML style specifications

# Local Variables:
# org-export-html-style: "   <style type=\"text/css\">
#       p @{font-weight: normal; color: gray; @}
#       h1 @{color: black; @}
#   </style>"
# End:
@end example

Remember to execute @kbd{M-x normal-mode} after changing this to make
the new style visible to Emacs.  This command restarts org-mode for the
current buffer and forces Emacs to re-evaluate the local variables
section in the buffer.

@c FIXME: More about header and footer styles
@c FIXME: Talk about links and targets.

@node XOXO export, iCalendar export, HTML export, Exporting
@section XOXO export
@cindex XOXO export

Org-mode contains an exporter that produces XOXO-style output.
Currently, this exporter only handles the general outline structure and
does not interpret any additional Org-mode features.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e x
@item C-c C-e x
Export as XOXO file @file{myfile.html}.
@kindex C-c C-e v
@item C-c C-e v x
Export only the visible part of the document.
@end table

@node iCalendar export, Text interpretation, XOXO export, Exporting
@section iCalendar export
@cindex iCalendar export

Some people like to use Org-mode for keeping track of projects, but
still prefer a standard calendar application for anniversaries and
appointments.  In this case it can be useful to have deadlines and
other time-stamped items in Org-mode files show up in the calendar
application.  Org-mode can export calendar information in the standard
iCalendar format.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e i
@item C-c C-e i
Create iCalendar entries for the current file and store them in the same
directory, using a file extension @file{.ics}.
@kindex C-c C-e I
@item C-c C-e I
Like @kbd{C-c C-e i}, but do this for all files in
@code{org-agenda-files}.  For each of these files, a separate iCalendar
file will be written.
@kindex C-c C-e c
@item C-c C-e c
Create a single large iCalendar file from all files in
@code{org-agenda-files} and write it to the file given by
@code{org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file}.
@end table

How this calendar is best read and updated, depends on the application
you are using.  For example, when using iCal under Apple MacOS X, you
could create a new calendar @samp{OrgMode} (the default name for the
calendar created by @kbd{C-c C-e c}, see the variables
@code{org-icalendar-combined-name} and
@code{org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file}).  Then set Org-mode to
overwrite the corresponding file
@file{~/Library/Calendars/OrgMode.ics}.  You may even use AppleScript
to make iCal re-read the calendar files each time a new version of
@file{OrgMode.ics} is produced.  Here is the setup needed for this:

@cindex applescript, for calendar update
@lisp
(setq org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file
    "~/Library/Calendars/OrgMode.ics")
(add-hook 'org-after-save-iCalendar-file-hook
 (lambda ()
  (shell-command
   "osascript -e 'tell application \"iCal\" to reload calendars'")))
@end lisp

@node Text interpretation,  , iCalendar export, Exporting
@section Text interpretation by the exporter

The exporter backends interpret additional structure in the Org-mode file
in order to produce better output.

@menu
* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported
* Enhancing text::              Subscripts, symbols and more
* Export options::              How to influence the export settings
@end menu

@node Comment lines, Enhancing text, Text interpretation, Text interpretation
@subsection Comment lines
@cindex comment lines
@cindex exporting, not

Lines starting with @samp{#} in column zero are treated as comments
and will never be exported.  Also entire subtrees starting with the
word @samp{COMMENT} will never be exported.  Finally, any text before
the first headline will not be exported either.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c ;
@item C-c ;
Toggle the COMMENT keyword at the beginning of an entry.
@end table

@node Enhancing text, Export options, Comment lines, Text interpretation
@subsection Enhancing text for export
@cindex enhancing text
@cindex richer text

Some of the export backends of Org-mode allow for sophisticated text
formatting, this is true in particular for the HTML backend.  Org-mode
has a number of typing conventions that allow to produce a richly
formatted output.

@itemize @bullet

@cindex hand-formatted lists
@cindex lists, hand-formatted
@item
Plain lists @samp{-}, @samp{*} or @samp{+} as bullet, or with @samp{1.}
or @samp{2)} as enumerator will be recognized and transformed if the
backend supports lists.  See @xref{Plain lists}.

@cindex underlined text
@cindex bold text
@cindex italic text
@item
You can make words @b{*bold*}, @i{/italic/}, _underlined_,
@code{=code=}, and @samp{+strikethrough+}.

@cindex LaTeX fragments, export
@cindex TeX macros, export
@item
Many @TeX{} macros and entire La@TeX{} fragments are converted into HTML
entities or images (@pxref{Embedded LaTeX}).

@cindex tables, export
@item
Tables are transformed into native tables under the exporter, if the
export backend supports this. Data fields before the first horizontal
separator line will be formatted as table header fields.

@cindex fixed width
@item
If a headline starts with the word @samp{QUOTE}, the text below the
headline will be typeset as fixed-width, to allow quoting of computer
codes etc.  Lines starting with @samp{:} are also typeset in
fixed-width font.
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c :
@item C-c :
Toggle fixed-width for entry (QUOTE) or region, see below.
@end table

@cindex linebreak, forced
@item 
A double backslash @emph{at the end of a line} enforces a line break at
this position.
@end itemize

If these conversions conflict with your habits of typing ASCII text,
they can all be turned off with corresponding variables (see the
customization group @code{org-export-general}, and the following section
which explains how to set export options with special lines in a
buffer.


@node Export options,  , Enhancing text, Text interpretation
@subsection Export options
@cindex options, for export

@cindex completion, of option keywords
The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide
additional information.  These lines may be put anywhere in the file.
The whole set of lines can be inserted into the buffer with @kbd{C-c
C-e t}.  For individual lines, a good way to make sure the keyword is
correct is to type @samp{#+} and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion
(@pxref{Completion}).

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-e t
@item C-c C-e t
Insert template with export options, see example below.
@end table

@example
#+TITLE:     the title to be shown (default is the buffer name)
#+AUTHOR:    the author (default taken from @code{user-full-name})
#+EMAIL:     his/her email address (default from @code{user-mail-address})
#+LANGUAGE:  language for HTML, e.g. @samp{en} (@code{org-export-default-language})
#+TEXT:      Some descriptive text to be inserted at the beginning.
#+TEXT:      Several lines may be given.
#+OPTIONS:   H:2 num:t toc:t \n:nil @@:t ::t |:t ^:t *:nil TeX:t LaTeX:t
@end example

@noindent
The OPTIONS line is a compact form to specify export settings.  Here
you can:
@cindex headline levels
@cindex section-numbers
@cindex table of contents
@cindex linebreak preservation
@cindex quoted HTML tags
@cindex fixed-width sections
@cindex tables
@cindex @TeX{}-like syntax for sub- and superscripts
@cindex emphasized text
@cindex @TeX{} macros
@cindex La@TeX{} fragments
@example
H:      @r{set the number of headline levels for export}
num:    @r{turn on/off section-numbers}
toc:    @r{turn on/off table of contents}
\n:     @r{turn on/off linebreak-preservation}
@@:      @r{turn on/off quoted HTML tags}
::      @r{turn on/off fixed-width sections}
|:      @r{turn on/off tables}
^:      @r{turn on/off @TeX{}-like syntax for sub- and superscripts.}
*:      @r{turn on/off emphasized text (bold, italic, underlined)}
TeX:    @r{turn on/off simple @TeX{} macros in plain text}
LaTeX:  @r{turn on/off La@TeX{} fragments}
@end example

@node Publishing, Miscellaneous, Exporting, Top
@chapter Publishing
@cindex publishing

Org-mode includes@footnote{@file{org-publish.el} is not yet part of
Emacs, so if you are using @file{org.el} as it comes with Emacs, you
need to download this file separately.  Also make sure org.el is at
least version 4.27.} a publishing management system
that allows you to configure automatic HTML conversion of
@emph{projects} composed of interlinked org files.  This system is
called @emph{org-publish}.  You can also configure org-publish to
automatically upload your exported HTML pages and related attachments,
such as images and source code files, to a web server.  Org-publish turns
org-mode into a web-site authoring tool.

Org-publish has been contributed to Org-mode by David O'Toole.

@menu
* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands
@end menu

@node Configuration, Sample configuration, Publishing, Publishing
@section Configuration

Publishing needs significant configuration to specify files, destination
and many other properties of a project.

@menu
* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files
@end menu

@node Project alist, Sources and destinations, Configuration, Configuration
@subsection The variable @code{org-publish-project-alist}
@cindex org-publish-project-alist
@cindex projects, for publishing

Org-publish is configured almost entirely through setting the value of
one variable, called @code{org-publish-project-alist}.
Each element of the list configures one project, and may be in one of
the two following forms:

@lisp
("project-name"  :property value :property value ...)

@r{or} 
 
("project-name"  :components ("project-name" "project-name" ...))

@end lisp

In both cases, projects are configured by specifying property values.
A project defines the set of files that will be published, as well as
the publishing configuration to use when publishing those files.  When
a project takes the second form listed above, the individual members
of the ``components'' property are taken to be components of the
project, which group together files requiring different publishing
options. When you publish such a ``meta-project'' all the components
will also publish.

@node Sources and destinations, Selecting files, Project alist, Configuration
@subsection Sources and destinations for files
@cindex directories, for publishing

Most properties are optional, but some should always be set. In
particular, org-publish needs to know where to look for source files,
and where to put published files.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
@item @code{:base-directory}
@tab Directory containing publishing source files
@item @code{:publishing-directory}
@tab Directory (possibly remote) where output files will be published.
@item @code{:preparation-function}
@tab Function called before starting publishing process, for example to
run @code{make} for updating files to be published.
@end multitable
@noindent

@node Selecting files, Publishing action, Sources and destinations, Configuration
@subsection Selecting files
@cindex files, selecting for publishing

By default, all files with extension @file{.org} in the base directory
are considered part of the project.  This can be modified by setting the
properties 
@multitable @columnfractions 0.25 0.75
@item @code{:base-extension}
@tab Extension (without the dot!) of source files.  This actually is a
regular expression.

@item @code{:exclude} 
@tab Regular expression to match file names that should not be
published, even though they have been selected on the basis of their
extension.

@item @code{:include}
@tab List of files to be included regardless of @code{:base-extension}
and @code{:exclude}.
@end multitable

@node Publishing action, Publishing options, Selecting files, Configuration
@subsection Publishing Action
@cindex action, for publishing

Publishing means that a file is copied to the destination directory and
possibly transformed in the process.  The default transformation is to
export Org-mode files as HTML files, and this is done by the function
@code{org-publish-org-to-html} which calls the HTML exporter
(@pxref{HTML export}).  Other files like images only need to be copied
to the publishing destination.  For non-Org-mode files, you need to
specify the publishing function.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
@item @code{:publishing-function}
@tab Function executing the publication of a file.  This may also be a
list of functions, which will all be called in turn.
@end multitable

The function must accept two arguments: a property list containing at
least a @code{:publishing-directory} property, and the name of the file
to be published.  It should take the specified file, make the necessary
transformation (if any) and place the result into the destination folder.
You can write your own publishing function, but @code{org-publish}
provides one for attachments (files that only need to be copied):
@code{org-publish-attachment}.

@node Publishing options, Publishing links, Publishing action, Configuration
@subsection Options for the HTML exporter
@cindex options, for publishing

The property list can be used to set many export options for the HTML
exporter.  In most cases, these properties correspond to user variables
in Org-mode.  The table below lists these properties along with the
variable they belong to.  See the documentation string for the
respective variable for details.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
@item @code{:language}              @tab @code{org-export-default-language}
@item @code{:headline-levels}       @tab @code{org-export-headline-levels}
@item @code{:section-numbers}       @tab @code{org-export-with-section-numbers}
@item @code{:table-of-contents}     @tab @code{org-export-with-toc}
@item @code{:archived-trees}        @tab @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}
@item @code{:emphasize}             @tab @code{org-export-with-emphasize}
@item @code{:sub-superscript}       @tab @code{org-export-with-sub-superscripts}
@item @code{:TeX-macros}            @tab @code{org-export-with-TeX-macros}
@item @code{:LaTeX-fragments}       @tab @code{org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments}
@item @code{:fixed-width}           @tab @code{org-export-with-fixed-width}
@item @code{:timestamps}           .@tab @code{org-export-with-timestamps}
@item @code{:tags}                 .@tab @code{org-export-with-tags}
@item @code{:tables}                @tab @code{org-export-with-tables}
@item @code{:table-auto-headline}   @tab @code{org-export-highlight-first-table-line}
@item @code{:style}                 @tab @code{org-export-html-style}
@item @code{:convert-org-links}     @tab @code{org-export-html-link-org-files-as-html}
@item @code{:inline-images}         @tab @code{org-export-html-inline-images}
@item @code{:expand-quoted-html}    @tab @code{org-export-html-expand}
@item @code{:timestamp}             @tab @code{org-export-html-with-timestamp}
@item @code{:publishing-directory}  @tab @code{org-export-publishing-directory}
@item @code{:preamble}              @tab @code{org-export-html-preamble}
@item @code{:postamble}             @tab @code{org-export-html-postamble}
@item @code{:auto-preamble}         @tab @code{org-export-html-auto-preamble}
@item @code{:auto-postamble}        @tab @code{org-export-html-auto-postamble}
@item @code{:author}                @tab @code{user-full-name}
@item @code{:email}                 @tab @code{user-mail-address}
@end multitable

When a property is given a value in org-publish-project-alist, its
setting overrides the value of the corresponding user variable (if any)
during publishing.  options set within a file (@pxref{Export
options}), however, override everything.

@node Publishing links, Project page index, Publishing options, Configuration
@subsection Links between published files
@cindex links, publishing

To create a link from one Org-mode file to another, you would use
something like @samp{[[file:foo.org][The foo]]} or simply
@samp{file:foo.org.} (@pxref{Hyperlinks}).  Upon publishing this link
becomes a link to @file{foo.html}.  In this way, you can interlink the
pages of your "org web" project and the links will work as expected when
you publish them to HTML.

You may also link to related files, such as images. Provided you are
careful with relative pathnames, and provided you have also configured
org-publish to upload the related files, these links will work
too. @ref{Complex example} for an example of this usage.

Sometime an Org-mode file to be published may contain links that are
only valid in your production environment, but not in the publishing
location.  In this case, use the property 

@multitable @columnfractions 0.4 0.6
@item @code{:link-validation-function}
@tab Function to validate links
@end multitable

@noindent
to define a function for checking link validity.  This function must
accept two arguments, the file name and a directory relative to which
the file name is interpreted in the production environment.  If this
function returns @code{nil}, then the HTML generator will only insert a
description into the HTML file, but no link.  One option for this
function is @code{org-publish-validate-link} which checks if the given
file is part of any project in @code{org-publish-project-alist}.

@node Project page index,  , Publishing links, Configuration
@subsection Project page index
@cindex index, of published pages

The following properties may be used to control publishing of an
index of files or summary page for a given project.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.25 0.75
@item @code{:auto-index}
@tab When non-nil, publish an index during org-publish-current-project or
org-publish-all.

@item @code{:index-filename}
@tab Filename for output of index. Defaults to @file{index.org} (which
becomes @file{index.html}).

@item @code{:index-title}
@tab Title of index page. Defaults to name of file.

@item @code{:index-function}
@tab Plugin function to use for generation of index.
Defaults to @code{org-publish-org-index}, which generates a plain list
of links to all files in the project.
@end multitable

@node Sample configuration, Triggering publication, Configuration, Publishing
@section Sample configuration

Below we provide two example configurations.  The first one is a simple
project publishing only a set of Org-mode files.  The second example is
more complex, with a multi-component project.

@menu
* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example
@end menu

@node Simple example, Complex example, Sample configuration, Sample configuration
@subsection Example: simple publishing configuration

This example publishes a set of Org-mode files to the @file{public_html}
directory on the local machine.

@lisp
(setq org-publish-project-alist
      '(("org" 
         :base-directory "~/org/"
         :publishing-directory "~/public_html"
         :section-numbers nil
         :table-of-contents nil
         :style "<link rel=stylesheet 
                href=\"../other/mystyle.css\"
                type=\"text/css\">")))
@end lisp

@node Complex example,  , Simple example, Sample configuration
@subsection Example: complex publishing configuration

This more complicated example publishes an entire website, including
org files converted to HTML, image files, emacs lisp source code, and
stylesheets. The publishing-directory is remote and private files are
excluded.

To ensure that links are preserved, care should be taken to replicate
your directory structure on the web server, and to use relative file
paths. For example, if your org files are kept in @file{~/org} and your
publishable images in @file{~/images}, you'd link to an image with
@c
@example
file:../images/myimage.png
@end example
@c
On the web server, the relative path to the image should be the
same. You can accomplish this by setting up an "images" folder in the
right place on the webserver, and publishing images to it.

@lisp
(setq org-publish-project-alist
      '(("orgfiles"
          :base-directory "~/org/"
          :base-extension "org"
          :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/notebook/"
          :publishing-function org-publish-org-to-html
          :exclude "PrivatePage.org"   ;; regexp
          :headline-levels 3
          :section-numbers nil
          :table-of-contents nil
          :style "<link rel=stylesheet 
                  href=\"../other/mystyle.css\" type=\"text/css\">"
          :auto-preamble t
          :auto-postamble nil)
         
         ("images"
          :base-directory "~/images/"
          :base-extension "jpg\\|gif\\|png"
          :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/images/"
          :publishing-function org-publish-attachment)
 
         ("other"
          :base-directory "~/other/"
          :base-extension "css\\|el"
          :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/other/"
          :publishing-function org-publish-attachment)
         ("website" :components ("orgfiles" "images" "other"))))
@end lisp

@node Triggering publication,  , Sample configuration, Publishing
@section Triggering publication

Once org-publish is properly configured, you can publish with the
following functions: 

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-e c
Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to it.
@item C-c C-e p
Publish the project containing the current file.
@item C-c C-e f
Publish only the current file.
@item C-c C-e a
Publish all projects.
@end table

Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed. The above
functions normally only publish changed files. You can override this and
force publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument.

@node Miscellaneous, Extensions and Hacking, Publishing, Top
@chapter Miscellaneous

@menu
* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Customization::               Adapting Org-mode to your taste
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org-mode on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly
@end menu

@node Completion, Customization, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous
@section Completion
@cindex completion, of @TeX{} symbols
@cindex completion, of TODO keywords
@cindex completion, of dictionary words
@cindex completion, of option keywords
@cindex completion, of CamelCase links
@cindex completion, of tags
@cindex @TeX{} symbol completion
@cindex TODO keywords completion
@cindex dictionary word completion
@cindex option keyword completion
@cindex CamelCase link completion
@cindex tag completion

Org-mode supports in-buffer completion.  This type of completion does
not make use of the minibuffer.  You simply type a few letters into
the buffer and use the key to complete text right there.

@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@item M-@key{TAB}
Complete word at point
@itemize @bullet
@item
At the beginning of a headline, complete TODO keywords.
@item
After @samp{\}, complete @TeX{} symbols supported by the exporter.
@item
After @samp{*}, complete headlines in the current buffer so that they
can be used in search links like @samp{[[*find this headline]]}.
@item
After @samp{:}, complete tags.  The list of tags is taken from the
variable @code{org-tag-alist} (possibly set through the @samp{#+TAGS}
in-buffer option, @pxref{Setting tags}), or it is created dynamically
from all tags used in the current buffer.
@item
After @samp{[}, complete link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}).
@item
After @samp{#+}, complete the special keywords like @samp{TYP_TODO} or
@samp{OPTIONS} which set file-specific options for Org-mode.  When the
option keyword is already complete, pressing @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} again
will insert example settings for this keyword.
@item
In the line after @samp{#+STARTUP: }, complete startup keywords,
i.e. valid keys for this line.
@item
Elsewhere, complete dictionary words using ispell.
@end itemize
@end table

@node Customization, In-buffer settings, Completion, Miscellaneous
@section Customization
@cindex customization
@cindex options, for customization
@cindex variables, for customization

There are more than 100 variables that can be used to customize
Org-mode.  For the sake of compactness of the manual, we are not
describing the variables here.  A structured overview of customization
variables is available with @kbd{M-x org-customize}.  Or select
@code{Browse Org Group} from the @code{Org->Customization} menu.  Many
settings can also be activated on a per-file basis, by putting special
lines into the buffer (@pxref{In-buffer settings}).

@node In-buffer settings, The very busy C-c C-c key, Customization, Miscellaneous
@section Summary of in-buffer settings
@cindex in-buffer settings
@cindex special keywords

Org-mode uses special lines in the buffer to define settings on a
per-file basis.  These lines start with a @samp{#+} followed by a
keyword, a colon, and then individual words defining a setting.  Several
setting words can be in the same line, but you can also have multiple
lines for the keyword.  While these settings are described throughout
the manual, here is a summary.  After changing any of those lines in the
buffer, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to
activate the changes immediately.  Otherwise they become effective only
when the file is visited again in a new Emacs session.

@table @kbd
@item #+STARTUP:
This line sets options to be used at startup of org-mode, when an
Org-mode file is being visited.  The first set of options deals with the
initial visibility of the outline tree.  The corresponding variable for
global default settings is @code{org-startup-folded}, with a default
value @code{t}, which means @code{overview}.
@example
overview   @r{top-level headlines only}
content    @r{all headlines}
showall    @r{no folding at all, show everything}
@end example
Then there are options for aligning tables upon visiting a file.  This
is useful in files containing narrowed table columns.  The corresponding
variable is @code{org-startup-align-all-tables}, with a default value
@code{nil}. 
@example
align      @r{align all tables}
noalign    @r{don't align tables on startup}
@end example
Logging when a TODO item is marked DONE (variable @code{org-log-done})
can be configured using these options.
@example
logging    @r{record a timestamp when an item is marked DONE}
nologging  @r{don't record when items are marked DONE}
@end example
Here are the options for hiding leading stars in outline headings.  The
corresponding variables are @code{org-hide-leading-stars} and
@code{org-odd-levels-only}, both with a default setting @code{nil}
(meaning @code{showstars} and @code{oddeven}).
@example
hidestars  @r{make all but one of the stars starting a headline invisible.}
showstars  @r{show all stars starting a headline}
odd        @r{allow only odd outline levels (1,3,...)}
oddeven    @r{allow all outline levels}
@end example
To turn on custom format overlays over time stamps (variables
@code{org-put-time-stamp-overlays} and
@code{org-time-stamp-overlay-formats}), use
@example
customtime @r{overlay custom time format}
@end example
@item #+SEQ_TODO:   #+TYP_TODO:
These lines set the TODO keywords and their interpretation in the
current file.  The corresponding variables are @code{org-todo-keywords}
and @code{org-todo-interpretation}.
@item #+TAGS:  TAG1(c1) TAG2(c2)
These lines (several such lines are allowed) specify the legal tags in
this file, and (potentially) the corresponding @emph{fast tag selection}
keys.  The corresponding variable is @code{org-tag-alist}.
@item #+LINK:  linkword replace
These lines (several are allowed) specify link abbreviations.
@xref{Link abbreviations}.  The corresponding variable is
@code{org-link-abbrev-alist}.
@item #+CATEGORY:
This line sets the category for the agenda file.  The category applies
for all subsequent lines until the next @samp{#+CATEGORY} line, or the
end of the file.
@item #+TBLFM:
This line contains the formulas for the table directly above the line.
@item #+TITLE:, #+AUTHOR:, #+EMAIL:, #+LANGUAGE:, #+TEXT:, #+OPTIONS:
These lines provide settings for exporting files.  For more details see
@ref{Export options}.
@end table

@node The very busy C-c C-c key, Clean view, In-buffer settings, Miscellaneous
@section The very busy C-c C-c key
@kindex C-c C-c
@cindex C-c C-c, overview

The key @kbd{C-c C-c} has many purposes in org-mode, which are all
mentioned scattered throughout this manual.  One specific function of
this key is to add @emph{tags} to a headline (@pxref{Tags}).  In many
other circumstances it means something like @emph{Hey Org-mode, look
here and update according to what you see here}.  Here is a summary of
what this means in different contexts.

@itemize @minus
@item
If there are highlights in the buffer from the creation of a sparse
tree, or from clock display, remove these highlights.
@item
If the cursor is in one of the special @code{#+KEYWORD} lines, this
triggers scanning the buffer for these lines and updating the
information. 
@item
If the cursor is inside a table, realign the table.  This command
works even if the automatic table editor has been turned off.
@item
If the cursor is on a @code{#+TBLFM} line, re-apply the formulas to
the entire table.
@item
If the cursor is inside a table created by the @file{table.el} package,
activate that table.
@item
If the current buffer is a remember buffer, close the note and file it.
With a prefix argument, file it, without further interaction, to the
default location.
@item
If the cursor is on a @code{<<<target>>>}, update radio targets and
corresponding links in this buffer.
@item
If the cursor is in a plain list item with a checkbox, toggle the status
of the checkbox.
@item
If the cursor is on a numbered item in a plain list, renumber the
ordered list.
@end itemize

@node Clean view, TTY keys, The very busy C-c C-c key, Miscellaneous
@section A cleaner outline view
@cindex hiding leading stars
@cindex clean outline view

Some people find it noisy and distracting that the Org-mode headlines
are starting with a potentially large number of stars.  For example
the tree from @ref{Headlines}:

@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text
* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent
Unfortunately this is deeply ingrained into the code of Org-mode and
cannot be easily changed.  You can, however, modify the display in such
a way that all leading stars become invisible and the outline more easy
to read.  To do this, customize the variable
@code{org-hide-leading-stars} like this:

@lisp
(setq org-hide-leading-stars t)
@end lisp

@noindent
or change this on a per-file basis with one of the lines (anywhere in
the buffer)

@example
#+STARTUP: showstars
#+STARTUP: hidestars
@end example

@noindent
Press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a @samp{STARTUP} line to activate
the modifications.

With stars hidden, the tree becomes:

@example
* Top level headline
 * Second level
  * 3rd level
    some text
  * 3rd level
    more text
* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent
Note that the leading stars are not truly replaced by whitespace, they
are only fontified with the face @code{org-hide} that uses the
background color as font color.  If you are not using either white or
black background, you may have to customize this face to get the wanted
effect.  Another possibility is to set this font such that the extra
stars are @i{almost} invisible, for example using the color
@code{grey90} on a white background.

Things become cleaner still if you skip all the even levels and use only
odd levels 1, 3, 5..., effectively adding two stars to go from one
outline level to the next:

@example
* Top level headline
  * Second level
    * 3rd level
      some text
    * 3rd level
      more text
* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent
In order to make the structure editing and export commands handle this
convention correctly, use

@lisp
(setq org-odd-levels-only t)
@end lisp

@noindent
or set this on a per-file basis with one of the following lines (don't
forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in the startup line to
activate changes immediately).

@example
#+STARTUP: odd
#+STARTUP: oddeven
@end example

You can convert an Org-mode file from single-star-per-level to the
double-star-per-level convention with @kbd{M-x org-convert-to-odd-levels
RET} in that file.  The reverse operation is @kbd{M-x
org-convert-to-oddeven-levels}.

@node TTY keys, Interaction, Clean view, Miscellaneous
@section Using org-mode on a tty
@cindex tty keybindings

Org-mode uses a number of keys that are not accessible on a tty.  This
applies to most special keys like cursor keys, @key{TAB} and
@key{RET}, when these are combined with modifier keys like @key{Meta}
and/or @key{Shift}.  Org-mode uses these bindings because it needs to
provide keys for a large number of commands, and because these keys
appeared particularly easy to remember.  In order to still be able to
access the core functionality of Org-mode on a tty, alternative
bindings are provided.  Here is a complete list of these bindings,
which are obviously more cumbersome to use.  Note that sometimes a
work-around can be better.  For example changing a time stamp is
really only fun with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys.  On a tty you would
rather use @kbd{C-c .}  to re-insert the timestamp.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.15 0.2 0.2
@item @b{Default} @tab @b{Alternative 1} @tab @b{Alternative 2}
@item @kbd{S-@key{TAB}}     @tab @kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}       @tab
@item @kbd{M-@key{left}}    @tab @kbd{C-c C-x l}           @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{left}}
@item @kbd{M-S-@key{left}}  @tab @kbd{C-c C-x L}           @tab
@item @kbd{M-@key{right}}   @tab @kbd{C-c C-x r}           @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{right}}
@item @kbd{M-S-@key{right}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x R}           @tab
@item @kbd{M-@key{up}}      @tab @kbd{C-c C-x u}           @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{up}}
@item @kbd{M-S-@key{up}}    @tab @kbd{C-c C-x U}           @tab
@item @kbd{M-@key{down}}    @tab @kbd{C-c C-x d}           @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{down}}
@item @kbd{M-S-@key{down}}  @tab @kbd{C-c C-x D}           @tab
@item @kbd{S-@key{RET}}     @tab @kbd{C-c C-x c}           @tab
@item @kbd{M-@key{RET}}     @tab @kbd{C-c C-x m}           @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{RET}}
@item @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}   @tab @kbd{C-c C-x M}           @tab
@item @kbd{S-@key{left}}    @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{left}}  @tab
@item @kbd{S-@key{right}}   @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{right}} @tab
@item @kbd{S-@key{up}}      @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{up}}    @tab
@item @kbd{S-@key{down}}    @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{down}}  @tab
@end multitable

@node Interaction, Bugs, TTY keys, Miscellaneous
@section Interaction with other packages
@cindex packages, interaction with other
Org-mode lives in the world of GNU Emacs and interacts in various ways
with other code out there.

@menu
* Cooperation::                 Packages Org-mode cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts
@end menu

@node Cooperation, Conflicts, Interaction, Interaction
@subsection Packages that Org-mode cooperates with

@table @asis
@cindex @file{calc.el}
@item @file{calc.el} by Dave Gillespie
Org-mode uses the calc package for implementing spreadsheet
functionality in its tables (@pxref{Table calculations}).  Org-modes
checks for the availability of calc by looking for the function
@code{calc-eval} which should be autoloaded in your setup if calc has
been installed properly.  As of Emacs 22, calc is part of the Emacs
distribution.  Another possibility for interaction between the two
packages is using calc for embedded calculations. @xref{Embedded Mode,
, Embedded Mode, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}.
@cindex @file{constants.el}
@item @file{constants.el} by Carsten Dominik
In a table formula (@pxref{Table calculations}), it is possible to use
names for natural constants or units.  Instead of defining your own
constants in the variable @code{org-table-formula-constants}, install
the @file{constants} package which defines a large number of constants
and units, and lets you use unit prefixes like @samp{M} for
@samp{Mega} etc.  You will need version 2.0 of this package, available
at @url{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools}. Org-mode checks for
the function @code{constants-get}, which has to be autoloaded in your
setup.  See the installation instructions in the file
@file{constants.el}.
@item @file{cdlatex.el} by Carsten Dominik
@cindex @file{cdlatex.el}
Org-mode can make use of the cdlatex package to efficiently enter
La@TeX{} fragments into Org-mode files. See @ref{CDLaTeX mode}.
@item @file{remember.el} by John Wiegley
@cindex @file{remember.el}
Org mode cooperates with remember, see @ref{Remember}.
@file{Remember.el} is not part of Emacs, find it on the web.
@cindex @file{table.el}
@item @file{table.el} by Takaaki Ota
Org mode cooperates with table.el, see @ref{table.el}.  @file{table.el}
is part of Emacs 22.
@end table

@node Conflicts,  , Cooperation, Interaction
@subsection Packages that lead to conflicts with Org-mode

@table @asis

@cindex @file{allout.el}
@item @file{allout.el} by Ken Manheimer
Startup of Org-mode may fail with the error message
@code{(wrong-type-argument keymapp nil)} when there is an outdated
version @file{allout.el} on the load path, for example the version
distributed with Emacs 21.x.  Upgrade to Emacs 22 and this problem will
disappear.  If for some reason you cannot do this, make sure that org.el
is loaded @emph{before} @file{allout.el}, for example by putting
@code{(require 'org)} early enough into your @file{.emacs} file.

@cindex @file{CUA.el}
@item @file{CUA.el} by Kim. F. Storm
Keybindings in Org-mode conflict with the @kbd{S-<cursor>} keys
used by CUA-mode (as well as pc-select-mode and s-region-mode) to
select and extend the region.  If you want to use one of these
packages along with Org-mode, configure the variable
@code{org-CUA-compatible}.  When set, Org-mode will move the following
keybindings in org-mode files, and in the agenda buffer (but not
during date selection).

@example
S-UP    -> M-p             S-DOWN  -> M-n
S-LEFT  -> M--             S-RIGHT -> M-+
S-RET   -> C-S-RET
@end example

Yes, these are unfortunately more difficult to remember.  If you want
to have other replacement keys, look at the variable
@code{org-disputed-keys}.
@item @file{windmove.el} by Hovav Shacham
@cindex @file{windmove.el}
Also this package uses the @kbd{S-<cursor>} keys, so everything written
in the paragraph above about CUA mode also applies here.
@end table


@node Bugs,  , Interaction, Miscellaneous
@section Bugs
@cindex bugs

Here is a list of things that should work differently, but which I
have found too hard to fix.

@itemize @bullet
@item
If a table field starts with a link, and if the corresponding table
column is narrowed (@pxref{Narrow columns}) to a width too small to
display the link, the field would look entirely empty even though it is
not.  To prevent this, Org-mode throws an error.  The work-around is to
make the column wide enough to fit the link, or to add some text (at
least 2 characters) before the link in the same field.
@item
Narrowing table columns does not work on XEmacs, because the
@code{format} function does not transport text properties.
@item
Text in an entry protected with the @samp{QUOTE} keyword should not
autowrap.
@item
When the application called by @kbd{C-c C-o} to open a file link fails
(for example because the application does not exist or refuses to open
the file), it does so silently.  No error message is displayed.
@item
The remote-editing commands in the agenda buffer cannot be undone with
@code{undo} called from within the agenda buffer.  But you can go to
the corresponding buffer (using @key{TAB} or @key{RET} and execute
@code{undo} there.
@item
Recalculating a table line applies the formulas from left to right.
If a formula uses @emph{calculated} fields further down the row,
multiple recalculation may be needed to get all fields consistent.
@item
A single letter cannot be made bold, for example @samp{*a*}.
@item
The exporters work well, but could be made more efficient.
@end itemize


@node Extensions and Hacking, History and Acknowledgments, Miscellaneous, Top
@appendix Extensions, Hooks and Hacking

This appendix lists extensions for Org-mode written by other authors.
It also covers some aspects where users can easily extend the
functionality of Org-mode.

@menu
* Extensions::                  Existing 3rd-part extensions
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
@end menu

@node Extensions, Dynamic blocks, Extensions and Hacking, Extensions and Hacking
@section Third-party extensions for Org-mode

The following extensions for Org-mode have been written by other people:

@table @asis
@cindex @file{org-publish.el}
@item @file{org-publish.el} by David O'Toole
This package provides facilities for publishing related sets of Org-mode
files together with linked files like images as a webpages.  It is
highly configurable and can be used for other publishing purposes as
well.  As of Org-mode version 4.30, @file{org-publish.el} is part of the
Org-mode distribution.  It is not yet part of Emacs, however, a delay
caused by the preparations for the 22.1 release.  In the mean time,
@file{org-publish.el} can be downloaded from David's site:
@url{http://dto.freeshell.org/e/org-publish.el}.
@cindex @file{org-mouse.el}
@item @file{org-mouse.el} by Piotr Zielinski
This package implements extended mouse functionality for Org-mode.  It
allows you to cycle visibility and to edit the document structure with
the mouse.  Best of all, it provides a context-sensitive menu on
@key{mouse-3} that changes depending on the context of a mouse-click.
As of Org-mode version 4.53, @file{org-mouse.el} is part of the
Org-mode distribution.  It is not yet part of Emacs, however, a delay
caused by the preparations for the 22.1 release.  In the mean time,
@file{org-mouse.el} can be downloaded from Piotr's site:
@url{http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~pz215/files/org-mouse.el}.
@cindex @file{org-blog.el}
@item @file{org-blog.el} by David O'Toole
A blogging plug-in for @file{org-publish.el}.@*
@url{http://dto.freeshell.org/notebook/OrgMode.html}.
@cindex @file{org-blogging.el}
@item @file{org-blogging.el} by  Bastien Guerry
Publish Org-mode files as
blogs. @url{http://www.cognition.ens.fr/~guerry/org-blogging.html}.
@end table

@node Dynamic blocks,  , Extensions, Extensions and Hacking
@section Dynamic blocks

Org-mode documents can contain @emph{dynamic blocks}.  These are
specially marked regions that are updated by some user-written
function.  A good example for such a block is the clock table inserted
by the command @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} (@pxref{Clocking work time}).

Dynamic block are enclosed by a BEGIN-END structure that assigns a name
to the block and can also specify parameters for the function producing
the content of the block.

@example
#+BEGIN: myblock :parameter1 value1 :parameter2 value2 ...

#+END:
@end example

Dynamic blocks are updated with the following commands

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-u
@item C-c C-x C-u
Update dynamic block at point.
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
@item C-u C-c C-x C-u
Update all dynamic blocks in the current file.
@end table

Updating a dynamic block means to remove all the text between BEGIN and
END, parse the BEGIN line for parameters and then call the specific
writer function for this block to insert the new content.  For a block
with name @code{myblock}, the writer function is
@code{org-dblock-write:myblock} with as only parameter a property list
with the parameters given in the begin line.  Here is a trivial example
of a block that keeps track of when the block update function was last
run:

@example
#+BEGIN: block-update-time :format "on %m/%d/%Y at %H:%M"

#+END:
@end example

@noindent
The corresponding block writer function could look like this:

@lisp
(defun org-dblock-write:block-update-time (params)
   (let ((fmt (or (plist-get params :format) "%d. %m. %Y")))
     (insert "Last block update at: "
             (format-time-string fmt (current-time)))))
@end lisp

If you want to make sure that all dynamic blocks are always up-to-date,
you could add the function @code{org-update-all-dblocks} to a hook, for
example @code{before-save-hook}.  @code{org-update-all-dblocks} is
written in a way that is does nothing in buffers that are not in Org-mode.

@node History and Acknowledgments, Index, Extensions and Hacking, Top
@appendix History and Acknowledgments
@cindex acknowledgments
@cindex history
@cindex thanks

Org-mode was borne in 2003, out of frustration over the user interface
of the Emacs outline-mode.  All I wanted was to make working with an
outline tree possible without having to remember more than 10 commands
just for hiding and unhiding parts of the outline tree, and to allow to
restructure a tree easily.  Visibility cycling and structure editing
were originally implemented in the package @file{outline-magic.el}, but
quickly moved to the more general @file{org.el}.  TODO entries, basic
time stamps, and table support were added next, and highlight the two
main goals that Org-mode still has today: To create a new,
outline-based, plain text mode with innovative and intuitive editing
features, and to incorporate project planning functionality directly
into a notes file.

Since the first release, hundreds of emails to me or on
@code{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org} have provided a constant stream of bug
reports, feedback, new ideas, and sometimes even patches and add-on
code.  Many thanks to everyone who has helped to improve this package.
I am trying to keep here a list of the people who had significant
influence in shaping one or more aspects of Org-mode.  The list may not
be complete, if I have forgotten someone, please accept my apologies and
let me know.

@itemize @bullet

@item
@i{Thomas Baumann} contributed the code for links to the MH-E email
system.
@item
@i{Alex Bochannek} provided a patch for rounding time stamps.
@item
@i{Charles Cave}'s suggestion sparked the implementation of templates
for Remember.
@item
@i{Pavel Chalmoviansky} influenced the agenda treatment of items with
specified time.
@item
@i{Gregory Chernov} patched support for lisp forms into table
calculations and improved XEmacs compatibility, in particular by porting
@file{nouline.el} to XEmacs.
@item
@i{Sacha Chua} suggested to copy some linking code from Planner.
@item
@i{Eddward DeVilla} proposed and tested checkbox statistics.
@item
@i{Kees Dullemond} inspired the use of narrowed tabled columns.
@item
@i{Christian Egli} converted the documentation into TeXInfo format,
patched CSS formatting into the HTML exporter, and inspired the agenda.
@item
@i{Nic Ferrier} contributed mailcap and XOXO support.
@item
@i{Niels Giessen} had the idea to automatically archive DONE trees.
@item
@i{Bastien Guerry} provided extensive feedback.
@item
@i{Kai Grossjohann} pointed out key-binding conflicts with other packages.
@item
@i{Leon Liu} asked for embedded LaTeX and tested it.
@item
@i{Stefan Monnier} provided a patch to keep the Emacs-Lisp compiler
happy.
@item
@i{Todd Neal} provided patches for links to Info files and elisp forms.
@item
@i{Tim O'Callaghan} suggested in-file links, search options for general
file links, and TAGS.
@item
@i{Oliver Oppitz} suggested multi-state TODO items.
@item
@i{Scott Otterson} sparked the introduction of descriptive text for
links, among other things.
@item
@i{Pete Phillips} helped during the development of the TAGS feature, and
provided frequent feedback.
@item
@i{T.V. Raman} reported bugs and suggested improvements.
@item
@i{Matthias Rempe} (Oelde) provided ideas, Windows support, and quality
control.
@item
@i{Kevin Rogers} contributed code to access VM files on remote hosts.
@item
@i{Frank Ruell} solved the mystery of the @code{keymapp nil} bug, a
conflict with @file{allout.el}.
@item
@i{Jason Riedy} sent a patch to fix a bug with export of TODO keywords.
@item
@i{Philip Rooke} created the Org-mode reference card and provided lots
of feedback.
@item
@i{Christian Schlauer} proposed angular brackets around links, among
other things.
@item
Linking to VM/BBDB/GNUS was inspired by @i{Tom Shannon}'s
@file{organizer-mode.el}.
@item
@i{Daniel Sinder} came up with the idea of internal archiving by locking
subtrees.
@item
@i{Dale Smith} proposed link abbreviations.
@item
@i{David O'Toole} wrote @file{org-publish.el} and drafted the manual
chapter about publishing.
@item
@i{J@"urgen Vollmer} contributed code generating the table of contents
in HTML output.
@item
@i{Chris Wallace} provided a patch implementing the @samp{QUOTE}
keyword.
@item
@i{David Wainberg} suggested archiving, and improvements to the linking
system.
@item
@i{John Wiegley} wrote @file{emacs-wiki.el} and @file{planner.el}.  The
development of Org-mode was fully independent, and both systems are
really different beasts in their basic ideas and implementation details.
I later looked at John's code, however, and learned from his
implementation of (i) links where the link itself is hidden and only a
description is shown, and (ii) popping up a calendar to select a date.
@item
@i{Carsten Wimmer} suggested some changes and helped fix a bug in
linking to GNUS.
@item
@i{Roland Winkler} requested additional keybindings to make Org-mode
work on a tty.
@item
@i{Piotr Zielinski} wrote @file{org-mouse.el}, proposed agenda blocks
and contributed various ideas and code snippets.
@end itemize


@node Index, Key Index, History and Acknowledgments, Top
@unnumbered Index

@printindex cp

@node Key Index,  , Index, Top
@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@bye

@ignore
   arch-tag: 7893d1fe-cc57-4d13-b5e5-f494a1bcc7ac
@end ignore
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.