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@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002,
@c   2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Search, Fixit, Display, Top
@chapter Searching and Replacement
@cindex searching
@cindex finding strings within text

  Like other editors, Emacs has commands for searching for occurrences of
a string.  The principal search command is unusual in that it is
@dfn{incremental}; it begins to search before you have finished typing the
search string.  There are also nonincremental search commands more like
those of other editors.

  Besides the usual @code{replace-string} command that finds all
occurrences of one string and replaces them with another, Emacs has a
more flexible replacement command called @code{query-replace}, which
asks interactively which occurrences to replace.  There are also
commands to find and operate on all matches for a pattern.

  You can also search multiple files under control of a tags
table (@pxref{Tags Search}) or through the Dired @kbd{A} command
(@pxref{Operating on Files}), or ask the @code{grep} program to do it
(@pxref{Grep Searching}).


@menu
* Incremental Search::		Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::	Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::			Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::		Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::			Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::            Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::              A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::			To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::			Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search::	Operating on all matches for some regexp.
@end menu

@node Incremental Search
@section Incremental Search
@cindex incremental search
@cindex isearch

  An incremental search begins searching as soon as you type the first
character of the search string.  As you type in the search string, Emacs
shows you where the string (as you have typed it so far) would be
found.  When you have typed enough characters to identify the place you
want, you can stop.  Depending on what you plan to do next, you may or
may not need to terminate the search explicitly with @key{RET}.

@table @kbd
@item C-s
Incremental search forward (@code{isearch-forward}).
@item C-r
Incremental search backward (@code{isearch-backward}).
@end table

@menu
* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Non-ASCII Isearch::   How to search for non-ASCII characters.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Highlight Isearch::   Isearch highlights the other possible matches.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.
@end menu

@node Basic Isearch
@subsection Basics of Incremental Search

@kindex C-s
@findex isearch-forward
  @kbd{C-s} starts a forward incremental search.  It reads characters
from the keyboard, and moves point past the next occurrence of those
characters.  If you type @kbd{C-s} and then @kbd{F}, that puts the
cursor after the first @samp{F} (the first following the starting point, since
this is a forward search).  Then if you type an @kbd{O}, you will see
the cursor move to just after the first @samp{FO} (the @samp{F} in that
@samp{FO} may or may not be the first @samp{F}).  After another
@kbd{O}, the cursor moves to just after the first @samp{FOO} after the place
where you started the search.  At each step, the buffer text that
matches the search string is highlighted, if the terminal can do that;
the current search string is always displayed in the echo area.

  If you make a mistake in typing the search string, you can cancel
characters with @key{DEL}.  Each @key{DEL} cancels the last character of
search string.  This does not happen until Emacs is ready to read another
input character; first it must either find, or fail to find, the character
you want to erase.  If you do not want to wait for this to happen, use
@kbd{C-g} as described below.

  When you are satisfied with the place you have reached, you can type
@key{RET}, which stops searching, leaving the cursor where the search
brought it.  Also, any command not specially meaningful in searches
stops the searching and is then executed.  Thus, typing @kbd{C-a}
would exit the search and then move to the beginning of the line.
@key{RET} is necessary only if the next command you want to type is a
printing character, @key{DEL}, @key{RET}, or another character that is
special within searches (@kbd{C-q}, @kbd{C-w}, @kbd{C-r}, @kbd{C-s},
@kbd{C-y}, @kbd{M-y}, @kbd{M-r}, @kbd{M-c}, @kbd{M-e}, and some other
meta-characters).

  When you exit the incremental search, it sets the mark where point
@emph{was} before the search.  That is convenient for moving back
there.  In Transient Mark mode, incremental search sets the mark
without activating it, and does so only if the mark is not already
active.

@node Repeat Isearch
@subsection Repeating Incremental Search

  Sometimes you search for @samp{FOO} and find one, but not the one you
expected to find.  There was a second @samp{FOO} that you forgot
about, before the one you were aiming for.  In this event, type
another @kbd{C-s} to move to the next occurrence of the search string.
You can repeat this any number of times.  If you overshoot, you can
cancel some @kbd{C-s} characters with @key{DEL}.

  After you exit a search, you can search for the same string again by
typing just @kbd{C-s C-s}: the first @kbd{C-s} is the key that invokes
incremental search, and the second @kbd{C-s} means ``search again.''

  If a search is failing and you ask to repeat it by typing another
@kbd{C-s}, it starts again from the beginning of the buffer.
Repeating a failing reverse search with @kbd{C-r} starts again from
the end.  This is called @dfn{wrapping around}, and @samp{Wrapped}
appears in the search prompt once this has happened.  If you keep on
going past the original starting point of the search, it changes to
@samp{Overwrapped}, which means that you are revisiting matches that
you have already seen.

  To reuse earlier search strings, use the @dfn{search ring}.  The
commands @kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n} move through the ring to pick a search
string to reuse.  These commands leave the selected search ring element
in the minibuffer, where you can edit it.  To edit the current search
string in the minibuffer without replacing it with items from the
search ring, type @kbd{M-e}.  Type @kbd{C-s} or @kbd{C-r}
to terminate editing the string and search for it.

  You can change to searching backwards with @kbd{C-r}.  For instance,
if you are searching forward but you realize you were looking for
something above the starting point, you can do this.  Repeated
@kbd{C-r} keeps looking for more occurrences backwards.  A @kbd{C-s}
starts going forwards again.  @kbd{C-r} in a search can be canceled
with @key{DEL}.

@kindex C-r
@findex isearch-backward
  If you know initially that you want to search backwards, you can use
@kbd{C-r} instead of @kbd{C-s} to start the search, because @kbd{C-r}
as a key runs a command (@code{isearch-backward}) to search backward.
A backward search finds matches that end before the starting point,
just as a forward search finds matches that begin after it.

@node Error in Isearch
@subsection Errors in Incremental Search

  If your string is not found at all, the echo area says @samp{Failing
I-Search}.  The cursor is after the place where Emacs found as much of your
string as it could.  Thus, if you search for @samp{FOOT}, and there is no
@samp{FOOT}, you might see the cursor after the @samp{FOO} in @samp{FOOL}.
At this point there are several things you can do.  If your string was
mistyped, you can rub some of it out and correct it.  If you like the place
you have found, you can type @key{RET} or some other Emacs command to
remain there.  Or you can type @kbd{C-g}, which
removes from the search string the characters that could not be found (the
@samp{T} in @samp{FOOT}), leaving those that were found (the @samp{FOO} in
@samp{FOOT}).  A second @kbd{C-g} at that point cancels the search
entirely, returning point to where it was when the search started.

@cindex quitting (in search)
  The @kbd{C-g} ``quit'' character does special things during searches;
just what it does depends on the status of the search.  If the search has
found what you specified and is waiting for input, @kbd{C-g} cancels the
entire search.  The cursor moves back to where you started the search.  If
@kbd{C-g} is typed when there are characters in the search string that have
not been found---because Emacs is still searching for them, or because it
has failed to find them---then the search string characters which have not
been found are discarded from the search string.  With them gone, the
search is now successful and waiting for more input, so a second @kbd{C-g}
will cancel the entire search.

@node Special Isearch
@subsection Special Input for Incremental Search

  An upper-case letter in the search string makes the search
case-sensitive.  If you delete the upper-case character from the search
string, it ceases to have this effect.  @xref{Search Case}.

  To search for a newline, type @kbd{C-j}.  To search for another
control character, such as control-S or carriage return, you must quote
it by typing @kbd{C-q} first.  This function of @kbd{C-q} is analogous
to its use for insertion (@pxref{Inserting Text}): it causes the
following character to be treated the way any ``ordinary'' character is
treated in the same context.  You can also specify a character by its
octal code: enter @kbd{C-q} followed by a sequence of octal digits.

  @kbd{M-%} typed in incremental search invokes @code{query-replace}
or @code{query-replace-regexp} (depending on search mode) with the
current search string used as the string to replace.  @xref{Query
Replace}.

  Entering @key{RET} when the search string is empty launches
nonincremental search (@pxref{Nonincremental Search}).

@vindex isearch-mode-map
  To customize the special characters that incremental search understands,
alter their bindings in the keymap @code{isearch-mode-map}.  For a list
of bindings, look at the documentation of @code{isearch-mode} with
@kbd{C-h f isearch-mode @key{RET}}.

@node Non-ASCII Isearch
@subsection Isearch for Non-@acronym{ASCII} Characters
@cindex searching for non-@acronym{ASCII} characters
@cindex input method, during incremental search

  To enter non-@acronym{ASCII} characters in an incremental search,
you can use @kbd{C-q} (see the previous section), but it is easier to
use an input method (@pxref{Input Methods}).  If an input method is
enabled in the current buffer when you start the search, you can use
it in the search string also.  Emacs indicates that by including the
input method mnemonic in its prompt, like this:

@example
I-search [@var{im}]:
@end example

@noindent
@findex isearch-toggle-input-method
@findex isearch-toggle-specified-input-method
where @var{im} is the mnemonic of the active input method.

  You can toggle (enable or disable) the input method while you type
the search string with @kbd{C-\} (@code{isearch-toggle-input-method}).
You can turn on a certain (non-default) input method with @kbd{C-^}
(@code{isearch-toggle-specified-input-method}), which prompts for the
name of the input method.  The input method you enable during
incremental search remains enabled in the current buffer afterwards.

@node Isearch Yank
@subsection Isearch Yanking

  The characters @kbd{C-w} and @kbd{C-y} can be used in incremental
search to grab text from the buffer into the search string.  This
makes it convenient to search for another occurrence of text at point.
@kbd{C-w} copies the character or word after point as part of the
search string, advancing point over it.  (The decision, whether to
copy a character or a word, is heuristic.)  Another @kbd{C-s} to
repeat the search will then search for a string including that
character or word.

  @kbd{C-y} is similar to @kbd{C-w} but copies all the rest of the
current line into the search string.  If point is already at the end
of a line, it grabs the entire next line.  Both @kbd{C-y} and
@kbd{C-w} convert the text they copy to lower case if the search is
currently not case-sensitive; this is so the search remains
case-insensitive.

  @kbd{C-M-w} and @kbd{C-M-y} modify the search string by only one
character at a time: @kbd{C-M-w} deletes the last character from the
search string and @kbd{C-M-y} copies the character after point to the
end of the search string.  An alternative method to add the character
after point into the search string is to enter the minibuffer by
@kbd{M-e} and to type @kbd{C-f} at the end of the search string in the
minibuffer.

  The character @kbd{M-y} copies text from the kill ring into the search
string.  It uses the same text that @kbd{C-y} as a command would yank.
@kbd{Mouse-2} in the echo area does the same.
@xref{Yanking}.

@node Highlight Isearch
@subsection Lazy Search Highlighting
@cindex lazy search highlighting
@vindex isearch-lazy-highlight

  When you pause for a little while during incremental search, it
highlights all other possible matches for the search string.  This
makes it easier to anticipate where you can get to by typing @kbd{C-s}
or @kbd{C-r} to repeat the search.  The short delay before highlighting
other matches helps indicate which match is the current one.
If you don't like this feature, you can turn it off by setting
@code{isearch-lazy-highlight} to @code{nil}.

@cindex faces for highlighting search matches
  You can control how this highlighting looks by customizing the faces
@code{isearch} (used for the current match) and @code{lazy-highlight}
(for all the other matches).

@node Isearch Scroll
@subsection Scrolling During Incremental Search

  You can enable the use of vertical scrolling during incremental
search (without exiting the search) by setting the customizable
variable @code{isearch-allow-scroll} to a non-@code{nil} value.  This
applies to using the vertical scroll-bar and to certain keyboard
commands such as @kbd{@key{PRIOR}} (@code{scroll-down}),
@kbd{@key{NEXT}} (@code{scroll-up}) and @kbd{C-l} (@code{recenter}).
You must run these commands via their key sequences to stay in the
search---typing @kbd{M-x} will terminate the search.  You can give
prefix arguments to these commands in the usual way.

  This feature won't let you scroll the current match out of visibility,
however.

  The feature also affects some other commands, such as @kbd{C-x 2}
(@code{split-window-vertically}) and @kbd{C-x ^}
(@code{enlarge-window}) which don't exactly scroll but do affect where
the text appears on the screen.  In general, it applies to any command
whose name has a non-@code{nil} @code{isearch-scroll} property.  So you
can control which commands are affected by changing these properties.

  For example, to make @kbd{C-h l} usable within an incremental search
in all future Emacs sessions, use @kbd{C-h c} to find what command it
runs.  (You type @kbd{C-h c C-h l}; it says @code{view-lossage}.)
Then you can put the following line in your @file{.emacs} file
(@pxref{Init File}):

@example
(put 'view-lossage 'isearch-scroll t)
@end example

@noindent
This feature can be applied to any command that doesn't permanently
change point, the buffer contents, the match data, the current buffer,
or the selected window and frame.  The command must not itself attempt
an incremental search.

@node Slow Isearch
@subsection Slow Terminal Incremental Search

  Incremental search on a slow terminal uses a modified style of display
that is designed to take less time.  Instead of redisplaying the buffer at
each place the search gets to, it creates a new single-line window and uses
that to display the line that the search has found.  The single-line window
comes into play as soon as point moves outside of the text that is already
on the screen.

  When you terminate the search, the single-line window is removed.
Emacs then redisplays the window in which the search was done, to show
its new position of point.

@vindex search-slow-speed
  The slow terminal style of display is used when the terminal baud rate is
less than or equal to the value of the variable @code{search-slow-speed},
initially 1200.  See also the discussion of the variable @code{baud-rate}
(@pxref{baud-rate,, Customization of Display}).

@vindex search-slow-window-lines
  The number of lines to use in slow terminal search display is controlled
by the variable @code{search-slow-window-lines}.  Its normal value is 1.

@node Nonincremental Search
@section Nonincremental Search
@cindex nonincremental search

  Emacs also has conventional nonincremental search commands, which require
you to type the entire search string before searching begins.

@table @kbd
@item C-s @key{RET} @var{string} @key{RET}
Search for @var{string}.
@item C-r @key{RET} @var{string} @key{RET}
Search backward for @var{string}.
@end table

  To do a nonincremental search, first type @kbd{C-s @key{RET}}.  This
enters the minibuffer to read the search string; terminate the string
with @key{RET}, and then the search takes place.  If the string is not
found, the search command signals an error.

  When you type @kbd{C-s @key{RET}}, the @kbd{C-s} invokes incremental
search as usual.  That command is specially programmed to invoke
nonincremental search, @code{search-forward}, if the string you
specify is empty.  (Such an empty argument would otherwise be
useless.)  But it does not call @code{search-forward} right away.  First
it checks the next input character to see if is @kbd{C-w},
which specifies a word search.
@ifnottex
@xref{Word Search}.
@end ifnottex
@kbd{C-r @key{RET}} does likewise, for a reverse incremental search.

@findex search-forward
@findex search-backward
  Forward and backward nonincremental searches are implemented by the
commands @code{search-forward} and @code{search-backward}.  These
commands may be bound to keys in the usual manner.  The feature that you
can get to them via the incremental search commands exists for
historical reasons, and to avoid the need to find separate key sequences
for them.

@node Word Search
@section Word Search
@cindex word search

  Word search searches for a sequence of words without regard to how the
words are separated.  More precisely, you type a string of many words,
using single spaces to separate them, and the string can be found even
if there are multiple spaces, newlines, or other punctuation characters
between these words.

  Word search is useful for editing a printed document made with a text
formatter.  If you edit while looking at the printed, formatted version,
you can't tell where the line breaks are in the source file.  With word
search, you can search without having to know them.

@table @kbd
@item C-s @key{RET} C-w @var{words} @key{RET}
Search for @var{words}, ignoring details of punctuation.
@item C-r @key{RET} C-w @var{words} @key{RET}
Search backward for @var{words}, ignoring details of punctuation.
@end table

  Word search as a special case of nonincremental search is invoked
with @kbd{C-s @key{RET} C-w}.  This is followed by the search string,
which must always be terminated with @key{RET}.  Being nonincremental,
this search does not start until the argument is terminated.  It works
by constructing a regular expression and searching for that; see
@ref{Regexp Search}.

  Use @kbd{C-r @key{RET} C-w} to do backward word search.

  You can also invoke word search with @kbd{C-s M-e C-w} or @kbd{C-r
M-e C-w} followed by the search string and terminated with @key{RET},
@kbd{C-s} or @kbd{C-r}.  This puts word search into incremental mode
where you can use all keys available for incremental search.  However,
when you type more words in incremental word search, it will fail
until you type complete words.

@findex word-search-forward
@findex word-search-backward
  Forward and backward word searches are implemented by the commands
@code{word-search-forward} and @code{word-search-backward}.  These
commands may be bound to keys in the usual manner.  They are available
via the incremental search commands both for historical reasons and
to avoid the need to find separate key sequences for them.

@node Regexp Search
@section Regular Expression Search
@cindex regular expression
@cindex regexp

  A @dfn{regular expression} (@dfn{regexp}, for short) is a pattern
that denotes a class of alternative strings to match, possibly
infinitely many.  GNU Emacs provides both incremental and
nonincremental ways to search for a match for a regexp.  The syntax of
regular expressions is explained in the following section.

@kindex C-M-s
@findex isearch-forward-regexp
@kindex C-M-r
@findex isearch-backward-regexp
  Incremental search for a regexp is done by typing @kbd{C-M-s}
(@code{isearch-forward-regexp}), by invoking @kbd{C-s} with a
prefix argument (whose value does not matter), or by typing @kbd{M-r}
within a forward incremental search.  This command reads a
search string incrementally just like @kbd{C-s}, but it treats the
search string as a regexp rather than looking for an exact match
against the text in the buffer.  Each time you add text to the search
string, you make the regexp longer, and the new regexp is searched
for.  To search backward for a regexp, use @kbd{C-M-r}
(@code{isearch-backward-regexp}), @kbd{C-r} with a prefix argument,
or @kbd{M-r} within a backward incremental search.

  All of the control characters that do special things within an
ordinary incremental search have the same function in incremental regexp
search.  Typing @kbd{C-s} or @kbd{C-r} immediately after starting the
search retrieves the last incremental search regexp used; that is to
say, incremental regexp and non-regexp searches have independent
defaults.  They also have separate search rings that you can access with
@kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n}.

@vindex search-whitespace-regexp
  If you type @key{SPC} in incremental regexp search, it matches any
sequence of whitespace characters, including newlines.  If you want to
match just a space, type @kbd{C-q @key{SPC}}.  You can control what a
bare space matches by setting the variable
@code{search-whitespace-regexp} to the desired regexp.

  In some cases, adding characters to the regexp in an incremental regexp
search can make the cursor move back and start again.  For example, if
you have searched for @samp{foo} and you add @samp{\|bar}, the cursor
backs up in case the first @samp{bar} precedes the first @samp{foo}.

  Forward and backward regexp search are not symmetrical, because
regexp matching in Emacs always operates forward, starting with the
beginning of the regexp.  Thus, forward regexp search scans forward,
trying a forward match at each possible starting position.  Backward
regexp search scans backward, trying a forward match at each possible
starting position.  These search methods are not mirror images.

@findex re-search-forward
@findex re-search-backward
  Nonincremental search for a regexp is done by the functions
@code{re-search-forward} and @code{re-search-backward}.  You can invoke
these with @kbd{M-x}, or bind them to keys, or invoke them by way of
incremental regexp search with @kbd{C-M-s @key{RET}} and @kbd{C-M-r
@key{RET}}.

  If you use the incremental regexp search commands with a prefix
argument, they perform ordinary string search, like
@code{isearch-forward} and @code{isearch-backward}.  @xref{Incremental
Search}.

@node Regexps
@section Syntax of Regular Expressions
@cindex syntax of regexps

  This manual describes regular expression features that users
typically want to use.  There are additional features that are
mainly used in Lisp programs; see @ref{Regular Expressions,,,
elisp, The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.

  Regular expressions have a syntax in which a few characters are
special constructs and the rest are @dfn{ordinary}.  An ordinary
character is a simple regular expression which matches that same
character and nothing else.  The special characters are @samp{$},
@samp{^}, @samp{.}, @samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?}, @samp{[}, and
@samp{\}.  The character @samp{]} is special if it ends a character
alternative (see later).  The character @samp{-} is special inside a
character alternative.  Any other character appearing in a regular
expression is ordinary, unless a @samp{\} precedes it.  (When you use
regular expressions in a Lisp program, each @samp{\} must be doubled,
see the example near the end of this section.)

  For example, @samp{f} is not a special character, so it is ordinary, and
therefore @samp{f} is a regular expression that matches the string
@samp{f} and no other string.  (It does @emph{not} match the string
@samp{ff}.)  Likewise, @samp{o} is a regular expression that matches
only @samp{o}.  (When case distinctions are being ignored, these regexps
also match @samp{F} and @samp{O}, but we consider this a generalization
of ``the same string,'' rather than an exception.)

  Any two regular expressions @var{a} and @var{b} can be concatenated.  The
result is a regular expression which matches a string if @var{a} matches
some amount of the beginning of that string and @var{b} matches the rest of
the string.@refill

  As a simple example, we can concatenate the regular expressions @samp{f}
and @samp{o} to get the regular expression @samp{fo}, which matches only
the string @samp{fo}.  Still trivial.  To do something nontrivial, you
need to use one of the special characters.  Here is a list of them.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{.}@: @r{(Period)}
is a special character that matches any single character except a newline.
Using concatenation, we can make regular expressions like @samp{a.b}, which
matches any three-character string that begins with @samp{a} and ends with
@samp{b}.@refill

@item @kbd{*}
is not a construct by itself; it is a postfix operator that means to
match the preceding regular expression repetitively as many times as
possible.  Thus, @samp{o*} matches any number of @samp{o}s (including no
@samp{o}s).

@samp{*} always applies to the @emph{smallest} possible preceding
expression.  Thus, @samp{fo*} has a repeating @samp{o}, not a repeating
@samp{fo}.  It matches @samp{f}, @samp{fo}, @samp{foo}, and so on.

The matcher processes a @samp{*} construct by matching, immediately,
as many repetitions as can be found.  Then it continues with the rest
of the pattern.  If that fails, backtracking occurs, discarding some
of the matches of the @samp{*}-modified construct in case that makes
it possible to match the rest of the pattern.  For example, in matching
@samp{ca*ar} against the string @samp{caaar}, the @samp{a*} first
tries to match all three @samp{a}s; but the rest of the pattern is
@samp{ar} and there is only @samp{r} left to match, so this try fails.
The next alternative is for @samp{a*} to match only two @samp{a}s.
With this choice, the rest of the regexp matches successfully.@refill

@item @kbd{+}
is a postfix operator, similar to @samp{*} except that it must match
the preceding expression at least once.  So, for example, @samp{ca+r}
matches the strings @samp{car} and @samp{caaaar} but not the string
@samp{cr}, whereas @samp{ca*r} matches all three strings.

@item @kbd{?}
is a postfix operator, similar to @samp{*} except that it can match the
preceding expression either once or not at all.  For example,
@samp{ca?r} matches @samp{car} or @samp{cr}; nothing else.

@item @kbd{*?}, @kbd{+?}, @kbd{??}
@cindex non-greedy regexp matching
are non-greedy variants of the operators above.  The normal operators
@samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?} are @dfn{greedy} in that they match as
much as they can, as long as the overall regexp can still match.  With
a following @samp{?}, they are non-greedy: they will match as little
as possible.

Thus, both @samp{ab*} and @samp{ab*?} can match the string @samp{a}
and the string @samp{abbbb}; but if you try to match them both against
the text @samp{abbb}, @samp{ab*} will match it all (the longest valid
match), while @samp{ab*?}  will match just @samp{a} (the shortest
valid match).

Non-greedy operators match the shortest possible string starting at a
given starting point; in a forward search, though, the earliest
possible starting point for match is always the one chosen.  Thus, if
you search for @samp{a.*?$} against the text @samp{abbab} followed by
a newline, it matches the whole string.  Since it @emph{can} match
starting at the first @samp{a}, it does.

@item @kbd{\@{@var{n}\@}}
is a postfix operator that specifies repetition @var{n} times---that
is, the preceding regular expression must match exactly @var{n} times
in a row.  For example, @samp{x\@{4\@}} matches the string @samp{xxxx}
and nothing else.

@item @kbd{\@{@var{n},@var{m}\@}}
is a postfix operator that specifies repetition between @var{n} and
@var{m} times---that is, the preceding regular expression must match
at least @var{n} times, but no more than @var{m} times.  If @var{m} is
omitted, then there is no upper limit, but the preceding regular
expression must match at least @var{n} times.@* @samp{\@{0,1\@}} is
equivalent to @samp{?}. @* @samp{\@{0,\@}} is equivalent to
@samp{*}. @* @samp{\@{1,\@}} is equivalent to @samp{+}.

@item @kbd{[ @dots{} ]}
is a @dfn{character set}, which begins with @samp{[} and is terminated
by @samp{]}.  In the simplest case, the characters between the two
brackets are what this set can match.

Thus, @samp{[ad]} matches either one @samp{a} or one @samp{d}, and
@samp{[ad]*} matches any string composed of just @samp{a}s and @samp{d}s
(including the empty string), from which it follows that @samp{c[ad]*r}
matches @samp{cr}, @samp{car}, @samp{cdr}, @samp{caddaar}, etc.

You can also include character ranges in a character set, by writing the
starting and ending characters with a @samp{-} between them.  Thus,
@samp{[a-z]} matches any lower-case @acronym{ASCII} letter.  Ranges may be
intermixed freely with individual characters, as in @samp{[a-z$%.]},
which matches any lower-case @acronym{ASCII} letter or @samp{$}, @samp{%} or
period.

Note that the usual regexp special characters are not special inside a
character set.  A completely different set of special characters exists
inside character sets: @samp{]}, @samp{-} and @samp{^}.

To include a @samp{]} in a character set, you must make it the first
character.  For example, @samp{[]a]} matches @samp{]} or @samp{a}.  To
include a @samp{-}, write @samp{-} as the first or last character of the
set, or put it after a range.  Thus, @samp{[]-]} matches both @samp{]}
and @samp{-}.

To include @samp{^} in a set, put it anywhere but at the beginning of
the set.  (At the beginning, it complements the set---see below.)

When you use a range in case-insensitive search, you should write both
ends of the range in upper case, or both in lower case, or both should
be non-letters.  The behavior of a mixed-case range such as @samp{A-z}
is somewhat ill-defined, and it may change in future Emacs versions.

@item @kbd{[^ @dots{} ]}
@samp{[^} begins a @dfn{complemented character set}, which matches any
character except the ones specified.  Thus, @samp{[^a-z0-9A-Z]} matches
all characters @emph{except} @acronym{ASCII} letters and digits.

@samp{^} is not special in a character set unless it is the first
character.  The character following the @samp{^} is treated as if it
were first (in other words, @samp{-} and @samp{]} are not special there).

A complemented character set can match a newline, unless newline is
mentioned as one of the characters not to match.  This is in contrast to
the handling of regexps in programs such as @code{grep}.

@item @kbd{^}
is a special character that matches the empty string, but only at the
beginning of a line in the text being matched.  Otherwise it fails to
match anything.  Thus, @samp{^foo} matches a @samp{foo} that occurs at
the beginning of a line.

For historical compatibility reasons, @samp{^} can be used with this
meaning only at the beginning of the regular expression, or after
@samp{\(} or @samp{\|}.

@item @kbd{$}
is similar to @samp{^} but matches only at the end of a line.  Thus,
@samp{x+$} matches a string of one @samp{x} or more at the end of a line.

For historical compatibility reasons, @samp{$} can be used with this
meaning only at the end of the regular expression, or before @samp{\)}
or @samp{\|}.

@item @kbd{\}
has two functions: it quotes the special characters (including
@samp{\}), and it introduces additional special constructs.

Because @samp{\} quotes special characters, @samp{\$} is a regular
expression that matches only @samp{$}, and @samp{\[} is a regular
expression that matches only @samp{[}, and so on.

See the following section for the special constructs that begin
with @samp{\}.
@end table

  Note: for historical compatibility, special characters are treated as
ordinary ones if they are in contexts where their special meanings make no
sense.  For example, @samp{*foo} treats @samp{*} as ordinary since there is
no preceding expression on which the @samp{*} can act.  It is poor practice
to depend on this behavior; it is better to quote the special character anyway,
regardless of where it appears.

As a @samp{\} is not special inside a character alternative, it can
never remove the special meaning of @samp{-} or @samp{]}.  So you
should not quote these characters when they have no special meaning
either.  This would not clarify anything, since backslashes can
legitimately precede these characters where they @emph{have} special
meaning, as in @samp{[^\]} (@code{"[^\\]"} for Lisp string syntax),
which matches any single character except a backslash.

@node Regexp Backslash
@section Backslash in Regular Expressions

  For the most part, @samp{\} followed by any character matches only
that character.  However, there are several exceptions: two-character
sequences starting with @samp{\} that have special meanings.  The
second character in the sequence is always an ordinary character when
used on its own.  Here is a table of @samp{\} constructs.

@table @kbd
@item \|
specifies an alternative.  Two regular expressions @var{a} and @var{b}
with @samp{\|} in between form an expression that matches some text if
either @var{a} matches it or @var{b} matches it.  It works by trying to
match @var{a}, and if that fails, by trying to match @var{b}.

Thus, @samp{foo\|bar} matches either @samp{foo} or @samp{bar}
but no other string.@refill

@samp{\|} applies to the largest possible surrounding expressions.  Only a
surrounding @samp{\( @dots{} \)} grouping can limit the grouping power of
@samp{\|}.@refill

Full backtracking capability exists to handle multiple uses of @samp{\|}.

@item \( @dots{} \)
is a grouping construct that serves three purposes:

@enumerate
@item
To enclose a set of @samp{\|} alternatives for other operations.
Thus, @samp{\(foo\|bar\)x} matches either @samp{foox} or @samp{barx}.

@item
To enclose a complicated expression for the postfix operators @samp{*},
@samp{+} and @samp{?} to operate on.  Thus, @samp{ba\(na\)*} matches
@samp{bananana}, etc., with any (zero or more) number of @samp{na}
strings.@refill

@item
To record a matched substring for future reference.
@end enumerate

This last application is not a consequence of the idea of a
parenthetical grouping; it is a separate feature that is assigned as a
second meaning to the same @samp{\( @dots{} \)} construct.  In practice
there is usually no conflict between the two meanings; when there is
a conflict, you can use a ``shy'' group.

@item \(?: @dots{} \)
@cindex shy group, in regexp
specifies a ``shy'' group that does not record the matched substring;
you can't refer back to it with @samp{\@var{d}}.  This is useful
in mechanically combining regular expressions, so that you
can add groups for syntactic purposes without interfering with
the numbering of the groups that are meant to be referred to.

@item \@var{d}
@cindex back reference, in regexp
matches the same text that matched the @var{d}th occurrence of a
@samp{\( @dots{} \)} construct.  This is called a @dfn{back
reference}.

After the end of a @samp{\( @dots{} \)} construct, the matcher remembers
the beginning and end of the text matched by that construct.  Then,
later on in the regular expression, you can use @samp{\} followed by the
digit @var{d} to mean ``match the same text matched the @var{d}th time
by the @samp{\( @dots{} \)} construct.''

The strings matching the first nine @samp{\( @dots{} \)} constructs
appearing in a regular expression are assigned numbers 1 through 9 in
the order that the open-parentheses appear in the regular expression.
So you can use @samp{\1} through @samp{\9} to refer to the text matched
by the corresponding @samp{\( @dots{} \)} constructs.

For example, @samp{\(.*\)\1} matches any newline-free string that is
composed of two identical halves.  The @samp{\(.*\)} matches the first
half, which may be anything, but the @samp{\1} that follows must match
the same exact text.

If a particular @samp{\( @dots{} \)} construct matches more than once
(which can easily happen if it is followed by @samp{*}), only the last
match is recorded.

@item \`
matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of the string or
buffer (or its accessible portion) being matched against.

@item \'
matches the empty string, but only at the end of the string or buffer
(or its accessible portion) being matched against.

@item \=
matches the empty string, but only at point.

@item \b
matches the empty string, but only at the beginning or
end of a word.  Thus, @samp{\bfoo\b} matches any occurrence of
@samp{foo} as a separate word.  @samp{\bballs?\b} matches
@samp{ball} or @samp{balls} as a separate word.@refill

@samp{\b} matches at the beginning or end of the buffer
regardless of what text appears next to it.

@item \B
matches the empty string, but @emph{not} at the beginning or
end of a word.

@item \<
matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a word.
@samp{\<} matches at the beginning of the buffer only if a
word-constituent character follows.

@item \>
matches the empty string, but only at the end of a word.  @samp{\>}
matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
word-constituent character.

@item \w
matches any word-constituent character.  The syntax table
determines which characters these are.  @xref{Syntax}.

@item \W
matches any character that is not a word-constituent.

@item \_<
matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a symbol.
A symbol is a sequence of one or more symbol-constituent characters.
A symbol-constituent character is a character whose syntax is either
@samp{w} or @samp{_}.  @samp{\_<} matches at the beginning of the
buffer only if a symbol-constituent character follows.

@item \_>
matches the empty string, but only at the end of a symbol.  @samp{\_>}
matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
symbol-constituent character.

@item \s@var{c}
matches any character whose syntax is @var{c}.  Here @var{c} is a
character that designates a particular syntax class: thus, @samp{w}
for word constituent, @samp{-} or @samp{ } for whitespace, @samp{.}
for ordinary punctuation, etc.  @xref{Syntax}.

@item \S@var{c}
matches any character whose syntax is not @var{c}.

@cindex categories of characters
@cindex characters which belong to a specific language
@findex describe-categories
@item \c@var{c}
matches any character that belongs to the category @var{c}.  For
example, @samp{\cc} matches Chinese characters, @samp{\cg} matches
Greek characters, etc.  For the description of the known categories,
type @kbd{M-x describe-categories @key{RET}}.

@item \C@var{c}
matches any character that does @emph{not} belong to category
@var{c}.
@end table

  The constructs that pertain to words and syntax are controlled by the
setting of the syntax table (@pxref{Syntax}).

@node Regexp Example
@section Regular Expression Example

  Here is a complicated regexp---a simplified version of the regexp
that Emacs uses, by default, to recognize the end of a sentence
together with any whitespace that follows.  We show its Lisp syntax to
distinguish the spaces from the tab characters.  In Lisp syntax, the
string constant begins and ends with a double-quote.  @samp{\"} stands
for a double-quote as part of the regexp, @samp{\\} for a backslash as
part of the regexp, @samp{\t} for a tab, and @samp{\n} for a newline.

@example
"[.?!][]\"')]*\\($\\| $\\|\t\\|  \\)[ \t\n]*"
@end example

@noindent
This contains four parts in succession: a character set matching
period, @samp{?}, or @samp{!}; a character set matching
close-brackets, quotes, or parentheses, repeated zero or more times; a
set of alternatives within backslash-parentheses that matches either
end-of-line, a space at the end of a line, a tab, or two spaces; and a
character set matching whitespace characters, repeated any number of
times.

  To enter the same regexp in incremental search, you would type
@key{TAB} to enter a tab, and @kbd{C-j} to enter a newline.  You would
also type single backslashes as themselves, instead of doubling them
for Lisp syntax.  In commands that use ordinary minibuffer input to
read a regexp, you would quote the @kbd{C-j} by preceding it with a
@kbd{C-q} to prevent @kbd{C-j} from exiting the minibuffer.

@node Search Case
@section Searching and Case

  Incremental searches in Emacs normally ignore the case of the text
they are searching through, if you specify the text in lower case.
Thus, if you specify searching for @samp{foo}, then @samp{Foo} and
@samp{foo} are also considered a match.  Regexps, and in particular
character sets, are included: @samp{[ab]} would match @samp{a} or
@samp{A} or @samp{b} or @samp{B}.@refill

  An upper-case letter anywhere in the incremental search string makes
the search case-sensitive.  Thus, searching for @samp{Foo} does not find
@samp{foo} or @samp{FOO}.  This applies to regular expression search as
well as to string search.  The effect ceases if you delete the
upper-case letter from the search string.

  Typing @kbd{M-c} within an incremental search toggles the case
sensitivity of that search.  The effect does not extend beyond the
current incremental search to the next one, but it does override the
effect of including an upper-case letter in the current search.

@vindex case-fold-search
@vindex default-case-fold-search
  If you set the variable @code{case-fold-search} to @code{nil}, then
all letters must match exactly, including case.  This is a per-buffer
variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer, but
there is a default value in @code{default-case-fold-search} that you
can also set.  @xref{Locals}.  This variable applies to nonincremental
searches also, including those performed by the replace commands
(@pxref{Replace}) and the minibuffer history matching commands
(@pxref{Minibuffer History}).

  Several related variables control case-sensitivity of searching and
matching for specific commands or activities.  For instance,
@code{tags-case-fold-search} controls case sensitivity for
@code{find-tag}.  To find these variables, do @kbd{M-x
apropos-variable @key{RET} case-fold-search @key{RET}}.

@node Replace
@section Replacement Commands
@cindex replacement
@cindex search-and-replace commands
@cindex string substitution
@cindex global substitution

  Global search-and-replace operations are not needed often in Emacs,
but they are available.  In addition to the simple @kbd{M-x
replace-string} command which replaces all occurrences,
there is @kbd{M-%} (@code{query-replace}), which presents each occurrence
of the pattern and asks you whether to replace it.

  The replace commands normally operate on the text from point to the
end of the buffer; however, in Transient Mark mode (@pxref{Transient
Mark}), when the mark is active, they operate on the region.  The
basic replace commands replace one string (or regexp) with one
replacement string.  It is possible to perform several replacements in
parallel using the command @code{expand-region-abbrevs}
(@pxref{Expanding Abbrevs}).

@menu
* Unconditional Replace::	Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::		Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::	How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::		How to use querying.
@end menu

@node Unconditional Replace, Regexp Replace, Replace, Replace
@subsection Unconditional Replacement
@findex replace-string

@table @kbd
@item M-x replace-string @key{RET} @var{string} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
Replace every occurrence of @var{string} with @var{newstring}.
@end table

  To replace every instance of @samp{foo} after point with @samp{bar},
use the command @kbd{M-x replace-string} with the two arguments
@samp{foo} and @samp{bar}.  Replacement happens only in the text after
point, so if you want to cover the whole buffer you must go to the
beginning first.  All occurrences up to the end of the buffer are
replaced; to limit replacement to part of the buffer, narrow to that
part of the buffer before doing the replacement (@pxref{Narrowing}).
In Transient Mark mode, when the region is active, replacement is
limited to the region (@pxref{Transient Mark}).

  When @code{replace-string} exits, it leaves point at the last
occurrence replaced.  It sets the mark to the prior position of point
(where the @code{replace-string} command was issued); use @kbd{C-u
C-@key{SPC}} to move back there.

  A numeric argument restricts replacement to matches that are surrounded
by word boundaries.  The argument's value doesn't matter.

  @xref{Replacement and Case}, for details about case-sensitivity in
replace commands.

  What if you want to exchange @samp{x} and @samp{y}: replace every @samp{x} with a @samp{y} and vice versa?  You can do it this way:

@example
M-x replace-string @key{RET} x @key{RET} @@TEMP@@ @key{RET}
M-< M-x replace-string @key{RET} y @key{RET} x @key{RET}
M-< M-x replace-string @key{RET} @@TEMP@@ @key{RET} y @key{RET}
@end example

@noindent
This works provided the string @samp{@@TEMP@@} does not appear
in your text.

@node Regexp Replace, Replacement and Case, Unconditional Replace, Replace
@subsection Regexp Replacement
@findex replace-regexp

  The @kbd{M-x replace-string} command replaces exact matches for a
single string.  The similar command @kbd{M-x replace-regexp} replaces
any match for a specified pattern.

@table @kbd
@item M-x replace-regexp @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
Replace every match for @var{regexp} with @var{newstring}.
@end table

@cindex back reference, in regexp replacement
  In @code{replace-regexp}, the @var{newstring} need not be constant:
it can refer to all or part of what is matched by the @var{regexp}.
@samp{\&} in @var{newstring} stands for the entire match being
replaced.  @samp{\@var{d}} in @var{newstring}, where @var{d} is a
digit, stands for whatever matched the @var{d}th parenthesized
grouping in @var{regexp}.  (This is called a ``back reference.'')
@samp{\#} refers to the count of replacements already made in this
command, as a decimal number.  In the first replacement, @samp{\#}
stands for @samp{0}; in the second, for @samp{1}; and so on.  For
example,

@example
M-x replace-regexp @key{RET} c[ad]+r @key{RET} \&-safe @key{RET}
@end example

@noindent
replaces (for example) @samp{cadr} with @samp{cadr-safe} and @samp{cddr}
with @samp{cddr-safe}.

@example
M-x replace-regexp @key{RET} \(c[ad]+r\)-safe @key{RET} \1 @key{RET}
@end example

@noindent
performs the inverse transformation.  To include a @samp{\} in the
text to replace with, you must enter @samp{\\}.

  If you want to enter part of the replacement string by hand each
time, use @samp{\?} in the replacement string.  Each replacement will
ask you to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer, putting
point where the @samp{\?} was.

  The remainder of this subsection is intended for specialized tasks
and requires knowledge of Lisp.  Most readers can skip it.

  You can use Lisp expressions to calculate parts of the
replacement string.  To do this, write @samp{\,} followed by the
expression in the replacement string.  Each replacement calculates the
value of the expression and converts it to text without quoting (if
it's a string, this means using the string's contents), and uses it in
the replacement string in place of the expression itself.  If the
expression is a symbol, one space in the replacement string after the
symbol name goes with the symbol name, so the value replaces them
both.

  Inside such an expression, you can use some special sequences.
@samp{\&} and @samp{\@var{n}} refer here, as usual, to the entire
match as a string, and to a submatch as a string.  @var{n} may be
multiple digits, and the value of @samp{\@var{n}} is @code{nil} if
subexpression @var{n} did not match.  You can also use @samp{\#&} and
@samp{\#@var{n}} to refer to those matches as numbers (this is valid
when the match or submatch has the form of a numeral).  @samp{\#} here
too stands for the number of already-completed replacements.

  Repeating our example to exchange @samp{x} and @samp{y}, we can thus
do it also this way:

@example
M-x replace-regexp @key{RET} \(x\)\|y @key{RET}
\,(if \1 "y" "x") @key{RET}
@end example

  For computing replacement strings for @samp{\,}, the @code{format}
function is often useful (@pxref{Formatting Strings,,, elisp, The Emacs
Lisp Reference Manual}).  For example, to add consecutively numbered
strings like @samp{ABC00042} to columns 73 @w{to 80} (unless they are
already occupied), you can use

@example
M-x replace-regexp @key{RET} ^.\@{0,72\@}$ @key{RET}
\,(format "%-72sABC%05d" \& \#) @key{RET}
@end example

@node Replacement and Case, Query Replace, Regexp Replace, Replace
@subsection Replace Commands and Case

  If the first argument of a replace command is all lower case, the
command ignores case while searching for occurrences to
replace---provided @code{case-fold-search} is non-@code{nil}.  If
@code{case-fold-search} is set to @code{nil}, case is always significant
in all searches.

@vindex case-replace
  In addition, when the @var{newstring} argument is all or partly lower
case, replacement commands try to preserve the case pattern of each
occurrence.  Thus, the command

@example
M-x replace-string @key{RET} foo @key{RET} bar @key{RET}
@end example

@noindent
replaces a lower case @samp{foo} with a lower case @samp{bar}, an
all-caps @samp{FOO} with @samp{BAR}, and a capitalized @samp{Foo} with
@samp{Bar}.  (These three alternatives---lower case, all caps, and
capitalized, are the only ones that @code{replace-string} can
distinguish.)

  If upper-case letters are used in the replacement string, they remain
upper case every time that text is inserted.  If upper-case letters are
used in the first argument, the second argument is always substituted
exactly as given, with no case conversion.  Likewise, if either
@code{case-replace} or @code{case-fold-search} is set to @code{nil},
replacement is done without case conversion.

@node Query Replace,, Replacement and Case, Replace
@subsection Query Replace
@cindex query replace

@table @kbd
@item M-% @var{string} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
@itemx M-x query-replace @key{RET} @var{string} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
Replace some occurrences of @var{string} with @var{newstring}.
@item C-M-% @var{regexp} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
@itemx M-x query-replace-regexp @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET} @var{newstring} @key{RET}
Replace some matches for @var{regexp} with @var{newstring}.
@end table

@kindex M-%
@findex query-replace
  If you want to change only some of the occurrences of @samp{foo} to
@samp{bar}, not all of them, then you cannot use an ordinary
@code{replace-string}.  Instead, use @kbd{M-%} (@code{query-replace}).
This command finds occurrences of @samp{foo} one by one, displays each
occurrence and asks you whether to replace it.  Aside from querying,
@code{query-replace} works just like @code{replace-string}.  It
preserves case, like @code{replace-string}, provided
@code{case-replace} is non-@code{nil}, as it normally is
(@pxref{Replacement and Case}).  A numeric argument means consider
only occurrences that are bounded by word-delimiter characters.

@kindex C-M-%
@findex query-replace-regexp
  @kbd{C-M-%} performs regexp search and replace (@code{query-replace-regexp}).
It works like @code{replace-regexp} except that it queries
like @code{query-replace}.

@cindex faces for highlighting query replace
  These commands highlight the current match using the face
@code{query-replace}.  They highlight other matches using
@code{lazy-highlight} just like incremental search (@pxref{Incremental
Search}).

  The characters you can type when you are shown a match for the string
or regexp are:

@ignore @c Not worth it.
@kindex SPC @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex DEL @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex , @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex RET @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex . @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex ! @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex ^ @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex C-r @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex C-w @r{(query-replace)}
@kindex C-l @r{(query-replace)}
@end ignore

@c WideCommands
@table @kbd
@item @key{SPC}
to replace the occurrence with @var{newstring}.

@item @key{DEL}
to skip to the next occurrence without replacing this one.

@item , @r{(Comma)}
to replace this occurrence and display the result.  You are then asked
for another input character to say what to do next.  Since the
replacement has already been made, @key{DEL} and @key{SPC} are
equivalent in this situation; both move to the next occurrence.

You can type @kbd{C-r} at this point (see below) to alter the replaced
text.  You can also type @kbd{C-x u} to undo the replacement; this exits
the @code{query-replace}, so if you want to do further replacement you
must use @kbd{C-x @key{ESC} @key{ESC} @key{RET}} to restart
(@pxref{Repetition}).

@item @key{RET}
to exit without doing any more replacements.

@item .@: @r{(Period)}
to replace this occurrence and then exit without searching for more
occurrences.

@item !
to replace all remaining occurrences without asking again.

@item ^
to go back to the position of the previous occurrence (or what used to
be an occurrence), in case you changed it by mistake or want to
reexamine it.

@item C-r
to enter a recursive editing level, in case the occurrence needs to be
edited rather than just replaced with @var{newstring}.  When you are
done, exit the recursive editing level with @kbd{C-M-c} to proceed to
the next occurrence.  @xref{Recursive Edit}.

@item C-w
to delete the occurrence, and then enter a recursive editing level as in
@kbd{C-r}.  Use the recursive edit to insert text to replace the deleted
occurrence of @var{string}.  When done, exit the recursive editing level
with @kbd{C-M-c} to proceed to the next occurrence.

@item e
to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer.  When you exit the
minibuffer by typing @key{RET}, the minibuffer contents replace the
current occurrence of the pattern.  They also become the new
replacement string for any further occurrences.

@item C-l
to redisplay the screen.  Then you must type another character to
specify what to do with this occurrence.

@item C-h
to display a message summarizing these options.  Then you must type
another character to specify what to do with this occurrence.
@end table

  Some other characters are aliases for the ones listed above: @kbd{y},
@kbd{n} and @kbd{q} are equivalent to @key{SPC}, @key{DEL} and
@key{RET}.

  Aside from this, any other character exits the @code{query-replace},
and is then reread as part of a key sequence.  Thus, if you type
@kbd{C-k}, it exits the @code{query-replace} and then kills to end of
line.

  To restart a @code{query-replace} once it is exited, use @kbd{C-x
@key{ESC} @key{ESC}}, which repeats the @code{query-replace} because it
used the minibuffer to read its arguments.  @xref{Repetition, C-x ESC
ESC}.

  @xref{Operating on Files}, for the Dired @kbd{Q} command which
performs query replace on selected files.  See also @ref{Transforming
File Names}, for Dired commands to rename, copy, or link files by
replacing regexp matches in file names.

@node Other Repeating Search
@section Other Search-and-Loop Commands

  Here are some other commands that find matches for a regular
expression.  They all ignore case in matching, if the pattern contains
no upper-case letters and @code{case-fold-search} is non-@code{nil}.
Aside from @code{occur} and its variants, all operate on the text from
point to the end of the buffer, or on the active region in Transient
Mark mode.

@findex list-matching-lines
@findex occur
@findex multi-occur
@findex multi-occur-in-matching-buffers
@findex how-many
@findex delete-non-matching-lines
@findex delete-matching-lines
@findex flush-lines
@findex keep-lines

@table @kbd
@item M-x occur @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
Display a list showing each line in the buffer that contains a match
for @var{regexp}.  To limit the search to part of the buffer, narrow
to that part (@pxref{Narrowing}).  A numeric argument @var{n}
specifies that @var{n} lines of context are to be displayed before and
after each matching line.  Currently, @code{occur} can not correctly
handle multiline matches.

@kindex RET @r{(Occur mode)}
@kindex o @r{(Occur mode)}
@kindex C-o @r{(Occur mode)}
The buffer @samp{*Occur*} containing the output serves as a menu for
finding the occurrences in their original context.  Click
@kbd{Mouse-2} on an occurrence listed in @samp{*Occur*}, or position
point there and type @key{RET}; this switches to the buffer that was
searched and moves point to the original of the chosen occurrence.
@kbd{o} and @kbd{C-o} display the match in another window; @kbd{C-o}
does not select it.

After using @kbd{M-x occur}, you can use @code{next-error} to visit
the occurrences found, one by one.  @ref{Compilation Mode}.

@item M-x list-matching-lines
Synonym for @kbd{M-x occur}.

@item M-x multi-occur @key{RET} @var{buffers} @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
This function is just like @code{occur}, except it is able to search
through multiple buffers.  It asks you to specify the buffer names one by one.

@item M-x multi-occur-in-matching-buffers @key{RET} @var{bufregexp} @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
This function is similar to @code{multi-occur}, except the buffers to
search are specified by a regular expression that matches visited
file names.  With a prefix argument, it uses the regular expression to match
buffer names instead.

@item M-x how-many @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
Print the number of matches for @var{regexp} that exist in the buffer
after point.  In Transient Mark mode, if the region is active, the
command operates on the region instead.

@item M-x flush-lines @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
This command deletes each line that contains a match for @var{regexp},
operating on the text after point; it deletes the current line
if it contains a match starting after point.  In Transient Mark mode,
if the region is active, the command operates on the region instead;
it deletes a line partially contained in the region if it contains a
match entirely contained in the region.

If a match is split across lines, @code{flush-lines} deletes all those
lines.  It deletes the lines before starting to look for the next
match; hence, it ignores a match starting on the same line at which
another match ended.

@item M-x keep-lines @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
This command deletes each line that @emph{does not} contain a match for
@var{regexp}, operating on the text after point; if point is not at the
beginning of a line, it always keeps the current line.  In Transient
Mark mode, if the region is active, the command operates on the region
instead; it never deletes lines that are only partially contained in
the region (a newline that ends a line counts as part of that line).

If a match is split across lines, this command keeps all those lines.
@end table

@ignore
   arch-tag: fd9d8e77-66af-491c-b212-d80999613e3e
@end ignore