Source

emacs / man / cc-mode.texi

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744
5745
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058
6059
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237
6238
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290
6291
6292
6293
6294
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309
6310
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6323
6324
6325
6326
6327
6328
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355
6356
6357
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397
6398
6399
6400
6401
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406
6407
6408
6409
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6499
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510
6511
6512
6513
6514
6515
6516
6517
6518
6519
6520
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
6598
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714
6715
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794
6795
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815
6816
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834
6835
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
6905
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
6976
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998
\input texinfo
@c Notes to self regarding line handling:
@c
@c Empty lines are often significant before @end directives; avoid them.
@c
@c Empty lines before and after @example directives are significant in
@c info output but not in TeX.  Empty lines inside @example directives
@c are significant.

@c Conventions for formatting examples:
@c o  If the example contains empty lines then put the surrounding empty
@c    lines inside the @example directives.  Put them outside otherwise.
@c o  Use @group inside the example only if it shows indentation where
@c    the relation between lines inside is relevant.
@c o  Format line number columns like this:
@c     1: foo
@c     2: bar
@c       ^ one space
@c    ^^ two columns, right alignment
@c o  Check line lengths in TeX output; they can typically be no longer
@c    than 70 chars, 60 if the paragraph is indented.

@comment TBD: Document the finer details of statement anchoring?

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment How to make the various output formats:
@comment (Thanks to Robert Chassell for supplying this information.)
@comment Note that Texinfo 4.7 (or later) is needed.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@ignore
In each of the following pairs of commands, the first generates a
version with cross references pointing to the GNU Emacs manuals,
the second with them pointing to the XEmacs manuals.
    ## Info output
    makeinfo cc-mode.texi
    makeinfo -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi

    ## DVI output
    ## You may need to set up the environment variable TEXINPUTS so
    ## that tex can find the file texinfo.tex - See the tex
    ## manpage.
    texi2dvi cc-mode.texi
    texi2dvi -t "@set XEMACS " cc-mode.texi

    ## HTML output.  (The --no-split parameter is optional)
    makeinfo --html --no-split cc-mode.texi
    makeinfo --html --no-split -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi

    ## Plain text output
    makeinfo --fill-column=70 --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      --no-headers --output=cc-mode.txt cc-mode.texi
    makeinfo --fill-column=70 --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      --no-headers --output=cc-mode.txt -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi

    ## DocBook output
    makeinfo --docbook --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      cc-mode.texi
    makeinfo --docbook --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi

    ## XML output
    makeinfo --xml --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      cc-mode.texi
    makeinfo --xml --no-split --paragraph-indent=0 \
      -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi

    #### (You must be in the same directory as the viewed file.)

      ## View DVI output
      xdvi cc-mode.dvi &

      ## View HTML output
      mozilla cc-mode.html
@end ignore

@comment No overfull hbox marks in the dvi file.
@finalout

@setfilename  ../info/ccmode
@settitle     CC Mode Manual
@footnotestyle end

@c The following four macros generate the filenames and titles of the
@c main (X)Emacs manual and the Elisp/Lispref manual.  Leave the
@c Texinfo variable `XEMACS' unset to generate a GNU Emacs version, set it
@c to generate an XEmacs version, e.g. with
@c "makeinfo -DXEMACS cc-mode.texi".
@ifset XEMACS
@macro emacsman
xemacs
@end macro
@macro emacsmantitle
XEmacs User's Manual
@end macro
@macro lispref
lispref
@end macro
@macro lispreftitle
XEmacs Lisp Reference Manual
@end macro
@end ifset

@ifclear XEMACS
@macro emacsman
emacs
@end macro
@macro emacsmantitle
GNU Emacs Manual
@end macro
@macro lispref
elisp
@end macro
@macro lispreftitle
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@end macro
@end ifclear


@macro ccmode
CC Mode
@end macro

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment @setchapternewpage odd !! we don't want blank pages !!
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment
@comment Texinfo manual for CC Mode
@comment Generated from the original README file by Krishna Padmasola
@comment <krishna@earth-gw.njit.edu>
@comment
@comment Authors:
@comment Barry A. Warsaw
@comment Martin Stjernholm
@comment Alan Mackenzie
@comment
@comment Maintained by Martin Stjernholm and Alan Mackenzie <bug-cc-mode@gnu.org>
@comment
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@comment Define an index for syntactic symbols.
@ifnottex @c In texi2dvi, the @defindex would create an empty cc-mode.ss
          @c For Info, unlike tex, @syncodeindex needs a matching @defindex.
@defindex ss
@end ifnottex

@comment Combine key, syntactic symbol and concept indices into one.
@syncodeindex ss cp
@syncodeindex ky cp

@copying
This manual is for CC Mode in Emacs.

Copyright @copyright{} 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``The GNU Manifesto'', ``Distribution'' and
``GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE'', with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
Manual'', and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License'' in the Emacs manual.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this document
separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
@end quotation
@end copying

@comment Info directory entry for use by install-info. The indentation
@comment here is by request from the FSF folks.
@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* CC Mode: (ccmode).    Emacs mode for editing C, C++, Objective-C,
                        Java, Pike, AWK, and CORBA IDL code.
@end direntry

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment TeX title page
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@titlepage
@sp 10

@center @titlefont{CC Mode 5.31}
@sp 2
@center @subtitlefont{A GNU Emacs mode for editing C and C-like languages}
@sp 2
@center Barry A. Warsaw, Martin Stjernholm, Alan Mackenzie

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying

This manual was generated from $Revision$ of $RCSfile$, which can be
downloaded from
@url{http://cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/emacs/emacs/man/cc-mode.texi}.
@end titlepage

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The Top node contains the master menu for the Info file.
@comment This appears only in the Info file, not the printed manual.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@node    Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@comment node-name, next, previous, up

@ifinfo
@top @ccmode{}

@ccmode{} is a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C, C++,
Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL (and the variants PSDL and CIDL), Pike
and AWK code.  It provides syntax-based indentation, font locking, and
has several handy commands and some minor modes to make the editing
easier.  It does not provide tools to look up and navigate between
functions, classes etc - there are other packages for that.
@end ifinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@menu
* Introduction::
* Overview::
* Getting Started::
* Commands::
* Font Locking::
* Config Basics::
* Custom Filling and Breaking::
* Custom Auto-newlines::
* Clean-ups::
* Indentation Engine Basics::
* Customizing Indentation::
* Custom Macros::
* Odds and Ends::
* Sample .emacs File::
* Performance Issues::
* Limitations and Known Bugs::
* FAQ::
* Updating CC Mode::
* Mailing Lists and Bug Reports::
* GNU Free Documentation License::
* Command and Function Index::
* Variable Index::
* Concept and Key Index::

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Commands

* Indentation Commands::
* Comment Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Filling and Breaking::
* Minor Modes::
* Electric Keys::
* Auto-newlines::
* Hungry WS Deletion::
* Subword Movement::
* Other Commands::

Font Locking

* Font Locking Preliminaries::
* Faces::
* Doc Comments::
* AWK Mode Font Locking::

Configuration Basics

* CC Hooks::
* Style Variables::
* Styles::

Styles

* Built-in Styles::
* Choosing a Style::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::

Customizing Auto-newlines

* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semicolons and Commas::

Hanging Braces

* Custom Braces::

Indentation Engine Basics

* Syntactic Analysis::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Indentation Calculation::

Syntactic Symbols

* Function Symbols::
* Class Symbols::
* Conditional Construct Symbols::
* Switch Statement Symbols::
* Brace List Symbols::
* External Scope Symbols::
* Paren List Symbols::
* Literal Symbols::
* Multiline Macro Symbols::
* Objective-C Method Symbols::
* Anonymous Class Symbol::
* Statement Block Symbols::
* K&R Symbols::

Customizing Indentation

* c-offsets-alist::
* Interactive Customization::
* Line-Up Functions::
* Custom Line-Up::
* Other Indentation::

Line-Up Functions

* Brace/Paren Line-Up::
* List Line-Up::
* Operator Line-Up::
* Comment Line-Up::
* Misc Line-Up::

@end detailmenu
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Introduction, Overview, Top, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Introduction
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex BOCM
@cindex history
@cindex awk-mode.el
@cindex c-mode.el
@cindex c++-mode.el

Welcome to @ccmode{}, a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C,
C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL (and the variants CORBA PSDL and
CIDL), Pike and AWK code.  This incarnation of the mode is descended
from @file{c-mode.el} (also called ``Boring Old C Mode'' or BOCM
@t{:-)}, @file{c++-mode.el} version 2, which Barry Warsaw had been
maintaining since 1992, and @file{awk-mode.el}, a long neglected mode
in the (X)Emacs base.

Late in 1997, Martin Stjernholm joined Barry on the @ccmode{}
Maintainers Team, and implemented the Pike support.  In 2000 Martin
took over as the sole maintainer.  In 2001 Alan Mackenzie joined the
team, implementing AWK support in version 5.30.  @ccmode{} did not
originally contain the font lock support for its languages --- that
was added in version 5.30.

This manual describes @ccmode{}
@comment The following line must appear on its own, so that the
version 5.31.
@comment Release.py script can update the version number automatically

@ccmode{} supports the editing of K&R and ANSI C, C++, Objective-C,
Java, CORBA's Interface Definition Language, Pike@footnote{A C-like
scripting language with its roots in the LPC language used in some MUD
engines.  See @uref{http://pike.ida.liu.se/}.} and AWK files.  In this
way, you can easily set up consistent font locking and coding styles for
use in editing all of these languages, although AWK is not yet as
uniformly integrated as the other languages.

@findex c-mode
@findex c++-mode
@findex objc-mode
@findex java-mode
@findex idl-mode
@findex pike-mode
@findex awk-mode
Note that the name of this package is ``@ccmode{}'', but there is no top
level @code{cc-mode} entry point.  All of the variables, commands, and
functions in @ccmode{} are prefixed with @code{c-@var{thing}}, and
@code{c-mode}, @code{c++-mode}, @code{objc-mode}, @code{java-mode},
@code{idl-mode}, @code{pike-mode}, and @code{awk-mode} entry points are
provided.  This package is intended to be a replacement for
@file{c-mode.el}, @file{c++-mode.el} and @file{awk-mode.el}.

A special word of thanks goes to Krishna Padmasola for his work in
converting the original @file{README} file to Texinfo format.  I'd
also like to thank all the @ccmode{} victims who help enormously
during the early beta stages of @ccmode{}'s development.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Overview, Getting Started, Introduction, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up@cindex organization of the manual
@chapter Overview of the Manual
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@noindent
The manual starts with several introductory chapters (including this
one).

@noindent
The next chunk of the manual describes the day to day @emph{use} of
@ccmode{} (as contrasted with how to customize it).

@itemize @bullet
@item
The chapter ``Commands'' describes in detail how to use (nearly) all
of @ccmode{}'s features.  There are extensive cross-references from
here to the corresponding sections later in the manual which tell you
how to customize these features.

@item
``Font Locking'' describes how ``syntax highlighting'' is applied to
your buffers.  It is mainly background information and can be skipped
over at a first reading.
@end itemize

@noindent
The next chunk of the manual describes how to @emph{customize}
@ccmode{}.  Typically, an overview of a topic is given at the chapter
level, then the sections and subsections describe the material in
increasing detail.

@itemize @bullet
@item
The chapter ``Configuration Basics'' tells you @emph{how} to write
customizations - whether in hooks, in styles, in both, or in neither,
depending on your needs.  It describes the @ccmode{} style system and
lists the standard styles that @ccmode{} supplies.

@item
The next few chapters describe in detail how to customize the various
features of @ccmode{}.

@item
Finally, there is a sample @file{.emacs} fragment, which might help you
in creating your own customization.
@end itemize

@noindent
The manual ends with ``this and that'', things that don't fit cleanly
into any of the previous chunks.

@itemize @bullet
@item
Two chapters discuss the performance of @ccmode{} and known
bugs/limitations.

@item
The FAQ contains a list of common problems and questions.

@item
The next two chapters tell you how to get in touch with the @ccmode{}
project - whether for updating @ccmode{} or submitting bug reports.
@end itemize

@noindent
Finally, there are the customary indices.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Getting Started, Commands, Overview, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Getting Started
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you got this version of @ccmode{} with Emacs or XEmacs, it should
work just fine right out of the box.  Note however that you might not
have the latest @ccmode{} release and might want to upgrade your copy
(see below).

You should probably start by skimming through the entire Commands chapter
(@pxref{Commands}) to get an overview of @ccmode{}'s capabilities.

After trying out some commands, you may dislike some aspects of
@ccmode{}'s default configuration.  Here is an outline of how to
change some of the settings that newcomers to @ccmode{} most often
want to change:

@table @asis
@item c-basic-offset
This Lisp variable holds an integer, the number of columns @ccmode{}
indents nested code.  To set this value to 6, customize
@code{c-basic-offset} or put this into your @file{.emacs}:

@example
(setq c-basic-offset 6)
@end example

@item The (indentation) style
The basic ``shape'' of indentation created by @ccmode{}---by default,
this is @code{gnu} style (except for Java and AWK buffers).  A list of
the available styles and their descriptions can be found in
@ref{Built-in Styles}.  A complete specification of the @ccmode{}
style system, including how to create your own style, can be found in
the chapter @ref{Styles}.  To set your style to @code{linux}, either
customize @code{c-default-style} or put this into your @file{.emacs}:

@example
(setq c-default-style '((java-mode . "java")
                        (awk-mode . "awk")
                        (other . "linux")))
@end example

@item Electric Indentation
Normally, when you type ``punctuation'' characters such as @samp{;} or
@samp{@{}, @ccmode{} instantly reindents the current line.  This can
be disconcerting until you get used to it.  To disable @dfn{electric
indentation} in the current buffer, type @kbd{C-c C-l}.  Type the same
thing to enable it again.  To have electric indentation disabled by
default, put the following into your @file{.emacs} file@footnote{There
is no ``easy customization'' facility for making this change.}:

@example
(setq-default c-electric-flag nil)
@end example

@noindent
Details of this and other similar ``Minor Modes'' appear in the
section @ref{Minor Modes}.

@item Making the @key{RET} key indent the new line
The standard Emacs binding for @key{RET} just adds a new line.  If you
want it to reindent the new line as well, rebind the key.  Note that
the action of rebinding would fail if the pertinent keymap didn't yet
exist---we thus need to delay the action until after @ccmode{} has
been loaded.  Put the following code into your @file{.emacs}:

@example
(defun my-make-CR-do-indent ()
  (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break))
(add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-make-CR-do-indent)
@end example

@noindent
This example demonstrates the use of a very powerful @ccmode{} (and
Emacs) facility, the hook.  The use of @ccmode{}'s hooks is described
in @ref{CC Hooks}.
@end table

All these settings should occur in your @file{.emacs} @emph{before}
any @ccmode{} buffers get loaded---in particular, before any call of
@code{desktop-read}.

As you get to know the mode better, you may want to make more
ambitious changes to your configuration.  For this, you should start
reading the chapter @ref{Config Basics}.

If you are upgrading an existing @ccmode{} installation, please see
the @file{README} file for installation details.  In particular, if
you are going to be editing AWK files, @file{README} describes how to
configure your (X)Emacs so that @ccmode{} will supersede the obsolete
@code{awk-mode.el} which might have been supplied with your (X)Emacs.
@ccmode{} might not work with older versions of Emacs or XEmacs.  See
the @ccmode{} release notes at @uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net}
for the latest information on Emacs version and package compatibility
(@pxref{Updating CC Mode}).

@deffn Command c-version
@findex version (c-)
You can find out what version of @ccmode{} you are using by visiting a C
file and entering @kbd{M-x c-version RET}.  You should see this message in
the echo area:

@example
Using CC Mode version 5.XX
@end example

@noindent
where @samp{XX} is the minor release number.
@end deffn

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Commands, Font Locking, Getting Started, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This chapter specifies all of CC Mode's commands, and thus contains
nearly everything you need to know to @emph{use} @ccmode{} (as
contrasted with configuring it).  @dfn{Commands} here means both
control key sequences and @dfn{electric keys}, these being characters
such as @samp{;} which, as well as inserting themselves into the
buffer, also do other things.

You might well want to review
@ifset XEMACS
@ref{Lists,,,@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}},
@end ifset
@ifclear XEMACS
@ref{Moving by Parens,,,@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}},
@end ifclear
which describes commands for moving around brace and parenthesis
structures.


@menu
* Indentation Commands::
* Comment Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Filling and Breaking::
* Minor Modes::
* Electric Keys::
* Auto-newlines::
* Hungry WS Deletion::
* Subword Movement::
* Other Commands::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Commands, Comment Commands, Commands, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous,up
@section Indentation Commands
@cindex indentation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The following commands reindent C constructs.  Note that when you
change your coding style, either interactively or through some other
means, your file does @emph{not} automatically get reindented.  You
will need to execute one of the following commands to see the effects
of your changes.

@cindex GNU indent program
Also, variables like @code{c-hanging-*} and @code{c-cleanup-list}
(@pxref{Custom Auto-newlines}) only affect how on-the-fly code is
formatted.  Changing the ``hanginess'' of a brace and then
reindenting, will not move the brace to a different line.  For this,
you're better off getting an external program like GNU @code{indent},
which will rearrange brace location, amongst other things.

Preprocessor directives are handled as syntactic whitespace from other
code, i.e. they can be interspersed anywhere without affecting the
indentation of the surrounding code, just like comments.

The code inside macro definitions is, by default, still analyzed
syntactically so that you get relative indentation there just as you'd
get if the same code was outside a macro.  However, since there is no
hint about the syntactic context, i.e. whether the macro expands to an
expression, to some statements, or perhaps to whole functions, the
syntactic recognition can be wrong.  @ccmode{} manages to figure it
out correctly most of the time, though.

Reindenting large sections of code can take a long time.  When
@ccmode{} reindents a region of code, it is essentially equivalent to
hitting @key{TAB} on every line of the region.

These commands indent code:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{c-indent-command})
@kindex TAB
@findex c-indent-command
@findex indent-command (c-)
This command indents the current line.  That is all you need to know
about it for normal use.

@code{c-indent-command} does different things, depending on the
setting of @code{c-syntactic-indentation} (@pxref{Indentation Engine
Basics}):

@itemize @bullet
@item
When it's non-@code{nil} (which it normally is), the command indents
the line according to its syntactic context.  With a prefix argument
(@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), it will re-indent the entire
expression@footnote{this is only useful for a line starting with a
comment opener or an opening brace, parenthesis, or string quote.}
that begins at the line's left margin.

@item
When it's @code{nil}, the command indents the line by an extra
@code{c-basic-offset} columns.  A prefix argument acts as a
multiplier.  A bare prefix (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}) is equivalent to -1,
removing @code{c-basic-offset} columns from the indentation.
@end itemize

The precise behavior is modified by several variables: With
@code{c-tab-always-indent}, you can make @key{TAB} insert whitespace
in some circumstances---@code{c-insert-tab-function} then defines
precisely what sort of ``whitespace'' this will be.  Set the standard
Emacs variable @code{indent-tabs-mode} to @code{t} if you want real
@samp{tab} characters to be used in the indentation, to @code{nil} if
you want only spaces.  @xref{Just Spaces,,, @emacsman{},
@emacsmantitle{}}.

@defopt c-tab-always-indent
@vindex tab-always-indent (c-)
@cindex literal
This variable modifies how @key{TAB} operates.
@itemize @bullet
@item
When it is @code{t} (the default), @key{TAB} simply indents the
current line.
@item
When it is @code{nil}, @key{TAB} (re)indents the line only if point is
to the left of the first non-whitespace character on the line.
Otherwise it inserts some whitespace (a tab or an equivalent number of
spaces - see below) at point.
@item
With some other value, the line is reindented.  Additionally, if point
is within a string or comment, some whitespace is inserted.
@end itemize
@end defopt

@defopt c-insert-tab-function
@vindex insert-tab-function (c-)
@findex tab-to-tab-stop
When ``some whitespace'' is inserted as described above, what actually
happens is that the function stored in @code{c-insert-tab-function} is
called.  Normally, this is @code{insert-tab}, which inserts a real tab
character or the equivalent number of spaces (depending on
@code{indent-tabs-mode}).  Some people, however, set
@code{c-insert-tab-function} to @code{tab-to-tab-stop} so as to get
hard tab stops when indenting.
@end defopt
@end table

@noindent
The kind of indentation the next five commands do depends on the
setting of @code{c-syntactic-indentation} (@pxref{Indentation Engine
Basics}):
@itemize @bullet
@item
when it is non-@code{nil} (the default), the commands indent lines
according to their syntactic context;
@item
when it is @code{nil}, they just indent each line the same amount as
the previous non-blank line.  The commands that indent a region aren't
very useful in this case.
@end itemize

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-j} (@code{newline-and-indent})
@kindex C-j
@findex newline-and-indent
Inserts a newline and indents the new blank line, ready to start
typing.  This is a standard (X)Emacs command.

@item @kbd{C-M-q} (@code{c-indent-exp})
@kindex C-M-q
@findex c-indent-exp
@findex indent-exp (c-)
Indents an entire balanced brace or parenthesis expression.  Note that
point must be on the opening brace or parenthesis of the expression
you want to indent.

@item @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{c-indent-defun})
@kindex C-c C-q
@findex c-indent-defun
@findex indent-defun (c-)
Indents the entire top-level function, class or macro definition
encompassing point.  It leaves point unchanged.  This function can't be
used to reindent a nested brace construct, such as a nested class or
function, or a Java method.  The top-level construct being reindented
must be complete, i.e. it must have both a beginning brace and an ending
brace.

@item @kbd{C-M-\} (@code{indent-region})
@kindex C-M-\
@findex indent-region
Indents an arbitrary region of code.  This is a standard Emacs command,
tailored for C code in a @ccmode{} buffer.  Note, of course, that point
and mark must delineate the region you want to indent.

@item @kbd{C-M-h} (@code{c-mark-function})
@kindex C-M-h
@findex c-mark-function
@findex mark-function (c-)
While not strictly an indentation command, this is useful for marking
the current top-level function or class definition as the current
region.  As with @code{c-indent-defun}, this command operates on
top-level constructs, and can't be used to mark say, a Java method.
@end table

These variables are also useful when indenting code:

@defopt indent-tabs-mode
This is a standard Emacs variable that controls how line indentation
is composed.  When it's non-@code{nil}, tabs can be used in a line's
indentation, otherwise only spaces are used.
@end defopt

@defopt c-progress-interval
@vindex progress-interval (c-)
When indenting large regions of code, this variable controls how often a
progress message is displayed.  Set this variable to @code{nil} to
inhibit the progress messages, or set it to an integer which is how
often (in seconds) progress messages are to be displayed.
@end defopt

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Comment Commands, Movement Commands, Indentation Commands, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Comment Commands
@cindex comments (insertion of)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{comment-region})
@kindex C-c C-c
@findex comment-region
This command comments out the lines that start in the region.  With a
negative argument, it does the opposite - it deletes the comment
delimiters from these lines.  @xref{Multi-Line Comments,,, emacs, GNU
Emacs Manual}, for fuller details.  @code{comment-region} isn't
actually part of @ccmode{} - it is given a @ccmode{} binding for
convenience.

@item @kbd{M-;} (@code{comment-dwim} or @code{indent-for-comment} @footnote{The name of this command varies between (X)Emacs versions.})
@kindex M-;
@findex comment-dwim
@findex indent-for-comment
Insert a comment at the end of the current line, if none is there
already.  Then reindent the comment according to @code{comment-column}
@ifclear XEMACS
(@pxref{Options for Comments,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual})
@end ifclear
@ifset XEMACS
(@pxref{Comments,,, xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual})
@end ifset
and the variables below.  Finally, position the point after the
comment starter.  @kbd{C-u M-;} kills any comment on the current line,
together with any whitespace before it.  This is a standard Emacs
command, but @ccmode{} enhances it a bit with two variables:

@defopt c-indent-comment-alist
@vindex indent-comment-alist (c-)
@vindex comment-column
This style variable allows you to vary the column that @kbd{M-;} puts
the comment at, depending on what sort of code is on the line, and
possibly the indentation of any similar comment on the preceding line.
It is an association list that maps different types of lines to
actions describing how they should be handled.  If a certain line type
isn't present on the list then the line is indented to the column
specified by @code{comment-column}.

See the documentation string for a full description of this
variable (use @kbd{C-h v c-indent-comment-alist}).
@end defopt

@defopt c-indent-comments-syntactically-p
@vindex indent-comments-syntactically-p (c-)
Normally, when this style variable is @code{nil}, @kbd{M-;} will
indent comment-only lines according to @code{c-indent-comment-alist},
just as it does with lines where other code precede the comments.
However, if you want it to act just like @key{TAB} for comment-only
lines you can get that by setting
@code{c-indent-comments-syntactically-p} to non-@code{nil}.

If @code{c-indent-comments-syntactically-p} is non-@code{nil} then
@code{c-indent-comment-alist} won't be consulted at all for comment-only
lines.
@end defopt
@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Movement Commands, Filling and Breaking, Comment Commands, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Movement Commands
@cindex movement
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains some useful commands for moving around in C code.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-M-a} (@code{c-beginning-of-defun})
@itemx @kbd{C-M-e} (@code{c-end-of-defun})
@findex c-beginning-of-defun
@findex c-end-of-defun

Move to the beginning or end of the current or next function.  Other
constructs (such as a structs or classes) which have a brace block
also count as ``functions'' here.  To move over several functions, you
can give these commands a repeat count.

The start of a function is at its header.  The end of the function is
after its closing brace, or after the semicolon of a construct (such
as a @code{struct}) which doesn't end at the brace.  These two
commands try to leave point at the beginning of a line near the actual
start or end of the function.  This occasionally causes point not to
move at all.

These functions are analogous to the Emacs built-in commands
@code{beginning-of-defun} and @code{end-of-defun}, except they
eliminate the constraint that the top-level opening brace of the defun
must be in column zero.  See @ref{Defuns,,,@emacsman{},
@emacsmantitle{}}, for more information.

@item @kbd{C-M-a} (AWK Mode) (@code{c-awk-beginning-of-defun})
@itemx @kbd{C-M-e} (AWK Mode) (@code{c-awk-end-of-defun})
@kindex C-M-a (AWK Mode)
@kindex C-M-e (AWK Mode)
@findex c-awk-beginning-of-defun
@findex awk-beginning-of-defun (c-)
@findex c-awk-end-of-defun
@findex awk-end-of-defun (c-)
Move to the beginning or end of the current or next AWK defun.  These
commands can take prefix-arguments, their functionality being entirely
equivalent to @code{beginning-of-defun} and @code{end-of-defun}.

AWK Mode @dfn{defuns} are either pattern/action pairs (either of which
might be implicit) or user defined functions.  Having the @samp{@{} and
@samp{@}} (if there are any) in column zero, as is suggested for some
modes, is neither necessary nor helpful in AWK mode.

@item @kbd{M-a} (@code{c-beginning-of-statement})
@itemx @kbd{M-e} (@code{c-end-of-statement})
@kindex M-a
@kindex M-e
@findex c-beginning-of-statement
@findex c-end-of-statement
@findex beginning-of-statement (c-)
@findex end-of-statement (c-)
Move to the beginning or end of the innermost C statement.  If point
is already there, move to the next beginning or end of a statement,
even if that means moving into a block.  (Use @kbd{C-M-b} or
@kbd{C-M-f} to move over a balanced block.)  A prefix argument @var{n}
means move over @var{n} statements.

If point is within or next to a comment or a string which spans more
than one line, these commands move by sentences instead of statements.

When called from a program, these functions take three optional
arguments: the repetition count, a buffer position limit which is the
farthest back to search for the syntactic context, and a flag saying
whether to do sentence motion in or near comments and multiline
strings.

@item @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{c-up-conditional})
@kindex C-c C-u
@findex c-up-conditional
@findex up-conditional (c-)
Move back to the containing preprocessor conditional, leaving the mark
behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move forward to the end of the containing preprocessor
conditional.

@samp{#elif} is treated like @samp{#else} followed by @samp{#if}, so the
function stops at them when going backward, but not when going
forward.

This key sequence is not bound in AWK Mode, which doesn't have
preprocessor statements.

@item @kbd{M-x c-up-conditional-with-else}
@findex c-up-conditional-with-else
@findex up-conditional-with-else (c-)
A variety of @code{c-up-conditional} that also stops at @samp{#else}
lines.  Normally those lines are ignored.

@item @kbd{M-x c-down-conditional}
@findex c-down-conditional
@findex down-conditional (c-)
Move forward into the next nested preprocessor conditional, leaving
the mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a
negative argument, move backward into the previous nested preprocessor
conditional.

@samp{#elif} is treated like @samp{#else} followed by @samp{#if}, so the
function stops at them when going forward, but not when going backward.

@item @kbd{M-x c-down-conditional-with-else}
@findex c-down-conditional-with-else
@findex down-conditional-with-else (c-)
A variety of @code{c-down-conditional} that also stops at @samp{#else}
lines.  Normally those lines are ignored.

@item @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{c-backward-conditional})
@itemx @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{c-forward-conditional})
@kindex C-c C-p
@kindex C-c C-n
@findex c-backward-conditional
@findex c-forward-conditional
@findex backward-conditional (c-)
@findex forward-conditional (c-)
Move backward or forward across a preprocessor conditional, leaving
the mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a
negative argument, move in the opposite direction.

These key sequences are not bound in AWK Mode, which doesn't have
preprocessor statements.

@item @kbd{M-x c-backward-into-nomenclature}
@itemx @kbd{M-x c-forward-into-nomenclature}
@findex c-backward-into-nomenclature
@findex c-forward-into-nomenclature
@findex backward-into-nomenclature (c-)
@findex forward-into-nomenclature (c-)
A popular programming style, especially for object-oriented languages
such as C++ is to write symbols in a mixed case format, where the
first letter of each word is capitalized, and not separated by
underscores.  E.g. @samp{SymbolsWithMixedCaseAndNoUnderlines}.

These commands move backward or forward to the beginning of the next
capitalized word.  With prefix argument @var{n}, move @var{n} times.
If @var{n} is negative, move in the opposite direction.

Note that these two commands have been superseded by
@code{c-subword-mode}, which you should use instead.  @xref{Subword
Movement}.  They might be removed from a future release of @ccmode{}.
@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Filling and Breaking, Minor Modes, Movement Commands, Commands
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Filling and Line Breaking Commands
@cindex text filling
@cindex line breaking
@cindex comment handling
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since there's a lot of normal text in comments and string literals,
@ccmode{} provides features to edit these like in text mode.  The goal
is to do it seamlessly, i.e. you can use auto fill mode, sentence and
paragraph movement, paragraph filling, adaptive filling etc. wherever
there's a piece of normal text without having to think much about it.
@ccmode{} keeps the indentation, fixes suitable comment line prefixes,
and so on.

You can configure the exact way comments get filled and broken, and
where Emacs does auto-filling (see @pxref{Custom Filling and
Breaking}).  Typically, the style system (@pxref{Styles}) will have
set this up for you, so you probably won't have to bother.

@findex auto-fill-mode
@cindex Auto Fill mode
@cindex paragraph filling
Line breaks are by default handled (almost) the same regardless of
whether they are made by auto fill mode (@pxref{Auto Fill,,,
@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}}), by paragraph filling (e.g. with
@kbd{M-q}), or explicitly with @kbd{M-j} or similar methods.  In
string literals, the new line gets the same indentation as the
previous nonempty line.@footnote{You can change this default by
setting the @code{string} syntactic symbol (@pxref{Syntactic Symbols}
and @pxref{Customizing Indentation})}.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{M-q} (@code{c-fill-paragraph})
@kindex M-q
@findex c-fill-paragraph
@findex fill-paragraph (c-)
@cindex Javadoc markup
@cindex Pike autodoc markup
This command fills multiline string literals and both block
and line style comments.  In Java buffers, the Javadoc markup words
are recognized as paragraph starters.  The line oriented Pike autodoc
markup words are recognized in the same way in Pike mode.

The formatting of the starters (@code{/*}) and enders (@code{*/}) of
block comments are kept as they were before the filling.  I.e., if
either the starter or ender were on a line of its own, then it stays
on its own line; conversely, if the delimiter has comment text on its
line, it keeps at least one word of that text with it on the line.

This command is the replacement for @code{fill-paragraph} in @ccmode{}
buffers.

@item @kbd{M-j} (@code{c-indent-new-comment-line})
@kindex M-j
@findex c-indent-new-comment-line
@findex indent-new-comment-line (c-)
This breaks the current line at point and indents the new line.  If
point was in a comment, the new line gets the proper comment line
prefix.  If point was inside a macro, a backslash is inserted before
the line break.  It is the replacement for
@code{indent-new-comment-line}.

@item @kbd{M-x c-context-line-break}
@findex c-context-line-break
@findex context-line-break (c-)
Insert a line break suitable to the context: If the point is inside a
comment, the new line gets the suitable indentation and comment line
prefix like @code{c-indent-new-comment-line}.  In normal code it's
indented like @code{newline-and-indent} would do.  In macros it acts
like @code{newline-and-indent} but additionally inserts and optionally
aligns the line ending backslash so that the macro remains unbroken.
@xref{Custom Macros}, for details about the backslash alignment.  In a
string, a backslash is inserted only if the string is within a
macro@footnote{In GCC, unescaped line breaks within strings are
valid.}.

This function is not bound to a key by default, but it's intended to be
used on the @kbd{RET} key.  If you like the behavior of
@code{newline-and-indent} on @kbd{RET}, you should consider switching to
this function.  @xref{Sample .emacs File}.

@item @kbd{M-x c-context-open-line}
@findex c-context-open-line
@findex context-open-line (c-)
This is to @kbd{C-o} (@kbd{M-x open-line}) as
@code{c-context-line-break} is to @kbd{RET}.  I.e. it works just like
@code{c-context-line-break} but leaves the point before the inserted
line break.
@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Minor Modes, Electric Keys, Filling and Breaking, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Minor Modes
@cindex Minor Modes
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains several minor-mode-like features that you might
find useful while writing new code or editing old code:

@table @asis
@item electric mode
When this is enabled, certain visible characters cause reformatting as
they are typed.  This is normally helpful, but can be a nuisance when
editing chaotically formatted code.  It can also be disconcerting,
especially for users who are new to @ccmode{}.
@item auto-newline mode
This automatically inserts newlines where you'd probably want to type
them yourself, e.g. after typing @samp{@}}s.  Its action is suppressed
when electric mode is disabled.
@item hungry-delete mode
This lets you delete a contiguous block of whitespace with a single
key - for example, the newline and indentation just inserted by
auto-newline when you want to back up and write a comment after the
last statement.
@item subword mode
This mode makes basic word movement commands like @kbd{M-f}
(@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b} (@code{backward-word}) treat the
parts of sillycapsed symbols as different words.
E.g. @samp{NSGraphicsContext} is treated as three words @samp{NS},
@samp{Graphics}, and @samp{Context}.
@item syntactic-indentation mode
When this is enabled (which it normally is), indentation commands such
as @kbd{C-j} indent lines of code according to their syntactic
structure.  Otherwise, a line is simply indented to the same level as
the previous one and @kbd{@key{TAB}} adjusts the indentation in steps
of `c-basic-offset'.
@end table

Full details on how these minor modes work are at @ref{Electric Keys},
@ref{Auto-newlines}, @ref{Hungry WS Deletion}, @ref{Subword Movement},
and @ref{Indentation Engine Basics}.

You can toggle each of these minor modes on and off, and you can
configure @ccmode{} so that it starts up with your favourite
combination of them (@pxref{Sample .emacs File}).  By default, when
you initialize a buffer, electric mode and syntactic-indentation mode
are enabled but the other two modes are disabled.

@ccmode{} displays the current state of the first four of these minor
modes on the modeline by appending letters to the major mode's name,
one letter for each enabled minor mode - @samp{l} for electric mode,
@samp{a} for auto-newline mode, @samp{h} for hungry delete mode, and
@samp{w} for subword mode.  If all these modes were enabled, you'd see
@samp{C/lahw}@footnote{The @samp{C} would be replaced with the name of
the language in question for the other languages @ccmode{} supports.}.

Here are the commands to toggle these modes:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{c-toggle-electric-state})
@kindex C-c C-l
@findex c-toggle-electric-state
@findex toggle-electric-state (c-)
Toggle electric minor mode.  When the command turns the mode off, it
also suppresses auto-newline mode.

@item @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{c-toggle-auto-newline})
@kindex C-c C-a
@findex c-toggle-auto-newline
@findex toggle-auto-newline (c-)
Toggle auto-newline minor mode.  When the command turns the mode on,
it also enables electric minor mode.

@item @kbd{M-x c-toggle-hungry-state}@footnote{Prior to @ccmode{} 5.31, this command was bound to @kbd{C-c C-d}.}
@findex c-toggle-hungry-state
@findex toggle-hungry-state (c-)
Toggle hungry-delete minor mode.

@item @kbd{M-x c-toggle-auto-hungry-state}@footnote{Prior to @ccmode{} 5.31, this command was bound to @kbd{C-c C-t}.}
@findex c-toggle-auto-hungry-state
@findex toggle-auto-hungry-state (c-)
Toggle both auto-newline and hungry delete minor modes.

@item @kbd{C-c C-w} (@code{M-x c-subword-mode})
@kindex C-c C-w
@findex c-subword-mode
@findex subword-mode (c-)
Toggle subword mode.

@item @kbd{M-x c-toggle-syntactic-indentation}
@findex c-toggle-syntactic-indentation
@findex toggle-syntactic-indentation (c-)
Toggle syntactic-indentation mode.
@end table

Common to all the toggle functions above is that if they are called
programmatically, they take an optional numerical argument.  A
positive value will turn on the minor mode (or both of them in the
case of @code{c-toggle-auto-hungry-state}) and a negative value will
turn it (or them) off.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Electric Keys, Auto-newlines, Minor Modes, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Electric Keys and Keywords
@cindex electric characters
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Most punctuation keys provide @dfn{electric} behavior - as well as
inserting themselves they perform some other action, such as
reindenting the line.  This reindentation saves you from having to
reindent a line manually after typing, say, a @samp{@}}.  A few
keywords, such as @code{else}, also trigger electric action.

You can inhibit the electric behavior described here by disabling
electric minor mode (@pxref{Minor Modes}).

Common to all these keys is that they only behave electrically when
used in normal code (as contrasted with getting typed in a string
literal or comment).  Those which cause re-indentation do so only when
@code{c-syntactic-indentation} has a non-@code{nil} value (which it
does by default).

These keys and keywords are:
@c ACM, 2004/8/24:  c-electric-pound doesn't check c-s-i: this is more
@c like a bug in the code than a bug in this document.  It'll get
@c fixed in the code sometime.

@table @kbd
@item #
@kindex #
@findex c-electric-pound
@findex electric-pound (c-)
@vindex c-electric-pound-behavior
@vindex electric-pound-behavior (c-)
Pound (bound to @code{c-electric-pound}) is electric when typed as the
first non-whitespace character on a line and not within a macro
definition.  In this case, the variable @code{c-electric-pound-behavior}
is consulted for the electric behavior.  This variable takes a list
value, although the only element currently defined is @code{alignleft},
which tells this command to force the @samp{#} character into column
zero.  This is useful for entering preprocessor macro definitions.

Pound is not electric in AWK buffers, where @samp{#} starts a comment,
and is bound to @code{self-insert-command} like any typical printable
character.
@c ACM, 2004/8/24:  Change this (and the code) to do AWK comment
@c reindentation.

@item *
@kindex *
@itemx /
@kindex /
@findex c-electric-star
@findex electric-star (c-)
@findex c-electric-slash
@findex electric-slash (c-)
A star (bound to @code{c-electric-star}) or a slash
(@code{c-electric-slash}) causes reindentation when you type it as the
second component of a C style block comment opener (@samp{/*}) or a
C++ line comment opener (@samp{//}) respectively, but only if the
comment opener is the first thing on the line (i.e. there's only
whitespace before it).

Additionally, you can configure @ccmode{} so that typing a slash at
the start of a line within a block comment will terminate the
comment.  You don't need to have electric minor mode enabled to get
this behavior.  @xref{Clean-ups}.

In AWK mode, @samp{*} and @samp{/} do not delimit comments and are not
electric.

@item <
@kindex <
@itemx >
@kindex >
@findex c-electric-lt-gt
@findex electric-lt-gt (c-)
A less-than or greater-than sign (bound to @code{c-electric-lt-gt}) is
electric in two circumstances: when it is an angle bracket in a C++
@samp{template} declaration (and similar constructs in other
languages) and when it is the second of two @kbd{<} or @kbd{>}
characters in a C++ style stream operator.  In either case, the line
is reindented.  Angle brackets in C @samp{#include} directives are not
electric.

@item (
@kindex (
@itemx )
@kindex )
@findex c-electric-paren
@findex electric-paren (c-)
The normal parenthesis characters @samp{(} and @samp{)} (bound to
@code{c-electric-paren}) reindent the current line.  This is useful
for getting the closing parenthesis of an argument list aligned
automatically.

You can also configure @ccmode{} to insert a space automatically
between a function name and the @samp{(} you've just typed, and to
remove it automatically after typing @samp{)}, should the argument
list be empty.  You don't need to have electric minor mode enabled to
get these actions.  @xref{Clean-ups}.

@item @{
@kindex @{
@itemx @}
@kindex @}
@findex c-electric-brace
@findex electric-brace (c-)
Typing a brace (bound to @code{c-electric-brace}) reindents the
current line.  Also, one or more newlines might be inserted if
auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  @xref{Auto-newlines}.
Additionally, you can configure @ccmode{} to compact excess whitespace
inserted by auto-newline mode in certain circumstances.
@xref{Clean-ups}.

@item :
@kindex :
@findex c-electric-colon
@findex electric-colon (c-)
Typing a colon (bound to @code{c-electric-colon}) reindents the
current line.  Additionally, one or more newlines might be inserted if
auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  @xref{Auto-newlines}.  If you
type a second colon immediately after such an auto-newline, by default
the whitespace between the two colons is removed, leaving a C++ scope
operator.  @xref{Clean-ups}.

If you prefer, you can insert @samp{::} in a single operation,
avoiding all these spurious reindentations, newlines, and clean-ups.
@xref{Other Commands}.

@item ;
@kindex ;
@itemx ,
@kindex ,
@findex c-electric-semi&comma
@findex electric-semi&comma (c-)
Typing a semicolon or comma (bound to @code{c-electric-semi&comma})
reindents the current line.  Also, a newline might be inserted if
auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  @xref{Auto-newlines}.
Additionally, you can configure @ccmode{} so that when auto-newline
has inserted whitespace after a @samp{@}}, it will be removed again
when you type a semicolon or comma just after it.  @xref{Clean-ups}.

@end table

@deffn Command c-electric-continued-statement
@findex electric-continued-statement (c-)

Certain keywords are electric, causing reindentation when they are
preceded only by whitespace on the line.  The keywords are those that
continue an earlier statement instead of starting a new one:
@code{else}, @code{while}, @code{catch} (only in C++ and Java) and
@code{finally} (only in Java).

An example:

@example
@group
for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
  if (a[i])
    res += a[i]->offset;
else
@end group
@end example

Here, the @code{else} should be indented like the preceding @code{if},
since it continues that statement. @ccmode{} will automatically
reindent it after the @code{else} has been typed in full, since only
then is it possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a
continuation of the preceding @code{if}.

@vindex abbrev-mode
@findex abbrev-mode
@cindex Abbrev mode
@ccmode{} uses Abbrev mode (@pxref{Abbrevs,,, @emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}})
to accomplish this. It's therefore turned on by default in all language
modes except IDL mode, since CORBA IDL doesn't have any statements.
@end deffn


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Auto-newlines, Hungry WS Deletion, Electric Keys, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Auto-newline Insertion
@cindex auto-newline
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

When you have @dfn{Auto-newline minor mode} enabled (@pxref{Minor
Modes}), @ccmode{} inserts newlines for you automatically (in certain
syntactic contexts) when you type a left or right brace, a colon, a
semicolon, or a comma.  Sometimes a newline appears before the
character you type, sometimes after it, sometimes both.

Auto-newline only triggers when the following conditions hold:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Auto-newline minor mode is enabled, as evidenced by the indicator
@samp{a} after the mode name on the modeline (e.g. @samp{C/a} or
@samp{C/la}).

@item
The character was typed at the end of a line, or with only whitespace
after it, and possibly a @samp{\} escaping the newline.

@item
The character is not on its own line already.  (This applies only to
insertion of a newline @emph{before} the character.)

@item
@cindex literal
@cindex syntactic whitespace
The character was not typed inside of a literal @footnote{A
@dfn{literal} is defined as any comment, string, or preprocessor macro
definition.  These constructs are also known as @dfn{syntactic
whitespace} since they are usually ignored when scanning C code.}.

@item
No numeric argument was supplied to the command (i.e. it was typed as
normal, with no @kbd{C-u} prefix).
@end itemize

You can configure the precise circumstances in which newlines get
inserted (see @pxref{Custom Auto-newlines}).  Typically, the style
system (@pxref{Styles}) will have set this up for you, so you probably
won't have to bother.

Sometimes @ccmode{} inserts an auto-newline where you don't want one,
such as after a @samp{@}} when you're about to type a @samp{;}.
Hungry deletion can help here (@pxref{Hungry WS Deletion}), or you can
activate an appropriate @dfn{clean-up}, which will remove the excess
whitespace after you've typed the @samp{;}.  See @ref{Clean-ups} for a
full description.  See also @ref{Electric Keys} for a summary of
clean-ups listed by key.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hungry WS Deletion, Subword Movement, Auto-newlines, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Hungry Deletion of Whitespace
@cindex hungry-deletion
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you want to delete an entire block of whitespace at point, you can
use @dfn{hungry deletion}.  This deletes all the contiguous whitespace
either before point or after point in a single operation.
``Whitespace'' here includes tabs and newlines, but not comments or
preprocessor commands.  Hungry deletion can markedly cut down on the
number of times you have to hit deletion keys when, for example,
you've made a mistake on the preceding line and have already pressed
@kbd{C-j}.

Hungry deletion is a simple feature that some people find extremely
useful.  In fact, you might find yourself wanting it in @strong{all}
your editing modes!

Loosely speaking, in what follows, @dfn{@key{DEL}} means ``the
backspace key'' and @dfn{@key{DELETE}} means ``the forward delete
key''.  This is discussed in more detail below.

There are two different ways you can use hungry deletion:

@table @asis
@item Using @dfn{Hungry Delete Mode} with @kbd{@key{DEL}} and @kbd{C-d}
Here you toggle Hungry Delete minor mode with @kbd{M-x
c-toggle-hungry-state}@footnote{Prior to @ccmode{} 5.31, this command
was bound to @kbd{C-c C-d}.  @kbd{C-c C-d} is now the default binding
for @code{c-hungry-delete-forward}.} (@pxref{Minor Modes}.)  This
makes @kbd{@key{DEL}} and @kbd{C-d} do backwards and forward hungry
deletion.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{@key{DEL}} (@code{c-electric-backspace})
@kindex DEL
@findex c-electric-backspace
@findex electric-backspace (c-)
This command is run by default when you hit the @kbd{DEL} key.  When
hungry delete mode is enabled, it deletes any amount of whitespace in
the backwards direction.  Otherwise, or when used with a prefix
argument or in a literal (@pxref{Auto-newlines}), the command just
deletes backwards in the usual way.  (More precisely, it calls the
function contained in the variable @code{c-backspace-function},
passing it the prefix argument, if any.)

@item @code{c-backspace-function}
@vindex c-backspace-function
@vindex backspace-function (c-)
@findex backward-delete-char-untabify
Hook that gets called by @code{c-electric-backspace} when it doesn't
do an ``electric'' deletion of the preceding whitespace.  The default
value is @code{backward-delete-char-untabify}
(@pxref{Deletion,,,@lispref{}, @lispreftitle{}}, the function which
deletes a single character.

@item @kbd{C-d} (@code{c-electric-delete-forward})
@kindex C-d
@findex c-electric-delete-forward
@findex electric-delete-forward (c-)
This function, which is bound to @kbd{C-d} by default, works just like
@code{c-electric-backspace} but in the forward direction.  When it
doesn't do an ``electric'' deletion of the following whitespace, it
just does @code{delete-char}, more or less.  (Strictly speaking, it
calls the function in @code{c-delete-function} with the prefix
argument.)

@item @code{c-delete-function}
@vindex c-delete-function
@vindex delete-function (c-)
@findex delete-char
Hook that gets called by @code{c-electric-delete-forward} when it
doesn't do an ``electric'' deletion of the following whitespace.  The
default value is @code{delete-char}.
@end table

@item Using Distinct Bindings
The other (newer and recommended) way to use hungry deletion is to
perform @code{c-hungry-delete-backwards} and
@code{c-hungry-delete-forward} directly through their key sequences
rather than using the minor mode toggling.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-@key{DEL}}, or @kbd{C-c @key{DEL}} (@code{c-hungry-delete-backwards})@footnote{This command was formerly known as @code{c-hungry-backspace}.}
@kindex C-c C-<backspace>
@kindex C-c <backspace>
@kindex C-c C-DEL
@kindex C-c DEL
@findex c-hungry-delete-backwards
@findex hungry-delete-backwards (c-)
Delete any amount of whitespace in the backwards direction (regardless
whether hungry-delete mode is enabled or not).  This command is bound
to both @kbd{C-c C-@key{DEL}} and @kbd{C-c @key{DEL}}, since the more
natural one, @kbd{C-c C-@key{DEL}}, is sometimes difficult to type at
a character terminal.

@item @kbd{C-c C-d}, @kbd{C-c C-@key{DELETE}}, or @kbd{C-c @key{DELETE}} (@code{c-hungry-delete-forward})
@kindex C-c C-d
@kindex C-c C-<DELETE>
@kindex C-c <DELETE>
@findex c-hungry-delete-forward
@findex hungry-delete-forward (c-)
Delete any amount of whitespace in the forward direction (regardless
whether hungry-delete mode is enabled or not).  This command is bound
to both @kbd{C-c C-@key{DELETE}} and @kbd{C-c @key{DELETE}} for the
same reason as for @key{DEL} above.
@end table
@end table

@kindex <delete>
@kindex <backspace>

When we talk about @kbd{@key{DEL}}, and @kbd{@key{DELETE}} above, we
actually do so without connecting them to the physical keys commonly
known as @key{Backspace} and @key{Delete}.  The default bindings to
those two keys depends on the flavor of (X)Emacs you are using.

@findex c-electric-delete
@findex electric-delete (c-)
@findex c-hungry-delete
@findex hungry-delete (c-)
@vindex delete-key-deletes-forward
In XEmacs 20.3 and beyond, the @key{Backspace} key is bound to
@code{c-electric-backspace} and the @key{Delete} key is bound to
@code{c-electric-delete}.  You control the direction it deletes in by
setting the variable @code{delete-key-deletes-forward}, a standard
XEmacs variable.
@c This variable is encapsulated by XEmacs's (defsubst delete-forward-p ...).
When this variable is non-@code{nil}, @code{c-electric-delete} will do
forward deletion with @code{c-electric-delete-forward}, otherwise it
does backward deletion with @code{c-electric-backspace}.  Similarly,
@kbd{C-c @key{Delete}} and @kbd{C-c C-@key{Delete}} are bound to
@code{c-hungry-delete} which is controlled in the same way by
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward}.

@findex normal-erase-is-backspace-mode

Emacs 21 and later automatically binds @key{Backspace} and
@key{Delete} to @kbd{DEL} and @kbd{C-d} according to your environment,
and @ccmode{} extends those bindings to @kbd{C-c C-@key{Backspace}}
etc.  If you need to change the bindings through
@code{normal-erase-is-backspace-mode} then @ccmode{} will also adapt
its extended bindings accordingly.

In earlier (X)Emacs versions, @ccmode{} doesn't bind either
@key{Backspace} or @key{Delete} directly.  Only the key codes
@kbd{DEL} and @kbd{C-d} are bound, and it's up to the default bindings
to map the physical keys to them.  You might need to modify this
yourself if the defaults are unsuitable.

Getting your @key{Backspace} and @key{Delete} keys properly set up can
sometimes be tricky.  The information in @ref{DEL Does Not
Delete,,,emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}, might be helpful if you're having
trouble with this in GNU Emacs.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Subword Movement, Other Commands, Hungry WS Deletion, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Subword Movement and Editing
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex nomenclature
@cindex subword
In spite of the GNU Coding Standards, it is popular to name a symbol
by mixing uppercase and lowercase letters, e.g. @samp{GtkWidget},
@samp{EmacsFrameClass}, or @samp{NSGraphicsContext}.  Here we call
these mixed case symbols @dfn{nomenclatures}.  Also, each capitalized
(or completely uppercase) part of a nomenclature is called a
@dfn{subword}.  Here are some examples:

@multitable {@samp{NSGraphicsContext}} {@samp{NS}, @samp{Graphics}, and @samp{Context}}
@c This could be converted to @headitem when we require Texinfo 4.7
@iftex
@item @b{Nomenclature}
  @tab @b{Subwords}
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@item Nomenclature
  @tab Subwords
@item ---------------------------------------------------------
@end ifnottex
@item @samp{GtkWindow}
  @tab @samp{Gtk} and @samp{Window}
@item @samp{EmacsFrameClass}
  @tab @samp{Emacs}, @samp{Frame}, and @samp{Class}
@item @samp{NSGraphicsContext}
  @tab @samp{NS}, @samp{Graphics}, and @samp{Context}
@end multitable

The subword minor mode replaces the basic word oriented movement and
editing commands with variants that recognize subwords in a
nomenclature and treat them as separate words:

@findex c-forward-subword
@findex forward-subword (c-)
@findex c-backward-subword
@findex backward-subword (c-)
@findex c-mark-subword
@findex mark-subword (c-)
@findex c-kill-subword
@findex kill-subword (c-)
@findex c-backward-kill-subword
@findex backward-kill-subword (c-)
@findex c-transpose-subwords
@findex transpose-subwords (c-)
@findex c-capitalize-subword
@findex capitalize-subword (c-)
@findex c-upcase-subword
@findex upcase-subword (c-)
@findex c-downcase-subword
@findex downcase-subword (c-)
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .40 .40
@c This could be converted to @headitem when we require Texinfo 4.7
@iftex
@item     @b{Key}     @tab @b{Word oriented command} @tab @b{Subword oriented command}
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@item     Key         @tab Word oriented command     @tab Subword oriented command
@item ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
@end ifnottex
@item     @kbd{M-f}   @tab @code{forward-word}       @tab @code{c-forward-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-b}   @tab @code{backward-word}      @tab @code{c-backward-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-@@}  @tab @code{mark-word}          @tab @code{c-mark-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-d}   @tab @code{kill-word}          @tab @code{c-kill-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-DEL} @tab @code{backward-kill-word} @tab @code{c-backward-kill-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-t}   @tab @code{transpose-words}    @tab @code{c-transpose-subwords}
@item     @kbd{M-c}   @tab @code{capitalize-word}    @tab @code{c-capitalize-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-u}   @tab @code{upcase-word}        @tab @code{c-upcase-subword}
@item     @kbd{M-l}   @tab @code{downcase-word}      @tab @code{c-downcase-subword}
@end multitable

Note that if you have changed the key bindings for the word oriented
commands in your @file{.emacs} or a similar place, the keys you have
configured are also used for the corresponding subword oriented
commands.

Type @kbd{C-c C-w} to toggle subword mode on and off.  To make the
mode turn on automatically, put the following code in your
@file{.emacs}:

@example
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
          (lambda () (c-subword-mode 1)))
@end example

As a bonus, you can also use @code{c-subword-mode} in non-@ccmode{}
buffers by typing @kbd{M-x c-subword-mode}.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Other Commands,  , Subword Movement, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Other Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Here are the various other commands that didn't fit anywhere else:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c .} (@code{c-set-style})
@kindex C-c .
@findex c-set-style
@findex set-style (c-)
Switch to the specified style in the current buffer.  Use like this:

@example
@kbd{C-c . @var{style-name} @key{RET}}
@end example

You can use the @key{TAB} in the normal way to do completion on the
style name.  Note that all style names are case insensitive, even the
ones you define yourself.

Setting a style in this way does @emph{not} automatically reindent your
file.  For commands that you can use to view the effect of your changes,
see @ref{Indentation Commands} and @ref{Filling and Breaking}.

For details of the @ccmode{} style system, see @ref{Styles}.
@item @kbd{C-c :} (@code{c-scope-operator})
@kindex C-c :
@findex c-scope-operator
@findex scope-operator (c-)
In C++, it is also sometimes desirable to insert the double-colon scope
operator without performing the electric behavior of colon insertion.
@kbd{C-c :} does just this.

@item @kbd{C-c C-\} (@code{c-backslash-region})
@kindex C-c C-\
@findex c-backslash-region
@findex backslash-region (c-)
This function inserts and aligns or deletes end-of-line backslashes in
the current region.  These are typically used in multi-line macros.

With no prefix argument, it inserts any missing backslashes and aligns
them according to the @code{c-backslash-column} and
@code{c-backslash-max-column} variables.  With a prefix argument, it
deletes any backslashes.

The function does not modify blank lines at the start of the region.  If
the region ends at the start of a line, it always deletes the backslash
(if any) at the end of the previous line.

To customize the precise workings of this command, @ref{Custom Macros}.
@end table

@noindent
The recommended line breaking function, @code{c-context-line-break}
(@pxref{Filling and Breaking}), is especially nice if you edit
multiline macros frequently.  When used inside a macro, it
automatically inserts and adjusts the mandatory backslash at the end
of the line to keep the macro together, and it leaves the point at the
right indentation column for the code.  Thus you can write code inside
macros almost exactly as you can elsewhere, without having to bother
with the trailing backslashes.

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{c-macro-expand})
@kindex C-c C-e
@findex c-macro-expand
@findex macro-expand (c-)
This command expands C, C++, Objective C or Pike macros in the region,
using an appropriate external preprocessor program.  Normally it
displays its output in a temporary buffer, but if you give it a prefix
arg (with @kbd{C-u C-c C-e}) it will overwrite the original region
with the expansion.

The command does not work in any of the other modes, and the key
sequence is not bound in these other modes.

@code{c-macro-expand} isn't actually part of @ccmode{}, even though it
is bound to a @ccmode{} key sequence.  If you need help setting it up
or have other problems with it, you can either read its source code or
ask for help in the standard (X)Emacs forums.
@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Font Locking, Config Basics, Commands, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Font Locking
@cindex font locking
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex Font Lock mode

@ccmode{} provides font locking for its supported languages by
supplying patterns for use with Font Lock mode.  This means that you
get distinct faces on the various syntactic parts such as comments,
strings, keywords and types, which is very helpful in telling them
apart at a glance and discovering syntactic errors.  @xref{Font
Lock,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}, for ways to enable font locking in
@ccmode{} buffers.

@strong{Please note:} The font locking in AWK mode is currently not
integrated with the rest of @ccmode{}.  Only the last section of this
chapter, @ref{AWK Mode Font Locking}, applies to AWK.  The other
sections apply to the other languages.

@menu
* Font Locking Preliminaries::
* Faces::
* Doc Comments::
* AWK Mode Font Locking::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Font Locking Preliminaries, Faces, Font Locking, Font Locking
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Font Locking Preliminaries
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The font locking for most of the @ccmode{} languages were provided
directly by the Font Lock package prior to version 5.30 of @ccmode{}.
In the transition to @ccmode{} the patterns have been reworked
completely and are applied uniformly across all the languages except AWK
mode, just like the indentation rules (although each language still has
some peculiarities of its own, of course).  Since the languages
previously had completely separate font locking patterns, this means
that it's a bit different in most languages now.

The main goal for the font locking in @ccmode{} is accuracy, to provide
a dependable aid in recognizing the various constructs.  Some, like
strings and comments, are easy to recognize while others, like
declarations and types, can be very tricky.  @ccmode{} can go to great
lengths to recognize declarations and casts correctly, especially when
the types aren't recognized by standard patterns.  This is a fairly
demanding analysis which can be slow on older hardware, and it can
therefore be disabled by choosing a lower decoration level with the
variable @code{font-lock-maximum-decoration} (@pxref{Font Lock,,,
emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}).

@vindex font-lock-maximum-decoration

The decoration levels are used as follows:

@enumerate
@comment 1
@item
Minimal font locking: Fontify only comments, strings and preprocessor
directives (in the languages that use cpp).

@comment 2
@item
Fast font locking: In addition to level 1, fontify keywords, simple
types and declarations that are easy to recognize.  The variables
@code{*-font-lock-extra-types} (where @samp{*} is the name of the
language) are used to recognize types (see below).  Documentation
comments like Javadoc are fontified according to
@code{c-doc-comment-style} (@pxref{Doc Comments}).

Use this if you think the font locking is too slow.  It's the closest
corresponding level to level 3 in the old font lock patterns.

@comment 3
@item
Accurate font locking: Like level 2 but uses a different approach that
can recognize types and declarations much more accurately.  The
@code{*-font-lock-extra-types} variables are still used, but user
defined types are recognized correctly anyway in most cases.  Therefore
those variables should be fairly restrictive and not contain patterns
that are uncertain.

@cindex Lazy Lock mode
@cindex Just-in-time Lock mode

This level is designed for fairly modern hardware and a font lock
support mode like Lazy Lock or Just-in-time Lock mode that only
fontifies the parts that are actually shown.  Fontifying the whole
buffer at once can easily get bothersomely slow even on contemporary
hardware. @xref{Font Lock,,,@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}}.
@end enumerate

@cindex user defined types
@cindex types, user defined

Since user defined types are hard to recognize you can provide
additional regexps to match those you use:

@defopt c-font-lock-extra-types
@defoptx c++-font-lock-extra-types
@defoptx objc-font-lock-extra-types
@defoptx java-font-lock-extra-types
@defoptx idl-font-lock-extra-types
@defoptx pike-font-lock-extra-types
For each language there's a variable @code{*-font-lock-extra-types},
where @samp{*} stands for the language in question.  It contains a list
of regexps that matches identifiers that should be recognized as types,
e.g. @samp{\\sw+_t} to recognize all identifiers ending with @samp{_t}
as is customary in C code.  Each regexp should not match more than a
single identifier.

The default values contain regexps for many types in standard runtime
libraries that are otherwise difficult to recognize, and patterns for
standard type naming conventions like the @samp{_t} suffix in C and C++.
Java, Objective-C and Pike have as a convention to start class names
with capitals, so there are patterns for that in those languages.

Despite the names of these variables, they are not only used for
fontification but in other places as well where @ccmode{} needs to
recognize types.
@end defopt


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Faces, Doc Comments, Font Locking Preliminaries, Font Locking
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Faces
@cindex faces
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} attempts to use the standard faces for programming languages
in accordance with their intended purposes as far as possible.  No extra
faces are currently provided, with the exception of a replacement face
@code{c-invalid-face} for emacsen that don't provide
@code{font-lock-warning-face}.

@itemize @bullet
@item
@vindex font-lock-comment-face
Normal comments are fontified in @code{font-lock-comment-face}.

@item
@vindex font-lock-doc-face
@vindex font-lock-doc-string-face
@vindex font-lock-comment-face
Comments that are recognized as documentation (@pxref{Doc Comments})
get @code{font-lock-doc-face} (Emacs) or
@code{font-lock-doc-string-face} (XEmacs) if those faces exist.  If
they don't then @code{font-lock-comment-face} is used.

@item
@vindex font-lock-string-face
String and character literals are fontified in
@code{font-lock-string-face}.

@item
@vindex font-lock-keyword-face
Keywords are fontified with @code{font-lock-keyword-face}.

@item
@vindex font-lock-function-name-face
@code{font-lock-function-name-face} is used for function names in
declarations and definitions, and classes in those contexts.  It's also
used for preprocessor defines with arguments.

@item
@vindex font-lock-variable-name-face
Variables in declarations and definitions, and other identifiers in such
variable contexts, get @code{font-lock-variable-name-face}.  It's also
used for preprocessor defines without arguments.

@item
@vindex font-lock-constant-face
@vindex font-lock-reference-face
Builtin constants are fontified in @code{font-lock-constant-face} if it
exists, @code{font-lock-reference-face} otherwise.  As opposed to the
preceding two faces, this is used on the names in expressions, and it's
not used in declarations, even if there happen to be a @samp{const} in
them somewhere.

@item
@vindex font-lock-type-face
@code{font-lock-type-face} is put on types (both predefined and user
defined) and classes in type contexts.

@item
@vindex font-lock-constant-face
@vindex font-lock-reference-face
Label identifiers get @code{font-lock-constant-face} if it exists,
@code{font-lock-reference-face} otherwise.

@item
Name qualifiers and identifiers for scope constructs are fontified like
labels.

@item
Special markup inside documentation comments are also fontified like
labels.

@item
@vindex font-lock-preprocessor-face
@vindex font-lock-builtin-face
@vindex font-lock-reference-face
Preprocessor directives get @code{font-lock-preprocessor-face} if it
exists (i.e. XEmacs).  In Emacs they get @code{font-lock-builtin-face}
or @code{font-lock-reference-face}, for lack of a closer equivalent.

@item
@vindex font-lock-warning-face
@vindex c-invalid-face
@vindex invalid-face (c-)
Some kinds of syntactic errors are fontified with
@code{font-lock-warning-face} in Emacs.  In older XEmacs versions
there's no corresponding standard face, so there a special
@code{c-invalid-face} is used, which is defined to stand out sharply by
default.

Note that it's not used for @samp{#error} or @samp{#warning} directives,
since those aren't syntactic errors in themselves.
@end itemize


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Doc Comments, AWK Mode Font Locking, Faces, Font Locking
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Documentation Comments
@cindex documentation comments
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

There are various tools to supply documentation in the source as
specially structured comments, e.g. the standard Javadoc tool in Java.
@ccmode{} provides an extensible mechanism to fontify such comments and
the special markup inside them.

@defopt c-doc-comment-style
@vindex doc-comment-style (c-)
This is a style variable that specifies which documentation comment
style to recognize, e.g. @code{javadoc} for Javadoc comments.

The value may also be a list of styles, in which case all of them are
recognized simultaneously (presumably with markup cues that don't
conflict).

The value may also be an association list to specify different comment
styles for different languages.  The symbol for the major mode is then
looked up in the alist, and the value of that element is interpreted as
above if found.  If it isn't found then the symbol `other' is looked up
and its value is used instead.

The default value for @code{c-doc-comment-style} is
@w{@code{((java-mode . javadoc) (pike-mode . autodoc) (c-mode . gtkdoc))}}.

Note that @ccmode{} uses this variable to set other variables that
handle fontification etc.  That's done at mode initialization or when
you switch to a style which sets this variable.  Thus, if you change it
in some other way, e.g. interactively in a CC Mode buffer, you will need
to do @kbd{M-x java-mode} (or whatever mode you're currently using) to
reinitialize.

@findex c-setup-doc-comment-style
@findex setup-doc-comment-style (c-)
Note also that when @ccmode{} starts up, the other variables are
modified before the mode hooks are run.  If you change this variable in
a mode hook, you'll have to call @code{c-setup-doc-comment-style}
afterwards to redo that work.
@end defopt

@ccmode{} currently provides handing of the following doc comment
styles:

@table @code
@item javadoc
@cindex Javadoc markup
Javadoc comments, the standard tool in Java.

@item autodoc
@cindex Pike autodoc markup
For Pike autodoc markup, the standard in Pike.

@item gtkdoc
@cindex GtkDoc markup
For GtkDoc markup, widely used in the Gnome community.
@end table

The above is by no means complete.  If you'd like to see support for
other doc comment styles, please let us know (@pxref{Mailing Lists and
Bug Reports}).

You can also write your own doc comment fontification support to use
with @code{c-doc-comment-style}: Supply a variable or function
@code{*-font-lock-keywords} where @samp{*} is the name you want to use
in @code{c-doc-comment-style}.  If it's a variable, it's prepended to
@code{font-lock-keywords}.  If it's a function, it's called at mode
initialization and the result is prepended.  For an example, see
@code{javadoc-font-lock-keywords} in @file{cc-fonts.el}.

If you add support for another doc comment style, please consider
contributing it - send a note to @email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    AWK Mode Font Locking,  , Doc Comments, Font Locking
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section AWK Mode Font Locking
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The general appearance of font-locking in AWK mode is much like in any
other programming mode.  @xref{Faces For Font Lock,,,elisp, GNU Emacs
Lisp Reference Manual}.

The following faces are, however, used in a non-standard fashion in
AWK mode:

@table @asis
@item @code{font-lock-variable-name-face}
This face was intended for variable declarations.  Since variables are
not declared in AWK, this face is used instead for AWK system
variables (such as @code{NF}) and ``Special File Names'' (such as
@code{"/dev/stderr"}).

@item @code{font-lock-builtin-face} (Emacs)/@code{font-lock-preprocessor-face} (XEmacs)
This face is normally used for preprocessor directives in @ccmode{}.
There are no such things in AWK, so this face is used instead for
standard functions (such as @code{match}).

@item @code{font-lock-string-face}
As well as being used for strings, including localizable strings,
(delimited by @samp{"} and @samp{_"}), this face is also used for AWK
regular expressions (delimited by @samp{/}).

@item @code{font-lock-warning-face} (Emacs)/@code{c-invalid-face} (XEmacs)
This face highlights the following syntactically invalid AWK
constructs:

@itemize @bullet
@item
An unterminated string or regular expression.  Here the opening
delimiter (@samp{"} or @samp{/} or @samp{_"}) is displayed in
@code{font-lock-warning-face}.  This is most noticeable when typing in a
new string/regular expression into a buffer, when the warning-face
serves as a continual reminder to terminate the construct.

AWK mode fontifies unterminated strings/regular expressions
differently from other modes: Only the text up to the end of the line
is fontified as a string (escaped newlines being handled correctly),
rather than the text up to the next string quote.

@item
A space between the function name and opening parenthesis when calling
a user function.  The last character of the function name and the
opening parenthesis are highlighted.  This font-locking rule will
spuriously highlight a valid concatenation expression where an
identifier precedes a parenthesised expression.  Unfortunately.

@item
Whitespace following the @samp{\} in what otherwise looks like an
escaped newline.  The @samp{\} is highlighted.
@end itemize
@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Config Basics, Custom Filling and Breaking, Font Locking, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Configuration Basics
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex Emacs Initialization File
@cindex Configuration
You configure @ccmode{} by setting Lisp variables and calling (and
perhaps writing) Lisp functions@footnote{DON'T PANIC!!!  This isn't
difficult.}, which is usually done by adding code to an Emacs
initialization file.  This file might be @file{site-start.el} or
@file{.emacs} or @file{init.el} or @file{default.el} or perhaps some
other file.  @xref{Init File,,,@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}}.  For
the sake of conciseness, we just call this file ``your @file{.emacs}''
throughout the rest of the manual.

Several of these variables (currently 16), are known collectively as
@dfn{style variables}.  @ccmode{} provides a special mechanism, known
as @dfn{styles} to make it easier to set these variables as a group,
to ``inherit'' settings from one style into another, and so on.  Style
variables remain ordinary Lisp variables, whose values can be read and
changed independently of the style system.  @xref{Style Variables}.

There are several ways you can write the code, depending on the
precise effect you want---they are described further down on this page.
If you are new to @ccmode{}, we suggest you begin with the simplest
method, ``Top-level commands or the customization interface''.

If you make conflicting settings in several of these ways, the way
that takes precedence is the one that appears latest in this list:
@itemize @asis
@item
@table @asis
@item Style
@itemx Top-level command or ``customization interface''
@itemx Hook
@itemx File Style
@end table
@end itemize

Here is a summary of the different ways of writing your configuration
settings:

@table @asis
@item Top-level commands or the ``customization interface''
Most simply, you can write @code{setq} and similar commands at the top
level of your @file{.emacs} file.  When you load a @ccmode{} buffer,
it initializes its configuration from these global values (at least,
for those settings you have given values to), so it makes sense to
have these @code{setq} commands run @emph{before} @ccmode{} is first
initialized---in particular, before any call to @code{desktop-read}
(@pxref{Saving Emacs Sessions,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}).  For
example, you might set c-basic-offset thus:

@example
(setq c-basic-offset 4)
@end example

You can use the more user friendly Customization interface instead,
but this manual does not cover in detail how that works.  To do this,
start by typing @kbd{M-x customize-group @key{RET} c @key{RET}}.
@xref{Easy Customization,,,@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}}.
@c The following note really belongs in the Emacs manual.
Emacs normally writes the customizations at the end of your
@file{.emacs} file.  If you use @code{desktop-read}, you should edit
your @file{.emacs} to place the call to @code{desktop-read} @emph{after}
the customizations.

The first initialization of @ccmode{} puts a snapshot of the
configuration settings into the special style @code{user}.
@xref{Built-in Styles}.

For basic use of Emacs, either of these ways of configuring is
adequate.  However, the settings are then the same in all @ccmode{}
buffers and it can be clumsy to communicate them between programmers.
For more flexibility, you'll want to use one (or both) of @ccmode{}'s
more sophisticated facilities, hooks and styles.

@item Hooks
An Emacs @dfn{hook} is a place to put Lisp functions that you want
Emacs to execute later in specific circumstances.
@xref{Hooks,,,@lispref{}, @lispreftitle{}}.  @ccmode{} supplies a main
hook and a language-specific hook for each language it supports - any
functions you put onto these hooks get executed as the last part of a
buffer's initialization.  Typically you put most of your customization
within the main hook, and use the language-specific hooks to vary the
customization settings between language modes.  For example, if you
wanted different (non-standard) values of @code{c-basic-offset} in C
Mode and Java Mode buffers, you could do it like this:

@example
@group
(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
  (setq c-basic-offset 3))
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)

(defun my-java-mode-hook ()
  (setq c-basic-offset 6))
(add-hook 'java-mode-hook 'my-java-mode-hook)
@end group
@end example

See @ref{CC Hooks} for more details on the use of @ccmode{} hooks.

@item Styles
A @ccmode{} @dfn{style} is a coherent collection of customizations
with a name.  At any time, exactly one style is active in each
@ccmode{} buffer, either the one you have selected or a default.
@ccmode{} is delivered with several existing styles.  Additionally,
you can create your own styles, possibly based on these existing
styles.  If you worked in a programming team called the ``Free
Group'', which had its own coding standards, you might well have this
in your @file{.emacs} file:

@example
(setq c-default-style '((java-mode . "java")
                        (awk-mode . "awk")
                        (other . "free-group-style")))
@end example

See @ref{Styles} for fuller details on using @ccmode{} styles and how
to create them.

@item File Styles
A @dfn{file style} is a rarely used variant of the ``style'' mechanism
described above, which applies to an individual source file.  To use
it, you set certain Emacs local variables in a special block at the
end of the source file.  @xref{File Styles}.

@item Hooks with Styles
For ultimate flexibility, you can use hooks and styles together.  For
example, if your team were developing a product which required a
Linux driver, you'd probably want to use the ``linux'' style for the
driver, and your own team's style for the rest of the code.  You
could achieve this with code like this in your @file{.emacs}:

@example
@group
(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
  (c-set-style
   (if (and (buffer-file-name)
            (string-match "/usr/src/linux" (buffer-file-name)))
       "linux"
     "free-group-style")))
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)
@end group
@end example

In a programming team, a hook is a also a good place for each member
to put his own personal preferences.  For example, you might be the
only person in your team who likes Auto-newline minor mode.  You could
have it enabled by default by placing the following in your
@file{.emacs}:

@example
@group
(defun my-turn-on-auto-newline ()
  (c-toggle-auto-newline 1))
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-turn-on-auto-newline)
@end group
@end example
@end table

@menu
* CC Hooks::
* Style Variables::
* Styles::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    CC Hooks, Style Variables, Config Basics, Config Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Hooks
@cindex mode hooks
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@c The node name is "CC Hooks" rather than "Hooks" because of a bug in
@c some older versions of Info, e.g. the info.el in GNU Emacs 21.3.
@c If you go to "Config Basics" and hit <CR> on the xref to "CC
@c Hooks" the function Info-follow-reference searches for "*Note: CC
@c Hooks" from the beginning of the page.  If this node were instead
@c named "Hooks", that search would spuriously find "*Note:
@c Hooks(elisp)" and go to the wrong node.

@ccmode{} provides several hooks that you can use to customize the
mode for your coding style.  The main hook is
@code{c-mode-common-hook}; typically, you'll put the bulk of your
customizations here.  In addition, each language mode has its own
hook, allowing you to fine tune your settings individually for the
different @ccmode{} languages, and there is a package initialization
hook.  Finally, there is @code{c-special-indent-hook}, which enables
you to solve anomalous indentation problems.  It is described in
@ref{Other Indentation}, not here.  All these hooks adhere to the
standard Emacs conventions.

When you open a buffer, @ccmode{} first initializes it with the
currently active style (@pxref{Styles}).  Then it calls
@code{c-mode-common-hook}, and finally it calls the language-specific
hook.  Thus, any style settings done in these hooks will override
those set by @code{c-default-style}.

@defvar c-initialization-hook
@vindex initialization-hook (c-)
Hook run only once per Emacs session, when @ccmode{} is initialized.
This is a good place to change key bindings (or add new ones) in any
of the @ccmode{} key maps.  @xref{Sample .emacs File}.
@end defvar

@defvar c-mode-common-hook
@vindex mode-common-hook (c-)
Common hook across all languages.  It's run immediately before the
language specific hook.
@end defvar

@defvar c-mode-hook
@defvarx c++-mode-hook
@defvarx objc-mode-hook
@defvarx java-mode-hook
@defvarx idl-mode-hook
@defvarx pike-mode-hook
@defvarx awk-mode-hook
The language specific mode hooks.  The appropriate one is run as the
last thing when you enter that language mode.
@end defvar

Although these hooks are variables defined in @ccmode{}, you can give
them values before @ccmode{}'s code is loaded---indeed, this is the
only way to use @code{c-initialization-hook}.  Their values aren't
overwritten when @ccmode{} gets loaded.

Here's a simplified example of what you can add to your @file{.emacs}
file to do things whenever any @ccmode{} language is edited.  See the
Emacs manuals for more information on customizing Emacs via hooks.
@xref{Sample .emacs File}, for a more complete sample @file{.emacs}
file.

@example
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; my customizations for all of c-mode and related modes
  (no-case-fold-search)
  )
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)
@end example

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Style Variables, Styles, CC Hooks, Config Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Style Variables
@cindex styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex style variables
The variables that @ccmode{}'s style system control are called
@dfn{style variables}.  Note that style variables are ordinary Lisp
variables, which the style system initializes; you can change their
values at any time (e.g. in a hook function).  The style system can
also set other variables, to some extent.  @xref{Styles}.

@dfn{Style variables} are handled specially in several ways:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Style variables are by default buffer-local variables.  However, they
can instead be made global by setting
@code{c-style-variables-are-local-p} to @code{nil} before @ccmode{} is
initialized.

@item
@vindex c-old-style-variable-behavior
@vindex old-style-variable-behavior (c-)
The default global binding of any style variable (with two exceptions
- see below) is the special symbol @code{set-from-style}.  When the
style system initializes a buffer-local copy of a style variable for a
@ccmode{} buffer, if its global binding is still that symbol then it
will be set from the current style.  Otherwise it will retain its
global default@footnote{This is a big change from versions of
@ccmode{} earlier than 5.26, where such settings would get overridden
by the style system unless special precautions were taken.  That was
changed since it was counterintuitive and confusing, especially to
novice users.  If your configuration depends on the old overriding
behavior, you can set the variable
@code{c-old-style-variable-behavior} to non-@code{nil}.}.  This
``otherwise'' happens, for example, when you've set the variable with
@code{setq} at the top level of your @file{.emacs} (@pxref{Config
Basics}).

@item
The style variable @code{c-offsets-alist} (@pxref{c-offsets-alist}) is
an association list with an element for each syntactic symbol.  It's
handled a little differently from the other style variables.  It's
default global binding is the empty list @code{nil}, rather than
@code{set-from-style}.  Before the style system is initialized, you
can add individual elements to @code{c-offsets-alist} by calling
@code{c-set-offset}(@pxref{c-offsets-alist}) just like you would set
other style variables with @code{setq}.  Those elements will then
prevail when the style system later initializes a buffer-local copy of
@code{c-offsets-alist}.

@item
The style variable @code{c-special-indent-hook} is also handled in a
special way.  Styles can only add functions to this hook, not remove
them, so any global settings you put on it are always
preserved@footnote{This did not change in version 5.26.}.  The value
you give this variable in a style definition can be either a function
or a list of functions.

@item
The global bindings of the style variables get captured in the special
@code{user} style when the style system is first initialized.
@xref{Built-in Styles}, for details.
@end itemize

The style variables are:@*
@code{c-indent-comment-alist},
@code{c-indent-comments-syntactically-p} (@pxref{Indentation
Commands});@*
@code{c-doc-comment-style} (@pxref{Doc Comments});@*
@code{c-block-comment-prefix}, @code{c-comment-prefix-regexp}
(@pxref{Custom Filling and Breaking});@*
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist} (@pxref{Hanging Braces});@*
@code{c-hanging-colons-alist} (@pxref{Hanging Colons});@*
@code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria} (@pxref{Hanging Semicolons and
Commas});@*
@code{c-cleanup-list} (@pxref{Clean-ups});@*
@code{c-basic-offset} (@pxref{Customizing Indentation});@*
@code{c-offsets-alist} (@pxref{c-offsets-alist});@*
@code{c-comment-only-line-offset} (@pxref{Comment Line-Up});@*
@code{c-special-indent-hook}, @code{c-label-minimum-indentation}
(@pxref{Other Indentation});@*
@code{c-backslash-column}, @code{c-backslash-max-column}
(@pxref{Custom Macros}).

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Styles,  , Style Variables, Config Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Styles
@cindex styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

By @dfn{style} we mean the layout of the code---things like how many
columns to indent a block of code, whether an opening brace gets
indented to the level of the code it encloses, or of the construct
that introduces it, or ``hangs'' at the end of a line.

Most people only need to edit code formatted in just a few well-defined
and consistent styles.  For example, their organization might impose a
``blessed'' style that all its programmers must conform to.  Similarly,
people who work on GNU software will have to use the GNU coding style.
Some shops are more lenient, allowing a variety of coding styles, and as
programmers come and go, there could be a number of styles in use.  For
this reason, @ccmode{} makes it convenient for you to set up logical
groupings of customizations called @dfn{styles}, associate a single name
for any particular style, and pretty easily start editing new or
existing code using these styles.

@menu
* Built-in Styles::
* Choosing a Style::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Built-in Styles, Choosing a Style, Styles, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Built-in Styles
@cindex styles, built-in
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you're lucky, one of @ccmode{}'s built-in styles might be just
what you're looking for.  These are:

@table @code
@item gnu
@cindex GNU style
Coding style blessed by the Free Software Foundation
for C code in GNU programs.

@item k&r
@cindex K&R style
The classic Kernighan and Ritchie style for C code.

@item bsd
@cindex BSD style
Also known as ``Allman style'' after Eric Allman.

@item whitesmith
@cindex Whitesmith style
Popularized by the examples that came with Whitesmiths C, an early
commercial C compiler.

@item stroustrup
@cindex Stroustrup style
The classic Stroustrup style for C++ code.

@item ellemtel
@cindex Ellemtel style
Popular C++ coding standards as defined by ``Programming in C++, Rules
and Recommendations,'' Erik Nyquist and Mats Henricson,
Ellemtel@footnote{This document is available at
@uref{http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/lab/cplus/c++.rules/} among other
places.}.
@c N.B.  This URL was still valid at 2005/8/28  (ACM).

@item linux
@cindex Linux style
C coding standard for Linux (the kernel).

@item python
@cindex Python style
C coding standard for Python extension modules@footnote{Python is a
high level scripting language with a C/C++ foreign function interface.
For more information, see @uref{http://www.python.org/}.}.

@item java
@cindex Java style
The style for editing Java code.  Note that the default
value for @code{c-default-style} installs this style when you enter
@code{java-mode}.

@item awk
@cindex AWK style
The style for editing AWK code.  Note that the default value for
@code{c-default-style} installs this style when you enter
@code{awk-mode}.

@item user
@cindex User style
This is a special style created by you.  It consists of the factory
defaults for all the style variables as modified by the customizations
you do either with the Customization interface or by writing
@code{setq}s and @code{c-set-offset}s at the top level of your
@file{.emacs} file (@pxref{Config Basics}).  The style system creates
this style as part of its initialization and doesn't modify it
afterwards.
@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Choosing a Style, Adding Styles, Built-in Styles, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Choosing a Style
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

When you create a new buffer, its style will be set from
@code{c-default-style}.  The factory default is the style @code{gnu},
except in Java and AWK modes where it's @code{java} and @code{awk}.

Remember that if you set a style variable with the Customization
interface or at the top level of your @file{.emacs} file before the
style system is initialised (@pxref{Config Basics}), this setting will
override the one that the style system would have given the variable.

To set a buffer's style interactively, use the command @kbd{C-c .}
(@pxref{Other Commands}).  To set it from a file's local variable
list, @ref{File Styles}.

@defopt c-default-style
@vindex default-style (c-)
This variable specifies which style to install by default in new
buffers.  It takes either a style name string, or an association list
of major mode symbols to style names:

@enumerate
@item
When @code{c-default-style} is a string, it must be an existing style
name.  This style is then used for all modes.

@item
When @code{c-default-style} is an association list, the mode language
is looked up to find a style name string.

@item
If @code{c-default-style} is an association list where the mode
language mode isn't found then the special symbol @samp{other} is
looked up.  If it's found then the associated style is used.

@item
If @samp{other} is not found then the @samp{gnu} style is used.
@end enumerate

In all cases, the style described in @code{c-default-style} is installed
@emph{before} the language hooks are run, so you can always override
this setting by including an explicit call to @code{c-set-style} in your
language mode hook, or in @code{c-mode-common-hook}.

The standard value of @code{c-default-style} is @w{@code{((java-mode
. "java") (awk-mode . "awk") (other . "gnu"))}}.
@end defopt

@defvar c-indentation-style
@vindex indentation-style (c-)
This variable always contains the buffer's current style name, as a
string.
@end defvar


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Adding Styles, File Styles, Choosing a Style, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Adding and Amending Styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If none of the built-in styles is appropriate, you'll probably want to
create a new @dfn{style definition}, possibly based on an existing
style.  To do this, put the new style's settings into a list with the
following format - the list can then be passed as an argument to the
function @code{c-add-style}.  You can see an example of a style
definition in @ref{Sample .emacs File}.

@cindex style definition
@c @defvr {List} style definition
@table @asis
@item Structure of a Style Definition List
([@var{base-style}] [(@var{variable} . @var{value}) @dots{}])

Optional @var{base-style}, if present, must be a string which is the
name of the @dfn{base style} from which this style inherits.  At most
one @var{base-style} is allowed in a style definition.  If
@var{base-style} is not specified, the style inherits from the table
of factory default values@footnote{This table is stored internally in
the variable c-fallback-style.} instead.  All styles eventually
inherit from this internal table.  Style loops generate errors.  The
list of pre-existing styles can be seen in @ref{Built-in Styles}.

The dotted pairs (@var{variable} . @var{value}) each consist of a
variable and the value it is to be set to when the style is later
activated.@footnote{Note that if the variable has been given a value
by the Customization interface or a @code{setq} at the top level of
your @file{.emacs}, this value will override the one the style system
tries to give it. @xref{Config Basics}.} The variable can be either a
@ccmode{} style variable or an arbitrary Emacs variable.  In the
latter case, it is @emph{not} made buffer-local by the @ccmode{} style
system.
@c @end defvr

Two variables are treated specially in the dotted pair list:

@table @code
@item c-offsets-alist
The value is in turn a list of dotted pairs of the form

@example
(@r{@var{syntactic-symbol}} . @r{@var{offset}})
@end example

as described in @ref{c-offsets-alist}.  These are passed to
@code{c-set-offset} so there is no need to set every syntactic symbol
in your style, only those that are different from the inherited style.

@item c-special-indent-hook
The value is added to @code{c-special-indent-hook} using
@code{add-hook}, so any functions already on it are kept.  If the value
is a list, each element of the list is added with @code{add-hook}.
@end table
@end table

Styles are kept in the @code{c-style-alist} variable, but you
should never modify this variable directly.  Instead, @ccmode{}
provides the function @code{c-add-style} for this purpose.

@defun c-add-style stylename description &optional set-p
@findex add-style (c-)
Add or update a style called @var{stylename}, a string.
@var{description} is the new style definition in the form described
above.  If @var{stylename} already exists in @code{c-style-alist} then
it is replaced by @var{description}.  (Note, this replacement is
total.  The old style is @emph{not} merged into the new one.)
Otherwise, a new style is added.

If the optional @var{set-p} is non-@code{nil} then the new style is
applied to the current buffer as well.  The use of this facility is
deprecated and it might be removed from @ccmode{} in a future release.
You should use @code{c-set-style} instead.

The sample @file{.emacs} file provides a concrete example of how a new
style can be added and automatically set.  @xref{Sample .emacs File}.
@end defun

@defvar c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
This is the variable that holds the definitions for the styles.  It
should not be changed directly; use @code{c-add-style} instead.
@end defvar


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    File Styles,  , Adding Styles, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection File Styles
@cindex styles, file local
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex file local variables

The Emacs manual describes how you can customize certain variables on a
per-file basis by including a @dfn{file local variable} block at the end
of the file (@pxref{File Variables,, Local Variables in Files, @emacsman{},
@emacsmantitle{}}).

So far, you've only seen a functional interface for setting styles in
@ccmode{}, and this can't be used here.  @ccmode{} fills the gap by
providing two variables for use in a file's local variable list.
Don't use them anywhere else!  These allow you to customize the style
on a per-file basis:

@defvar c-file-style
@vindex file-style (c-)
Set this variable to a style name string in the Local Variables list.
From now on, when you visit the file, @ccmode{} will automatically set
the file's style to this one using @code{c-set-style}.
@end defvar

@defvar c-file-offsets
@vindex file-offsets (c-)
Set this variable (in the Local Variables list) to an association list
of the same format as @code{c-offsets-alist}.  From now on, when you
visit the file, @ccmode{} will automatically institute these offsets
using @code{c-set-offset}.
@end defvar

Note that file style settings (i.e. @code{c-file-style}) are applied
before file offset settings
(i.e. @code{c-file-offsets})@footnote{Also, if either of these are set
in a file's local variable section, all the style variable values are
made local to that buffer, even if
@code{c-style-variables-are-local-p} is @code{nil}.  Since this
variable is virtually always non-@code{nil} anyhow, you're unlikely to
notice this effect.}.

If you set any variables, including style variables, by the file local
variables mechanism, these settings take priority over all other
settings, even those in your mode hooks (@pxref{CC Hooks}).  If you
use @code{c-file-style} or @code{c-file-offsets} and also explicitly
set a style variable in a local variable block, the explicit setting
will take priority.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Filling and Breaking, Custom Auto-newlines, Config Basics, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Customizing Filling and Line Breaking
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since there's a lot of normal text in comments and string literals,
@ccmode{} provides features to edit these like in text mode.  It does
this by hooking in on the different line breaking functions and tuning
relevant variables as necessary.

@vindex c-comment-prefix-regexp
@vindex comment-prefix-regexp (c-)
@cindex comment line prefix
@vindex comment-start
@vindex comment-end
@vindex comment-start-skip
@vindex paragraph-start
@vindex paragraph-separate
@vindex paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix
@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@vindex adaptive-fill-regexp
@vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp
To make Emacs recognize comments and treat text in them as normal
paragraphs, @ccmode{} makes several standard
variables@footnote{@code{comment-start}, @code{comment-end},
@code{comment-start-skip}, @code{paragraph-start},
@code{paragraph-separate}, @code{paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix},
@code{adaptive-fill-mode}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp}, and
@code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}.} buffer-local and modifies them
according to the language syntax and the comment line prefix.

@defopt c-comment-prefix-regexp
@vindex comment-prefix-regexp (c-)
This style variable contains the regexp used to recognize the
@dfn{comment line prefix}, which is the line decoration that starts
every line in a comment.  The variable is either the comment line
prefix itself, or (more usually) an association list with different
values for different languages.  The symbol for the major mode is
looked up in the alist to get the regexp for the language, and if it
isn't found then the special symbol @samp{other} is looked up instead.

When a comment line gets divided by @kbd{M-j} or the like, @ccmode{}
inserts the comment line prefix from a neighbouring line at the start
of the new line.  The default value of c-comment-prefix-regexp is
@samp{//+\\|\\**}, which matches C++ style line comments like

@example
// blah blah
@end example

@noindent
with two or more slashes in front of them, and the second and
subsequent lines of C style block comments like

@example
@group
/*
 * blah blah
 */
@end group
@end example

@noindent
with zero or more stars at the beginning of every line.  If you change
this variable, please make sure it still matches the comment starter
(i.e. @code{//}) of line comments @emph{and} the line prefix inside
block comments.

@findex c-setup-paragraph-variables
@findex setup-paragraph-variables (c-)
Also note that since @ccmode{} uses the value of
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} to set up several other variables at
mode initialization, there won't be any effect if you just change it
inside a @ccmode{} buffer.  You need to call the command
@code{c-setup-paragraph-variables} too, to update those other
variables.  That's also the case if you modify
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} in a mode hook, since @ccmode{} will
already have set up these variables before calling the hook.
@end defopt

In comments, @ccmode{} uses @code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} to adapt
the line prefix from the other lines in the comment.

@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@cindex Adaptive Fill mode
@ccmode{} uses adaptive fill mode (@pxref{Adaptive Fill,,, emacs, GNU
Emacs Manual}) to make Emacs correctly keep the line prefix when
filling paragraphs.  That also makes Emacs preserve the text
indentation @emph{inside} the comment line prefix.  E.g. in the
following comment, both paragraphs will be filled with the left
margins of the texts kept intact:

@example
@group
/* Make a balanced b-tree of the nodes in the incoming
 * stream.  But, to quote the famous words of Donald E.
 * Knuth,
 *
 *     Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only
 *     proved it correct, not tried it.
 */
@end group
@end example

@findex c-setup-filladapt
@findex setup-filladapt (c-)
@findex filladapt-mode
@vindex filladapt-mode
@cindex Filladapt mode
It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages, notably Kyle
E. Jones' Filladapt package@footnote{It's available from
@uref{http://www.wonderworks.com/}.  As of version 2.12, it does however
lack a feature that makes it work suboptimally when
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} matches the empty string (which it does
by default).  A patch for that is available from
@uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net/,, the CC Mode web site}.},
@c 2005/11/22:  The above is still believed to be the case.
which handles things like bulleted lists nicely.  There's a convenience
function @code{c-setup-filladapt} that tunes the relevant variables in
Filladapt for use in @ccmode{}.  Call it from a mode hook, e.g. with
something like this in your @file{.emacs}:

@example
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  (c-setup-filladapt)
  (filladapt-mode 1))
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)
@end example

@defopt c-block-comment-prefix
@vindex block-comment-prefix (c-)
@vindex c-comment-continuation-stars
@vindex comment-continuation-stars (c-)
Normally the comment line prefix inserted for a new line inside a
comment is deduced from other lines in it.  However there's one
situation when there's no hint about what the prefix should look like,
namely when a block comment is broken for the first time.  This style
variable@footnote{In versions before 5.26, this variable was called
@code{c-comment-continuation-stars}.  As a compatibility measure,
@ccmode{} still uses the value on that variable if it's set.} is used
then as the comment prefix.  It defaults to @samp{*
}@footnote{Actually, this default setting of
@code{c-block-comment-prefix} typically gets overridden by the default
style @code{gnu}, which sets it to blank.  You can see the line
splitting effect described here by setting a different style,
e.g. @code{k&r} @xref{Choosing a Style}.}, which makes a comment

@example
/* Got O(n^2) here, which is a Bad Thing. */
@end example

@noindent
break into

@example
@group
/* Got O(n^2) here, which
 * is a Bad Thing. */
@end group
@end example

Note that it won't work to adjust the indentation by putting leading
spaces in @code{c-block-comment-prefix}, since @ccmode{} still uses the
normal indentation engine to indent the line.  Thus, the right way to
fix the indentation is by customizing the @code{c} syntactic symbol.  It
defaults to @code{c-lineup-C-comments}, which handles the indentation of
most common comment styles, see @ref{Line-Up Functions}.
@end defopt

@defopt c-ignore-auto-fill
@vindex ignore-auto-fill (c-)
When auto fill mode is enabled, @ccmode{} can selectively ignore it
depending on the context the line break would occur in, e.g. to never
break a line automatically inside a string literal.  This variable
takes a list of symbols for the different contexts where auto-filling
never should occur:

@table @code
@item string
Inside a string or character literal.
@item c
Inside a C style block comment.
@item c++
Inside a C++ style line comment.
@item cpp
Inside a preprocessor directive.
@item code
Anywhere else, i.e. in normal code.
@end table

By default, @code{c-ignore-auto-fill} is set to @code{(string cpp
code)}, which means that when auto-fill mode is activated,
auto-filling only occurs in comments.  In literals, it's often
desirable to have explicit control over newlines.  In preprocessor
directives, the necessary @samp{\} escape character before the newline
is not automatically inserted, so an automatic line break would
produce invalid code.  In normal code, line breaks are normally
dictated by some logical structure in the code rather than the last
whitespace character, so automatic line breaks there will produce poor
results in the current implementation.
@end defopt

@vindex comment-multi-line
If inside a comment and @code{comment-multi-line} (@pxref{Auto Fill,,,
@emacsman{}, @emacsmantitle{}} is non-@code{nil}, the indentation and
line prefix are preserved.  If inside a comment and
@code{comment-multi-line} is @code{nil}, a new comment of the same
type is started on the next line and indented as appropriate for
comments.

Note that @ccmode{} sets @code{comment-multi-line} to @code{t} at
startup.  The reason is that @kbd{M-j} could otherwise produce sequences
of single line block comments for texts that should logically be treated
as one comment, and the rest of the paragraph handling code
(e.g. @kbd{M-q} and @kbd{M-a}) can't cope with that, which would lead to
inconsistent behavior.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Auto-newlines, Clean-ups, Custom Filling and Breaking, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Customizing Auto-newlines
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} determines whether to insert auto-newlines in two basically
different ways, depending on the character just typed:

@table @asis
@item Braces and Colons
@ccmode{} first determines the syntactic context of the brace or colon
(@pxref{Syntactic Symbols}), then looks for a corresponding element in
an alist.  This element specifies where to put newlines - this is any
combination of before and after the brace or colon.  If no alist
element is found, newlines are inserted both before and after a brace,
but none are inserted around a colon.  See @ref{Hanging Braces} and
@ref{Hanging Colons}.

@item Semicolons and Commas
The variable @code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria} contains a list of
functions which determine whether to insert a newline after a newly
typed semicolon or comma.  @xref{Hanging Semicolons and Commas}.
@end table

The names of these configuration variables contain @samp{hanging}
because they let you @dfn{hang} the pertinent characters.  A character
which introduces a C construct is said to @dfn{hang on the right} when
it appears at the end of a line after other code, being separated by a
line break from the construct it introduces, like the opening brace in:

@example
@group
while (i < MAX) @{
    total += entry[i];
    entry [i++] = 0;
@}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
A character @dfn{hangs on the left} when it appears at the start of
the line after the construct it closes off, like the above closing
brace.

The next chapter, ``Clean-ups'', describes how to configure @ccmode{}
to remove these automatically added newlines in certain specific
circumstances.  @xref{Clean-ups}.

@menu
* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semicolons and Commas::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Braces, Hanging Colons, Custom Auto-newlines, Custom Auto-newlines
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Hanging Braces
@cindex hanging braces
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

To specify which kinds of braces you want auto-newlines put around,
you set the style variable @code{c-hanging-braces-alist}.  Its
structure and semantics are described in this section.  Details of how
to set it up, and its relationship to CC Mode's style system are given
in @ref{Style Variables}.

Say you wanted an auto-newline after (but not before) the following
@samp{@{}:

@example
if (foo < 17) @{
@end example

@noindent
First you need to find the @dfn{syntactic context} of the brace---type
a @key{RET} before the brace to get it on a line of its
own@footnote{Also insert a @samp{\} at the end of the previous line if
you're in AWK Mode.}, then type @kbd{C-c C-s}.  That will tell you
something like:

@example
((substatement-open 1061))
@end example

@noindent
So here you need to put the entry @code{(substatement-open . (after))}
into @code{c-hanging-braces-alist}.

If you don't want any auto-newlines for a particular syntactic symbol,
put this into @code{c-hanging-braces-alist}:

@example
(brace-entry-open)
@end example

If some brace syntactic symbol is not in @code{c-hanging-brace-alist},
its entry is taken by default as @code{(before after)}---insert a
newline both before and after the brace.  In place of a
``before/after'' list you can specify a function in this alist---this
is useful when the auto newlines depend on the code around the brace.

@defopt c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)

This variable is an association list which maps syntactic symbols to
lists of places to insert a newline.  @xref{Association
Lists,,,@lispref{}, @lispreftitle{}}.  The key of each element is the
syntactic symbol, the associated value is either @code{nil}, a list,
or a function.

@table @asis
@item The Key - the syntactic symbol
The syntactic symbols that are useful as keys in this list are
@code{brace-list-intro}, @code{statement-cont},
@code{inexpr-class-open}, @code{inexpr-class-close}, and all the
@code{*-open} and @code{*-close} symbols.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols},
for a more detailed description of these syntactic symbols, except for
@code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, which aren't
actual syntactic symbols.  Elements with any other value as a key get
ignored.

The braces of anonymous inner classes in Java are given the special
symbols @code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, so that
they can be distinguished from the braces of normal classes@footnote{The
braces of anonymous classes produce a combination of
@code{inexpr-class}, and @code{class-open} or @code{class-close} in
normal indentation analysis.}.

Note that the aggregate constructs in Pike mode, @samp{(@{}, @samp{@})},
@samp{([}, @samp{])}, and @samp{(<}, @samp{>)}, do not count as brace
lists in this regard, even though they do for normal indentation
purposes.  It's currently not possible to set automatic newlines on
these constructs.

@item The associated value - the ``ACTION'' list or function
The value associated with each syntactic symbol in this association
list is called an @var{action}, which can be either a list or a
function which returns a list.  @xref{Custom Braces}, for how to use
a function as a brace hanging @var{action}.

The list @var{action} (or the list returned by @var{action} when it's
a function) contains some combination of the symbols @code{before} and
@code{after}, directing @ccmode{} where to put newlines in
relationship to the brace being inserted.  Thus, if the list contains
only the symbol @code{after}, then the brace hangs on the right side
of the line, as in:

@example
// here, open braces always `hang'
void spam( int i ) @{
    if( i == 7 ) @{
        dosomething(i);
    @}
@}
@end example

When the list contains both @code{after} and @code{before}, the braces
will appear on a line by themselves, as shown by the close braces in
the above example.  The list can also be empty, in which case newlines
are added neither before nor after the brace.
@end table

If a syntactic symbol is missing entirely from
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist}, it's treated in the same way as an
@var{action} with a list containing @code{before} and @code{after}, so
that braces by default end up on their own line.

For example, the default value of @code{c-hanging-braces-alist} is:

@example
((brace-list-open)
 (brace-entry-open)
 (statement-cont)
 (substatement-open after)
 (block-close . c-snug-do-while)
 (extern-lang-open after)
 (namespace-open after)
 (module-open after)
 (composition-open after)
 (inexpr-class-open after)
 (inexpr-class-close before))
@end example

@noindent which says that @code{brace-list-open},
@code{brace-entry-open} and @code{statement-cont}@footnote{Brace lists
inside statements, such as initializers for static array variables
inside functions in C, are recognized as @code{statement-cont}.  All
normal substatement blocks are recognized with other symbols.} braces
should both hang on the right side and allow subsequent text to follow
on the same line as the brace.  Also, @code{substatement-open},
@code{extern-lang-open}, and @code{inexpr-class-open} braces should hang
on the right side, but subsequent text should follow on the next line.
The opposite holds for @code{inexpr-class-close} braces; they won't
hang, but the following text continues on the same line.  Here, in the
@code{block-close} entry, you also see an example of using a function as
an @var{action}.  In all other cases, braces are put on a line by
themselves.
@end defopt

@menu
* Custom Braces::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Braces,  , Hanging Braces, Hanging Braces
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Custom Brace Hanging
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)
@cindex action functions
Syntactic symbols aren't the only place where you can customize
@ccmode{} with the lisp equivalent of callback functions.  Remember
that @var{action}s are usually a list containing some combination of
the symbols @code{before} and @code{after} (@pxref{Hanging Braces}).
For more flexibility, you can instead specify brace ``hanginess'' by
giving a syntactic symbol an @dfn{action function} in
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist}; this function determines the
``hanginess'' of a brace, usually by looking at the code near it.

@cindex customization, brace hanging
An action function is called with two arguments: the syntactic symbol
for the brace (e.g. @code{substatement-open}), and the buffer position
where the brace has been inserted.  Point is undefined on entry to an
action function, but the function must preserve it (e.g. by using
@code{save-excursion}).  The return value should be a list containing
some combination of @code{before} and @code{after}, including neither
of them (i.e. @code{nil}).

@defvar c-syntactic-context
@vindex syntactic-context (c-)
During the call to the indentation or brace hanging @var{action}
function, this variable is bound to the full syntactic analysis list.
This might be, for example, @samp{((block-close 73))}.  Don't ever
give @code{c-syntactic-context} a value yourself---this would disrupt
the proper functioning of @ccmode{}.

This variable is also bound in three other circumstances:
(i)@w{ }when calling a c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria function
(@pxref{Hanging Semicolons and Commas}); (ii)@w{ }when calling a
line-up function (@pxref{Custom Line-Up}); (iii)@w{ }when calling a
c-special-indent-hook function (@pxref{Other Indentation}).
@end defvar

As an example, @ccmode{} itself uses this feature to dynamically
determine the hanginess of braces which close ``do-while''
constructs:

@example
void do_list( int count, char** atleast_one_string )
@{
    int i=0;
    do @{
        handle_string( atleast_one_string[i] );
        i++;
    @} while( i < count );
@}
@end example

@ccmode{} assigns the @code{block-close} syntactic symbol to the
brace that closes the @code{do} construct, and normally we'd like the
line that follows a @code{block-close} brace to begin on a separate
line.  However, with ``do-while'' constructs, we want the
@code{while} clause to follow the closing brace.  To do this, we
associate the @code{block-close} symbol with the @var{action} function
@code{c-snug-do-while}:

@example
(defun c-snug-do-while (syntax pos)
  "Dynamically calculate brace hanginess for do-while statements."
  (save-excursion
    (let (langelem)
      (if (and (eq syntax 'block-close)
               (setq langelem (assq 'block-close c-syntactic-context))
               (progn (goto-char (cdr langelem))
                      (if (= (following-char) ?@{)
                          (forward-sexp -1))
                      (looking-at "\\<do\\>[^_]")))
          '(before)
        '(before after)))))
@end example

@findex c-snug-do-while
@findex snug-do-while (c-)
This function simply looks to see if the brace closes a ``do-while''
clause and if so, returns the list @samp{(before)} indicating
that a newline should be inserted before the brace, but not after it.
In all other cases, it returns the list @samp{(before after)} so
that the brace appears on a line by itself.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Colons, Hanging Semicolons and Commas, Hanging Braces, Custom Auto-newlines
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Hanging Colons
@cindex hanging colons
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex customization, colon hanging
@vindex c-hanging-colons-alist
@vindex hanging-colons-alist (c-)

Using a mechanism similar to brace hanging (@pxref{Hanging Braces}),
colons can also be made to hang using the style variable
@code{c-hanging-colons-alist} - When a colon is typed, @ccmode
determines its syntactic context, looks this up in the alist
@code{c-changing-colons-alist} and inserts up to two newlines
accordingly.  Here, however, If @ccmode fails to find an entry for a
syntactic symbol in the alist, no newlines are inserted around the
newly typed colon.

@defopt c-hanging-colons-alist
@vindex hanging-colons-alist (c-)

@table @asis
@item The Key - the syntactic symbol
The syntactic symbols appropriate as keys in this association list
are: @code{case-label}, @code{label}, @code{access-label},
@code{member-init-intro}, and @code{inher-intro}.  @xref{Syntactic
Symbols}.  Elements with any other value as a key get ignored.

@item The associate value - the ``ACTION'' list
The @var{action} here is simply a list containing a combination of the
symbols @code{before} and @code{after}.  Unlike in
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist}, functions as @var{actions} are not
supported - there doesn't seem to be any need for them.
@end table
@end defopt

In C++, double-colons are used as a scope operator but because these
colons always appear right next to each other, newlines before and after
them are controlled by a different mechanism, called @dfn{clean-ups} in
@ccmode{}.  @xref{Clean-ups}, for details.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Semicolons and Commas,  , Hanging Colons, Custom Auto-newlines
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Hanging Semicolons and Commas
@cindex hanging semicolons
@cindex hanging commas
@cindex customization, semicolon newlines
@cindex customization, comma newlines
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@defopt c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria
@vindex hanging-semi&comma-criteria (c-)
This style variable takes a list of functions; these get called when
you type a semicolon or comma.  The functions are called in order
without arguments.  When these functions are entered, point is just
after the newly inserted @samp{;} or @samp{,} and they must preserve
point (e.g., by using @code{save-excursion}).  During the call, the
variable @code{c-syntactic-context} is bound to the syntactic context
of the current line@footnote{This was first introduced in @ccmode{}
5.31.} @pxref{Custom Braces}.  These functions don't insert newlines
themselves, rather they direct @ccmode{} whether or not to do so.
They should return one of the following values:

@table @code
@item t
A newline is to be inserted after the @samp{;} or @samp{,}, and no
more functions from the list are to be called.
@item stop
No more functions from the list are to be called, and no newline is to
be inserted.
@item nil
No determination has been made, and the next function in the list is
to be called.
@end table

Note that auto-newlines are never inserted @emph{before} a semicolon
or comma.  If every function in the list is called without a
determination being made, then no newline is added.

In AWK mode, this variable is set by default to @code{nil}.  In the
other modes, the default value is a list containing a single function,
@code{c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist}.  This inserts newlines after all
semicolons, apart from those separating @code{for}-clause statements.
@end defopt

@defun c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks (c-)
This is an example of a criteria function, provided by @ccmode{}.  It
prevents newlines from being inserted after semicolons when there is a
non-blank following line.  Otherwise, it makes no determination.  To
use, add this function to the front of the
@code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria} list.

@example
(defun c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks ()
  (save-excursion
    (if (and (eq last-command-char ?\;)
             (zerop (forward-line 1))
             (not (looking-at "^[ \t]*$")))
        'stop
      nil)))
@end example
@end defun

@defun c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist
@findex semi&comma-inside-parenlist (c-)
@defunx c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners (c-)
The function @code{c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist} is what prevents
newlines from being inserted inside the parenthesis list of @code{for}
statements.  In addition to
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks} described above,
@ccmode{} also comes with the criteria function
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners}, which suppresses
newlines after semicolons inside one-line inline method definitions
(e.g. in C++ or Java).
@end defun


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Clean-ups, Indentation Engine Basics, Custom Auto-newlines, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Clean-ups
@cindex clean-ups
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@dfn{Clean-ups} are mechanisms which remove (or exceptionally, add)
whitespace in specific circumstances and are complementary to colon
and brace hanging.  You enable a clean-up by adding its symbol into
@code{c-cleanup-list}, e.g. like this:

@example
(add-to-list 'c-cleanup-list 'space-before-funcall)
@end example

On the surface, it would seem that clean-ups overlap the functionality
provided by the @code{c-hanging-*-alist} variables.  Clean-ups,
however, are used to adjust code ``after-the-fact'', i.e. to adjust
the whitespace in constructs later than when they were typed.

Most of the clean-ups remove automatically inserted newlines, and are
only active when auto-newline minor mode is turned on.  Others will
work all the time.  Note that clean-ups are only performed when there
is nothing but whitespace appearing between the individual components
of the construct, and (apart from @code{comment-close-slash}) when the
construct does not occur within a literal (@pxref{Auto-newlines}).

@defopt c-cleanup-list
@vindex cleanup-list (c-)
@cindex literal

You configure @ccmode{}'s clean-ups by setting the style variable
@code{c-cleanup-list}, which is a list of clean-up symbols.  By
default, @ccmode{} cleans up only the @code{scope-operator} construct,
which is necessary for proper C++ support.
@end defopt

These are the clean-ups that are only active when electric and
auto-newline minor modes are enabled:

@c TBD: Would like to use some sort of @deffoo here; @table indents a
@c bit too much in dvi output.
@table @code
@item brace-else-brace
Clean up @samp{@} else @{} constructs by placing the entire construct on
a single line.  Clean up occurs when the open brace after the
@samp{else} is typed.  So for example, this:

@example
@group
void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else
    @{
@end group
@end example

@noindent
appears like this after the last open brace is typed:

@example
@group
void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else @{
@end group
@end example

@item brace-elseif-brace
Similar to the @code{brace-else-brace} clean-up, but this cleans up
@samp{@} else if (...) @{} constructs.  For example:

@example
@group
void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else if( i==3 )
    @{
@end group
@end example

@noindent
appears like this after the last open parenthesis is typed:

@example
@group
void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else if(
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and like this after the last open brace is typed:

@example
@group
void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else if( i==3 ) @{
@end group
@end example

@item brace-catch-brace
Analogous to @code{brace-elseif-brace}, but cleans up @samp{@} catch
(...) @{} in C++ and Java mode.

@item empty-defun-braces
Clean up braces following a top-level function or class definition that
contains no body.  Clean up occurs when the closing brace is typed.
Thus the following:

@example
@group
class Spam
@{
@}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
is transformed into this when the close brace is typed:

@example
@group
class Spam
@{@}
@end group
@end example

@item defun-close-semi
Clean up the terminating semicolon on top-level function or class
definitions when they follow a close brace.  Clean up occurs when the
semicolon is typed.  So for example, the following:

@example
@group
class Spam
@{
...
@}
;
@end group
@end example

@noindent
is transformed into this when the semicolon is typed:

@example
@group
class Spam
@{
...
@};
@end group
@end example

@item list-close-comma
Clean up commas following braces in array and aggregate initializers.
Clean up occurs when the comma is typed.  The space before the comma
is zapped just like the space before the semicolon in
@code{defun-close-semi}.

@item scope-operator
Clean up double colons which might designate a C++ scope operator split
across multiple lines@footnote{Certain C++ constructs introduce
ambiguous situations, so @code{scope-operator} clean-ups might not
always be correct.  This usually only occurs when scoped identifiers
appear in switch label tags.}.  Clean up occurs when the second colon is
typed.  You will always want @code{scope-operator} in the
@code{c-cleanup-list} when you are editing C++ code.

@item one-liner-defun
Clean up a single line of code enclosed by defun braces by removing
the whitespace before and after the code.  The clean-up happens when
the closing brace is typed.  If the variable
@code{c-max-one-liner-length} is set, the cleanup is only done if the
resulting line would be no longer than the value of that variable.

For example, consider this AWK code:

@example
@group
BEGIN @{
    FS = "\t" # use <TAB> as a field separator
@}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
It gets compacted to the following when the closing brace is typed:

@example
@group
BEGIN @{FS = "\t"@} # use <TAB> as a field separator
@end group
@end example

@defopt c-max-one-liner-length
@vindex max-one-liner-length (c-)
The maximum length of the resulting line for which the clean-up
@code{one-liner-defun} will be triggered.  This length is that of the entire
line, including any leading whitespace and any trailing comment.  Its
default value is 80.  If the value is zero or @code{nil}, no limit
applies.
@end defopt
@end table

The following clean-ups are always active when they occur on
@code{c-cleanup-list}, regardless of whether Electric minor mode or
Auto-newline minor mode are enabled:

@table @code
@item space-before-funcall
Insert a space between the function name and the opening parenthesis
of a function call.  This produces function calls in the style
mandated by the GNU coding standards, e.g. @samp{signal@w{ }(SIGINT,
SIG_IGN)} and @samp{abort@w{ }()}.  Clean up occurs when the opening
parenthesis is typed.  This clean-up should never be active in AWK
Mode, since such a space is syntactically invalid for user defined
functions.

@item compact-empty-funcall
Clean up any space between the function name and the opening parenthesis
of a function call that has no arguments.  This is typically used
together with @code{space-before-funcall} if you prefer the GNU function
call style for functions with arguments but think it looks ugly when
it's only an empty parenthesis pair.  I.e. you will get @samp{signal
(SIGINT, SIG_IGN)}, but @samp{abort()}.  Clean up occurs when the
closing parenthesis is typed.

@item comment-close-slash
When inside a block comment, terminate the comment when you type a slash
at the beginning of a line (i.e. immediately after the comment prefix).
This clean-up removes whitespace preceding the slash and if needed,
inserts a star to complete the token @samp{*/}.  Type @kbd{C-q /} in this
situation if you just want a literal @samp{/} inserted.
@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Engine Basics, Customizing Indentation, Clean-ups, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Indentation Engine Basics
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This chapter will briefly cover how @ccmode{} indents lines of code.
It is helpful to understand the indentation model being used so that
you will know how to customize @ccmode{} for your personal coding
style.  All the details are in @ref{Customizing Indentation}.

@ccmode{} has an indentation engine that provides a flexible and
general mechanism for customizing indentation.  When @ccmode{} indents
a line of code, it separates its calculations into two steps:

@enumerate
@item
@cindex syntactic symbol
@cindex anchor position
It analyzes the line to determine its @dfn{syntactic symbol(s)} (the
kind of language construct it's looking at) and its @dfn{anchor
position} (the position earlier in the file that @ccmode{} will indent
the line relative to).  The anchor position might be the location of
an opening brace in the previous line, for example.  @xref{Syntactic
Analysis}.
@item
@cindex offsets
@cindex indentation offset specifications
It looks up the syntactic symbol(s) in the configuration to get the
corresponding @dfn{offset(s)}.  The symbol @code{+}, which means
``indent this line one more level'' is a typical offset.  @ccmode{}
then applies these offset(s) to the anchor position, giving the
indentation for the line.  The different sorts of offsets are
described in @ref{c-offsets-alist}.
@end enumerate

In exceptional circumstances, the syntax directed indentation
described here may be a nuisance rather than a help.  You can disable
it by setting @code{c-syntactic-indentation} to @code{nil}.  (To set
the variable interactively, @ref{Minor Modes}).

@defopt c-syntactic-indentation
@vindex syntactic-indentation (c-)
When this is non-@code{nil} (which it is by default), the indentation
of code is done according to its syntactic structure.  When it's
@code{nil}, every line is just indented to the same level as the
previous one, and @kbd{TAB} (@code{c-indent-command}) adjusts the
indentation in steps of @code{c-basic-offset}.  The current style
(@pxref{Config Basics}) then has no effect on indentation, nor do any
of the variables associated with indentation, not even
@code{c-special-indent-hook}.
@end defopt

@menu
* Syntactic Analysis::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Indentation Calculation::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Syntactic Analysis, Syntactic Symbols, Indentation Engine Basics, Indentation Engine Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Syntactic Analysis
@cindex syntactic analysis
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex syntactic element
@cindex syntactic context
The first thing @ccmode{} does when indenting a line of code, is to
analyze the line, determining the @dfn{syntactic context} of the
(first) construct on that line.  It's a list of @dfn{syntactic
elements}, where each syntactic element in turn is a list@footnote{In
@ccmode 5.28 and earlier, a syntactic element was a dotted pair; the
cons was the syntactic symbol and the cdr was the anchor position.
For compatibility's sake, the parameter passed to a line-up function
still has this dotted pair form (@pxref{Custom Line-Up}).}  Here is a
brief and typical example:

@example
((defun-block-intro 1959))
@end example

@cindex syntactic symbol
@noindent
The first thing inside each syntactic element is always a
@dfn{syntactic symbol}.  It describes the kind of construct that was
recognized, e.g. @code{statement}, @code{substatement},
@code{class-open}, @code{class-close}, etc.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols},
for a complete list of currently recognized syntactic symbols and
their semantics.  The remaining entries are various data associated
with the recognized construct - there might be zero or more.

@cindex anchor position
Conceptually, a line of code is always indented relative to some
position higher up in the buffer (typically the indentation of the
previous line).  That position is the @dfn{anchor position} in the
syntactic element.  If there is an entry after the syntactic symbol in
the syntactic element list then it's either nil or that anchor position.

Here is an example.  Suppose we had the following code as the only thing
in a C++ buffer @footnote{The line numbers in this and future examples
don't actually appear in the buffer, of course!}:

@example
 1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
 2: @{
 3:     int tmp = a;
 4:     a = b;
 5:     b = tmp;
 6: @}
@end example

@noindent
We can use @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{c-show-syntactic-information}) to
report what the syntactic analysis is for the current line:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{c-show-syntactic-information})
@kindex C-c C-s
@findex c-show-syntactic-information
@findex show-syntactic-information (c-)
This command calculates the syntactic analysis of the current line and
displays it in the minibuffer.  The command also highlights the anchor
position(s).
@end table

  Running this command on line 4 of this example, we'd see in the echo
area@footnote{With a universal argument (i.e. @kbd{C-u C-c C-s}) the
analysis is inserted into the buffer as a comment on the current
line.}:

@example
((statement 35))
@end example

@noindent
and the @samp{i} of @code{int} on line 3 would be highlighted.  This
tells us that the line is a statement and it is indented relative to
buffer position 35, the highlighted position.  If you were to move
point to line 3 and hit @kbd{C-c C-s}, you would see:

@example
((defun-block-intro 29))
@end example

@noindent
This indicates that the @samp{int} line is the first statement in a top
level function block, and is indented relative to buffer position 29,
which is the brace just after the function header.

Here's another example:

@example
 1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
 2: @{
 3:     if( doit )
 4:         @{
 5:             return( val + incr );
 6:         @}
 7:     return( val );
 8: @}
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 gives us:

@example
((substatement-open 46))
@end example

@cindex substatement
@cindex substatement block
@noindent
which tells us that this is a brace that @emph{opens} a substatement
block. @footnote{A @dfn{substatement} is the line after a
conditional statement, such as @code{if}, @code{else}, @code{while},
@code{do}, @code{switch}, etc.  A @dfn{substatement
block} is a brace block following one of these conditional statements.}

@cindex comment-only line
Syntactic contexts can contain more than one element, and syntactic
elements need not have anchor positions.  The most common example of
this is a @dfn{comment-only line}:

@example
 1: void draw_list( List<Drawables>& drawables )
 2: @{
 3:         // call the virtual draw() method on each element in list
 4:     for( int i=0; i < drawables.count(), ++i )
 5:     @{
 6:         drawables[i].draw();
 7:     @}
 8: @}
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 3 of this example gives:

@example
((comment-intro) (defun-block-intro 46))
@end example

@noindent
and you can see that the syntactic context contains two syntactic
elements.  Notice that the first element, @samp{(comment-intro)}, has no
anchor position.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Syntactic Symbols, Indentation Calculation, Syntactic Analysis, Indentation Engine Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Syntactic Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex syntactic symbols, brief list
@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
This section is a complete list of the syntactic symbols which appear
in the @code{c-offsets-alist} style variable, along with brief
descriptions.  The previous section (@pxref{Syntactic Analysis})
states what syntactic symbols are and how the indentation engine uses
them.

More detailed descriptions of these symbols, together with snippets of
source code to which they apply, appear in the examples in the
subsections below.  Note that, in the interests of brevity, the anchor
position associated with most syntactic symbols is @emph{not}
specified.  In cases of doubt, type @kbd{C-c C-s} on a pertinent
line---this highlights the anchor position.

@ssindex -open symbols
@ssindex -close symbols
@ssindex -block-intro symbols
The syntactic symbols which indicate brace constructs follow a general
naming convention.  When a line begins with an open or close brace,
its syntactic symbol will contain the suffix @code{-open} or
@code{-close} respectively.  The first line within the brace block
construct will contain the suffix @code{-block-intro}.

@ssindex -intro symbols
@ssindex -cont symbols
In constructs which can span several lines, a distinction is usually
made between the first line that introduces the construct and the
lines that continue it.  The syntactic symbols that indicate these
lines will contain the suffixes @code{-intro} or @code{-cont}
respectively.

The best way to understand how all this works is by looking at some
examples.  Remember that you can see the syntax of any source code
line by using @kbd{C-c C-s}.

@table @code
@item string
Inside a multiline string.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item c
Inside a multiline C style block comment.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item defun-open
Brace that opens a top-level function definition.  @ref{Function
Symbols}.
@item defun-close
Brace that closes a top-level function definition.  @ref{Function
Symbols}.
@item defun-block-intro
The first line in a top-level defun.  @ref{Function Symbols}.
@item class-open
Brace that opens a class definition.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item class-close
Brace that closes a class definition.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item inline-open
Brace that opens an in-class inline method.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item inline-close
Brace that closes an in-class inline method.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item func-decl-cont
The region between a function definition's argument list and the
function opening brace (excluding K&R argument declarations).  In C,
you cannot put anything but whitespace and comments in this region,
however in C++ and Java, @code{throws} declarations and other things
can appear here.  @ref{Literal Symbols}. @c @emph{FIXME!!!  Can it not
@c go somewhere better?}
@item knr-argdecl-intro
First line of a K&R C argument declaration.  @ref{K&R Symbols}.
@item knr-argdecl
Subsequent lines in a K&R C argument declaration.  @ref{K&R Symbols}.
@item topmost-intro
The first line in a ``topmost'' definition.  @ref{Function Symbols}.
@item topmost-intro-cont
Topmost definition continuation lines.  This is only used in the parts
that aren't covered by other symbols such as @code{func-decl-cont} and
@code{knr-argdecl}.  @ref{Function Symbols}.
@item member-init-intro
First line in a member initialization list.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item member-init-cont
Subsequent member initialization list lines.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item inher-intro
First line of a multiple inheritance list.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item inher-cont
Subsequent multiple inheritance lines.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item block-open
Statement block open brace.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item block-close
Statement block close brace.  @ref{Conditional Construct Symbols}.
@item brace-list-open
Open brace of an enum or static array list.  @ref{Brace List Symbols}.
@item brace-list-close
Close brace of an enum or static array list.  @ref{Brace List Symbols}.
@item brace-list-intro
First line in an enum or static array list.  @ref{Brace List Symbols}.
@item brace-list-entry
Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list.  @ref{Brace List
Symbols}.
@item brace-entry-open
Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list where the line begins
with an open brace.  @ref{Brace List Symbols}.
@item statement
A statement.  @ref{Function Symbols}.
@item statement-cont
A continuation of a statement.  @ref{Function Symbols}.
@item statement-block-intro
The first line in a new statement block.  @ref{Conditional Construct
Symbols}.
@item statement-case-intro
The first line in a case block.  @ref{Switch Statement Symbols}.
@item statement-case-open
The first line in a case block that starts with a brace.  @ref{Switch
Statement Symbols}.
@item substatement
The first line after a conditional or loop construct.
@ref{Conditional Construct Symbols}.
@item substatement-open
The brace that opens a substatement block.  @ref{Conditional Construct
Symbols}.
@item substatement-label
The first line after a conditional or loop construct if it's a label.
@ref{Conditional Construct Symbols}.
@item case-label
A label in a @code{switch} block.  @ref{Switch Statement Symbols}.
@item access-label
C++ access control label.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item label
Any other label.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item do-while-closure
The @code{while} line that ends a @code{do}-@code{while} construct.
@ref{Conditional Construct Symbols}.
@item else-clause
The @code{else} line of an @code{if}-@code{else} construct.
@ref{Conditional Construct Symbols}.
@item catch-clause
The @code{catch} or @code{finally} (in Java) line of a
@code{try}-@code{catch} construct.  @ref{Conditional Construct
Symbols}.
@item comment-intro
A line containing only a comment introduction.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item arglist-intro
The first line in an argument list.  @ref{Paren List Symbols}.
@item arglist-cont
Subsequent argument list lines when no arguments follow on the same
line as the arglist opening paren.  @ref{Paren List Symbols}.
@item arglist-cont-nonempty
Subsequent argument list lines when at least one argument follows on
the same line as the arglist opening paren.  @ref{Paren List Symbols}.
@item arglist-close
The solo close paren of an argument list.  @ref{Paren List Symbols}.
@item stream-op
Lines continuing a stream operator (C++ only).  @ref{Literal
Symbols}. @c @emph{FIXME!!!  Can this not be moved somewhere better?}
@item inclass
The line is nested inside a class definition.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item cpp-macro
The start of a preprocessor macro definition.  @ref{Literal Symbols}.
@item cpp-define-intro
The first line inside a multiline preprocessor macro if
@code{c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros} is set.  @ref{Multiline Macro
Symbols}.
@item cpp-macro-cont
All lines inside multiline preprocessor macros if
@code{c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros} is @code{nil}.
@ref{Multiline Macro Symbols}.
@item friend
A C++ friend declaration.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item objc-method-intro
The first line of an Objective-C method definition.  @ref{Objective-C
Method Symbols}.
@item objc-method-args-cont
Lines continuing an Objective-C method definition.  @ref{Objective-C
Method Symbols}.
@item objc-method-call-cont
Lines continuing an Objective-C method call.  @ref{Objective-C Method
Symbols}.
@item extern-lang-open
Brace that opens an @code{extern} block (e.g. @code{extern "C"
@{...@}}).  @ref{External Scope Symbols}.
@item extern-lang-close
Brace that closes an @code{extern} block.  @ref{External Scope
Symbols}.
@item inextern-lang
Analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol, but used inside
@code{extern} blocks.  @ref{External Scope Symbols}.
@item namespace-open
@itemx namespace-close
@itemx innamespace
These are analogous to the three @code{extern-lang} symbols above, but
are returned for C++ namespace blocks.  @ref{External Scope Symbols}.
@item module-open
@itemx module-close
@itemx inmodule
Analogous to the above, but for CORBA IDL @code{module} blocks.
@ref{External Scope Symbols}.
@item composition-open
@itemx composition-close
@itemx incomposition
Analogous to the above, but for CORBA CIDL @code{composition} blocks.
@ref{External Scope Symbols}.
@item template-args-cont
C++ template argument list continuations.  @ref{Class Symbols}.
@item inlambda
Analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol, but used inside lambda
(i.e. anonymous) functions.  Only used in Pike mode.  @ref{Statement
Block Symbols}.
@item lambda-intro-cont
Lines continuing the header of a lambda function, i.e. between the
@code{lambda} keyword and the function body.  Only used in Pike mode.
@ref{Statement Block Symbols}.
@item inexpr-statement
A statement block inside an expression.  The gcc C and C++ extension
for this is recognized.  It's also used for the special functions that
take a statement block as an argument in Pike.  @ref{Statement Block
Symbols}.
@item inexpr-class
A class definition inside an expression.  This is used for anonymous
classes in Java.  It's also used for anonymous array initializers in
Java.  @ref{Anonymous Class Symbol}.
@end table

@menu
* Function Symbols::
* Class Symbols::
* Conditional Construct Symbols::
* Switch Statement Symbols::
* Brace List Symbols::
* External Scope Symbols::
* Paren List Symbols::
* Literal Symbols::
* Multiline Macro Symbols::
* Objective-C Method Symbols::
* Anonymous Class Symbol::
* Statement Block Symbols::
* K&R Symbols::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Function Symbols, Class Symbols, Syntactic Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Function Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This example shows a typical function declaration.

@example
 1: void
 2: swap( int& a, int& b )
 3: @{
 4:     int tmp = a;
 5:     a = b;
 6:     b = tmp;
 7:     int ignored =
 8:         a + b;
 9: @}
@end example

@ssindex topmost-intro
@ssindex topmost-intro-cont
@ssindex defun-open
@ssindex defun-close
@ssindex defun-block-intro
Line 1 shows a @code{topmost-intro} since it is the first line that
introduces a top-level construct.  Line 2 is a continuation of the
top-level construct introduction so it has the syntax
@code{topmost-intro-cont}.  Line 3 shows a @code{defun-open} since it is
the brace that opens a top-level function definition.  Line 9 is the
corresponding
@code{defun-close} since it contains the brace that closes the top-level
function definition.  Line 4 is a @code{defun-block-intro}, i.e. it is
the first line of a brace-block, enclosed in a
top-level function definition.

@ssindex statement
@ssindex statement-cont
Lines 5, 6, and 7 are all given @code{statement} syntax since there
isn't much special about them.  Note however that line 8 is given
@code{statement-cont} syntax since it continues the statement begun
on the previous line.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Class Symbols, Conditional Construct Symbols, Function Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Class related Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Here's an example which illustrates some C++ class syntactic symbols:

@example
 1: class Bass
 2:     : public Guitar,
 3:       public Amplifiable
 4: @{
 5: public:
 6:     Bass()
 7:         : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
 8:           aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
 9:           dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
10:           gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
11:     @{
12:         eString.tune( 'E' );
13:         aString.tune( 'A' );
14:         dString.tune( 'D' );
15:         gString.tune( 'G' );
16:     @}
17:     friend class Luthier;
18: @};
@end example

@ssindex class-open
@ssindex class-close
As in the previous example, line 1 has the @code{topmost-intro} syntax.
Here however, the brace that opens a C++ class definition on line 4 is
assigned the @code{class-open} syntax.  Note that in C++, classes,
structs, and unions are essentially equivalent syntactically (and are
very similar semantically), so replacing the @code{class} keyword in the
example above with @code{struct} or @code{union} would still result in a
syntax of @code{class-open} for line 4 @footnote{This is the case even
for C and Objective-C.  For consistency, structs in all supported
languages are syntactically equivalent to classes.  Note however that
the keyword @code{class} is meaningless in C and Objective-C.}.
Similarly, line 18 is assigned @code{class-close} syntax.

@ssindex inher-intro
@ssindex inher-cont
Line 2 introduces the inheritance list for the class so it is assigned
the @code{inher-intro} syntax, and line 3, which continues the
inheritance list is given @code{inher-cont} syntax.

@ssindex access-label
@ssindex inclass
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 5 shows the following analysis:

@example
((inclass 58) (access-label 58))
@end example

@noindent
The primary syntactic symbol for this line is @code{access-label} as
this a label keyword that specifies access protection in C++.  However,
because this line is also a top-level construct inside a class
definition, the analysis actually shows two syntactic symbols.  The
other syntactic symbol assigned to this line is @code{inclass}.
Similarly, line 6 is given both @code{inclass} and @code{topmost-intro}
syntax:

@example
((inclass 58) (topmost-intro 60))
@end example

@ssindex member-init-intro
@ssindex member-init-cont
Line 7 introduces a C++ member initialization list and as such is given
@code{member-init-intro} syntax.  Note that in this case it is
@emph{not} assigned @code{inclass} since this is not considered a
top-level construct.  Lines 8 through 10 are all assigned
@code{member-init-cont} since they continue the member initialization
list started on line 7.

@cindex in-class inline methods
@ssindex inline-open
@ssindex inline-close
Line 11's analysis is a bit more complicated:

@example
((inclass 58) (inline-open))
@end example

This line is assigned a syntax of both @code{inline-open} and
@code{inclass} because it opens an @dfn{in-class} C++ inline method
definition.  This is distinct from, but related to, the C++ notion of an
inline function in that its definition occurs inside an enclosing class
definition, which in C++ implies that the function should be inlined.
However, if the definition of the @code{Bass} constructor appeared
outside the class definition, the construct would be given the
@code{defun-open} syntax, even if the keyword @code{inline} appeared
before the method name, as in:

@example
 1: class Bass
 2:     : public Guitar,
 3:       public Amplifiable
 4: @{
 5: public:
 6:     Bass();
 7: @};
 8:
 9: inline
10: Bass::Bass()
11:     : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
12:       aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
13:       dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
14:       gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
15: @{
16:     eString.tune( 'E' );
17:     aString.tune( 'A' );
18:     dString.tune( 'D' );
19:     gString.tune( 'G' );
20: @}
@end example

@ssindex friend
Returning to the previous example, line 16 is given @code{inline-close}
syntax, while line 12 is given @code{defun-block-open} syntax, and lines
13 through 15 are all given @code{statement} syntax.  Line 17 is
interesting in that its syntactic analysis list contains three
elements:

@example
((inclass 58) (topmost-intro 380) (friend))
@end example

The @code{friend} and @code{inline-open} syntactic symbols are
modifiers that do not have anchor positions.

@ssindex template-args-cont
Template definitions introduce yet another syntactic symbol:

@example
 1: ThingManager <int,
 2:    Framework::Callback *,
 3:    Mutex> framework_callbacks;
@end example

Here, line 1 is analyzed as a @code{topmost-intro}, but lines 2 and 3
are both analyzed as @code{template-args-cont} lines.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Conditional Construct Symbols, Switch Statement Symbols, Class Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Conditional Construct Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Here is a (totally contrived) example which illustrates how syntax is
assigned to various conditional constructs:

@example
 1: void spam( int index )
 2: @{
 3:     for( int i=0; i<index; i++ )
 4:     @{
 5:         if( i == 10 )
 6:             do_something_special();
 7:         else
 8:           silly_label:
 9:             do_something( i );
10:     @}
11:     do @{
12:         another_thing( i-- );
13:     @}
14:     while( i > 0 );
15: @}
@end example

Only the lines that illustrate new syntactic symbols will be discussed.

@ssindex substatement-open
@ssindex statement-block-intro
@ssindex block-close
Line 4 has a brace which opens a conditional's substatement block.  It
is thus assigned @code{substatement-open} syntax, and since line 5 is
the first line in the substatement block, it is assigned
@code{statement-block-intro} syntax.  Line 10 contains the brace
that closes the inner substatement block, and is therefore given the
syntax @code{block-close}@footnote{@code{block-open} is used only for
``free-standing'' blocks, and is somewhat rare (@pxref{Literal
Symbols} for an example.)}.  Line 13 is treated the same way.

@ssindex substatement
Lines 6 and 9 are also substatements of conditionals, but since they
don't start blocks they are given @code{substatement} syntax
instead of @code{substatement-open}.

@ssindex substatement-label
Line 8 contains a label, which is normally given @code{label} syntax.
This one is however a bit special since it's between a conditional and
its substatement.  It's analyzed as @code{substatement-label} to let you
handle this rather odd case differently from normal labels.

@ssindex else-clause
@ssindex catch-clause
Line 7 start with an @code{else} that matches the @code{if} statement on
line 5.  It is therefore given the @code{else-clause} syntax and is
anchored on the matching @code{if}.  The @code{try}-@code{catch}
constructs in C++ and Java are treated this way too, except that
@code{catch} and (in Java) @code{finally}, are marked with
@code{catch-clause}.

@ssindex do-while-closure
The @code{while} construct on line 14 that closes a @code{do}
conditional is given the special syntax @code{do-while-closure} if it
appears on a line by itself.  Note that if the @code{while} appeared on
the same line as the preceding close brace, that line would still have
@code{block-close} syntax.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Switch Statement Symbols, Brace List Symbols, Conditional Construct Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Switch Statement Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Switch statements have their own set of syntactic symbols.  Here's an
example:

@example
 1: void spam( enum Ingredient i )
 2: @{
 3:     switch( i ) @{
 4:     case Ham:
 5:         be_a_pig();
 6:         break;
 7:     case Salt:
 8:         drink_some_water();
 9:         break;
10:     default:
11:         @{
12:             what_is_it();
13:             break;
14:         @}
15:     @}
14: @}
@end example

@ssindex case-label
@ssindex statement-case-intro
@ssindex statement-case-open
Here, lines 4, 7, and 10 are all assigned @code{case-label} syntax,
while lines 5 and 8 are assigned @code{statement-case-intro}.  Line 11
is treated slightly differently since it contains a brace that opens a
block --- it is given @code{statement-case-open} syntax.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Brace List Symbols, External Scope Symbols, Switch Statement Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Brace List Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex brace lists
There are a set of syntactic symbols that are used to recognize
constructs inside of brace lists.  A brace list is defined as an
@code{enum} or aggregate initializer list, such as might statically
initialize an array of structs.  The three special aggregate constructs
in Pike, @code{(@{ @})}, @code{([ ])} and @code{(< >)}, are treated as
brace lists too.  An example:

@example
 1: static char* ingredients[] =
 2: @{
 3:     "Ham",
 4:     "Salt",
 5:     NULL
 6: @};
@end example

@ssindex brace-list-open
@ssindex brace-list-intro
@ssindex brace-list-close
@ssindex brace-list-entry
Following convention, line 2 in this example is assigned
@code{brace-list-open} syntax, and line 3 is assigned
@code{brace-list-intro} syntax.  Likewise, line 6 is assigned
@code{brace-list-close} syntax.  Lines 4 and 5 however, are assigned
@code{brace-list-entry} syntax, as would all subsequent lines in this
initializer list.

@ssindex brace-entry-open
Your static initializer might be initializing nested structures, for
example:

@example
 1: struct intpairs[] =
 2: @{
 3:     @{ 1, 2 @},
 4:     @{
 5:         3,
 6:         4
 7:     @}
 8:     @{ 1,
 9:       2 @},
10:     @{ 3, 4 @}
11: @};
@end example

Here, you've already seen the analysis of lines 1, 2, 3, and 11.  On
line 4, things get interesting; this line is assigned
@code{brace-entry-open} syntactic symbol because it's a bracelist entry
line that starts with an open brace.  Lines 5 and 6 (and line 9) are
pretty standard, and line 7 is a @code{brace-list-close} as you'd
expect.  Once again, line 8 is assigned as @code{brace-entry-open} as is
line 10.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    External Scope Symbols, Paren List Symbols, Brace List Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection External Scope Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

External language definition blocks also have their own syntactic
symbols.  In this example:

@example
 1: extern "C"
 2: @{
 3:     int thing_one( int );
 4:     int thing_two( double );
 5: @}
@end example

@ssindex extern-lang-open
@ssindex extern-lang-close
@ssindex inextern-lang
@ssindex inclass
@noindent
line 2 is given the @code{extern-lang-open} syntax, while line 5 is given
the @code{extern-lang-close} syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:

@example
((inextern-lang) (topmost-intro 14))
@end example

@noindent
where @code{inextern-lang} is a modifier similar in purpose to
@code{inclass}.

There are various other top level blocks like @code{extern}, and they
are all treated in the same way except that the symbols are named after
the keyword that introduces the block.  E.g. C++ namespace blocks get
the three symbols @code{namespace-open}, @code{namespace-close} and
@code{innamespace}.  The currently recognized top level blocks are:

@table @asis
@item @code{extern-lang-open}, @code{extern-lang-close}, @code{inextern-lang}
@code{extern} blocks in C and C++.@footnote{These should logically be
named @code{extern-open}, @code{extern-close} and @code{inextern}, but
that isn't the case for historical reasons.}

@item @code{namespace-open}, @code{namespace-close}, @code{innamespace}
@ssindex namespace-open
@ssindex namespace-close
@ssindex innamespace
@code{namespace} blocks in C++.

@item @code{module-open}, @code{module-close}, @code{inmodule}
@ssindex module-open
@ssindex module-close
@ssindex inmodule
@code{module} blocks in CORBA IDL.

@item @code{composition-open}, @code{composition-close}, @code{incomposition}
@ssindex composition-open
@ssindex composition-close
@ssindex incomposition
@code{composition} blocks in CORBA CIDL.
@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Paren List Symbols, Literal Symbols, External Scope Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Parenthesis (Argument) List Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

A number of syntactic symbols are associated with parenthesis lists,
a.k.a argument lists, as found in function declarations and function
calls.  This example illustrates these:

@example
 1: void a_function( int line1,
 2:                  int line2 );
 3:
 4: void a_longer_function(
 5:     int line1,
 6:     int line2
 7:     );
 8:
 9: void call_them( int line1, int line2 )
10: @{
11:     a_function(
12:         line1,
13:         line2
14:         );
15:
16:     a_longer_function( line1,
17:                        line2 );
18: @}
@end example

@ssindex arglist-intro
@ssindex arglist-close
Lines 5 and 12 are assigned @code{arglist-intro} syntax since they are
the first line following the open parenthesis, and lines 7 and 14 are
assigned @code{arglist-close} syntax since they contain the parenthesis
that closes the argument list.

@ssindex arglist-cont-nonempty
@ssindex arglist-cont
Lines that continue argument lists can be assigned one of two syntactic
symbols.  For example, Lines 2 and 17
are assigned @code{arglist-cont-nonempty} syntax.  What this means
is that they continue an argument list, but that the line containing the
parenthesis that opens the list is @emph{not empty} following the open
parenthesis.  Contrast this against lines 6 and 13 which are assigned
@code{arglist-cont} syntax.  This is because the parenthesis that opens
their argument lists is the last character on that line.

Syntactic elements with @code{arglist-intro},
@code{arglist-cont-nonempty}, and @code{arglist-close} contain two
buffer positions: the anchor position (the beginning of the
declaration or statement) and the position of the open parenthesis.
The latter position can be used in a line-up function (@pxref{Line-Up
Functions}).

Note that there is no @code{arglist-open} syntax.  This is because any
parenthesis that opens an argument list, appearing on a separate line,
is assigned the @code{statement-cont} syntax instead.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Literal Symbols, Multiline Macro Symbols, Paren List Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Comment String Label and Macro Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

A few miscellaneous syntactic symbols that haven't been previously
covered are illustrated by this C++ example:

@example
 1: void Bass::play( int volume )
 2: const
 3: @{
 4:     /* this line starts a multiline
 5:      * comment.  This line should get `c' syntax */
 6:
 7:     char* a_multiline_string = "This line starts a multiline \
 8: string.  This line should get `string' syntax.";
 9:
10:   note:
11:     @{
12: #ifdef LOCK
13:         Lock acquire();
14: #endif // LOCK
15:         slap_pop();
16:         cout << "I played "
17:              << "a note\n";
18:     @}
19: @}
@end example

The lines to note in this example include:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@ssindex func-decl-cont
Line 2 is assigned the @code{func-decl-cont} syntax.

@item
@ssindex comment-intro
Line 4 is assigned both @code{defun-block-intro} @emph{and}
@code{comment-intro} syntax.  A syntactic element with
@code{comment-intro} has no anchor point --- It is always accompanied
by another syntactic element which does have one.

@item
@ssindex c
Line 5 is assigned @code{c} syntax.

@item
@cindex syntactic whitespace
Line 6 which, even though it contains nothing but whitespace, is
assigned @code{defun-block-intro}.  Note that the appearance of the
comment on lines 4 and 5 do not cause line 6 to be assigned
@code{statement} syntax because comments are considered to be
@dfn{syntactic whitespace}, which are ignored when analyzing
code.

@item
@ssindex string
Line 8 is assigned @code{string} syntax.

@item
@ssindex label
Line 10 is assigned @code{label} syntax.

@item
@ssindex block-open
Line 11 is assigned @code{block-open} as well as @code{statement}
syntax.  A @code{block-open} syntactic element doesn't have an anchor
position, since it always appears with another syntactic element which
does have one.

@item
@ssindex cpp-macro
Lines 12 and 14 are assigned @code{cpp-macro} syntax in addition to the
normal syntactic symbols (@code{statement-block-intro} and
@code{statement}, respectively).  Normally @code{cpp-macro} is
configured to cancel out the normal syntactic context to make all
preprocessor directives stick to the first column, but that's easily
changed if you want preprocessor directives to be indented like the rest
of the code.  Like @code{comment-intro}, a syntactic element with
@code{cpp-macro} doesn't contain an anchor position.

@item
@ssindex stream-op
Line 17 is assigned @code{stream-op} syntax.
@end itemize

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Multiline Macro Symbols, Objective-C Method Symbols, Literal Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Multiline Macro Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex multiline macros
@cindex syntactic whitespace
@ssindex cpp-define-intro
@ssindex cpp-macro-cont
Multiline preprocessor macro definitions are normally handled just like
other code, i.e. the lines inside them are indented according to the
syntactic analysis of the preceding lines inside the macro.  The first
line inside a macro definition (i.e. the line after the starting line of
the cpp directive itself) gets @code{cpp-define-intro}.  In this example:

@example
 1: #define LIST_LOOP(cons, listp)                         \
 2:   for (cons = listp; !NILP (cons); cons = XCDR (cons)) \
 3:     if (!CONSP (cons))                                 \
 4:       signal_error ("Invalid list format", listp);     \
 5:     else
@end example

@noindent
line 1 is given the syntactic symbol @code{cpp-macro}.  The first line
of a cpp directive is always given that symbol.  Line 2 is given
@code{cpp-define-intro}, so that you can give the macro body as a whole
some extra indentation.  Lines 3 through 5 are then analyzed as normal
code, i.e. @code{substatement} on lines 3 and 4, and @code{else-clause}
on line 5.

The syntactic analysis inside macros can be turned off with
@code{c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros} (@pxref{Custom Macros}).  In
that case, lines 2 through 5 would all be given @code{cpp-macro-cont}
with an anchor position pointing to the @code{#} which starts the cpp
directive@footnote{This is how @ccmode{} 5.28 and earlier analyzed
macros.}.

@xref{Custom Macros}, for more info about the treatment of macros.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Objective-C Method Symbols, Anonymous Class Symbol, Multiline Macro Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Objective-C Method Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

In Objective-C buffers, there are three additional syntactic symbols
assigned to various message calling constructs.  Here's an example
illustrating these:

@example
 1: - (void)setDelegate:anObject
 2:           withStuff:stuff
 3: @{
 4:     [delegate masterWillRebind:self
 5:               toDelegate:anObject
 6:               withExtraStuff:stuff];
 7: @}
@end example

@ssindex objc-method-intro
@ssindex objc-method-args-cont
@ssindex objc-method-call-cont
Here, line 1 is assigned @code{objc-method-intro} syntax, and line 2 is
assigned @code{objc-method-args-cont} syntax.  Lines 5 and 6 are both
assigned @code{objc-method-call-cont} syntax.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Anonymous Class Symbol, Statement Block Symbols, Objective-C Method Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Anonymous Class Symbol (Java)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Java has a concept of anonymous classes which can look something like
this:

@example
 1: public void watch(Observable o) @{
 2:     o.addObserver(new Observer() @{
 3:             public void update(Observable o, Object arg) @{
 4:                 history.addElement(arg);
 5:             @}
 6:         @});
 7: @}
@end example

@ssindex inexpr-class
The brace following the @code{new} operator opens the anonymous class.
Lines 3 and 6 are assigned the @code{inexpr-class} syntax, besides the
@code{inclass} symbol used in normal classes.  Thus, the class will be
indented just like a normal class, with the added indentation given to
@code{inexpr-class}.  An @code{inexpr-class} syntactic element doesn't
have an anchor position.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Statement Block Symbols, K&R Symbols, Anonymous Class Symbol, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Statement Block Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

There are a few occasions where a statement block might be used inside
an expression.  One is in C or C++ code using the gcc extension for
this, e.g:

@example
 1: int res = (@{
 2:         int y = foo (); int z;
 3:         if (y > 0) z = y; else z = - y;
 4:         z;
 5:     @});
@end example

@ssindex inexpr-statement
Lines 2 and 5 get the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, besides the
symbols they'd get in a normal block.  Therefore, the indentation put on
@code{inexpr-statement} is added to the normal statement block
indentation.  An @code{inexpr-statement} syntactic element doesn't
contain an anchor position.

In Pike code, there are a few other situations where blocks occur inside
statements, as illustrated here:

@example
 1: array itgob()
 2: @{
 3:     string s = map (backtrace()[-2][3..],
 4:                     lambda
 5:                         (mixed arg)
 6:                     @{
 7:                         return sprintf ("%t", arg);
 8:                     @}) * ", " + "\n";
 9:     return catch @{
10:             write (s + "\n");
11:         @};
12: @}
@end example

@ssindex inlambda
@ssindex lambda-intro-cont
Lines 4 through 8 contain a lambda function, which @ccmode{} recognizes
by the @code{lambda} keyword.  If the function argument list is put
on a line of its own, as in line 5, it gets the @code{lambda-intro-cont}
syntax.  The function body is handled as an inline method body, with the
addition of the @code{inlambda} syntactic symbol.  This means that line
6 gets @code{inlambda} and @code{inline-open}, and line 8 gets
@code{inline-close}@footnote{You might wonder why it doesn't get
@code{inlambda} too.  It's because the closing brace is relative to the
opening brace, which stands on its own line in this example.  If the
opening brace was hanging on the previous line, then the closing brace
would get the @code{inlambda} syntax too to be indented correctly.}.

@ssindex inexpr-statement
On line 9, @code{catch} is a special function taking a statement block
as its argument.  The block is handled as an in-expression statement
with the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, just like the gcc extended C
example above.  The other similar special function, @code{gauge}, is
handled like this too.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    K&R Symbols,  , Statement Block Symbols, Syntactic Symbols
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection K&R Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ssindex knr-argdecl-intro
@ssindex knr-argdecl
Two other syntactic symbols can appear in old style, non-prototyped C
code @footnote{a.k.a. K&R C, or Kernighan & Ritchie C}:

@example
 1: int add_three_integers(a, b, c)
 2:      int a;
 3:      int b;
 4:      int c;
 5: @{
 6:     return a + b + c;
 7: @}
@end example

Here, line 2 is the first line in an argument declaration list and so is
given the @code{knr-argdecl-intro} syntactic symbol.  Subsequent lines
(i.e. lines 3 and 4 in this example), are given @code{knr-argdecl}
syntax.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Calculation,  , Syntactic Symbols, Indentation Engine Basics
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Indentation Calculation
@cindex indentation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Indentation for a line is calculated from the syntactic context
(@pxref{Syntactic Analysis}).

First, a buffer position is found whose column will be the base for the
indentation calculation.  It's the anchor position in the first
syntactic element that provides one that is used.  If no syntactic
element has an anchor position then column zero is used.

Second, the syntactic symbols in each syntactic element are looked up
in the @code{c-offsets-alist} style variable
(@pxref{c-offsets-alist}), which is an association list of syntactic
symbols and the offsets to apply for those symbols.  These offsets are
added together with the base column to produce the new indentation
column.

Let's use our two code examples above to see how this works.  Here is
our first example again:

@example
 1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
 2: @{
 3:     int tmp = a;
 4:     a = b;
 5:     b = tmp;
 6: @}
@end example

Let's say point is on line 3 and we hit the @key{TAB} key to reindent
the line.  The syntactic context for that line is:

@example
((defun-block-intro 29))
@end example

@noindent
Since buffer position 29 is the first and only anchor position in the
list, @ccmode{} goes there and asks for the current column.  This brace
is in column zero, so @ccmode{} uses @samp{0} as the base column.

Next, @ccmode{} looks up @code{defun-block-intro} in the
@code{c-offsets-alist} style variable.  Let's say it finds the value
@samp{4}; it adds this to the base column @samp{0}, yielding a running
total indentation of 4 spaces.

Since there is only one syntactic element on the list for this line,
indentation calculation is complete, and the total indentation for the
line is 4 spaces.

Here's another example:

@example
 1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
 2: @{
 3:     if( doit )
 4:         @{
 5:             return( val + incr );
 6:         @}
 7:     return( val );
 8: @}
@end example

If we were to hit @kbd{TAB} on line 4 in the above example, the same
basic process is performed, despite the differences in the syntactic
context.  The context for this line is:

@example
((substatement-open 46))
@end example

Here, @ccmode{} goes to buffer position 46, which is the @samp{i} in
@code{if} on line 3.  This character is in the fourth column on that
line so the base column is @samp{4}.  Then @ccmode{} looks up the
@code{substatement-open} symbol in @code{c-offsets-alist}.  Let's say it
finds the value @samp{4}.  It's added with the base column and yields an
indentation for the line of 8 spaces.

Simple, huh?

Actually, it's a bit more complicated than that since the entries on
@code{c-offsets-alist} can be much more than plain offsets.
@xref{c-offsets-alist}, for the full story.

Anyway, the mode usually just does The Right Thing without you having to
think about it in this much detail.  But when customizing indentation,
it's helpful to understand the general indentation model being used.

As you configure @ccmode{}, you might want to set the variable
@code{c-echo-syntactic-information-p} to non-@code{nil} so that the
syntactic context and calculated offset always is echoed in the
minibuffer when you hit @kbd{TAB}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Customizing Indentation, Custom Macros, Indentation Engine Basics, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Customizing Indentation
@cindex customization, indentation
@cindex indentation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The principal variable for customizing indentation is the style
variable @code{c-offsets-alist}, which gives an @dfn{offset} (an
indentation rule) for each syntactic symbol.  Its structure and
semantics are completely described in @ref{c-offsets-alist}.  The
various ways you can set the variable, including the use of the
@ccmode{} style system, are described in @ref{Config Basics} and its
sections, in particular @ref{Style Variables}.

The simplest and most used kind of ``offset'' setting in
@code{c-offsets-alist} is in terms of multiples of
@code{c-basic-offset}:

@defopt c-basic-offset
@vindex basic-offset (c-)
This style variable holds the basic offset between indentation levels.
It's factory default is 4, but all the built-in styles set it
themselves, to some value between 2 (for @code{gnu} style) and 8 (for
@code{bsd}, @code{linux}, and @code{python} styles).
@end defopt

The most flexible ``offset'' setting you can make in
@code{c-offsets-alist} is a line-up function (or even a list of them),
either one supplied by @ccmode{} (@pxref{Line-Up Functions}) or one
you write yourself (@pxref{Custom Line-Up}).

Finally, in @ref{Other Indentation} you'll find the tool of last
resort: a hook which is called after a line has been indented.  You
can install functions here to make ad-hoc adjustments to any line's
indentation.

@menu
* c-offsets-alist::
* Interactive Customization::
* Line-Up Functions::
* Custom Line-Up::
* Other Indentation::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    c-offsets-alist, Interactive Customization, Customizing Indentation, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section c-offsets-alist
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This section explains the structure and semantics of the style
variable @code{c-offset-alist}, the principal variable for configuring
indentation.  Details of how to set it up, and its relationship to
@ccmode{}'s style system are given in @ref{Style Variables}.

@defopt c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
This is an alist which associates an offset with each syntactic
symbol.  This @dfn{offset} is a rule specifying how to indent a line
whose syntactic context matches the symbol.  @xref{Syntactic
Analysis}.

Note that the buffer-local binding of this alist in a @ccmode{} buffer
contains an entry for @emph{every} syntactic symbol.  Its global
binding and its settings within style specifications usually contain
only a few entries.  @xref{Style Variables}.

The offset specification associated with any particular syntactic
symbol can be an integer, a variable name, a vector, a function or
lambda expression, a list, or one of the following special symbols:
@code{+}, @code{-}, @code{++}, @code{--}, @code{*}, or @code{/}.  The
meanings of these values are described in detail below.

Here is an example fragment of a @code{c-offsets-alist}, showing some
of these kinds of offsets:

@example
((statement . 0)
 (substatement . +)
 (cpp-macro . [0])
 (topmost-intro-cont . c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont)
 (statement-block-intro . (add c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
                               c-indent-multi-line-block))
 @dots{}
@*)
@end example
@end defopt

@deffn Command c-set-offset (@kbd{C-c C-o})
@findex set-offset (c-)
@kindex C-c C-o
This command changes the entry for a syntactic symbol in the current
binding of @code{c-offsets-alist}, or it inserts a new entry if there
isn't already one for that syntactic symbol.

You can use @code{c-set-offsets} interactively within a @ccmode{}
buffer to make experimental changes to your indentation settings.
@kbd{C-c C-o} prompts you for the syntactic symbol to change
(defaulting to that of the current line) and the new offset
(defaulting to the current offset).

@code{c-set-offsets} takes two arguments when used programmatically:
@var{symbol}, the syntactic element symbol to change and @var{offset},
the new offset for that syntactic element.  You can call the command
in your @file{.emacs} to change the global binding of
@code{c-offsets-alist} (@pxref{Style Variables}); you can use it in a
hook function to make changes from the current style.  @ccmode{}
itself uses this function when initializing styles.
@end deffn

@cindex offset specification
The ``offset specifications'' in @code{c-offsets-alist} can be any of
the following:

@table @asis
@item An integer
The integer specifies a relative offset.  All relative
offsets@footnote{The syntactic context @code{@w{((defun-block-intro
2724) (comment-intro))}} would likely have two relative offsets.} will
be added together and used to calculate the indentation relative to an
anchor position earlier in the buffer.  @xref{Indentation
Calculation}, for details.  Most of the time, it's probably better to
use one of the special symbols like @code{+} than an integer (apart
from zero).

@item One of the symbols @code{+}, @code{-}, @code{++}, @code{--}, @code{*}, or @code{/}
These special symbols describe a relative offset in multiples of
@code{c-basic-offset}:

By defining a style's indentation in terms of @code{c-basic-offset},
you can change the amount of whitespace given to an indentation level
while maintaining the same basic shape of your code.  Here are the
values that the special symbols correspond to:

@table @code
@item +
@code{c-basic-offset} times 1
@item -
@code{c-basic-offset} times -1
@item ++
@code{c-basic-offset} times 2
@item --
@code{c-basic-offset} times -2
@item *
@code{c-basic-offset} times 0.5
@item /
@code{c-basic-offset} times -0.5
@end table

@item A vector
The first element of the vector, an integer, sets the absolute
indentation column.  This will override any previously calculated
indentation, but won't override relative indentation calculated from
syntactic elements later on in the syntactic context of the line being
indented.  @xref{Indentation Calculation}.  Any elements in the vector
beyond the first will be ignored.

@item A function or lambda expression
The function will be called and its return value will in turn be
evaluated as an offset specification.  Functions are useful when more
context than just the syntactic symbol is needed to get the desired
indentation.  @xref{Line-Up Functions}, and @ref{Custom Line-Up}, for
details about them.

@item A symbol with a variable binding
If the symbol also has a function binding, the function takes
precedence over the variable.  Otherwise the value of the variable is
used.  It must be an integer (which is used as relative offset) or a
vector (an absolute offset).

@item A list
The offset can also be a list containing several offset
specifications; these are evaluated recursively and combined.  A list
is typically only useful when some of the offsets are line-up
functions.  A common strategy is calling a sequence of functions in
turn until one of them recognizes that it is appropriate for the
source line and returns a non-@code{nil} value.

@code{nil} values are always ignored when the offsets are combined.
The first element of the list specifies the method of combining the
non-@code{nil} offsets from the remaining elements:

@table @code
@item first
Use the first offset that doesn't evaluate to @code{nil}.  Subsequent
elements of the list don't get evaluated.
@item min
Use the minimum of all the offsets.  All must be either relative or
absolute - they can't be mixed.
@item max
Use the maximum of all the offsets.  All must be either relative or
absolute - they can't be mixed.
@item add
Add all the evaluated offsets together.  Exactly one of them may be
absolute, in which case the result is absolute.  Any relative offsets
that preceded the absolute one in the list will be ignored in that case.
@end table

As a compatibility measure, if the first element is none of the above
then it too will be taken as an offset specification and the whole list
will be combined according to the method @code{first}.
@end table

@vindex c-strict-syntax-p
@vindex strict-syntax-p (c-)
If an offset specification evaluates to @code{nil}, then a relative
offset of 0 (zero) is used@footnote{There is however a variable
@code{c-strict-syntax-p} that when set to non-@code{nil} will cause an
error to be signaled in that case.  It's now considered obsolete since
it doesn't work well with some of the alignment functions that return
@code{nil} instead of zero.  You should therefore leave
@code{c-strict-syntax-p} set to @code{nil}.}.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Interactive Customization, Line-Up Functions, c-offsets-alist, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Interactive Customization
@cindex customization, interactive
@cindex interactive customization
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

As an example of how to customize indentation, let's change the
style of this example@footnote{In this and subsequent examples, the
original code is formatted using the @samp{gnu} style unless otherwise
indicated.  @xref{Styles}.}:

@example
@group
 1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
 2: @{
 3:   if( doit )
 4:     @{
 5:       return( val + incr );
 6:     @}
 7:   return( val );
 8: @}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
to:

@example
@group
 1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
 2: @{
 3:   if( doit )
 4:   @{
 5:     return( val + incr );
 6:   @}
 7:   return( val );
 8: @}
@end group
@end example

In other words, we want to change the indentation of braces that open a
block following a condition so that the braces line up under the
conditional, instead of being indented.  Notice that the construct we
want to change starts on line 4.  To change the indentation of a line,
we need to see which syntactic symbols affect the offset calculations
for that line.  Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 yields:

@example
((substatement-open 44))
@end example

@noindent
so we know that to change the offset of the open brace, we need to
change the indentation for the @code{substatement-open} syntactic
symbol.

To do this interactively, just hit @kbd{C-c C-o}.  This prompts
you for the syntactic symbol to change, providing a reasonable default.
In this case, the default is @code{substatement-open}, which is just the
syntactic symbol we want to change!

After you hit return, @ccmode{} will then prompt you for the new
offset value, with the old value as the default.  The default in this
case is @samp{+}, but we want no extra indentation so enter
@samp{0} and @kbd{RET}.  This will associate the offset 0 with the
syntactic symbol @code{substatement-open}.

To check your changes quickly, just hit @kbd{C-c C-q}
(@code{c-indent-defun}) to reindent the entire function.  The example
should now look like:

@example
@group
 1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
 2: @{
 3:   if( doit )
 4:   @{
 5:     return( val + incr );
 6:   @}
 7:   return( val );
 8: @}
@end group
@end example

Notice how just changing the open brace offset on line 4 is all we
needed to do.  Since the other affected lines are indented relative to
line 4, they are automatically indented the way you'd expect.  For more
complicated examples, this might not always work.  The general approach
to take is to always start adjusting offsets for lines higher up in the
file, then reindent and see if any following lines need further
adjustments.

@c Move this bit to "Styles" (2005/10/7)
@deffn Command c-set-offset symbol offset
@findex set-offset (c-)
@kindex C-c C-o
This is the command bound to @kbd{C-c C-o}.  It provides a convenient
way to set offsets on @code{c-offsets-alist} both interactively (see
the example above) and from your mode hook.

It takes two arguments when used programmatically: @var{symbol} is the
syntactic element symbol to change and @var{offset} is the new offset
for that syntactic element.
@end deffn
@c End of MOVE THIS BIT.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Line-Up Functions, Custom Line-Up, Interactive Customization, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex line-up function
@cindex indentation function
Often there are cases when a simple offset setting on a syntactic
symbol isn't enough to get the desired indentation---for example, you
might want to line up a closing parenthesis with the matching opening
one rather than indenting relative to its ``anchor point''.  @ccmode{}
provides this flexibility with @dfn{line-up functions}.

The way you associate a line-up function with a syntactic symbol is
described in @ref{c-offsets-alist}.  @ccmode{} comes with many
predefined line-up functions for common situations.  If none of these
does what you want, you can write your own.  @xref{Custom Line-Up}.
Sometimes, it is easier to tweak the standard indentation by adding a
function to @code{c-special-indent-hook} (@pxref{Other Indentation}).

The line-up functions haven't been adapted for AWK buffers or tested
with them.  Some of them might work serendipitously.  There shouldn't be
any problems writing custom line-up functions for AWK mode.

The calling convention for line-up functions is described fully in
@ref{Custom Line-Up}.  Roughly speaking, the return value is either an
offset itself (such as @code{+} or @code{[0]}) or it's @code{nil},
meaning ``this function is inappropriate in this case - try a
different one''.  @xref{c-offsets-alist}.

The subsections below describe all the standard line-up functions,
categorized by the sort of token the lining-up centers around.  For
each of these functions there is a ``works with'' list that indicates
which syntactic symbols the function is intended to be used with.

@macro workswith
@emph{Works with:@ }
@end macro
@ifinfo
@unmacro workswith
@macro workswith
Works with:
@end macro
@end ifinfo

@macro sssTBasicOffset
<--> @i{c-basic-offset}@c
@end macro

@macro sssTsssTBasicOffset
<--><--> @i{c-basic-offset}@c
@end macro

@macro hereFn{func}
<- @i{\func\}@c
@end macro

@c The TeX backend seems to insert extra spaces around the argument. :P
@iftex
@unmacro hereFn
@macro hereFn{func}
<-@i{\func\}@c
@end macro
@end iftex

@menu
* Brace/Paren Line-Up::
* List Line-Up::
* Operator Line-Up::
* Comment Line-Up::
* Misc Line-Up::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Brace/Paren Line-Up, List Line-Up, Line-Up Functions, Line-Up Functions
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Brace and Parenthesis Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for braces,
parentheses and statements within brace blocks.

@defun c-lineup-close-paren
@findex lineup-close-paren (c-)
Line up the closing paren under its corresponding open paren if the
open paren is followed by code.  If the open paren ends its line, no
indentation is added.  E.g:

@example
@group
main (int,
      char **
     )                @hereFn{c-lineup-close-paren}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
main (
    int, char **
)                     @hereFn{c-lineup-close-paren}
@end group
@end example

As a special case, if a brace block is opened at the same line as the
open parenthesis of the argument list, the indentation is
@code{c-basic-offset} instead of the open paren column.  See
@code{c-lineup-arglist} for further discussion of this ``DWIM'' measure.

@workswith All @code{*-close} symbols.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@anchor{c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren}
@defun c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-close-under-paren (c-)
Set your @code{arglist-close} syntactic symbol to this line-up function
so that parentheses that close argument lists will line up under the
parenthesis that opened the argument list.  It can also be used with
@code{arglist-cont} and @code{arglist-cont-nonempty} to line up all
lines inside a parenthesis under the open paren.

As a special case, if a brace block is opened at the same line as the
open parenthesis of the argument list, the indentation is
@code{c-basic-offset} only.  See @code{c-lineup-arglist} for further
discussion of this ``DWIM'' measure.

@workswith Almost all symbols, but are typically most useful on
@code{arglist-close}, @code{brace-list-close}, @code{arglist-cont} and
@code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-indent-one-line-block
@findex indent-one-line-block (c-)
Indent a one line block @code{c-basic-offset} extra.  E.g:

@example
@group
if (n > 0)
    @{m+=n; n=0;@}      @hereFn{c-indent-one-line-block}
@sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
if (n > 0)
@{                     @hereFn{c-indent-one-line-block}
    m+=n; n=0;
@}
@end group
@end example

The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
@code{nil} is returned if the line doesn't start with a one line block,
which makes the function usable in list expressions.

@workswith Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
@code{-open} symbols.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-indent-multi-line-block
@findex indent-multi-line-block (c-)
Indent a multiline block @code{c-basic-offset} extra.  E.g:

@example
@group
int *foo[] = @{
    NULL,
    @{17@},             @hereFn{c-indent-multi-line-block}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
int *foo[] = @{
    NULL,
        @{             @hereFn{c-indent-multi-line-block}
        17
        @},
    @sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
@code{nil} is returned if the line doesn't start with a multiline
block, which makes the function usable in list expressions.

@workswith Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
@code{-open} symbols.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-runin-statements
@findex lineup-runin-statements (c-)
Line up statements for coding standards which place the first statement
in a block on the same line as the block opening brace@footnote{Run-in
style doesn't really work too well.  You might need to write your own
custom line-up functions to better support this style.}.  E.g:

@example
@group
int main()
@{ puts ("Hello!");
  return 0;           @hereFn{c-lineup-runin-statements}
@}
@end group
@end example

If there is no statement after the opening brace to align with,
@code{nil} is returned.  This makes the function usable in list
expressions.

@workswith The @code{statement} syntactic symbol.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-inexpr-block
@findex lineup-inexpr-block (c-)
This can be used with the in-expression block symbols to indent the
whole block to the column where the construct is started.  E.g. for Java
anonymous classes, this lines up the class under the @samp{new} keyword,
and in Pike it lines up the lambda function body under the @samp{lambda}
keyword.  Returns @code{nil} if the block isn't part of such a
construct.

@workswith @code{inlambda}, @code{inexpr-statement},
@code{inexpr-class}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks
@findex lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks (c-)
Compensate for Whitesmith style indentation of blocks.  Due to the way
@ccmode{} calculates anchor positions for normal lines inside blocks,
this function is necessary for those lines to get correct Whitesmith
style indentation.  Consider the following examples:

@example
@group
int foo()
    @{
    a;
    x;                 @hereFn{c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks}
@end group
@end example

@example
@group
int foo()
    @{
        @{
        a;
        @}
    x;                 @hereFn{c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks}
@end group
@end example

The fact that the line with @code{x} is preceded by a Whitesmith style
indented block in the latter case and not the first should not affect
its indentation.  But since CC Mode in cases like this uses the
indentation of the preceding statement as anchor position, the @code{x}
would in the second case be indented too much if the offset for
@code{statement} was set simply to zero.

This lineup function corrects for this situation by detecting if the
anchor position is at an open paren character.  In that case, it instead
indents relative to the surrounding block just like
@code{c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block}.

@workswith @code{brace-list-entry}, @code{brace-entry-open},
@code{statement}, @code{arglist-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
@findex lineup-whitesmith-in-block (c-)
Line up lines inside a block in Whitesmith style.  It's done in a way
that works both when the opening brace hangs and when it doesn't.  E.g:

@example
@group
something
    @{
    foo;              @hereFn{c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block}
    @}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
something @{
    foo;              @hereFn{c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block}
    @}
@sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

In the first case the indentation is kept unchanged, in the second
@code{c-basic-offset} is added.

@workswith @code{defun-close}, @code{defun-block-intro},
@code{inline-close}, @code{block-close}, @code{brace-list-close},
@code{brace-list-intro}, @code{statement-block-intro},
@code{arglist-intro}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty},
@code{arglist-close}, and all @code{in*} symbols, e.g. @code{inclass}
and @code{inextern-lang}.
@end defun

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    List Line-Up, Operator Line-Up, Brace/Paren Line-Up, Line-Up Functions
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection List Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for lines which
form lists of items, usually separated by commas.

The function @ref{c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren}, which is mainly
for indenting a close parenthesis, is also useful for the lines
contained within parentheses.

@defun c-lineup-arglist
@findex lineup-arglist (c-)
Line up the current argument line under the first argument.

As a special case, if an argument on the same line as the open
parenthesis starts with a brace block opener, the indentation is
@code{c-basic-offset} only.  This is intended as a ``DWIM'' measure in
cases like macros that contain statement blocks, e.g:

@example
@group
A_VERY_LONG_MACRO_NAME (@{
        some (code, with + long, lines * in[it]);
    @});
@sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

This is motivated partly because it's more in line with how code
blocks are handled, and partly since it approximates the behavior of
earlier CC Mode versions, which due to inaccurate analysis tended to
indent such cases this way.

@workswith @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}, @code{arglist-close}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren (c-)
Line up a line to just after the open paren of the surrounding paren or
brace block.

@workswith @code{defun-block-intro}, @code{brace-list-intro},
@code{statement-block-intro}, @code{statement-case-intro},
@code{arglist-intro}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-multi-inher
@findex lineup-multi-inher (c-)
Line up the classes in C++ multiple inheritance clauses and member
initializers under each other.  E.g:

@example
@group
Foo::Foo (int a, int b):
    Cyphr (a),
    Bar (b)           @hereFn{c-lineup-multi-inher}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
class Foo
    : public Cyphr,
      public Bar      @hereFn{c-lineup-multi-inher}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
Foo::Foo (int a, int b)
    : Cyphr (a)
    , Bar (b)         @hereFn{c-lineup-multi-inher}
@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{inher-cont}, @code{member-init-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-java-inher
@findex lineup-java-inher (c-)
Line up Java implements and extends declarations.  If class names
follow on the same line as the @samp{implements}/@samp{extends}
keyword, they are lined up under each other.  Otherwise, they are
indented by adding @code{c-basic-offset} to the column of the keyword.
E.g:

@example
@group
class Foo
    extends
        Bar           @hereFn{c-lineup-java-inher}
    @sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
class Foo
    extends Cyphr,
            Bar       @hereFn{c-lineup-java-inher}
@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{inher-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-java-throws
@findex lineup-java-throws (c-)
Line up Java throws declarations.  If exception names follow on the
same line as the throws keyword, they are lined up under each other.
Otherwise, they are indented by adding @code{c-basic-offset} to the
column of the @samp{throws} keyword.  The @samp{throws} keyword itself
is also indented by @code{c-basic-offset} from the function declaration
start if it doesn't hang.  E.g:

@example
@group
int foo()
    throws            @hereFn{c-lineup-java-throws}
        Bar           @hereFn{c-lineup-java-throws}
@sssTsssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
int foo() throws Cyphr,
                 Bar,    @hereFn{c-lineup-java-throws}
                 Vlod    @hereFn{c-lineup-java-throws}
@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{func-decl-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-template-args
@findex lineup-template-args (c-)
Line up the arguments of a template argument list under each other, but
only in the case where the first argument is on the same line as the
opening @samp{<}.

To allow this function to be used in a list expression, @code{nil} is
returned if there's no template argument on the first line.

@workswith @code{template-args-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-ObjC-method-call
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-call (c-)
For Objective-C code, line up selector args as Emacs Lisp mode does
with function args: go to the position right after the message receiver,
and if you are at the end of the line, indent the current line
c-basic-offset columns from the opening bracket; otherwise you are
looking at the first character of the first method call argument, so
lineup the current line with it.

@workswith @code{objc-method-call-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-ObjC-method-args
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args (c-)
For Objective-C code, line up the colons that separate args.  The colon
on the current line is aligned with the one on the first line.

@workswith @code{objc-method-args-cont}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args-2 (c-)
Similar to @code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-args} but lines up the colon on
the current line with the colon on the previous line.

@workswith @code{objc-method-args-cont}.
@end defun

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Operator Line-Up, Comment Line-Up, List Line-Up, Line-Up Functions
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Operator Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for lines which
start with an operator, by lining it up with something on the previous
line.

@defun c-lineup-argcont
@findex lineup-argcont (c-)
Line up a continued argument.  E.g:

@example
@group
foo (xyz, aaa + bbb + ccc
          + ddd + eee + fff);  @hereFn{c-lineup-argcont}
@end group
@end example

Only continuation lines like this are touched, @code{nil} is returned on
lines which are the start of an argument.

Within a gcc @code{asm} block, @code{:} is recognised as an argument
separator, but of course only between operand specifications, not in the
expressions for the operands.

@workswith @code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-arglist-operators
@findex lineup-arglist-operators (c-)
Line up lines starting with an infix operator under the open paren.
Return @code{nil} on lines that don't start with an operator, to leave
those cases to other line-up functions.  Example:

@example
@group
if (  x < 10
   || at_limit (x,     @hereFn{c-lineup-arglist-operators}
                list)  @hereFn{c-lineup-arglist-operators@r{ returns nil}}
   )
@end group
@end example

Since this function doesn't do anything for lines without an infix
operator you typically want to use it together with some other lineup
settings, e.g. as follows (the @code{arglist-close} setting is just a
suggestion to get a consistent style):

@example
(c-set-offset 'arglist-cont
              '(c-lineup-arglist-operators 0))
(c-set-offset 'arglist-cont-nonempty
              '(c-lineup-arglist-operators c-lineup-arglist))
(c-set-offset 'arglist-close
              '(c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren))
@end example

@workswith @code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-assignments
@findex lineup-assignments (c-)
Line up the current line after the assignment operator on the first line
in the statement.  If there isn't any, return nil to allow stacking with
other line-up functions.  If the current line contains an assignment
operator too, try to align it with the first one.

@workswith @code{topmost-intro-cont}, @code{statement-cont},
@code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.

@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-math
@findex lineup-math (c-)
Like @code{c-lineup-assignments} but indent with @code{c-basic-offset}
if no assignment operator was found on the first line.  I.e. this
function is the same as specifying a list @code{(c-lineup-assignments
+)}.  It's provided for compatibility with old configurations.

@workswith @code{topmost-intro-cont}, @code{statement-cont},
@code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-cascaded-calls
@findex lineup-cascaded-calls (c-)
Line up ``cascaded calls'' under each other.  If the line begins with
@code{->} or @code{.} and the preceding line ends with one or more
function calls preceded by the same token, then the arrow is lined up
with the first of those tokens.  E.g:

@example
@group
r = proc->add(17)->add(18)
        ->add(19) +         @hereFn{c-lineup-cascaded-calls}
  offset;                   @hereFn{c-lineup-cascaded-calls@r{ (inactive)}}
@end group
@end example

In any other situation @code{nil} is returned to allow use in list
expressions.

@workswith @code{topmost-intro-cont}, @code{statement-cont},
@code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-streamop
@findex lineup-streamop (c-)
Line up C++ stream operators (i.e. @samp{<<} and @samp{>>}).

@workswith @code{stream-op}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-string-cont
@findex lineup-string-cont (c-)
Line up a continued string under the one it continues.  A continued
string in this sense is where a string literal follows directly after
another one.  E.g:

@example
@group
result = prefix + "A message "
                  "string.";    @hereFn{c-lineup-string-cont}
@end group
@end example

@code{nil} is returned in other situations, to allow stacking with other
lineup functions.

@workswith @code{topmost-intro-cont}, @code{statement-cont},
@code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Comment Line-Up, Misc Line-Up, Operator Line-Up, Line-Up Functions
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Comment Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The lineup functions here calculate the indentation for several types
of comment structure.

@defun c-lineup-C-comments
@findex lineup-C-comments (c-)
Line up C block comment continuation lines.  Various heuristics are used
to handle most of the common comment styles.  Some examples:

@example
@group
/*                 /**               /*
 * text             * text             text
 */                 */               */
@end group
@end example

@example
@group
/* text            /*                /**
   text            ** text            ** text
*/                 */                 */
@end group
@end example

@example
@group
/**************************************************
 * text
 *************************************************/
@end group
@end example

@vindex comment-start-skip
@example
@group
/**************************************************
    Free form text comments:
 In comments with a long delimiter line at the
 start, the indentation is kept unchanged for lines
 that start with an empty comment line prefix.  The
 delimiter line is whatever matches the
 @code{comment-start-skip} regexp.
**************************************************/
@end group
@end example

The style variable @code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} is used to recognize
the comment line prefix, e.g. the @samp{*} that usually starts every
line inside a comment.

@workswith The @code{c} syntactic symbol.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-comment
@findex lineup-comment (c-)
Line up a comment-only line according to the style variable
@code{c-comment-only-line-offset}.  If the comment is lined up with a
comment starter on the previous line, that alignment is preserved.

@defopt c-comment-only-line-offset
@vindex comment-only-line-offset (c-)
This style variable specifies the extra offset for the line.  It can
contain an integer or a cons cell of the form

@example
(@r{@var{non-anchored-offset}} . @r{@var{anchored-offset}})
@end example

@noindent
where @var{non-anchored-offset} is the amount of offset given to
non-column-zero anchored lines, and @var{anchored-offset} is the amount
of offset to give column-zero anchored lines.  Just an integer as value
is equivalent to @code{(@r{@var{value}} . -1000)}.
@end defopt

@workswith @code{comment-intro}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-knr-region-comment
@findex lineup-knr-region-comment (c-)
Line up a comment in the ``K&R region'' with the declaration.  That is
the region between the function or class header and the beginning of the
block.  E.g:

@example
@group
int main()
/* Called at startup. */  @hereFn{c-lineup-knr-region-comment}
@{
  return 0;
@}
@end group
@end example

Return @code{nil} if called in any other situation, to be useful in list
expressions.

@workswith @code{comment-intro}.
@end defun

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Misc Line-Up,  , Comment Line-Up, Line-Up Functions
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Miscellaneous Line-Up Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The line-up functions here are the odds and ends which didn't fit into
any earlier category.

@defun c-lineup-dont-change
@findex lineup-dont-change (c-)
This lineup function makes the line stay at whatever indentation it
already has; think of it as an identity function for lineups.

@workswith Any syntactic symbol.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-cpp-define
@findex lineup-cpp-define (c-)
Line up macro continuation lines according to the indentation of the
construct preceding the macro.  E.g:

@example
@group
const char msg[] =    @hereFn{@r{The beginning of the preceding construct.}}
  \"Some text.\";

#define X(A, B)  \
do @{             \    @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
  printf (A, B); \
@} while (0)
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and:

@example
@group
int dribble() @{
  if (!running)       @hereFn{@r{The beginning of the preceding construct.}}
    error(\"Not running!\");

#define X(A, B)    \
  do @{             \  @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
    printf (A, B); \
  @} while (0)
@end group
@end example

If @code{c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros} is non-@code{nil}, the
function returns the relative indentation to the macro start line to
allow accumulation with other offsets.  E.g. in the following cases,
@code{cpp-define-intro} is combined with the
@code{statement-block-intro} that comes from the @samp{do @{} that hangs
on the @samp{#define} line:

@example
@group
const char msg[] =
  \"Some text.\";

#define X(A, B) do @{ \
  printf (A, B);     \  @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
  this->refs++;      \
@} while (0)             @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and:

@example
@group
int dribble() @{
  if (!running)
    error(\"Not running!\");

#define X(A, B) do @{ \
    printf (A, B);   \  @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
    this->refs++;    \
  @} while (0)           @hereFn{c-lineup-cpp-define}
@end group
@end example

The relative indentation returned by @code{c-lineup-cpp-define} is zero
and two, respectively, on the two lines in each of these examples.  They
are then added to the two column indentation that
@code{statement-block-intro} gives in both cases here.

If the relative indentation is zero, then @code{nil} is returned
instead.  That is useful in a list expression to specify the default
indentation on the top level.

If @code{c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros} is @code{nil} then this
function keeps the current indentation, except for empty lines (ignoring
the ending backslash) where it takes the indentation from the closest
preceding nonempty line in the macro.  If there's no such line in the
macro then the indentation is taken from the construct preceding it, as
described above.

@workswith @code{cpp-define-intro}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg
@findex lineup-gcc-asm-reg (c-)
Line up a gcc asm register under one on a previous line.

@example
@group
    asm ("foo %1, %0\n"
         "bar %0, %1"
         : "=r" (w),
           "=r" (x)
         :  "0" (y),
            "1" (z));
@end group
@end example

The @samp{x} line is aligned to the text after the @samp{:} on the
@samp{w} line, and similarly @samp{z} under @samp{y}.

This is done only in an @samp{asm} or @samp{__asm__} block, and only to
those lines mentioned.  Anywhere else @code{nil} is returned.  The usual
arrangement is to have this routine as an extra feature at the start of
arglist lineups, e.g.

@example
(c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg c-lineup-arglist)
@end example

@workswith @code{arglist-cont}, @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.
@end defun

@comment ------------------------------------------------------------

@defun c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
@findex lineup-topmost-intro-cont (c-)
Line up declaration continuation lines zero or one indentation
step@footnote{This function is mainly provided to mimic the behavior of
CC Mode 5.28 and earlier where this case wasn't handled consistently so
that those lines could be analyzed as either topmost-intro-cont or
statement-cont.  It's used for @code{topmost-intro-cont} by default, but
you might consider using @code{+} instead.}.  For lines preceding a
definition, zero is used.  For other lines, @code{c-basic-offset} is
added to the indentation.  E.g:

@example
@group
int
neg (int i)           @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
@{
    return -i;
@}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
struct
larch                 @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
@{
    double height;
@}
    the_larch,        @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
    another_larch;    @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
@sssTBasicOffset{}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@example
@group
struct larch
the_larch,            @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
    another_larch;    @hereFn{c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont}
@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{topmost-intro-cont}.
@end defun

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Line-Up, Other Indentation, Line-Up Functions, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Custom Line-Up Functions
@cindex customization, indentation functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The most flexible way to customize indentation is by writing custom
line-up functions, and associating them with specific syntactic
symbols (@pxref{c-offsets-alist}).  Depending on the effect you want,
it might be better to write a @code{c-special-indent-hook} function
rather than a line-up function (@pxref{Other Indentation}).

@ccmode{} comes with an extensive set of predefined line-up functions,
not all of which are used by the default styles.  So there's a good
chance the function you want already exists.  @xref{Line-Up
Functions}, for a list of them.  If you write your own line-up
function, it's probably a good idea to start working from one of these
predefined functions, which can be found in the file
@file{cc-align.el}.  If you have written a line-up function that you
think is generally useful, you're very welcome to contribute it;
please contact @email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}.

   Line-up functions are passed a single argument, the syntactic
element (see below).  The return value is a @code{c-offsets-alist}
offset specification: for example, an integer, a symbol such as
@code{+}, a vector, @code{nil}@footnote{Returning @code{nil} is useful
when the offset specification for a syntactic element is a list
containing the line-up function (@pxref{c-offsets-alist}).}, or even
another line-up function.  Full details of these are in
@ref{c-offsets-alist}.

Line-up functions must not move point or change the content of the
buffer (except temporarily).  They are however allowed to do
@dfn{hidden buffer changes}, i.e. setting text properties for caching
purposes etc.  Buffer undo recording is disabled while they run.

The syntactic element passed as the parameter to a line-up function is
a cons cell of the form

@example
(@r{@var{syntactic-symbol}} . @r{@var{anchor-position}})
@end example

@noindent
@c FIXME!!! The following sentence might be better omitted, since the
@c information is in the cross reference "Syntactic Analysis".  2005/10/2.
where @var{syntactic-symbol} is the symbol that the function was
called for, and @var{anchor-position} is the anchor position (if any)
for the construct that triggered the syntactic symbol
(@pxref{Syntactic Analysis}).  This cons cell is how the syntactic
element of a line used to be represented in @ccmode{} 5.28 and
earlier.  Line-up functions are still passed this cons cell, so as to
preserve compatibility with older configurations.  In the future, we
may decide to convert to using the full list format---you can prepare
your setup for this by using the access functions
(@code{c-langelem-sym}, etc.)  described below.

@vindex c-syntactic-element
@vindex syntactic-element (c-)
@vindex c-syntactic-context
@vindex syntactic-context (c-)
Some syntactic symbols, e.g. @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}, have more
info in the syntactic element - typically other positions that can be
interesting besides the anchor position.  That info can't be accessed
through the passed argument, which is a cons cell.  Instead, you can
get this information from the variable @code{c-syntactic-element},
which is dynamically bound to the complete syntactic element.  The
variable @code{c-syntactic-context} might also be useful - it gets
dynamically bound to the complete syntactic context.  @xref{Custom
Braces}.

@ccmode{} provides a few functions to access parts of syntactic
elements in a more abstract way.  Besides making the code easier to
read, they also hide the difference between the old cons cell form
used in the line-up function argument and the new list form used in
@code{c-syntactic-element} and everywhere else.  The functions are:

@defun c-langelem-sym langelem
@findex langelem-sym (c-)
Return the syntactic symbol in @var{langelem}.
@end defun

@defun c-langelem-pos langelem
@findex langelem-pos (c-)
Return the anchor position in @var{langelem}, or nil if there is none.
@end defun

@defun c-langelem-col langelem &optional preserve-point
@findex langelem-col (c-)
Return the column of the anchor position in @var{langelem}.  Also move
the point to that position unless @var{preserve-point} is
non-@code{nil}.
@end defun

@defun c-langelem-2nd-pos langelem
@findex langelem-2nd-pos (c-)
Return the secondary position in @var{langelem}, or @code{nil} if there
is none.

Note that the return value of this function is always @code{nil} if
@var{langelem} is in the old cons cell form.  Thus this function is
only meaningful when used on syntactic elements taken from
@code{c-syntactic-element} or @code{c-syntactic-context}.
@end defun

Custom line-up functions can be as simple or as complex as you like, and
any syntactic symbol that appears in @code{c-offsets-alist} can have a
custom line-up function associated with it.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Other Indentation,  , Custom Line-Up, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Other Special Indentations
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Here are the remaining odds and ends regarding indentation:

@defopt c-label-minimum-indentation
@vindex label-minimum-indentation (c-)
In @samp{gnu} style (@pxref{Built-in Styles}), a minimum indentation is
imposed on lines inside code blocks.  This minimum indentation is
controlled by this style variable.  The default value is 1.

@findex c-gnu-impose-minimum
@findex gnu-impose-minimum (c-)
It's the function @code{c-gnu-impose-minimum} that enforces this minimum
indentation.  It must be present on @code{c-special-indent-hook} to
work.
@end defopt

@defopt c-special-indent-hook
@vindex special-indent-hook (c-)
This style variable is a standard hook variable that is called after
every line is indented by @ccmode{}.  It is called only if
@code{c-syntactic-indentation} is non-@code{nil} (which it is by
default (@pxref{Indentation Engine Basics})).  You can put a function
on this hook to do any special indentation or ad hoc line adjustments
your style dictates, such as adding extra indentation to constructors
or destructor declarations in a class definition, etc.  Sometimes it
is better to write a custom Line-up Function instead (@pxref{Custom
Line-Up}).

When the indentation engine calls this hook, the variable
@code{c-syntactic-context} is bound to the current syntactic context
(i.e. what you would get by typing @kbd{C-c C-s} on the source line.
@xref{Custom Braces}.).  Note that you should not change point or mark
inside a @code{c-special-indent-hook} function, i.e. you'll probably
want to wrap your function in a @code{save-excursion}@footnote{The
numerical value returned by @code{point} will change if you change the
indentation of the line within a @code{save-excursion} form, but point
itself will still be over the same piece of text.}.

Setting @code{c-special-indent-hook} in style definitions is handled
slightly differently from other variables---A style can only add
functions to this hook, not remove them.  @xref{Style Variables}.
@end defopt


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Macros, Odds and Ends, Customizing Indentation, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Customizing Macros
@cindex macros
@cindex preprocessor directives
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Normally, the lines in a multi-line macro are indented relative to
each other as though they were code.  You can suppress this behavior
by setting the following user option:

@defopt c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros
@vindex syntactic-indentation-in-macros (c-)
Enable syntactic analysis inside macros, which is the default.  If this
is @code{nil}, all lines inside macro definitions are analyzed as
@code{cpp-macro-cont}.
@end defopt

@ccmode{} provides some tools to help keep the line continuation
backslashes in macros neat and tidy.  Their precise action is
customized with these variables:

@defopt c-backslash-column
@vindex backslash-column (c-)
@defoptx c-backslash-max-column
@vindex backslash-max-column (c-)
These variables control the alignment columns for line continuation
backslashes in multiline macros.  They are used by the functions that
automatically insert or align such backslashes,
e.g. @code{c-backslash-region} and @code{c-context-line-break}.

@code{c-backslash-column} specifies the minimum column for the
backslashes.  If any line in the macro goes past this column, then the
next tab stop (i.e. next multiple of @code{tab-width}) in that line is
used as the alignment column for all the backslashes, so that they
remain in a single column.  However, if any lines go past
@code{c-backslash-max-column} then the backslashes in the rest of the
macro will be kept at that column, so that the lines which are too
long ``stick out'' instead.

Don't ever set these variables to @code{nil}.  If you want to disable
the automatic alignment of backslashes, use
@code{c-auto-align-backslashes}.
@end defopt

@defopt c-auto-align-backslashes
@vindex auto-align-backslashes (c-)
Align automatically inserted line continuation backslashes if
non-@code{nil}.  When line continuation backslashes are inserted
automatically for line breaks in multiline macros, e.g. by
@code{c-context-line-break}, they are aligned with the other
backslashes in the same macro if this flag is set.

If @code{c-auto-align-backslashes} is @code{nil}, automatically
inserted backslashes are preceded by a single space, and backslashes
get aligned only when you explicitly invoke the command
@code{c-backslash-region} (@kbd{C-c C-\}).
@end defopt

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Odds and Ends, Sample .emacs File, Custom Macros, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Odds and Ends
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The stuff that didn't fit in anywhere else is documented here.

@defopt c-require-final-newline
@vindex require-final-newline (c-)
Controls whether a final newline is enforced when the file is saved.
The value is an association list that for each language mode specifies
the value to give to @code{require-final-newline} (@pxref{Saving
Buffers,,, @lispref{}, @lispreftitle{}}) at mode initialization.  If a
language isn't present on the association list, CC Mode won't touch
@code{require-final-newline} in buffers for that language.

The default is to set @code{require-final-newline} to @code{t} in the
languages that mandate that source files should end with newlines.
These are C, C++ and Objective-C.
@end defopt

@defopt c-echo-syntactic-information-p
@vindex echo-syntactic-information-p (c-)
If non-@code{nil}, the syntactic analysis for the current line is shown
in the echo area when it's indented (unless
@code{c-syntactic-indentation} is @code{nil}).  That's useful when
finding out which syntactic symbols to modify to get the indentation you
want.
@end defopt

@defopt c-report-syntactic-errors
@vindex report-syntactic-errors (c-)
If non-@code{nil}, certain syntactic errors are reported with a ding and
a message, for example when an @code{else} is indented for which there
is no corresponding @code{if}.

Note however that @ccmode{} doesn't make any special effort to check for
syntactic errors; that's the job of the compiler.  The reason it can
report cases like the one above is that it can't find the correct
anchoring position to indent the line in that case.
@end defopt


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Sample .emacs File, Performance Issues, Odds and Ends, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Sample .emacs File
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Here's a sample .emacs file fragment that might help you along the way.
Just copy this region and paste it into your .emacs file.  You might want
to change some of the actual values.

@verbatim
;; Make a non-standard key binding.  We can put this in
;; c-mode-base-map because c-mode-map, c++-mode-map, and so on,
;; inherit from it.
(defun my-c-initialization-hook ()
  (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break))
(add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-c-initialization-hook)

;; offset customizations not in my-c-style
;; This will take precedence over any setting of the syntactic symbol
;; made by a style.
(setq c-offsets-alist '((member-init-intro . ++)))

;; Create my personal style.
(defconst my-c-style
  '((c-tab-always-indent        . t)
    (c-comment-only-line-offset . 4)
    (c-hanging-braces-alist     . ((substatement-open after)
                                   (brace-list-open)))
    (c-hanging-colons-alist     . ((member-init-intro before)
                                   (inher-intro)
                                   (case-label after)
                                   (label after)
                                   (access-label after)))
    (c-cleanup-list             . (scope-operator
                                   empty-defun-braces
                                   defun-close-semi))
    (c-offsets-alist            . ((arglist-close . c-lineup-arglist)
                                   (substatement-open . 0)
                                   (case-label        . 4)
                                   (block-open        . 0)
                                   (knr-argdecl-intro . -)))
    (c-echo-syntactic-information-p . t))
  "My C Programming Style")
(c-add-style "PERSONAL" my-c-style)

;; Customizations for all modes in CC Mode.
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; set my personal style for the current buffer
  (c-set-style "PERSONAL")
  ;; other customizations
  (setq tab-width 8
        ;; this will make sure spaces are used instead of tabs
        indent-tabs-mode nil)
  ;; we like auto-newline, but not hungry-delete
  (c-toggle-auto-newline 1))
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)
@end verbatim

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Performance Issues, Limitations and Known Bugs, Sample .emacs File, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Performance Issues
@cindex performance
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@comment FIXME: (ACM, 2003/5/24).  Check whether AWK needs mentioning here.

C and its derivative languages are highly complex creatures.  Often,
ambiguous code situations arise that require @ccmode{} to scan large
portions of the buffer to determine syntactic context.  Such
pathological code can cause @ccmode{} to perform fairly badly.  This
section gives some insight in how @ccmode{} operates, how that interacts
with some coding styles, and what you can use to improve performance.

The overall goal is that @ccmode{} shouldn't be overly slow (i.e. take
more than a fraction of a second) in any interactive operation.
I.e. it's tuned to limit the maximum response time in single operations,
which is sometimes at the expense of batch-like operations like
reindenting whole blocks.  If you find that @ccmode{} gradually gets
slower and slower in certain situations, perhaps as the file grows in
size or as the macro or comment you're editing gets bigger, then chances
are that something isn't working right.  You should consider reporting
it, unless it's something that's mentioned in this section.

Because @ccmode{} has to scan the buffer backwards from the current
insertion point, and because C's syntax is fairly difficult to parse in
the backwards direction, @ccmode{} often tries to find the nearest
position higher up in the buffer from which to begin a forward scan
(it's typically an opening or closing parenthesis of some kind).  The
farther this position is from the current insertion point, the slower it
gets.

@findex beginning-of-defun
In earlier versions of @ccmode{}, we used to recommend putting the
opening brace of a top-level construct@footnote{E.g. a function in C,
or outermost class definition in C++ or Java.} into the leftmost
column.  Earlier still, this used to be a rigid Emacs constraint, as
embodied in the @code{beginning-of-defun} function.  @ccmode now
caches syntactic information much better, so that the delay caused by
searching for such a brace when it's not in column 0 is minimal,
except perhaps when you've just moved a long way inside the file.

@findex defun-prompt-regexp
@vindex c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp
@vindex Java-defun-prompt-regexp (c-)
A special note about @code{defun-prompt-regexp} in Java mode: The common
style is to hang the opening braces of functions and classes on the
right side of the line, and that doesn't work well with the Emacs
approach.  @ccmode{} comes with a constant
@code{c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp} which tries to define a regular
expression usable for this style, but there are problems with it.  In
some cases it can cause @code{beginning-of-defun} to hang@footnote{This
has been observed in Emacs 19.34 and XEmacs 19.15.}.  For this reason,
it is not used by default, but if you feel adventurous, you can set
@code{defun-prompt-regexp} to it in your mode hook.  In any event,
setting and relying on @code{defun-prompt-regexp} will definitely slow
things down because (X)Emacs will be doing regular expression searches a
lot, so you'll probably be taking a hit either way!

@ccmode{} maintains a cache of the opening parentheses of the blocks
surrounding the point, and it adapts that cache as the point is moved
around.  That means that in bad cases it can take noticeable time to
indent a line in a new surrounding, but after that it gets fast as long
as the point isn't moved far off.  The farther the point is moved, the
less useful is the cache.  Since editing typically is done in ``chunks''
rather than on single lines far apart from each other, the cache
typically gives good performance even when the code doesn't fit the
Emacs approach to finding the defun starts.

@vindex c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p
@vindex enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p (c-)
XEmacs users can set the variable
@code{c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p} to non-@code{nil}.  This
tells @ccmode{} to use XEmacs-specific built-in functions which, in some
circumstances, can locate the top-most opening brace much more quickly than
@code{beginning-of-defun}.  Preliminary testing has shown that for
styles where these braces are hung (e.g. most JDK-derived Java styles),
this hack can improve performance of the core syntax parsing routines
from 3 to 60 times.  However, for styles which @emph{do} conform to
Emacs' recommended style of putting top-level braces in column zero,
this hack can degrade performance by about as much.  Thus this variable
is set to @code{nil} by default, since the Emacs-friendly styles should
be more common (and encouraged!).  Note that this variable has no effect
in Emacs since the necessary built-in functions don't exist (in Emacs
22.1 as of this writing in February 2007).

Text properties are used to speed up skipping over syntactic whitespace,
i.e. comments and preprocessor directives.  Indenting a line after a
huge macro definition can be slow the first time, but after that the
text properties are in place and it should be fast (even after you've
edited other parts of the file and then moved back).

Font locking can be a CPU hog, especially the font locking done on
decoration level 3 which tries to be very accurate.  Note that that
level is designed to be used with a font lock support mode that only
fontifies the text that's actually shown, i.e. Lazy Lock or Just-in-time
Lock mode, so make sure you use one of them.  Fontification of a whole
buffer with some thousand lines can often take over a minute.  That is
a known weakness; the idea is that it never should happen.

The most effective way to speed up font locking is to reduce the
decoration level to 2 by setting @code{font-lock-maximum-decoration}
appropriately.  That level is designed to be as pretty as possible
without sacrificing performance.  @xref{Font Locking Preliminaries}, for
more info.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Limitations and Known Bugs, FAQ, Performance Issues, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter Limitations and Known Bugs
@cindex limitations
@cindex bugs
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@itemize @bullet
@item
@ccmode{} doesn't support trigraphs.  (These are character sequences
such as @samp{??(}, which represents @samp{[}.  They date from a time
when some character sets didn't have all the characters that C needs,
and are now utterly obsolete.)

@item
There is no way to apply auto newline settings (@pxref{Auto-newlines})
on already typed lines.  That's only a feature to ease interactive
editing.

To generalize this issue a bit: @ccmode{} is not intended to be used as
a reformatter for old code in some more or less batch-like way.  With
the exception of some functions like @code{c-indent-region}, it's only
geared to be used interactively to edit new code.  There's currently no
intention to change this goal.

If you want to reformat old code, you're probably better off using some
other tool instead, e.g. @ref{Top, , GNU indent, indent, The `indent'
Manual}, which has more powerful reformatting capabilities than
@ccmode{}.

@item
The support for C++ templates (in angle brackets) is not yet complete.
When a non-nested template is used in a declaration, @ccmode{} indents
it and font-locks it OK.  Templates used in expressions, and nested
templates do not fare so well.  Sometimes a workaround is to refontify
the expression after typing the closing @samp{>}.

@item
On loading @ccmode{}, sometimes this error message appears:

@example
File mode specification error: (void-variable c-font-lock-keywords-3)
@end example

This is due to a bug in the function @code{eval-after-load} in some
versions of (X)Emacs.  It can manifest itself when there is a symbolic
link in the path of the directory which contains (X)Emacs.  As a
workaround, put the following into your @file{.emacs} file, fairly
early on:

@example
(defun my-load-cc-fonts ()
  (require "cc-fonts"))
(add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-load-cc-fonts)
@end example
@end itemize

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    FAQ, Updating CC Mode, Limitations and Known Bugs, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Frequently Asked Questions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@itemize @bullet
@item
@emph{How can I change the indent level from 4 spaces to 2 spaces?}

Set the variable @code{c-basic-offset}.  @xref{Getting Started}.

@item
@kindex RET
@kindex C-j
@emph{Why doesn't the @kbd{RET} key indent the new line?}

Emacs' convention is that @kbd{RET} just adds a newline, and that
@kbd{C-j} adds a newline and indents it.  You can make @kbd{RET} do this
too by adding this to your @code{c-initialization-hook}:

@example
(define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break)
@end example

@xref{Getting Started}.  This is a very common question.  If you want
this to be the default behavior, don't lobby us, lobby RMS!  @t{:-)}

@item
@emph{How do I stop my code jumping all over the place when I type?}

Deactivate ``electric minor mode'' with @kbd{C-c C-l}.  @xref{Getting
Started}.

@item
@kindex C-x h
@kindex C-M-\
@emph{How do I reindent the whole file?}

Visit the file and hit @kbd{C-x h} to mark the whole buffer. Then hit
@kbd{C-M-\}.  @xref{Indentation Commands}.

@item
@kindex C-M-q
@kindex C-M-u
@emph{How do I reindent the current block?}

First move to the brace which opens the block with @kbd{C-M-u}, then
reindent that expression with @kbd{C-M-q}.  @xref{Indentation
Commands}.

@item
@emph{I put @code{(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)} in my
@file{.emacs} file but I get an error saying that @code{c-set-offset}'s
function definition is void.  What's wrong?}

This means that @ccmode{} hasn't yet been loaded into your Emacs
session by the time the @code{c-set-offset} call is reached, most
likely because @ccmode{} is being autoloaded.  Instead of putting the
@code{c-set-offset} line in your top-level @file{.emacs} file, put it
in your @code{c-initialization-hook} (@pxref{CC Hooks}), or simply
modify @code{c-offsets-alist} directly:

@example
(setq c-offsets-alist '((substatement-open . 0)))
@end example

@item
@cindex open paren in column zero
@emph{I have an open paren character at column zero inside a comment or
multiline string literal, and it causes the fontification and/or
indentation to go haywire.  What gives?}

It's due to the ad-hoc rule in (X)Emacs that such open parens always
start defuns (which translates to functions, classes, namespaces or any
other top-level block constructs in the @ccmode{} languages).
@ifset XEMACS
@xref{Defuns,,, xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}, for details.
@end ifset
@ifclear XEMACS
@xref{Left Margin Paren,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}, for details
(@xref{Defuns,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}, in the Emacs 20 manual).
@end ifclear

This heuristic is built into the core syntax analysis routines in
(X)Emacs, so it's not really a @ccmode{} issue.  However, in Emacs
21.1 it became possible to turn it off@footnote{Using the variable
@code{open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start}.} and @ccmode{} does so
there since it's got its own system to keep track of blocks.

@end itemize


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Updating CC Mode, Mailing Lists and Bug Reports, FAQ, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Getting the Latest CC Mode Release
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} has been standard with all versions of Emacs since 19.34 and
of XEmacs since 19.16.

@cindex web site
Due to release schedule skew, it is likely that all of these Emacsen
have old versions of @ccmode{} and so should be upgraded.  Access to the
@ccmode{} source code, as well as more detailed information on Emacsen
compatibility, etc. are all available on the web site:

@quotation
@uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net/}
@end quotation


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Mailing Lists and Bug Reports, GNU Free Documentation License, Updating CC Mode, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex C-c C-b
@findex c-submit-bug-report
@findex submit-bug-report (c-)
To report bugs, use the @kbd{C-c C-b} (bound to
@code{c-submit-bug-report}) command.  This provides vital information
we need to reproduce your problem.  Make sure you include a concise,
but complete code example.  Please try to boil your example down to
just the essential code needed to reproduce the problem, and include
an exact recipe of steps needed to expose the bug.  Be especially sure
to include any code that appears @emph{before} your bug example, if
you think it might affect our ability to reproduce it.

Please try to produce the problem in an Emacs instance without any
customizations loaded (i.e. start it with the @samp{-q --no-site-file}
arguments).  If it works correctly there, the problem might be caused
by faulty customizations in either your own or your site
configuration.  In that case, we'd appreciate it if you isolate the
Emacs Lisp code that triggers the bug and include it in your report.

@cindex bug report mailing list
Bug reports should be sent to @email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}.  You can
also send other questions and suggestions (kudos? @t{;-)} to that
address.  It's a mailing list which you can join or browse an archive
of; see the web site at @uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net/} for
further details.

@cindex announcement mailing list
If you want to get announcements of new @ccmode{} releases, send the
word @emph{subscribe} in the body of a message to
@email{cc-mode-announce-request@@lists.sourceforge.net}.  It's possible
to subscribe from the web site too.  Announcements will also be posted
to the Usenet newsgroups @code{gnu.emacs.sources}, @code{comp.emacs},
@code{comp.emacs.xemacs}, @code{comp.lang.c}, @code{comp.lang.c++},
@code{comp.lang.objective-c}, @code{comp.lang.java.softwaretools},
@code{comp.lang.idl}, and @code{comp.lang.awk}.
@c There is no newsgroup for Pike.  :-(


@node GNU Free Documentation License, Command and Function Index, Mailing Lists and Bug Reports, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi


@c Removed the tentative node "Mode Initialization" from here, 2005/8/27.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Command and Function Index, Variable Index, GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Command and Function Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since most @ccmode{} commands are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{thing}} name and its
@code{@var{thing} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex fn


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Variable Index, Concept and Key Index, Command and Function Index, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Variable Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since most @ccmode{} variables are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{thing}} name and its
@code{@var{thing} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex vr


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Concept and Key Index,  , Variable Index, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Concept and Key Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@printindex cp


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment Epilogue.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@iftex
@page
@summarycontents
@contents
@end iftex

@bye

@ignore
   arch-tag: c4cab162-5e57-4366-bdce-4a9db2fc97f0
@end ignore
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.