1. Nic Ferrier
  2. emacs

Source

emacs / man / mh-e.texi

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\input texinfo   @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c
@c Note: This document requires makeinfo version 4.6 or greater to build.
@c
@c %**start of header
@setfilename ../info/mh-e
@settitle The MH-E Manual
@c %**end of header

@c Version of the software and manual.
@set VERSION 8.0.3
@c Edition of the manual. It is either empty for the first edition or
@c has the form ", nth Edition" (without the quotes).
@set EDITION
@set UPDATED 2006-11-12
@set UPDATE-MONTH November, 2006

@c Other variables.
@set MH-BOOK-HOME http://rand-mh.sourceforge.net/book/mh
@set MH-E-HOME http://mh-e.sourceforge.net/

@c Copyright
@copying
This is version @value{VERSION}@value{EDITION} of @cite{The MH-E
Manual}, last updated @value{UPDATED}.

Copyright @copyright{} 1995, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
The MH-E manual is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of either:

@enumerate a
@item
the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,
no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

@item
the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
@end enumerate

The MH-E manual is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License or GNU Free Documentation License for more
details.

The GNU General Public License and the GNU Free Documentation License
appear as appendices to this document. You may also request copies by
writing to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street,
Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
@end quotation
@end copying

@c Info Directory Entry
@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* MH-E: (mh-e).		Emacs interface to the MH mail system.
@end direntry

@c Title Page
@setchapternewpage odd
@titlepage
@title The MH-E Manual
@subtitle Version @value{VERSION}@value{EDITION}
@subtitle @value{UPDATE-MONTH}
@author Bill Wohler

@c Copyright Page
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@ifnottex
@html
<!--
@end html
@node Top, Preface, (dir), (dir)
@top The MH-E Manual
@html
-->
@end html
@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@c Table of Contents
@contents

@html
<!--
@end html

@menu
* Preface::                     Preface
* Conventions::                 GNU Emacs Terms and Conventions
* Getting Started::             Getting Started
* Tour Through MH-E::           Tour Through MH-E
* Using This Manual::           Using This Manual
* Incorporating Mail::          Incorporating Mail
* Reading Mail::                Reading Mail
* Folders::                     Organizing Your Mail with Folders
* Sending Mail::                Sending Mail
* Editing Drafts::              Editing a Draft
* Aliases::                     Aliases
* Identities::                  Identities
* Speedbar::                    The Speedbar
* Menu Bar::                    The Menu Bar
* Tool Bar::                    The Tool Bar
* Searching::                   Searching Through Messages
* Threading::                   Viewing Message Threads
* Limits::                      Limiting Display
* Sequences::                   Using Sequences
* Junk::                        Dealing With Junk Mail
* Miscellaneous::               Miscellaneous Commands, Variables, and Buffers
* Scan Line Formats::           Scan Line Formats
* Procmail::                    Reading Mailing Lists Effectively
* Odds and Ends::               Odds and Ends
* History::                     History of MH-E
* GFDL::                        GNU Free Documentation License
* GPL::                         GNU Public License
* Key Index::                   Key (Character) Index
* Command Index::               Command Index
* Option Index::                Option (Variable) Index
* Concept Index::               Concept Index

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Tour Through MH-E

* Sending Mail Tour::
* Reading Mail Tour::
* Processing Mail Tour::
* Leaving MH-E::
* More About MH-E::

Using This Manual

* Options::
* Ranges::
* Folder Selection::

Reading Your Mail

* Viewing::
* Viewing Attachments::
* HTML::
* Digests::
* Reading PGP::
* Printing::
* Files and Pipes::
* Navigating::
* Miscellaneous Commands and Options::

Sending Mail

* Composing::
* Replying::
* Forwarding::
* Redistributing::
* Editing Again::

Editing a Draft

* Editing Message::
* Inserting Letter::
* Inserting Messages::
* Signature::
* Picture::
* Adding Attachments::
* Sending PGP::
* Checking Recipients::
* Sending Message::
* Killing Draft::

Odds and Ends

* Bug Reports::
* Mailing Lists::
* MH FAQ and Support::
* Getting MH-E::

History of MH-E

* From Brian Reid::
* From Jim Larus::
* From Stephen Gildea::
* From Bill Wohler::

@end detailmenu
@end menu

@html
-->
@end html

@node Preface, Conventions, Top, Top
@unnumbered Preface

@cindex Emacs
@cindex Unix commands, Emacs
@cindex preface

This manual introduces another interface to the MH mail system that is
accessible through the GNU Emacs editor, namely, @emph{MH-E}. MH-E is
easy to use. I don't assume that you know GNU Emacs or even MH at this
point, since I didn't know either of them when I discovered MH-E.
However, MH-E was the tip of the iceberg, and I discovered more and
more niceties about GNU Emacs and MH@. Now I'm fully hooked on both of
them.

The MH-E package is distributed with GNU Emacs@footnote{Version
@value{VERSION} of MH-E will appear in GNU Emacs 22.1. It is supported
in GNU Emacs 21, as well as XEmacs 21 (except for versions
21.5.9-21.5.16). It is compatible with MH versions 6.8.4 and higher,
all versions of nmh, and GNU mailutils 1.0 and higher.}, so you
shouldn't have to do anything special to use it. This manual covers
MH-E version @value{VERSION}. To help you decide which version you
have, see @ref{Getting Started}.

@findex help-with-tutorial
@kindex C-h t

If you don't already use GNU Emacs but want to learn more, you can
read an online tutorial by starting GNU Emacs and typing @kbd{C-h t}
(@code{help-with-tutorial}). (To learn about this notation, see
@ref{Conventions}.) If you want to take the plunge, consult the
@iftex
@cite{GNU Emacs Manual},
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@ref{top, , GNU Emacs Manual, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual},
@end ifinfo
@ifhtml
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/,
@cite{GNU Emacs Manual}},
@end ifhtml
from the Free Software Foundation.

If more information is needed, you can go to the Unix manual pages of
the individual MH commands. When the name is not obvious, I'll guide
you to a relevant MH manual page that describes the action more fully.

@cindex @cite{MH & nmh: Email for Users & Programmers}
@cindex MH book
@cindex info
@kindex C-h i

This manual is available in both Info and online formats. The Info
version is distributed with Emacs and can be accessed with the
@command{info} command (@samp{info mh-e}) or within Emacs (@kbd{C-h i
m mh-e @key{RET}}). The online version is available at
@uref{http://mh-e.sourceforge.net/manual/, SourceForge}. Another great
online resource is the book @uref{http://www.ics.uci.edu/~mh/book/,
@cite{MH & nmh: Email for Users & Programmers}} (also known as
@dfn{the MH book}).

I hope you enjoy this manual! If you have any comments, or suggestions
for this document, please let me know.

@cindex Bill Wohler
@cindex Wohler, Bill

@noindent
Bill Wohler <@i{wohler at newt.com}>@*
8 February 1995@*
24 February 2006

@node Conventions, Getting Started, Preface, Top
@chapter GNU Emacs Terms and Conventions

@cindex Emacs
@cindex Emacs, conventions
@cindex Emacs, terms
@cindex Unix commands, Emacs
@cindex conventions, Emacs
@cindex terms, Emacs

If you're an experienced Emacs user, you can skip the following
conventions and definition of terms and go directly to the next
section (@pxref{Getting Started}).

@cindex Emacs commands
@cindex MH commands
@cindex Unix commands
@cindex commands
@cindex commands, MH
@cindex commands, Unix
@cindex commands, shell
@cindex functions
@cindex shell commands

In general, @dfn{functions} in this text refer to Emacs Lisp functions
that one would call from within Emacs Lisp programs (for example,
@code{(mh-inc-folder)}). On the other hand, @dfn{commands} are those
things that are run by the user, such as @kbd{i} or @kbd{M-x
mh-inc-folder}. Programs outside of Emacs are specifically called MH
commands, shell commands, or Unix commands.

@cindex conventions, key names
@cindex key names

The conventions for key names are as follows:

@table @kbd
@item C-x
Hold down the @key{CTRL} (Control) key and press the @kbd{x} key.
@c -------------------------
@item M-x
Hold down the @key{META} or @key{ALT} key and press the @kbd{x} key.

Since some keyboards don't have a @key{META} key, you can generate
@kbd{M-x}, for example, by pressing @key{ESC} (Escape),
@emph{releasing it}, and then pressing the @kbd{x} key.
@c -------------------------
@item @key{RET}
Press the @key{RETURN} or @key{ENTER} key. This is normally used to
complete a command.
@c -------------------------
@item @key{SPC}
Press the space bar.
@c -------------------------
@item @key{TAB}
Press the @key{TAB} key.
@c -------------------------
@item @key{DEL}
Press the @key{DELETE} key.
@c -------------------------
@item @key{BS}
Press the @key{BACKSPACE} key@footnote{If you are using Version 20 or
earlier of Emacs, you will need to use the @key{DEL} key.}.
@end table

@cindex Emacs, prefix argument
@cindex prefix argument
@kindex C-u

A @dfn{prefix argument} allows you to pass an argument to any Emacs
function. To pass an argument, type @kbd{C-u} before the Emacs command
or keystroke. Numeric arguments can be passed as well. For example, to
insert five f's, use @kbd{C-u 5 f}. There is a default of four when
using @kbd{C-u}, and you can use multiple prefix arguments to provide
arguments of powers of four. To continue our example, you could insert
four f's with @kbd{C-u f}, 16 f's with @kbd{C-u C-u f}, 64 f's with
@kbd{C-u C-u C-u f}, and so on. Numeric and valueless negative
arguments can also be inserted with the @key{META} key. Examples
include @kbd{M-5} to specify an argument of 5, or @kbd{M--} which
specifies a negative argument with no particular value.

@sp 1
@center @strong{NOTE}

@quotation
The prefix @kbd{C-u} or @kbd{M-} is not necessary in MH-E's MH-Folder
mode (@pxref{Reading Mail Tour}). In this mode, simply enter the
numerical argument before entering the command.
@end quotation
@sp 1

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex Emacs, variables
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}
@cindex variables
@findex setq

Emacs uses @dfn{variables} to hold values. These can be changed via
calls to the function @code{setq} in @file{~/.emacs}.

@cindex Emacs, options
@cindex options
@findex customize-group
@findex customize-option

Variables in MH-E that are normally modified by the user are called
@dfn{options} and are modified through the customize functions (such
as @kbd{M-x customize-option} or @kbd{M-x customize-group}).
@ifnothtml
@xref{Easy Customization,,,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}, in @cite{The
GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
See section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Easy-Customization.html,
Easy Customization} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml
@xref{Options}.

@cindex Emacs, faces
@cindex faces
@cindex highlighting
@findex customize-face

You can specify various styles for displaying text using @dfn{faces}.
MH-E provides a set of faces that you can use to personalize the look
of your MH-E buffers. Use the command @kbd{M-x customize-face} to do
this.
@ifnothtml
@xref{Face Customization,,,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}, in @cite{The
GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
See section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Face-Customization.html,
Face Customization} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml

@cindex abnormal hooks
@cindex hooks
@cindex normal hooks
@findex add-hook
@findex customize-option

Commands often offer @dfn{hooks} which enable you to extend or modify
the way a command works.
@ifnothtml
@ref{Hooks, , Hooks, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}, in @cite{The GNU
Emacs Manual}
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
See section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Hooks.html,
Hooks} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}
@end ifhtml
for a description about @dfn{normal hooks} and @dfn{abnormal hooks}.
MH-E uses normal hooks in nearly all cases, so you can assume that we
are talking about normal hooks unless we explicitly mention that a
hook is abnormal. We also follow the conventions described in that
section: the name of the abnormal hooks end in @code{-hooks} and all
the rest of the MH-E hooks end in @code{-hook}. You can add hooks with
either @code{customize-option} or @code{add-hook}.

@cindex Emacs, mark
@cindex Emacs, point
@cindex Emacs, region
@cindex mark
@cindex point
@cindex region
@kindex C-@@
@kindex C-@key{SPC}

There are several other terms that are used in Emacs that you should
know. The @dfn{point} is where the cursor currently is. You can save
your current place in the file by setting a @dfn{mark}. This operation
is useful in several ways. The mark can be later used when defining a
@dfn{region}, which is the text between the point and mark. Many
commands operate on regions, such as those for deleting text or
filling paragraphs. A mark can be set with @kbd{C-@@} (or
@kbd{C-@key{SPC}}).

@cindex completion
@cindex Emacs, completion
@cindex Emacs, file completion
@cindex Emacs, folder completion
@cindex Emacs, minibuffer
@cindex file completion
@cindex folder completion
@cindex minibuffer
@kindex SPC
@kindex TAB

The @dfn{minibuffer} is the bottom line of the Emacs window, where all
prompting and multiple-character input is directed. You can use
@dfn{completion} to enter values such as folders. Completion means
that Emacs fills in text for you when you type @key{SPC} or @key{TAB}.
A second @key{SPC} or @key{TAB} will list all possibilities at that
point.
@ifnothtml
@xref{Completion, , Completion, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
See the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Completion.html,
Completion} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml
Note that @key{SPC} cannot be used for completing filenames and
folders.

@findex help-with-tutorial
@kindex C-h t
@kindex M-x

The minibuffer is also where you enter Emacs function names after
typing @kbd{M-x}. For example, in the preface, I mentioned that you
could obtain help with @kbd{C-h t} (@code{help-with-tutorial}). What
this means is that you can get a tutorial by typing either @kbd{C-h t}
or @kbd{M-x help-with-tutorial}. In the latter case, you are prompted
for @samp{help-with-tutorial} in the minibuffer after typing
@kbd{M-x}.

@cindex ~

The @samp{~} notation in filenames represents your home directory.
This notation is used by many shells including @command{bash},
@code{tcsh}, and @command{csh}. It is analogous to the environment
variable @samp{$HOME}. For example, @file{~/.emacs} can be written
@file{$HOME/.emacs} or using the absolute path as in
@file{/home/wohler/.emacs} instead.

@cindex Emacs, interrupting
@cindex Emacs, quitting
@cindex interrupting
@cindex quitting

@i{In case of trouble:} Emacs can be interrupted at any time with
@kbd{C-g}. For example, if you've started a command that requests that
you enter something in the minibuffer, but then you change your mind,
type @kbd{C-g} and you'll be back where you started. If you want to
exit Emacs entirely, use @kbd{C-x C-c}.

@node Getting Started, Tour Through MH-E, Conventions, Top
@chapter Getting Started

@cindex MH-E, versions
@cindex history
@cindex versions of MH-E

Because there are many old versions of MH-E out there, it is important
to know which version you have. I'll be talking about @w{Version 8}
which is pretty close to @w{Version 6} and @w{Version 7}. It differs
from @w{Version 4} and @w{Version 5} and is vastly different from
@w{Version 3}. @xref{History}.

@findex mh-version

To determine which version of MH-E that you have, enter @kbd{M-x
mh-version @key{RET}}. Hopefully it says that you're running
@w{Version @value{VERSION}} which is the latest version as of this
printing.

If your version is much older than this, please consider upgrading.
You can have your system administrator upgrade the system-wide
version, or you can install your own personal version. It's really
quite easy. @xref{Getting MH-E}, for instructions for getting and
installing MH-E.

If the @code{mh-version} command displays @samp{No MH variant
detected}@footnote{In very old versions of MH-E, you may get the error
message, @samp{Cannot find the commands `inc' and `mhl' and the file
`components'} if MH-E can't find MH. In this case, you need to update
MH-E, and you may need to install MH too. However, newer versions of
MH-E are better at finding MH if it is on your system.}, then you need
to install MH or tell MH-E where to find MH.

@cindex Debian
@cindex nmh
@cindex GNU mailutils

If you don't have MH on your system already, you must install a
variant of MH. The Debian mh-e package does this for you automatically
(@pxref{Getting MH-E}). Most people use
@uref{http://www.nongnu.org/nmh/, nmh}, but you may be interested in
trying out @uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/mailutils/, GNU
mailutils}, which supports IMAP. Your GNU/Linux distribution probably
has packages for both of these.

@cindex @command{install-mh}
@cindex MH commands, @command{install-mh}
@cindex MH book

If you've never run MH before, you need to run @command{install-mh}
from the shell before you continue. This sets up your personal MH
environment@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/../overall/setup.html, Setting Up MH} in the
MH book.}. If you don't, you'll be greeted with the error message:
@samp{Install MH and run install-mh before running MH-E}. This is all
you need to know about MH to use MH-E, but the more you know about MH,
the more you can leverage its power. See the
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/../, MH book} to learn more about MH.

@cindex @samp{Path:} MH profile component
@cindex MH profile
@cindex MH profile component
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Path:}

Your MH environment includes your @dfn{MH profile} which is found in
the file @file{~/.mh_profile}. This file contains a number of @dfn{MH
profile components}. For example, the @samp{Path:} MH profile
component contains the path to your mail directory, which is
@file{~/Mail} by default.

@cindex @command{mhparam}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhparam}
@vindex exec-path
@vindex mh-path
@vindex mh-sys-path
@vindex mh-variant
@vindex mh-variant-in-use

There are several options MH-E uses to interact with your MH
installation. The option @code{mh-variant} specifies the variant used
by MH-E (@pxref{Options}). The default setting of this option is
@samp{Auto-detect} which means that MH-E will automatically choose the
first of nmh, MH, or GNU mailutils that it finds in the directories
listed in @code{mh-path} (which you can customize),
@code{mh-sys-path}, and @code{exec-path}. If MH-E can't find MH at
all, you may have to customize @code{mh-path} and add the directory in
which the command @command{mhparam} is located. If, on the other hand,
you have both nmh and mailutils installed (for example) and
@code{mh-variant-in-use} was initialized to nmh but you want to use
mailutils, then you can set @code{mh-variant} to @samp{mailutils}.

@vindex mh-flists-present-flag
@vindex mh-lib
@vindex mh-lib-progs
@vindex mh-progs

When @code{mh-variant} is changed, MH-E resets @code{mh-progs},
@code{mh-lib}, @code{mh-lib-progs}, @code{mh-flists-present-flag}, and
@code{mh-variant-in-use} accordingly.

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

@sp 1
@center @strong{NOTE}

@quotation
Prior to version 8, it was often necessary to set some of these
variables in @file{~/.emacs}; now it is no longer necessary and can
actually cause problems.
@end quotation
@sp 1

@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Draft-Folder:}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Path:}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Previous-Sequence:}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Unseen-Sequence:}
@cindex @samp{Draft-Folder:} MH profile component
@cindex @samp{Path:} MH profile component
@cindex @samp{Previous-Sequence:} MH profile component
@cindex @samp{Unseen-Sequence:} MH profile component
@findex mh-find-path
@vindex mh-draft-folder
@vindex mh-find-path-hook
@vindex mh-inbox
@vindex mh-previous-seq
@vindex mh-unseen-seq
@vindex mh-user-path

In addition to setting variables that point to MH itself, MH-E also
sets a handful of variables that point to where you keep your mail.
During initialization, the function @code{mh-find-path} sets
@code{mh-user-path} from your @samp{Path:} MH profile component (but
defaults to @samp{Mail} if one isn't present), @code{mh-draft-folder}
from @samp{Draft-Folder:}, @code{mh-unseen-seq} from
@samp{Unseen-Sequence:}, @code{mh-previous-seq} from
@samp{Previous-Sequence:}, and @code{mh-inbox} from @samp{Inbox:}
(defaults to @samp{+inbox}). The hook @code{mh-find-path-hook} is run
after these variables have been set. This hook can be used the change
the value of these variables if you need to run with different values
between MH and MH-E.

@node Tour Through MH-E, Using This Manual, Getting Started, Top
@chapter Tour Through MH-E

@cindex introduction
@cindex tour
@cindex tutorial

This chapter introduces some of the terms you'll need to know and then
takes you on a tour of MH-E@footnote{The keys mentioned in these
chapters refer to the default key bindings. If you've changed the
bindings, refer to the command summaries at the beginning of each
chapter for a mapping between default key bindings and function
names.}. When you're done, you'll be able to send, read, and file
mail, which is all that a lot of people ever do. But if you're the
curious or adventurous type, read the rest of the manual to be able to
use all the features of MH-E. I suggest you read this chapter first to
get the big picture, and then you can read the manual as you wish.

@menu
* Sending Mail Tour::
* Reading Mail Tour::
* Processing Mail Tour::
* Leaving MH-E::
* More About MH-E::
@end menu

@node Sending Mail Tour, Reading Mail Tour, Tour Through MH-E, Tour Through MH-E
@section Sending Mail

@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@cindex sending mail
@findex mh-smail
@kindex M-x mh-smail

Let's start our tour by sending ourselves a message which we can later
read and process. Enter @kbd{M-x mh-smail} to invoke the MH-E program
to send messages. Your message appears in an Emacs buffer whose
mode@footnote{A @dfn{mode} changes Emacs to make it easier to edit a
particular type of text.} is MH-Letter.

Enter your login name in the @samp{To:} header field. Press the
@key{TAB} twice to move the cursor past the @samp{Cc:} field, since no
carbon copies are to be sent, and on to the @samp{Subject:} field.
Enter @kbd{Test} or anything else that comes to mind.

Press @key{TAB} again to move the cursor to the body of the message.
Enter some text, using normal Emacs commands. You should now have
something like this@footnote{If you're running Emacs under the X
Window System, then you would also see a menu bar and a tool bar. I've
left out the menu bar and tool bar in all of the example screens.}:

@cartouche
@smallexample






--:--  *scratch*   All L1     (Lisp Interaction)-------------------------
To: wohler
cc:
Subject: Test
X-Mailer: MH-E 8.0; nmh 1.1; GNU Emacs 22.1
--------
This is a test message to get the wheels churning...#


--:**  @{draft@}   All L5     (MH-Letter)----------------------------------
Type C-c C-c to send message, C-C ? for help
@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{MH-E message composition window}

Note the line of dashes that separates the header and the body of the
message. It is essential that these dashes (or a blank line) are
present or the body of your message will be considered to be part of
the header.

@cindex help
@findex describe-mode
@kindex C-c ?
@kindex C-c C-c
@kindex C-h m

There are several commands specific to MH-Letter mode@footnote{You can
get quick help for the commands used most often with @kbd{C-c ?} or
more complete help with the @kbd{C-h m} (@code{describe-mode})
command.}, but at this time we'll only use @kbd{C-c C-c} to send your
message. Type @kbd{C-c C-c} now. That's all there is to it!

@node Reading Mail Tour, Processing Mail Tour, Sending Mail Tour, Tour Through MH-E
@section Receiving Mail

@cindex @command{inc}
@cindex @command{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @command{inc}
@cindex MH commands, @command{scan}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex reading mail
@findex mh-rmail
@kindex M-x mh-rmail

To read the mail you've just sent yourself, enter @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.
This incorporates the new mail and puts the output from
@command{inc}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/reapre.html, Reading Mail: inc show next
prev} in the MH book.} (called @dfn{scan lines} after the MH program
@command{scan}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/faswsprs.html, Find and Specify with scan
pick Ranges Sequences} in the MH book.} which prints a one-line
summary of each message) into a buffer called @samp{+inbox} whose
major mode is MH-Folder.

@findex mh-rmail
@kindex F r
@kindex M-x mh-rmail

@sp 1
@center @strong{NOTE}

@quotation

The @kbd{M-x mh-rmail} command will show you only new mail, not mail
you have already read. If you were to run this tour again, you would
use @kbd{F r} to pull all your messages into MH-E.
@end quotation
@sp 1

@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex n
@kindex p

You should see the scan line for your message, and perhaps others. Use
@kbd{n} or @kbd{p} to move the cursor to your test message and type
@key{RET} to read your message. You should see something like:

@cartouche
@smallexample
  3 t08/24 root       received fax files on Wed Aug 24 11:00:13 PDT 1
# 4+t08/24 To:wohler  Test<<This is a test message to get the wheels

-:%%  @{+inbox/select@} 4 msgs (1-4)   Bot L4     (MH-Folder Show)---------
To: wohler
Subject: Test
X-Mailer: MH-E 8.0; nmh 1.1; GNU Emacs 22.1
Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2006 10:49:11 -0800
From: Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>

This is a test message to get the wheels churning...



--:--  @{show-+inbox@} 4   All L1     (MH-Show)----------------------------

@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{After incorporating new messages}

@kindex @key{DEL}
@kindex @key{SPC}

If you typed a long message, you can view subsequent pages with
@key{SPC} and previous pages with @key{DEL}.

@node Processing Mail Tour, Leaving MH-E, Reading Mail Tour, Tour Through MH-E
@section Processing Mail

@cindex processing mail
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex r

The first thing we want to do is reply to the message that we sent
ourselves. Ensure that the cursor is still on the same line as your
test message and type @kbd{r}. You are prompted in the minibuffer with
@samp{Reply to whom:}. Here MH-E is asking whether you'd like to reply
to the original sender only, to the sender and primary recipients, or
to the sender and all recipients. You can press @key{TAB} to see these
choices. If you simply press @key{RET}, you'll reply only to the
sender. Press @key{RET} now.

You'll find yourself in an Emacs buffer similar to that when you were
sending the original message, like this:

@cartouche
@smallexample
To:
cc:
Subject: Re: Test
In-reply-to: <31054.1142621351@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
References: <31054.1142621351@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
Comments: In-reply-to Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
   message dated "Fri, 17 Mar 2006 10:49:11 -0800."
X-Mailer: MH-E 8.0; nmh 1.1; GNU Emacs 22.1
--------
#

--:--  @{draft@}  All L10     (MH-Letter)----------------------------------
To: wohler
Subject: Test
X-Mailer: MH-E 8.0; nmh 1.1; GNU Emacs 22.1
Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2006 10:49:11 -0800
From: Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>

This is a test message to get the wheels churning...

--:--  @{show-+inbox@} 4   All L1     (MH-Show)----------------------------
Type C-c C-c to send message, C-c ? for help
@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{Composition window during reply}

@findex backward-char
@findex forward-char
@findex next-line
@findex previous-line
@kindex C-b
@kindex C-c C-c
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-f
@kindex C-n
@kindex C-p
@kindex @key{BS}

By default, MH will not add you to the address list of your replies,
so if you find that the @samp{To:} header field is missing, don't
worry. In this case, type @kbd{C-c C-f C-t} to create and go to the
@samp{To:} field, where you can type your login name again. You can
move around with the arrow keys or with @kbd{C-p}
(@code{previous-line}), @kbd{C-n} (@code{next-line}), @kbd{C-b}
(@code{backward-char}), and @kbd{C-f} (@code{forward-char}) and can
delete the previous character with @key{BS}. When you're finished
editing your message, send it with @kbd{C-c C-c} as before.

@cindex @command{refile}
@cindex MH commands, @command{refile}
@cindex folders
@kindex @key{SPC}
@kindex o

You'll often want to save messages that were sent to you in an
organized fashion. This is done with @dfn{folders}. You can use
folders to keep messages from your friends, or messages related to a
particular topic. With your cursor in the MH-Folder buffer and
positioned on the message you sent to yourself, type @kbd{o} to output
(@command{refile} in MH parlance) that message to a folder. Enter
@kbd{test} at the @samp{Destination folder:} prompt and type @kbd{y}
(or @key{SPC}) when MH-E asks to create the folder @samp{+test}. Note
that a @samp{^} (caret) appears next to the message number, which
means that the message has been marked for refiling but has not yet
been refiled. We'll talk about how the refile is actually carried out
in a moment.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@kindex d
@kindex i
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex n
@kindex p
@kindex x

Your previous reply is now waiting in the system mailbox. You
incorporate this mail into your MH-Folder buffer named @samp{+inbox}
with the @kbd{i} command. Do this now. After the mail is incorporated,
use @kbd{n} or @kbd{p} to move the cursor to the new message, and read
it with @key{RET}. Let's delete this message by typing @kbd{d}. Note
that a @samp{D} appears next to the message number. This means that
the message is marked for deletion but is not yet deleted. To perform
the deletion (and the refile we did previously), use the @kbd{x}
command.

@findex mh-smail
@kindex m
@kindex M-x mh-smail

If you want to send another message you can use @kbd{m} instead of
@kbd{M-x mh-smail}. So go ahead, send some mail to your friends!

@cindex help
@cindex prefix characters
@findex describe-mode
@kindex ?
@kindex C-h m
@kindex F ?

You can get a quick reminder about these commands by typing @kbd{?}.
This lists several @dfn{prefix characters}. To list the commands
available via the prefix characters, type the prefix character
followed by a @kbd{?}, for example, @kbd{F ?}. More complete help is
available with the @kbd{C-h m} (@code{describe-mode}) command.

@node Leaving MH-E, More About MH-E, Processing Mail Tour, Tour Through MH-E
@section Leaving MH-E

@cindex Emacs, quitting
@cindex quitting
@kindex C-x C-c
@kindex x

You may now wish to exit @command{emacs} entirely. Use @kbd{C-x C-c}
to exit @command{emacs}. If you exited without running @kbd{x} in the
@samp{+inbox} buffer, Emacs will offer to save it for you. Type
@kbd{y} or @key{SPC} to save @samp{+inbox} changes, which means to
perform any refiles and deletes that you did there.

@findex mh-rmail
@kindex C-x b
@kindex C-x k
@kindex M-x mh-rmail
@kindex q

If you don't want to leave Emacs, you can type @kbd{q} to bury (hide)
the MH-E folder or delete it entirely with @kbd{C-x k}. You can then
later recall it with @kbd{C-x b} or @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.

@cindex @command{packf}
@cindex MH commands, @command{packf}
@cindex exporting folders
@cindex folders, exporting
@cindex mbox-style folder

On the other hand, if you no longer want to use MH and MH-E, you can
take your mail with you. You can copy all of your mail into a single
file, mbox-style, by using the MH command @command{packf}. For
example, to create a file called @file{msgbox} with the messages in
your @samp{+inbox} folder, use @samp{packf +inbox}. The
@command{packf} command will append the messages to the file if it
already exists, so you can use @samp{folders -recurse -fast} in a
script to copy all of your messages into a single file, or using the
@samp{-file} argument, a file for each folder.

@node More About MH-E,  , Leaving MH-E, Tour Through MH-E
@section More About MH-E

These are the basic commands to get you going, but there are plenty
more. If you think that MH-E is for you, read the rest of the manual
to find out how you can:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Print your messages (@pxref{Printing}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Edit messages and include your signature (@pxref{Editing Drafts}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Forward messages (@pxref{Forwarding}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Read digests (@pxref{Digests}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Edit bounced messages (@pxref{Editing Again}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Send multimedia messages (@pxref{Adding Attachments}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Read HTML messages (@pxref{HTML}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Use aliases and identities (see @ref{Aliases}, @pxref{Identities}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Create different views of your mail (see @ref{Threading}, @pxref{Limits}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Deal with junk mail (@pxref{Junk}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Handle signed and encrypted messages (see @ref{Reading PGP},
@pxref{Sending PGP}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Process mail that was sent with @command{shar} or @command{uuencode}
(@pxref{Files and Pipes}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Use sequences conveniently (@pxref{Sequences}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Use the speedbar, tool bar, and menu bar (see @ref{Speedbar}, see @ref{Tool
Bar}, @pxref{Menu Bar}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Show header fields in different fonts (@pxref{Reading Mail}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Find previously refiled messages (@pxref{Searching}).
@c -------------------------
@item
Place messages in a file (@pxref{Files and Pipes}).
@end itemize

Remember that you can also use MH commands when you're not running
MH-E (and when you are!).

@node Using This Manual, Incorporating Mail, Tour Through MH-E, Top
@chapter Using This Manual

This chapter begins the meat of the manual which goes into more detail
about every MH-E command and option.

@cindex Emacs, info
@cindex Emacs, online help
@cindex info
@cindex online help
@findex describe-mode
@findex mh-help
@kindex ?
@kindex C-c ?
@kindex C-h C-h
@kindex C-h C-k i
@kindex C-h i
@kindex C-h m

There are many commands, but don't get intimidated. There are command
summaries at the beginning of each chapter. In case you have or would
like to rebind the keys, the command summaries also list the
associated Emacs Lisp function. Furthermore, even if you're stranded
on a desert island with a laptop and are without your manuals, you can
get a summary of all these commands with GNU Emacs online help: use
@kbd{C-h m} (@code{describe-mode}) for a brief summary of commands,
@kbd{?} (@code{mh-help}) for an even briefer summary@footnote{This
help appears in a buffer called @samp{*MH-E Help*}
(@pxref{Miscellaneous}).} (@kbd{C-c ?} in MH-Letter mode), or @kbd{C-h
i} to read this manual via Info. The online help is quite good; try
running @kbd{C-h C-h}. This brings up a list of available help topics,
one of which displays the documentation for a given key (like @kbd{C-h
k C-n}). Another useful help feature is to view the manual section
that describes a given key (such as @kbd{C-h K i}). In addition,
review @ref{Conventions}, if any of the GNU Emacs conventions are
strange to you.

In addition to all of the commands, it is also possible to reconfigure
MH-E to fit the needs of even the most demanding user. The following
chapters also describe all of the options, show the defaults, and make
recommendations for customization.

However, when customizing your mail environment, first try to change
what you want in MH, and only change MH-E if changing MH is not
possible. That way you will get the same behavior inside and outside
GNU Emacs. Note that MH-E does not provide hooks for customizations
that can be done in MH; this omission is intentional.

@cindex Emacs Lisp Manual
@cindex Emacs, Emacs Lisp Manual
@cindex Emacs, info
@cindex Emacs, online help
@cindex info
@cindex online help

I hope I've included enough examples here to get you well on your way.
If you want to explore Emacs Lisp further, a programming manual does
exist,
@c Yes, some of the stuff in the following sections is redundant, but
@c TeX barfs if the @ifs are inside the @footnote.
@iftex
@footnote{The @cite{GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual} may be available
online in the Info system by typing @kbd{C-h i m Emacs Lisp
@key{RET}}. It is also available online at @*
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/elisp-manual/html_node/}. You
can also order a printed manual, which has the desirable side-effect
of helping to support the Free Software Foundation which made all this
great software available. You can find an order form by running
@kbd{C-h C-d}, or you can request an order form from @i{gnu at
gnu.org}.}
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@footnote{@xref{Top, The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, , elisp, GNU
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, which may be available online in the
Info system. It is also available online at
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/elisp-manual/html_node/}. You
can also order a printed manual, which has the desirable side-effect
of helping to support the Free Software Foundation which made all this
great software available. You can find an order form by running
@kbd{C-h C-d}, or you can request an order form from @i{gnu at
gnu.org}.}
@end ifinfo
@ifhtml
@footnote{The
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/elisp-manual/html_node/,
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual} may also be available online in
the Info system by typing @kbd{C-h i m Emacs Lisp @key{RET}}. You can
also order a printed manual, which has the desirable side-effect of
helping to support the Free Software Foundation which made all this
great software available. You can find an order form by running
@kbd{C-h C-d}, or you can request an order form from @i{gnu at
gnu.org}.}
@end ifhtml
and you can look at the code itself for examples. Look in the Emacs
Lisp directory on your system (such as
@file{/usr/local/lib/emacs/lisp/mh-e}) and find all the @file{mh-*.el}
files there. When calling MH-E and other Emacs Lisp functions directly
from Emacs Lisp code, you'll need to know the correct arguments. Use
the online help for this. For example, try @kbd{C-h f
mh-execute-commands @key{RET}}. If you write your own functions,
please do not prefix your symbols (variables and functions) with
@samp{mh-}. This prefix is reserved for the MH-E package. To avoid
conflicts with existing MH-E symbols, use a prefix like @samp{my-} or
your initials. (Unless, of course, your initials happen to be @emph{mh}!)

@menu
* Options::
* Ranges::
* Folder Selection::
@end menu

@node Options, Ranges, Using This Manual, Using This Manual
@section Options

@cindex Emacs, customizing
@cindex Emacs, setting options
@cindex customizing MH-E
@cindex setting options
@findex customize-option
@vindex mh-lpr-command-format, example

Many string or integer options are easy to modify using @kbd{M-x
customize-option}. For example, to modify the option that controls
printing, you would run @kbd{M-x customize-option @key{RET}
mh-lpr-command-format @key{RET}}. In the buffer that appears, modify
the string to the right of the variable. For example, you may change
the @command{lpr} command with @samp{nenscript -G -r -2 -i'%s'}. Then
use the @samp{State} combo box and select @samp{Save for Future
Sessions}. To read more about @code{mh-lpr-command-format}, see
@ref{Printing}.

@cindex nil
@cindex off, option
@cindex on, option
@cindex option, turning on and off
@cindex t
@findex customize-option
@vindex mh-bury-show-buffer-flag, example

Options can also hold boolean values. In Emacs Lisp, the boolean
values are @code{nil}, which means false, and @code{t}, which means
true. The @code{customize-option} function makes it easy to change
boolean values; simply click on the toggle button in the customize
buffer to switch between @samp{on} (@code{t}) and @samp{off}
(@code{nil}). For example, try setting @code{mh-bury-show-buffer-flag}
to @samp{off} to keep the MH-Show buffer at the top of the buffer
stack. Use the @samp{State} combo box and choose @samp{Set for Current
Session} to see how the option affects the show buffer. Then choose
the @samp{Erase Customization} menu item to reset the option to the
default, which places the MH-Show buffer at the bottom of the buffer
stack.

@vindex mh-mhl-format-file, example

The text usually says to turn on an option by setting it to a
@emph{non-@code{nil}} value, because sometimes values other than
@samp{on} are meaningful. An example of this is the variable
@code{mh-mhl-format-file} (@pxref{Viewing}). Other options, such as
hooks, involve a little more Emacs Lisp programming expertise.

@cindex customization group, @samp{mh}
@cindex @samp{mh} customization group
@findex customize-group
@findex mh-customize

You can browse all of the MH-E options with the @code{customize-group}
function. Try entering @kbd{M-x customize-group @key{RET} mh
@key{RET}} to view the top-level options as well as buttons for all of
the MH-E customization groups. Another way to view the MH-E
customization group is to use @kbd{M-x mh-customize @key{RET}}.

@node Ranges, Folder Selection, Options, Using This Manual
@section Ranges

@c Sync with mh-folder-mode docstring.

@cindex message abbreviations
@cindex message ranges
@cindex ranges

Many commands that operate on individual messages, such as
@code{mh-forward} or @code{mh-refile-msg} take a @code{RANGE}
argument. This argument can be used in several ways.

@kindex C-u, with ranges

If you provide the prefix argument @kbd{C-u} to these commands, then
you will be prompted for the message range. This can be any valid MH
range which can include messages, sequences (@pxref{Sequences}), and
the abbreviations (described in the @command{mh}(1) man page):

@table @samp
@item <num1>-<num2>
Indicates all messages in the range <num1> to <num2>, inclusive. The
range must be nonempty.
@c -------------------------
@item <num>:N
@itemx <num>:+N
@itemx <num>:-N
Up to N messages beginning with (or ending with) message num. Num may
be any of the predefined symbols: first, prev, cur, next or last.
@c -------------------------
@item first:N
@itemx prev:N
@itemx next:N
@itemx last:N
The first, previous, next or last messages, if they exist.
@c -------------------------
@item all
All of the messages.
@end table

For example, a range that shows all of these things is @samp{1 2 3
5-10 last:5 unseen}.

@vindex transient-mark-mode

If the option @code{transient-mark-mode} is turned on and you set a
region in the MH-Folder buffer, then the MH-E command will perform the
operation on all messages in that region.

@cindex @samp{mh-range} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-range}

The @samp{mh-range} customization group contains a single option which
affects how ranges are interpreted.

@vtable @code
@item mh-interpret-number-as-range-flag
On means interpret a number as a range (default: @samp{on}).
@end vtable

@vindex mh-interpret-number-as-range-flag

Since one of the most frequent ranges used is @samp{last:N}, MH-E will
interpret input such as @samp{200} as @samp{last:200} if the
@code{mh-interpret-number-as-range-flag} option is on (which is the
default). If you need to scan just the message 200, then use the range
@samp{200:1} or @samp{200-200}.

@node Folder Selection,  , Ranges, Using This Manual
@section Folder Selection

@cindex completion, folders
@cindex folders, completion
@cindex folders, selecting

When you choose a folder in MH-E via a command such as @kbd{o}
(@code{mh-refile-msg}), completion is used to enter the folder
@ifnothtml
(@pxref{Completion, , , emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
(see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Completion.html,
Completion} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifhtml
In addition, MH-E has several ways of choosing a suitable default so
that the folder can often be selected with a single @key{RET} key.

@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-folder-selection}
@cindex @samp{mh-folder-selection} customization group

The @samp{mh-folder-selection} customization group contains some
options which are used to help with this.

@vtable @code
@item mh-default-folder-for-message-function
Function to select a default folder for refiling or @samp{Fcc:}
(default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-default-folder-list
List of addresses and folders (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-default-folder-must-exist-flag
On means guessed folder name must exist to be used (default:
@samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-default-folder-prefix
Prefix used for folder names generated from aliases (default: @code{""}).
@end vtable

@vindex mh-default-folder-for-message-function

You can set the option @code{mh-default-folder-for-message-function}
to a function that provides a default folder for the message to be
refiled. When this function is called, the current buffer contains the
message being refiled and point is at the start of the message. This
function should return the default folder as a string with a leading
@samp{+} sign. It can also return @code{nil} so that the last folder
name is used as the default, or an empty string to suppress the
default entirely.

Otherwise, the name of the destination folder is derived from the
sender as follows:

@enumerate
@vindex mh-default-folder-list
@item
The folder name associated with the first address found in the list
@code{mh-default-folder-list} is used. Each element in this list
contains a @samp{Check Recipient} item. If this item is turned on,
then the address is checked against the recipient instead of the
sender. This is useful for mailing lists.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-default-folder-prefix
@item
An alias prefixed by @code{mh-default-folder-prefix} corresponding to
the address is used. The prefix is used to prevent clutter in your
mail directory. @xref{Aliases}.
@end enumerate

@vindex mh-default-folder-must-exist-flag

If the derived folder does not exist, and
@code{mh-default-folder-must-exist-flag} is @code{t}, then the last
folder name used is suggested. This is useful if you get mail from
various people for whom you have an alias, but file them all in the
same project folder.

@node Incorporating Mail, Reading Mail, Using This Manual, Top
@chapter Incorporating Your Mail

@cindex @samp{Folder} menu
@cindex incorporating
@cindex menu, @samp{Folder}

This chapter talks about getting mail from your system mailbox into
your MH @samp{+inbox} folder. The following command accomplishes that
and is found in the @samp{Folder} menu.

@table @kbd
@cindex @samp{Folder > Incorporate New Mail} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Incorporate New Mail}
@findex mh-inc-folder
@kindex i
@item i
Incorporate new mail into a folder (@code{mh-inc-folder}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-inc} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-inc}

The following options in the @samp{mh-inc} customization group are
used.

@vtable @code
@item mh-inc-prog
Program to incorporate mail (default: @code{"inc"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-inc-spool-list
Alternate spool files (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following hook is available.

@vtable @code
@findex mh-inc-folder
@item mh-inc-folder-hook
Hook run by @code{mh-inc-folder} after incorporating mail into a
folder (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

@cindex @samp{+inbox}
@findex mh-inc-folder
@kindex i

If at any time you receive new mail, incorporate the new mail into
your @samp{+inbox} buffer with @kbd{i} (@code{mh-inc-folder}). Note
that @kbd{i} will display the @samp{+inbox} buffer, even if there
isn't any new mail. You can incorporate mail from any file into the
current folder by specifying a prefix argument; you'll be prompted for
the name of the file to use as well as the destination folder (for
example, @kbd{C-u i ~/mbox @key{RET} +tmp @key{RET}}).

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex Emacs, notification of new mail
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}
@cindex new mail
@cindex notification of new mail

Emacs can notify you when you have new mail by displaying @samp{Mail}
in the mode line. To enable this behavior, and to have a clock in the
mode line as well, add the following to @file{~/.emacs}:

@findex display-time

@smalllisp
(display-time)
@end smalllisp

@cindex @command{inc}
@cindex incorporating
@cindex MH commands, @command{inc}
@vindex mh-inc-prog
@vindex mh-progs

The name of the program that incorporates new mail is stored in
@code{mh-inc-prog}; it is @code{"inc"} by default. This program
generates a one-line summary for each of the new messages. Unless it
is an absolute pathname, the file is assumed to be in the
@code{mh-progs} directory (@pxref{Getting Started}). You may also link
a file to @command{inc} that uses a different format (see
@samp{mh-profile}(5), and sections
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/reapre.html, Reading Mail: inc show next
prev} and @uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/mhstr.html, MH Format Strings} in
the MH book). You'll then need to modify several variables
appropriately (@pxref{Scan Line Formats}).

@vindex mh-inc-spool-list

You can use the @code{mh-inc-spool-list} variable to direct MH-E to
retrieve mail from arbitrary spool files other than your system
mailbox, file it in folders other than your @samp{+inbox}, and assign
key bindings to incorporate this mail.

@cindex @command{procmail}
@cindex @file{.procmailrc}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{procmail}
@cindex files, @file{.procmailrc}

Suppose you are subscribed to the @i{mh-e-devel} mailing list and you
use @command{procmail} to filter this mail into @file{~/mail/mh-e}
with the following recipe in @file{.procmailrc}:

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`
:0:
* ^From mh-e-devel-admin@@stop.mail-abuse.org
mh-e
@end smallexample

@findex mh-inc-spool-*
@kindex I *

In order to incorporate @file{~/mail/mh-e} into @samp{+mh-e} with an
@kbd{I m} (@code{mh-inc-spool-mh-e}) command, customize this option,
and click on the @samp{INS} button. Enter a @samp{Spool File} of
@samp{~/mail/mh-e}, a @samp{Folder} of @samp{mh-e}, and a @samp{Key
Binding} of @samp{m}.

@cindex @command{emacsclient}
@cindex @command{gnuclient}
@cindex @command{xbuffy}
@cindex @samp{gnuserv}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{emacsclient}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{gnuclient}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{xbuffy}

You can use @command{xbuffy} to automate the incorporation of this
mail using the Emacs 22 command @command{emacsclient} as follows:

@smallexample
box ~/mail/mh-e
    title mh-e
    origMode
    polltime 10
    headertime 0
    command emacsclient --eval '(mh-inc-spool-mh-e)'
@end smallexample

In XEmacs, the command @command{gnuclient} is used in a similar
fashion.

@findex mh-inc-folder
@kindex i
@vindex mh-inc-folder-hook

You can set the hook @code{mh-inc-folder-hook}, which is called after
new mail is incorporated by the @kbd{i} (@code{mh-inc-folder})
command. A good use of this hook is to rescan the whole folder either
after running @kbd{M-x mh-rmail} the first time or when you've changed
the message numbers from outside of MH-E.

@findex mh-execute-commands
@findex mh-rescan-folder, example
@findex mh-show, example
@vindex mh-inc-folder-hook, example

@smalllisp
@group
(defun my-mh-inc-folder-hook ()
  "Hook to rescan folder after incorporating mail."
  (if (buffer-modified-p)            ; @r{if outstanding refiles and deletes,}
      (mh-execute-commands))         ;   @r{carry them out}
  (mh-rescan-folder)                 ; @r{synchronize with +inbox}
  (mh-show))                         ; @r{show the current message}

(add-hook 'mh-inc-folder-hook 'my-mh-inc-folder-hook)

@i{Rescan folder after incorporating new mail via mh-inc-folder-hook}

@end group
@end smalllisp

@node Reading Mail, Folders, Incorporating Mail, Top
@chapter Reading Your Mail

@cindex @samp{+inbox}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex modes, MH-Show
@cindex reading mail
@findex mh-rmail
@kindex F r
@kindex F v
@kindex M-x mh-rmail

The MH-E entry point for reading mail is @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}. This
command incorporates your mail and creates a buffer called
@samp{+inbox} in MH-Folder mode. The command @kbd{M-x mh-rmail} shows
you only new mail, not mail you have already read@footnote{If you want
to see your old mail as well, use @kbd{F r} to pull all your messages
into MH-E. Or, give a prefix argument to @code{mh-rmail} so it will
prompt you for folder to visit like @kbd{F v} (for example, @kbd{C-u
M-x mh-rmail @key{RET} bob @key{RET}}). @xref{Folders}.}.

@findex display-time
@vindex read-mail-command

There are some commands that need to read mail, such as @kbd{Mouse-2}
over the @samp{Mail} button that @code{display-time} adds to the mode
line. You can configure Emacs to have these commands use MH-E by
setting the option @code{read-mail-command} to @samp{mh-rmail}.

@cindex @command{scan}
@cindex @samp{Message} menu
@cindex MH commands, @command{scan}
@cindex menu, @samp{Message}
@cindex scan lines

The @samp{+inbox} buffer contains @dfn{scan lines}, which are one-line
summaries of each incorporated message. You can perform most MH
commands on these messages via one- or two-letter commands in either
the MH-Folder or MH-Show buffers or by using the @samp{Message} menu.
See @command{scan}(1) for a description of the contents of the scan
lines, and see the Figure in @ref{Reading Mail Tour}, for an example.

@table @kbd
@kindex ?
@findex mh-help
@item ?
Display cheat sheet for the MH-E commands (@code{mh-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Show Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Show Message}
@kindex @key{RET}
@findex mh-show
@item @key{RET}
Display message (@code{mh-show}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Show Message with Header} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Show Message with Header}
@kindex , (comma)
@findex mh-header-display
@item , (comma)
Display message with all header fields (@code{mh-header-display}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex ; (semicolon)
@findex mh-toggle-mh-decode-mime-flag
@item ; (semicolon)
Toggle the value of @code{mh-decode-mime-flag}
(@code{mh-toggle-mh-decode-mime-flag}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex @key{SPC}
@findex mh-page-msg
@item @key{SPC}
Display next page in message (@code{mh-page-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex @key{BS}
@findex mh-previous-page
@item @key{BS}
Display previous page in message (@code{mh-previous-page}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Write Message to File...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Write Message to File...}
@kindex >
@findex mh-write-msg-to-file
@item >
Append message to end of file (@code{mh-write-msg-to-file}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Pipe Message to Command...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Pipe Message to Command...}
@kindex |
@findex mh-pipe-msg
@item |
Pipe message through shell command (@code{mh-pipe-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-d
@findex mh-delete-msg-no-motion
@item C-d
Delete range, don't move to next message
(@code{mh-delete-msg-no-motion}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Delete Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Delete Message}
@kindex d
@findex mh-delete-msg
@item d
Delete range (@code{mh-delete-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex D ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item D ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex D @key{SPC}
@findex mh-page-digest
@item D @key{SPC}
Display next message in digest (@code{mh-page-digest}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex D @key{BS}
@findex mh-page-digest-backwards
@item D @key{BS}
Display previous message in digest (@code{mh-page-digest-backwards}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Burst Digest Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Burst Digest Message}
@kindex D b
@findex mh-burst-digest
@item D b
Break up digest into separate messages (@code{mh-burst-digest}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Go to Message by Number...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Go to Message by Number...}
@kindex g
@findex mh-goto-msg
@item g
Go to a message (@code{mh-goto-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex k
@findex mh-delete-subject-or-thread
@item k
Delete messages with same subject or thread
(@code{mh-delete-subject-or-thread}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item K ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K @key{TAB}
@findex mh-next-button
@item K @key{TAB}
Go to the next button (@code{mh-next-button}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K S-@key{TAB}
@findex mh-prev-button
@item K S-@key{TAB}
Go to the previous button (@code{mh-prev-button}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K a
@findex mh-mime-save-parts
@item K a
Save attachments (@code{mh-mime-save-parts}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K e
@findex mh-display-with-external-viewer
@item K e
View attachment externally (@code{mh-display-with-external-viewer}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K i
@findex mh-folder-inline-mime-part
@item K i
Show attachment verbatim (@code{mh-folder-inline-mime-part}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K o
@findex mh-folder-save-mime-part
@item K o
Save (output) attachment (@code{mh-folder-save-mime-part}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K t
@findex mh-toggle-mime-buttons
@item K t
Toggle option @code{mh-display-buttons-for-inline-parts-flag}
(@code{mh-toggle-mime-buttons}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex K v
@findex mh-folder-toggle-mime-part
@item K v
View attachment (@code{mh-folder-toggle-mime-part}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Modify Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Modify Message}
@kindex M
@findex mh-modify
@item M
Edit message (@code{mh-modify}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Go to First Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Go to First Message}
@kindex M-<
@findex mh-first-msg
@item M-<
Display first message (@code{mh-first-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Go to Last Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Go to Last Message}
@kindex M->
@findex mh-last-msg
@item M->
Display last message (@code{mh-last-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex M-n
@findex mh-next-unread-msg
@item M-n
Display next unread message (@code{mh-next-unread-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex M-p
@findex mh-previous-unread-msg
@item M-p
Display previous unread message (@code{mh-previous-unread-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Next Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Next Message}
@kindex n
@findex mh-next-undeleted-msg
@item n
Display next message (@code{mh-next-undeleted-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Previous Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Previous Message}
@kindex p
@findex mh-previous-undeleted-msg
@item p
Display previous message (@code{mh-previous-undeleted-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex P ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item P ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex P C
@findex mh-ps-print-toggle-color
@item P C
Toggle whether color is used in printing messages
(@code{mh-ps-print-toggle-color}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex P F
@findex mh-ps-print-toggle-faces
@item P F
Toggle whether printing is done with faces or not
(@code{mh-ps-print-toggle-faces}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex P f
@findex mh-ps-print-msg-file
@item P f
Print range to file (@code{mh-ps-print-msg-file}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Print Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Print Message}
@kindex P l
@findex mh-print-msg
@item P l
Print range the old fashioned way
(@code{mh-print-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex P p
@findex mh-ps-print-msg
@item P p
Print range (@code{mh-ps-print-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex X ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item X ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Unpack Uuencoded Message...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Unpack Uuencoded Message...}
@kindex X s
@kindex X u
@findex mh-store-msg
@item X s
@itemx X u
Unpack message created with @command{uudecode} or @command{shar}
(@code{mh-store-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex Mouse-2
@findex mh-show-mouse
@item Mouse-2
Move point to mouse event and show message (@code{mh-show-mouse}).
@end table

Within the MH-Show buffer, the following command is defined.

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex Mouse-1
@kindex Mouse-2
@findex mh-press-button
@item @key{RET}
@itemx Mouse-1
@itemx Mouse-2
View contents of button (@code{mh-press-button}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-show} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-show}

The following table lists options in the @samp{mh-show} customization
group that are used while reading mail.

@vtable @code
@item mh-bury-show-buffer-flag
On means show buffer is buried (default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-clean-message-header-flag
On means remove extraneous header fields (default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-decode-mime-flag
On means attachments are handled (default: @samp{on} if the Gnus
@samp{mm-decode} package is present).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-display-buttons-for-alternatives-flag
On means display buttons for all alternative attachments (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-display-buttons-for-inline-parts-flag
On means display buttons for all inline attachments (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-do-not-confirm-flag
On means non-reversible commands do not prompt for confirmation
(default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-fetch-x-image-url
Control fetching of @samp{X-Image-URL:} header field image (default:
@samp{Never Fetch}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-graphical-smileys-flag
On means graphical smileys are displayed (default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-graphical-emphasis-flag
On means graphical emphasis is displayed (default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-highlight-citation-style
Style for highlighting citations (default: @samp{Multicolor}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-invisible-header-fields-default
List of hidden header fields (default: a checklist too long to list
here).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-invisible-header-fields
Additional header fields to hide (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-lpr-command-format
Command used to print (default: @code{"lpr -J '%s'"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-max-inline-image-height
Maximum inline image height if @samp{Content-Disposition:} is not
present (default: 0).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-max-inline-image-width
Maximum inline image width if @samp{Content-Disposition:} is not
present(default: 0).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-mhl-format-file
Specifies the format file to pass to the @command{mhl} program
(default: @samp{Use Default mhl Format (Printing Only)}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-mime-save-parts-default-directory
Default directory to use for @kbd{K a}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-print-background-flag
On means messages should be printed in the background (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id
Format string to produce @code{mode-line-buffer-identification} for
show buffers (default: @code{"    @{show-%s@} %d"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-maximum-size
Maximum size of message (in bytes) to display automatically (default:
0).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-use-xface-flag
On means display face images in MH-Show buffers (default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-store-default-directory
Default directory for @kbd{X s} (default: @samp{Current}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-summary-height
Number of lines in MH-Folder buffer (including the mode line)
(default: depends on size of frame).
@end vtable

The following hooks are available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-delete-msg-hook
Hook run after marking each message for deletion (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-hook
Hook run after @key{RET} shows a message (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-mode-hook
Hook run upon entry to @code{mh-show-mode} (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following faces are available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-show-cc
Face used to highlight @samp{cc:} header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-date
Face used to highlight @samp{Date:} header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-from
Face used to highlight @samp{From:} header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-header
Face used to deemphasize less interesting header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-pgg-bad
Bad PGG signature face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-pgg-good
Good PGG signature face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-pgg-unknown
Unknown or untrusted PGG signature face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-signature
Signature face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-subject
Face used to highlight @samp{Subject:} header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-to
Face used to highlight @samp{To:} header fields.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-show-xface
X-Face image face.
@end vtable

The functions and variables introduced here are explained in more
detail in the following sections.

@menu
* Viewing::
* Viewing Attachments::
* HTML::
* Digests::
* Reading PGP::
* Printing::
* Files and Pipes::
* Navigating::
* Miscellaneous Commands and Options::
@end menu

@node Viewing, Viewing Attachments, Reading Mail, Reading Mail
@section Viewing Your Mail

@findex mh-header-display
@findex mh-page-msg
@findex mh-previous-page
@findex mh-show
@findex mh-show-mouse
@kindex , (comma)
@kindex . (period)
@kindex @key{BS}
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex @key{SPC}
@kindex Mouse-2

The command @key{RET} (@code{mh-show}) displays the message that the
cursor is on while @kbd{Mouse-2} (@code{mh-show-mouse}) displays the
message that the mouse cursor is on. If the message is already
displayed, it scrolls to the beginning of the message. Use @key{SPC}
(@code{mh-page-msg}) and @key{BS} (@code{mh-previous-page}) to move
forwards and backwards one page at a time through the message. You can
give either of these commands a prefix argument that specifies the
number of lines to scroll (such as @kbd{10 @key{SPC}}). The @key{SPC}
command will also show the next undeleted message if it is used at the
bottom of a message. MH-E normally hides a lot of the superfluous
header fields that mailers add to a message, but if you wish to see
all of them, use the command @kbd{,} (comma;
@code{mh-header-display}).

@vindex mh-show-maximum-size

The option @code{mh-show-maximum-size} provides an opportunity to skip
over large messages which may be slow to load. The default value of 0
means that all message are shown regardless of size.

A litany of options control what displayed messages look like.

@vindex mh-show-cc
@vindex mh-show-date
@vindex mh-show-from
@vindex mh-show-header
@vindex mh-show-subject
@vindex mh-show-to

First, the appearance of the header fields can be modified by
customizing the associated face: @code{mh-show-to}, @code{mh-show-cc},
@code{mh-show-from}, @code{mh-show-date}, and @code{mh-show-subject}.
The face @code{mh-show-header} is used to deemphasize the other, less
interesting, header fields.

@cindex regular expressions, @code{mh-invisible-header-fields}
@vindex mh-clean-message-header-flag
@vindex mh-invisible-header-fields
@vindex mh-invisible-header-fields-default

Normally messages are delivered with a handful of uninteresting header
fields. These are hidden by turning on the option
@code{mh-clean-message-header-flag} (which it is by default). The
header fields listed in the option
@code{mh-invisible-header-fields-default} are hidden, although you can
check off any field that you would like to see. Header fields that you
would like to hide that aren't listed can be added to the option
@code{mh-invisible-header-fields} with a couple of caveats. Regular
expressions are not allowed. Unique fields should have a @samp{:}
suffix; otherwise, the element can be used to render invisible an
entire class of fields that start with the same prefix. If you think a
header field should be generally ignored, report a bug (@pxref{Bug
Reports}).

@cindex header field, @samp{Face:}
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Face:}
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Image-URL:}
@cindex @samp{Face:} header field
@cindex @samp{X-Face:} header field
@cindex @samp{X-Image-URL:} header field
@vindex mh-show-use-xface-flag

MH-E can display the content of @samp{Face:}, @samp{X-Face:}, and
@samp{X-Image-URL:} header fields. If any of these fields occur in the
header of your message, the sender's face will appear in the
@samp{From:} header field. If more than one of these fields appear,
then the first field found in the order @samp{Face:}, @samp{X-Face:},
and @samp{X-Image-URL:} will be used. The option
@code{mh-show-use-xface-flag} is used to turn this feature on and off.
This feature will be turned on by default if your system supports it.

The first header field used, if present, is the Gnus-specific
@samp{Face:} field@footnote{The @samp{Face:} field appeared in GNU
Emacs 21 and XEmacs. For more information, see
@uref{http://quimby.gnus.org/circus/face/}.}.

@cindex @command{uncompface}
@cindex Emacs, packages, x-face
@cindex Unix commands, @command{uncompface}
@cindex x-face package
@vindex mh-show-xface

Next is the traditional @samp{X-Face:} header field@footnote{The
display of this field requires the
@uref{ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu/pub/faces/compface/compface.tar.Z,
@command{uncompface} program}. Recent versions of XEmacs have internal
support for @samp{X-Face:} images. If your version of XEmacs does not,
then you'll need both @command{uncompface} and the
@uref{ftp://ftp.jpl.org/pub/elisp/, @samp{x-face} package}.}. MH-E
renders the foreground and background of the image using the
associated attributes of the face @code{mh-show-xface}.

@cindex @command{convert}
@cindex @command{wget}
@cindex ImageMagick
@cindex Unix commands, @command{convert}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{wget}
@vindex mh-fetch-x-image-url

Finally, MH-E will display images referenced by the
@samp{X-Image-URL:} header field if neither the @samp{Face:} nor the
@samp{X-Face:} fields are present@footnote{The display of the images
requires the @uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/wget/wget.html,
@command{wget} program} to fetch the image and the @command{convert}
program from the @uref{http://www.imagemagick.org/, ImageMagick
suite}.}. Of the three header fields this is the most efficient in
terms of network usage since the image doesn't need to be transmitted
with every single mail. The option @code{mh-fetch-x-image-url}
controls the fetching of the @samp{X-Image-URL:} header field image
with the following values:

@table @samp
@item Ask Before Fetching
You are prompted before the image is fetched. MH-E will remember your
reply and will either use the already fetched image the next time the
same URL is encountered or silently skip it if you didn't fetch it the
first time. This is a good setting.
@c -------------------------
@item Never Fetch
Images are never fetched and only displayed if they are already
present in the cache. This is the default.
@end table

There isn't a value of @samp{Always Fetch} for privacy and DOS (denial
of service) reasons. For example, fetching a URL can tip off a spammer
that you've read his email (which is why you shouldn't blindly answer
yes if you've set this option to @samp{Ask Before Fetching}). Someone
may also flood your network and fill your disk drive by sending a
torrent of messages, each specifying a unique URL to a very large
file.

@cindex @file{.mhe-x-image-cache}
@cindex files, @file{.mhe-x-image-cache}

The cache of images is found in the directory
@file{.mhe-x-image-cache} within your MH directory. You can add your
own face to the @samp{From:} field too. @xref{Picture}.

@cindex @command{mhl}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhl}
@vindex mh-mhl-format-file

Normally MH-E takes care of displaying messages itself (rather than
calling an MH program to do the work). If you'd rather have
@command{mhl} display the message (within MH-E), change the option
@code{mh-mhl-format-file} from its default value of @samp{Use Default
mhl Format (Printing Only)}. You can set this option to @samp{Use
Default mhl Format} to get the same output as you would get if you ran
@command{mhl} from the shell. If you have a format file that you want
MH-E to use, you can set this option to @samp{Specify an mhl Format
File} and enter the name of your format file (@command{mhl}(1) or
section @uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/shomes.html#Usisho, Using mhl} in
the MH book tells you how to write one). Your format file should
specify a non-zero value for @samp{overflowoffset} to allow MH-E to
parse the header. Note that @command{mhl} is always used for printing
and forwarding; in this case, the value of @code{mh-mhl-format-file}
is consulted if you have specified a format file.

@cindex citations, highlighting
@cindex highlighting citations
@vindex mh-highlight-citation-style

If the sender of the message has cited other messages in his message,
then MH-E will highlight these citations to emphasize the sender's
actual response. The option @code{mh-highlight-citation-style} can be
customized to change the highlighting style. The @samp{Multicolor}
method uses a different color for each indentation while the
@samp{Monotone} method highlights all citations in red. To disable
highlighting of citations entirely, choose @samp{None}.

@cindex URLs, highlighting
@cindex email addresses, highlighting
@cindex highlighting URLs
@cindex highlighting email addresses
@cindex links, following
@findex goto-address-at-point
@kindex C-c @key{RET}
@kindex Mouse-2
@vindex goto-address-highlight-p

Email addresses and URLs in the message are highlighted if the option
@code{goto-address-highlight-p} is on, which it is by default. To view
the web page for a highlighted URL or to send a message using a
highlighted email address, use @kbd{Mouse-2} or @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}
(@code{goto-address-at-point}). @xref{Sending Mail}, to see how to
configure Emacs to send the message using MH-E.

@cindex boldface, showing
@cindex emphasis
@cindex italics, showing
@cindex smileys
@cindex typesetting
@cindex underline, showing
@vindex gnus-emphasis-alist
@vindex mh-decode-mime-flag
@vindex mh-graphical-emphasis-flag
@vindex mh-graphical-smileys-flag

It is a long standing custom to inject body language using a
cornucopia of punctuation, also known as the @dfn{smileys}. MH-E can
render these as graphical widgets if the option
@code{mh-graphical-smileys-flag} is turned on, which it is by default.
Smileys include patterns such as :-) and ;-). Similarly, a few
typesetting features are indicated in ASCII text with certain
characters. If your terminal supports it, MH-E can render these
typesetting directives naturally if the option
@code{mh-graphical-emphasis-flag} is turned on, which it is by
default. For example, _underline_ will be
@ifhtml
@html
<u>underlined</u>,
@end html
@end ifhtml
@ifnothtml
underlined,
@end ifnothtml
*bold* will appear in @b{bold}, /italics/ will appear in @i{italics},
and so on. See the option @code{gnus-emphasis-alist} for the whole
list. Both of these options are disabled if the option
@code{mh-decode-mime-flag} is turned off. @xref{Viewing Attachments}.

@cindex signature separator
@cindex vCard
@vindex mh-show-signature

MH-E normally renders signatures and vCards in italics so that the
body of the message stands out more. MH-E depends on the presence of
the @dfn{signature separator} (@code{"-- "}) to do this. You can also
customize the face @code{mh-show-signature} so the appearance of the
signature block is more to your liking.

@vindex mh-show-hook
@vindex mh-show-mode-hook

Two hooks can be used to control how messages are displayed. The first
hook, @code{mh-show-mode-hook}, is called early on in the process of
the message display. It is usually used to perform some action on the
message's content. The second hook, @code{mh-show-hook}, is the last
thing called after messages are displayed. It's used to affect the
behavior of MH-E in general or when @code{mh-show-mode-hook} is too
early.

@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Show
@vindex mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id

For those who like to modify their mode lines, use
@code{mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id} to modify the mode line in
the MH-Show buffers. Place the two escape strings @samp{%s} and
@samp{%d}, which will display the folder name and the message number,
respectively, somewhere in the string in that order. The default value
of @code{"@{show-%s@} %d"} yields a mode line of

@smallexample
-----@{show-+inbox@} 4      (MH-Show)--Bot--------------------------------
@end smallexample

@node Viewing Attachments, HTML, Viewing, Reading Mail
@section Viewing Attachments

@cindex attachments
@cindex body parts
@cindex @command{mhshow}
@cindex @command{show}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhshow}
@cindex MH commands, @command{show}
@cindex MIME
@cindex multimedia mail

MH has the ability to display @dfn{@sc{mime}} (Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions) messages which are simply messages with additional
@dfn{body parts} or @dfn{attachments}. You can use the MH commands
@command{show}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/reapre.html, Reading Mail: inc show next
prev} in the MH book.} or @command{mhshow}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/usimim.html#ReMIMa, Reading MIME Mail} in
the MH book.} from the shell to read @sc{mime} messages@footnote{You
can call them directly from Emacs if you're running the X Window
System: type @kbd{M-! xterm -e mhshow @var{message-number}}. You can
leave out the @samp{xterm -e} if you use @command{mhlist} or
@command{mhstore}.}.

@cindex Emacs, packages, mm-decode
@cindex mm-decode package
@findex mh-toggle-mh-decode-mime-flag
@kindex ; (semicolon)
@vindex mh-decode-mime-flag

MH-E can handle attachments as well if the Gnus @samp{mm-decode}
package is present. If so, the option @code{mh-decode-mime-flag} will
be on. Otherwise, you'll see the @sc{mime} body parts rather than text
or attachments. There isn't much point in turning off the option
@code{mh-decode-mime-flag}; however, you can inspect it if it appears
that the body parts are not being interpreted correctly or toggle it
with the command @kbd{;} (semicolon;
@code{mh-toggle-mh-decode-mime-flag}) to view the raw message. This
option also controls the display of quoted-printable messages and
other graphical widgets. @xref{Viewing}.

@cindex buttons

Attachments in MH-E are indicated by @dfn{buttons} like this:

@smallexample
[1. image/jpeg; foo.jpg]...
@end smallexample

@findex mh-next-button
@findex mh-press-button
@findex mh-prev-button
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex K @key{TAB}
@kindex K S-@key{TAB}
@kindex Mouse-1
@kindex Mouse-2

To view the contents of the button, use either @kbd{Mouse-1} or
@kbd{Mouse-2} on the button or @key{RET} (@code{mh-press-button}) when
the cursor is over the button. This command is a toggle so if you use
it again on the same attachment, it is hidden. If Emacs does not know
how to display the attachment, then Emacs offers to save the
attachment in a file. To move the cursor to the next button, use the
command @kbd{K @key{TAB}} (@code{mh-next-button}). If the end of the
buffer is reached then the search wraps over to the start of the
buffer. To move the cursor to the previous button, use the command
@kbd{K S-@key{TAB}} (@code{mh-prev-button}). If the beginning of the
buffer is reached then the search wraps over to the end of the buffer.

@cindex attachments, viewing
@cindex viewing attachments
@findex mh-folder-toggle-mime-part
@kindex K v

Another way to view the contents of a button is to use the command
@kbd{K v} (@code{mh-folder-toggle-mime-part}). This command displays
(or hides) the attachment associated with the button under the cursor.
If the cursor is not located over a button, then the cursor first
moves to the next button, wrapping to the beginning of the message if
necessary. This command has the advantage over the previous commands
of working from the MH-Folder buffer. You can also provide a numeric
prefix argument (as in @kbd{4 K v}) to view the attachment labeled
with that number. If Emacs does not know how to display the
attachment, then Emacs offers to save the attachment in a file.

@cindex @file{/etc/mailcap}
@cindex files, @file{/etc/mailcap}
@findex mailcap-mime-info
@findex mh-display-with-external-viewer
@kindex K e

If Emacs does not know how to view an attachment, you could save it
into a file and then run some program to open it. It is easier,
however, to launch the program directly from MH-E with the command
@kbd{K e} (@code{mh-display-with-external-viewer}). While you'll most
likely use this to view spreadsheets and documents, it is also useful
to use your browser to view HTML attachments with higher fidelity than
what Emacs can provide. This command displays the attachment
associated with the button under the cursor. If the cursor is not
located over a button, then the cursor first moves to the next button,
wrapping to the beginning of the message if necessary. You can provide
a numeric prefix argument (as in @kbd{4 K e}) to view the attachment
labeled with that number. This command tries to provide a reasonable
default for the viewer by calling the Emacs function
@code{mailcap-mime-info}. This function usually reads the file
@file{/etc/mailcap}.

@cindex attachments, saving
@cindex saving attachments
@findex mh-folder-save-mime-part
@kindex K o

Use the command @kbd{K o} (@code{mh-folder-save-mime-part}) to save
attachments (the mnemonic is ``output''). This command saves the
attachment associated with the button under the cursor. If the cursor
is not located over a button, then the cursor first moves to the next
button, wrapping to the beginning of the message if necessary. You can
also provide a numeric prefix argument (as in @kbd{3 K o}) to save the
attachment labeled with that number. This command prompts you for a
filename and suggests a specific name if it is available.

@cindex @command{mhn}
@cindex @command{mhstore}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhstore}
@findex mh-mime-save-parts
@kindex K a
@vindex mh-mime-save-parts-default-directory

You can save all of the attachments at once with the command @kbd{K a}
(@code{mh-mime-save-parts}). The attachments are saved in the
directory specified by the option
@code{mh-mime-save-parts-default-directory} unless you use a prefix
argument (as in @kbd{C-u K a}) in which case you are prompted for the
directory. These directories may be superseded by MH profile
components, since this function calls on @command{mhstore}
(@command{mhn}) to do the work.

@vindex mh-mime-save-parts-default-directory

The default value for the option
@code{mh-mime-save-parts-default-directory} is @samp{Prompt Always} so
that you are always prompted for the directory in which to save the
attachments. However, if you usually use the same directory within a
session, then you can set this option to @samp{Prompt the First Time}
to avoid the prompt each time. you can make this directory permanent
by choosing @samp{Directory} and entering the directory's name.

@cindex attachments, inline
@cindex inline attachments
@findex mh-toggle-mime-buttons
@kindex K t
@vindex mh-display-buttons-for-inline-parts-flag

The sender can request that attachments should be viewed inline so
that they do not really appear like an attachment at all to the
reader. Most of the time, this is desirable, so by default MH-E
suppresses the buttons for inline attachments. On the other hand, you
may receive code or HTML which the sender has added to his message as
inline attachments so that you can read them in MH-E. In this case, it
is useful to see the buttons so that you know you don't have to cut
and paste the code into a file; you can simply save the attachment. If
you want to make the buttons visible for inline attachments, you can
use the command @kbd{K t} (@code{mh-toggle-mime-buttons}) to toggle
the visibility of these buttons. You can turn on these buttons
permanently by turning on the option
@code{mh-display-buttons-for-inline-parts-flag}.

MH-E cannot display all attachments inline however. It can display
text (including @sc{html}) and images.

@cindex header field, @samp{Content-Disposition:}
@cindex inline images
@cindex @samp{Content-Disposition:} header field
@vindex mh-max-inline-image-height
@vindex mh-max-inline-image-width

Some older mail programs do not insert the needed
plumbing@footnote{This plumbing is the @samp{Content-Disposition:}
header field.} to tell MH-E whether to display the attachments inline
or not. If this is the case, MH-E will display these images inline if
they are smaller than the window. However, you might want to allow
larger images to be displayed inline. To do this, you can change the
options @code{mh-max-inline-image-width} and
@code{mh-max-inline-image-height} from their default value of zero to
a large number. The size of your screen is a good choice for these
numbers.

@cindex alternatives
@cindex attachments, alternatives
@vindex mh-display-buttons-for-alternatives-flag

Sometimes, a mail program will produce multiple alternatives of an
attachment in increasing degree of faithfulness to the original
content. By default, only the preferred alternative is displayed. If
the option @code{mh-display-buttons-for-alternatives-flag} is on, then
the preferred part is shown inline and buttons are shown for each of
the other alternatives.

@vindex mm-discouraged-alternatives

Many people prefer to see the @samp{text/plain} alternative rather
than the @samp{text/html} alternative. To do this in MH-E, customize
the option @code{mm-discouraged-alternatives}, and add
@samp{text/html}. The next best alternative, if any, will be shown.

@kindex K i
@findex mh-folder-inline-mime-part

You can view the raw contents of an attachment with the command @kbd{K
i} (@code{mh-folder-inline-mime-part}). This command displays (or
hides) the contents of the attachment associated with the button under
the cursor verbatim. If the cursor is not located over a button, then
the cursor first moves to the next button, wrapping to the beginning
of the message if necessary. You can also provide a numeric prefix
argument (as in @kbd{4 K i}) to view the attachment labeled with that
number.

For additional information on buttons, see
@ifinfo
@ref{Article Buttons,,,gnus}, and @ref{MIME Commands,,,gnus}.
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
the chapters @uref{http://www.gnus.org/manual/gnus_101.html#SEC101,
Article Buttons} and
@uref{http://www.gnus.org/manual/gnus_108.html#SEC108, MIME Commands}
in the @cite{The Gnus Manual}.
@end ifnotinfo

@node HTML, Digests, Viewing Attachments, Reading Mail
@section HTML

@cindex HTML
@cindex Gnus

MH-E can display messages that have been sent in HTML@footnote{This
feature depends on a version of Gnus that is at least 5.10.}. The
content of the message will appear in the MH-Show buffer as you would
expect if the entire message is HTML, or there is an inline HTML body
part. However, if there is an HTML body part that is an attachment,
then you'll see a button like this:

@smallexample
[1. text/html; foo.html]...
@end smallexample

To see how to read the contents of this body part, see @ref{Viewing
Attachments}.

@vindex mm-text-html-renderer

The browser that MH-E uses is determined by the option
@code{mm-text-html-renderer}. The default setting is set automatically
based upon the presence of a known browser on your system. If you wish
to use a different browser, then set this option accordingly. See the
documentation for the browser you use for additional information on
how to use it. In particular, find and disable the option to render
images as this can tip off spammers that the email address they have
used is valid.

@vindex mm-text-html-renderer

If you're confused about which @code{mm-text-html-renderer} to use,
here's a brief description of each, sorted by popularity, that
includes the results of a quick poll of MH-E users from 2005-12-23.

@table @asis
@cindex browser, @samp{w3m}
@cindex @samp{w3m}
@kindex Mouse-2
@kindex S-Mouse-2
@item @samp{w3m} 7
The @samp{w3m} browser requires an external program. It's quick,
produces pretty nice output, and best of all, it's the only browser
that highlights links. These can be clicked with @kbd{Mouse-2} to view
the content of the link in @samp{w3m} or with @kbd{S-Mouse-2} to view
the content of the link in an external browser. The @samp{w3m} browser
handles tables well and actually respects the table's width parameter
(which can cause text to wrap if the author didn't anticipate that the
page would be viewed in Emacs).
@c -------------------------
@cindex browser, @samp{w3m-standalone}
@cindex @samp{w3m-standalone}
@item @samp{w3m-standalone} 3
This browser, along with @samp{nil} for the external browser, are the
only choices that work without having to download a separate lisp
package or external program. This browser is quick, but does not show
links. It handles simple tables but some tables get rendered much
wider than the Emacs frame. This browser was the only one not to
handle the escape @samp{&ndash;} (it printed a @samp{?}), but it did
render @samp{&reg;}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex browser, @samp{links}
@cindex @samp{links}
@item @samp{links} 1
The @samp{links} browser requires an external program. It's quick, and
produces nicer output than @samp{lynx} on single column mails in
tables. However, it doesn't show links and it doesn't do as nice a job
on multi-column tables as some lines wrap. At least it fits in 80
columns and thus seems better than @samp{w3} and
@samp{w3m-standalone}. Converts escapes such as @samp{&reg;} to (R).
@c -------------------------
@cindex browser, @samp{lynx}
@cindex @samp{lynx}
@item @samp{lynx} 1
The @samp{lynx} browser requires an external program. It's quick and
produces pretty decent output but it doesn't show links. It doesn't
seem to do multi-column tables which makes output much cleaner. It
centers the output and wraps long lines more than most. Handles
@samp{&reg;}.
@c -------------------------
@item @samp{nil} 1
This choice obviously requires an external browser. Like
@samp{w3m-standalone}, it works out of the box. With this setting,
HTML messages have a button for the body part which you can view with
@kbd{K v} (@code{mh-folder-toggle-mime-part}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex browser, @samp{w3}
@cindex @samp{w3}
@item @samp{w3} 0
This choice does not require an external program as all of the
rendering is done in lisp. You do need to get the package separately.
This browser is @strong{slow}, and doesn't appear to have been updated
since 2001 and the author hasn't responded to my emails. It displays
unknown tags instead of hiding them, so you get to see all the
Microsoft crap in certain messages. Tends to make multi-column tables
wider than even a full-screen Emacs can handle. Like @samp{w3m}, you
can follow links, but you have to find them first as they are not
highlighted. Performs well on single-column tables and handles escapes
such as @samp{&reg;}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex browser, @samp{html2text}
@cindex @samp{html2text}
@item @samp{html2text} 0
The @samp{html2text} browser requires an external program. I noticed
that it can do some nasty things with simple HTML mails (like filling
the entire message as if it were one paragraph, including signature).
On another message, it displayed half of the HTML tags for some
reason.
@end table

@vindex mm-text-html-renderer

For a couple more sources of information about
@code{mm-text-html-renderer},
@ifinfo
@xref{Display Customization,,,emacs-mime}, and the documentation for
the Gnus command @kbd{W h} (@pxref{Article Washing,,,gnus},).
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
see section @uref{http://www.gnus.org/manual/emacs-mime_6.html,
Display Customization} in the @cite{The Emacs MIME Manual} and the
documentation for the Gnus command @kbd{W h} (see section
@uref{http://www.gnus.org/manual/gnus_99.html, Article Washing} in the
@cite{The Gnus Manual}).
@end ifnotinfo

@node Digests, Reading PGP, HTML, Reading Mail
@section Digests

@cindex digests
@findex mh-page-digest
@findex mh-page-digest-backwards
@kindex D @key{BS}
@kindex D @key{SPC}
@kindex @key{BS}
@kindex @key{SPC}

A digest is a message that contains other messages. Special MH-E
commands let you read digests conveniently. You can use @key{SPC} and
@key{BS} to page through the digest as if it were a normal message,
but if you wish to skip to the next message in the digest, use
@kbd{D @key{SPC}} (@code{mh-page-digest}). To return to a previous message,
use @kbd{D @key{BS}} (@code{mh-page-digest-backwards}).

@cindex @command{burst}
@cindex MH commands, @command{burst}
@cindex MH-Folder Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder Show
@findex mh-burst-digest
@kindex d
@kindex D b
@kindex t

Another handy command is @kbd{D b} (@code{mh-burst-digest}). This
command uses the MH command @command{burst}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/burdig.html, Bursting Messages} in the MH
book.} to break out each message in the digest into its own message.
Using this command, you can quickly delete unwanted messages, like
this: Once the digest is split up, toggle out of MH-Folder Show mode
with @kbd{t} (@pxref{Folders}) so that the scan lines fill the screen
and messages aren't displayed. Then use @kbd{d} (@pxref{Reading Mail})
to quickly delete messages that you don't want to read (based on the
@samp{Subject:} header field). You can also burst the digest to reply
directly to the people who posted the messages in the digest. One
problem you may encounter is that the @samp{From:} header fields are
preceded with a @samp{>} so that your reply can't create the
@samp{To:} field correctly. In this case, you must correct the
@samp{To:} field yourself. This is described later (@pxref{Editing
Drafts}).

@node Reading PGP, Printing, Digests, Reading Mail
@section Signed and Encrypted Messages

@cindex GPG
@cindex GnuPG
@cindex Gnus
@cindex OpenPGP
@cindex PGP
@cindex RFC 3156
@cindex encrypted messages
@cindex security
@cindex signed messages

You can read encrypted or signed PGP or GPG messages with
MH-E@footnote{This feature depends on post-5.10 versions of Gnus.
@cite{MIME Security with OpenPGP} is documented in
@uref{http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3156.txt, RFC 3156}. However,
MH-E can also decrypt old-style PGP messages that are not in MIME
format.}. This section assumes that you already have a good
understanding of GPG and have set up your keys appropriately.

If someone sends you a signed message, here is what you'll see:

@smallexample
@group
[[PGP Signed Part:Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>]]
This is a signed message.

[[End of PGP Signed Part]]
@end group
@end smallexample

@cindex keychain
@cindex key server
@cindex signed messages

If the key for the given signature is not in your keychain, you'll be
given the opportunity to fetch the key from a key server and verify
the key. If the message is really large, the verification process can
take a long time. You can press @kbd{C-g} at any time to
cancel@footnote{Unfortunately in the current version, the validation
process doesn't display a message so it appears that MH-E has hung. We
hope that this will be fixed in the future.}.

If the signature doesn't check out, you might see something like this:

@smallexample
@group
[[PGP Signed Part:Failed]]
This is a signed message.
This is garbage added after the signature was made.

[[End of PGP Signed Part]]
@end group
@end smallexample

@cindex decrypting messages

If someone sends you an encrypted message, MH-E will ask for your
passphrase to decrypt the message. You should see something like this:

@smallexample
@group
[[PGP Encrypted Part:OK]]

[[PGP Signed Part:Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>]]
This is the secret message.

[[End of PGP Signed Part]]

[[End of PGP Encrypted Part]]
@end group
@end smallexample

If there is a problem decrypting the message, the button will say:

@smallexample
[[PGP Encrypted Part:Failed]]
@end smallexample

You can read the contents of this button using the methods described in
@ref{Viewing Attachments}. If the message were corrupted, you'd see
this:

@smallexample
[[PGP Encrypted Part:Failed]
Invalid base64 data]
@end smallexample

If your passphrase were incorrect, you'd see something like this:

@smallexample
[GNUPG:] ENC_TO CD9C88BB610BD9AD 1 0
[GNUPG:] USERID_HINT CD9C88BB610BD9AD Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
[GNUPG:] NEED_PASSPHRASE CD9C88BB610BD9AD CD9C88BB610BD9AD 1 0
[GNUPG:] BAD_PASSPHRASE CD9C88BB610BD9AD
gpg: encrypted with 1024-bit RSA key, ID 610BD9AD, created 1997-09-09
      "Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>"
gpg: public key decryption failed: bad passphrase
[GNUPG:] BEGIN_DECRYPTION
[GNUPG:] DECRYPTION_FAILED
gpg: decryption failed: secret key not available
[GNUPG:] END_DECRYPTION

gpg exited abnormally: '2'
@end smallexample

@vindex mh-show-pgg-bad
@vindex mh-show-pgg-good
@vindex mh-show-pgg-unknown

The appearance of the buttons is controlled by the faces
@code{mh-show-pgg-good}, @code{mh-show-pgg-bad}, and
@code{mh-show-pgg-unknown} depending on the validity of the signature.
The latter is used whether the signature is unknown or untrusted.

@cindex @samp{pgg} customization group
@cindex PGG
@cindex customization group, @samp{pgg}

The @samp{pgg} customization group may have some settings which may
interest you.
@iftex
See @cite{The PGG Manual}.
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@xref{Top, , The PGG Manual, pgg, The PGG Manual}.
@end ifinfo
@ifhtml
See
@uref{http://www.dk.xemacs.org/Documentation/packages/html/pgg.html,
@cite{The PGG Manual}}.
@end ifhtml

@node Printing, Files and Pipes, Reading PGP, Reading Mail
@section Printing Your Mail

@cindex printing
@findex mh-ps-print-msg
@findex mh-ps-print-msg-file
@kindex P f
@kindex P p
@vindex mh-lpr-command-format
@vindex mh-print-background-flag

To print messages in MH-E, use the command @kbd{P p}
(@code{mh-ps-print-msg}). You can print all the messages in a range
(as in @kbd{C-u P p 1 3 5-7 last:5 frombob @key{RET}},
@pxref{Ranges}). You can also send the output to a file with @kbd{P f}
(@code{mh-ps-print-msg-file}). This command will print inline text
attachments but will not decrypt messages. However, when a message is
displayed in an MH-Show buffer, then that buffer is used verbatim for
printing with the caveat that only text attachments, if opened inline,
are printed. Therefore, encrypted messages can be printed by showing
and decrypting them first. The commands @kbd{P p} and @kbd{P f} do not
use the options @code{mh-lpr-command-format} or
@code{mh-print-background-flag}, described below.

@findex mh-ps-print-toggle-color
@kindex P C
@vindex ps-print-color-p

Colors are emulated on black-and-white printers with shades of gray.
This might produce illegible output, even if your screen colors only
use shades of gray. If this is the case, try using the command @kbd{P
C} (@code{mh-ps-print-toggle-color}) to toggle between color, no
color, and a black and white representation of the colors and see
which works best. You change this setting permanently by customizing
the option @code{ps-print-color-p}.

@findex mh-ps-print-toggle-faces
@kindex P F

Another related function is the command @kbd{P F}
(@code{mh-ps-print-toggle-faces}). This command toggles between using
faces and not. When faces are enabled, the printed message will look
very similar to the message in the MH-Show buffer.

@cindex ps-print package
@cindex Emacs, packages, ps-print

MH-E uses the @samp{ps-print} package to do the printing, so you can
customize the printing further by going to the @samp{ps-print}
customization group.

@cindex @command{lpr}
@cindex @command{mhl}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhl}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{lpr}
@findex mh-print-msg
@kindex P l

An alternative to using the @samp{ps-print} package is the command
@kbd{P l} (@code{mh-print-msg}) (the @i{l} is for @i{l}ine printer or
@i{l}pr). You can print all the messages in a range. The message is
formatted with @command{mhl}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/shomes.html#Usisho, Using mhl} in the MH
book.} and printed with the @command{lpr} command.

@kindex P f
@kindex P l
@kindex P p
@vindex mh-lpr-command-format
@vindex mh-print-background-flag

The command @kbd{P l} uses two options. The option
@code{mh-lpr-command-format} contains the Unix command line which
performs the actual printing. The string can contain one escape,
@samp{%s}, which is replaced by the name of the folder and the message
number and is useful for print job names. The default setting is
@code{"lpr -J '%s'"}. I use @code{"mpage -h'%s' -b Letter -H1of -mlrtb
-P"} which produces a nice header and adds a bit of margin so the text
fits within my printer's margins. Normally messages are printed in the
foreground. If this is slow on your system, you may elect to turn on
the option @code{mh-print-background-flag} to print in the background.
If you do this, do not delete the message until it is printed or else
the output may be truncated. These options are not used by the
commands @kbd{P p} or @kbd{P f}.

@node Files and Pipes, Navigating, Printing, Reading Mail
@section Files and Pipes

@cindex files
@cindex pipes
@findex mh-refile-or-write-again
@findex mh-write-msg-to-file
@kindex >
@kindex !

MH-E does offer a couple of commands that are not a part of MH@. The
first one, @kbd{>} (@code{mh-write-msg-to-file}), writes a message to
a file. You are prompted for the filename. If the file already exists,
the message is appended to it. You can also write the message to the
file without the header by specifying a prefix argument (such as
@kbd{C-u > /tmp/foobar @key{RET}}). Subsequent writes to the same file
can be made with the command @kbd{!}
(@code{mh-refile-or-write-again}).

@findex mh-pipe-msg
@kindex |
@kindex l

You can also pipe the message through a Unix shell command with the
command @kbd{|} (@code{mh-pipe-msg}). You are prompted for the Unix
command through which you wish to run your message. If you give a
prefix argument to this command, the message header is included in the
text passed to the command (the contrived example @kbd{C-u | lpr}
would be done with the @kbd{l} command instead).

@cindex @command{shar}
@cindex @command{uuencode}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{shar}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{uuencode}
@findex mh-store-msg
@kindex X s
@vindex mh-store-default-directory

If the message is a shell archive @command{shar} or has been run
through @command{uuencode} use @kbd{X s} (@code{mh-store-msg}) to
extract the body of the message. The default directory for extraction
is the current directory; however, you have a chance to specify a
different extraction directory. The next time you use this command,
the default directory is the last directory you used. If you would
like to change the initial default directory, customize the option
@code{mh-store-default-directory}, change the value from
@samp{Current} to @samp{Directory}, and then enter the name of the
directory for storing the content of these messages.

@findex mh-store-buffer
@kindex @key{RET}
@kindex X s

By the way, @kbd{X s} calls the Emacs Lisp function
@code{mh-store-buffer}. I mention this because you can use it directly
if you're editing a buffer that contains a file that has been run
through @command{uuencode} or @command{shar}. For example, you can
extract the contents of the current buffer in your home directory by
typing @kbd{M-x mh-store-buffer @key{RET} ~ @key{RET}}.

@node Navigating, Miscellaneous Commands and Options, Files and Pipes, Reading Mail
@section Navigating

@cindex moving between messages
@cindex navigation
@findex mh-first-msg
@findex mh-goto-msg
@findex mh-last-msg
@findex mh-next-undeleted-msg
@findex mh-next-unread-msg
@findex mh-previous-undeleted-msg
@findex mh-previous-unread-msg
@kindex g
@kindex M-<
@kindex M->
@kindex M-n
@kindex M-p
@kindex n
@kindex p

To move on to the next message, use the command @kbd{n}
(@code{mh-next-undeleted-msg}); use @kbd{p}
(@code{mh-previous-undeleted-msg}) to read the previous message. To
move to the next unread message, use @kbd{M-n}
(@code{mh-next-unread-msg}); use @kbd{M-p}
(@code{mh-previous-unread-msg}) to move to the previous unread
message. These commands can be given a prefix argument to specify how
many messages to skip (for example, @kbd{5 n}). You can also move to a
specific message with @kbd{g} (@code{mh-goto-msg}). You can enter the
message number either before or after typing @kbd{g}. In the latter
case, Emacs prompts you. Finally, you can go to the first or last
message with @kbd{M-<} (@code{mh-first-msg}) and @kbd{M->}
(@code{mh-last-msg}) respectively.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@findex next-line
@findex previous-line
@kindex C-n
@kindex C-p
@kindex @key{RET}

You can also use the Emacs commands @kbd{C-p} (@code{previous-line})
and @kbd{C-n} (@code{next-line}) to move up and down the scan lines in
the MH-Folder window. These commands can be used in conjunction with
@key{RET} to look at deleted or refiled messages.

@cindex deleting messages
@findex mh-delete-msg
@kindex d
@kindex n
@kindex p

To mark a message for deletion, use the command @kbd{d}
(@code{mh-delete-msg}). A @samp{D} is placed by the message in the
scan window, and the next undeleted message is displayed. If the
previous command had been @kbd{p}, then the next message displayed is
the first undeleted message previous to the message just deleted. Use
@kbd{n} to force subsequent @kbd{d} commands to move forward to the
next undeleted message after deleting the message under the cursor.
You may also specify a range (for example, @kbd{C-u d 1 3 5-7 last:5
frombob @key{RET}}, @pxref{Ranges}).

@findex mh-delete-msg-no-motion
@kindex C-d

The command @kbd{C-d} (@code{mh-delete-msg-no-motion}) marks the
message (or messages in range) for deletion but leaves the cursor at
the current message in case you wish to perform other operations on
the message.

@findex mh-delete-subject
@findex mh-delete-subject-or-thread
@findex mh-thread-delete
@findex mh-undo
@kindex k
@kindex T d
@kindex u

And to delete more messages faster, you can use @kbd{k}
(@code{mh-delete-subject-or-thread}) to delete all the messages with
the same subject as the current message. This command puts these
messages in a sequence named @samp{subject}. You can undo this action
by using @kbd{u} (@code{mh-undo}) with a prefix argument and then
specifying the @samp{subject} sequence. However, if the buffer is
displaying a threaded view of the folder then @kbd{k} behaves like
@kbd{T d} (@code{mh-thread-delete}). @xref{Threading}.

@findex mh-execute-commands
@kindex x

However you mark a message for deletion, the command @kbd{x}
(@code{mh-execute-commands}) actually carries out the deletion
(@pxref{Folders}).

@vindex mh-delete-msg-hook

The hook @code{mh-delete-msg-hook} is called after you mark a message
for deletion. For example, a past maintainer of MH-E used this once
when he kept statistics on his mail usage.

@node Miscellaneous Commands and Options,  , Navigating, Reading Mail
@section Miscellaneous Commands and Options

This section contains a few more miscellaneous commands and options.

@cindex editing message
@findex mh-modify
@kindex M

There are times when you need to edit a message. For example, you may
need to fix a broken Content-Type header field. You can do this with
the command @kbd{M} (@code{mh-modify}). It displays the raw message in
an editable buffer. When you are done editing, save and kill the
buffer as you would any other.

@findex mh-kill-folder
@findex mh-pack-folder
@vindex mh-do-not-confirm-flag

Commands such as @code{mh-pack-folder} prompt to confirm whether to
process outstanding moves and deletes or not before continuing.
Turning on the option @code{mh-do-not-confirm-flag} means that these
actions will be performed---which is usually desired but cannot be
retracted---without question@footnote{In previous versions of MH-E,
this option suppressed the confirmation in @code{mh-kill-folder}.
Since this kept most users from setting this option,
@code{mh-kill-folder} was modified in version 6.0 to always ask for
confirmation subject to @code{mh-kill-folder-suppress-prompt-hook}.
@xref{Folders}.}.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@vindex mh-summary-height

The option @code{mh-summary-height} controls the number of scan lines
displayed in the MH-Folder window, including the mode line. The
default value of this option is @samp{Automatic} which means that the
MH-Folder buffer will maintain the same proportional size if the frame
is resized. If you'd prefer a fixed height, then choose the
@samp{Fixed Size} option and enter the number of lines you'd like to
see.

@vindex mh-bury-show-buffer-flag

Normally the buffer for displaying messages is buried at the bottom at
the buffer stack. You may wish to disable this feature by turning off
the option @code{mh-bury-show-buffer-flag}. One advantage of not
burying the show buffer is that one can delete the show buffer more
easily in an electric buffer list because of its proximity to its
associated MH-Folder buffer. Try running @kbd{M-x
electric-buffer-list} to see what I mean.

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}
@cindex reading mail

Before we leave this section, I'll include a function that I use as a
front end to MH-E@footnote{Stephen Gildea's favorite binding is
@kbd{(global-set-key "\C-cr" 'mh-rmail)}.}. It toggles between your
working window configuration, which may be quite involved---windows
filled with source, compilation output, man pages, and other
documentation---and your MH-E window configuration. Like the rest of
the customization described in this section, simply add the following
code to @file{~/.emacs}.

@iftex
@filbreak
@end iftex

@findex mh-rmail, example

@smalllisp
@group
(defvar my-mh-screen-saved nil
  "Set to non-@code{nil} when MH-E window configuration shown.")
(defvar my-normal-screen nil "Normal window configuration.")
(defvar my-mh-screen nil "MH-E window configuration.")

(defun my-mh-rmail (&optional arg)
  "Toggle between MH-E and normal screen configurations.
With non-@code{nil} or prefix argument, @i{inc} mailbox as well
when going into mail."
  (interactive "P")                 ; @r{user callable function, P=prefix arg}
  (setq my-mh-screen-saved          ; @r{save state}
        (cond
         ;; @r{Bring up MH-E screen if arg or normal window configuration.}
         ;; @r{If arg or +inbox buffer doesn't exist, run mh-rmail.}
         ((or arg (null my-mh-screen-saved))
          (setq my-normal-screen (current-window-configuration))
          (if (or arg (null (get-buffer "+inbox")))
              (mh-rmail)
            (set-window-configuration my-mh-screen))
          t)                        ; @r{set my-mh-screen-saved to @code{t}}
         ;; @r{Otherwise, save MH-E screen and restore normal screen.}
         (t
          (setq my-mh-screen (current-window-configuration))
          (set-window-configuration my-normal-screen)
          nil))))                   ; @r{set my-mh-screen-saved to nil}

(global-set-key "\C-x\r" 'my-mh-rmail)  ;@r{ call with C-x @key{RET}}

@i{Starting MH-E}

@end group
@end smalllisp

If you type an argument (@kbd{C-u}) or if @code{my-mh-screen-saved} is
@code{nil} (meaning a non-MH-E window configuration), the current
window configuration is saved, either the @samp{+inbox} buffer is
displayed or @code{mh-rmail} is run, and the MH-E window configuration
is shown. Otherwise, the MH-E window configuration is saved and the
original configuration is displayed.

@node Folders, Sending Mail, Reading Mail, Top
@chapter Organizing Your Mail with Folders

@cindex @samp{Folder} menu
@cindex @samp{Message} menu
@cindex folders
@cindex menu, @samp{Folder}
@cindex menu, @samp{Message}
@cindex using folders

This chapter discusses the things you can do with folders within MH-E.
The commands in this chapter are also found in the @samp{Folder} and
@samp{Message} menus.

@table @kbd
@kindex ?
@findex mh-help
@item ?
Display cheat sheet for the MH-E commands (@code{mh-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex !
@findex mh-refile-or-write-again
@item !
Repeat last output command (@code{mh-refile-or-write-again}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Copy Message to Folder...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Copy Message to Folder...}
@kindex c
@findex mh-copy-msg
@item c
Copy range to folder (@code{mh-copy-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item F ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F '
@findex mh-index-ticked-messages
@item F '
Display ticked messages (@code{mh-index-ticked-messages}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F c
@findex mh-catchup
@item F c
Delete range from the @samp{unseen} sequence (@code{mh-catchup}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F k
@findex mh-kill-folder
@item F k
Remove folder (@code{mh-kill-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > List Folders} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > List Folders}
@kindex F l
@findex mh-list-folders
@item F l
List all folders (@code{mh-list-folders}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > View New Messages} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > View New Messages}
@kindex F n
@findex mh-index-new-messages
@item F n
Display unseen messages (@code{mh-index-new-messages}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Pack Folder} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Pack Folder}
@kindex F p
@findex mh-pack-folder
@item F p
Pack folder (@code{mh-pack-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F q
@findex mh-index-sequenced-messages
@item F q
Display messages in any sequence (@code{mh-index-sequenced-messages}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Rescan Folder} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Rescan Folder}
@kindex F r
@findex mh-rescan-folder
@item F r
Rescan folder (@code{mh-rescan-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Search...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Search...}
@kindex F s
@findex mh-search
@item F s
Search your MH mail (@code{mh-search}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Sort Folder} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Sort Folder}
@kindex F S
@findex mh-sort-folder
@item F S
Sort folder (@code{mh-sort-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex F u
@findex mh-undo-folder
@item F u
Undo all refiles and deletes in the current folder (@code{mh-undo-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Visit a Folder...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Visit a Folder...}
@kindex F v
@findex mh-visit-folder
@item F v
Visit folder (@code{mh-visit-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Refile Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Refile Message}
@kindex o
@findex mh-refile-msg
@item o
Refile (output) range into folder (@code{mh-refile-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Quit MH-E} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Quit MH-E}
@kindex q
@findex mh-quit
@item q
Quit the current MH-E folder (@code{mh-quit}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Folder > Toggle Show/Folder} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Folder > Toggle Show/Folder}
@kindex t
@findex mh-toggle-showing
@item t
Toggle between MH-Folder and MH-Folder Show modes
(@code{mh-toggle-showing}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Undo Delete/Refile} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Undo Delete/Refile}
@kindex u
@findex mh-undo
@item u
Undo pending deletes or refiles in range (@code{mh-undo}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Execute Delete/Refile} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Execute Delete/Refile}
@kindex x
@findex mh-execute-commands
@item x
Process outstanding delete and refile requests
(@code{mh-execute-commands}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-folder} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-folder}

The @samp{mh-folder} customization group is used to tune these
commands.

@vtable @code
@item mh-new-messages-folders
Folders searched for the @samp{unseen} sequence (default:
@code{Inbox}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-ticked-messages-folders
Folders searched for @code{mh-tick-seq} (default: @code{t}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-large-folder
The number of messages that indicates a large folder (default: 200).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-recenter-summary-flag
On means to recenter the summary window (default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-recursive-folders-flag
On means that commands which operate on folders do so recursively
(default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-sortm-args
Additional arguments for @command{sortm} (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following hooks are available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-after-commands-processed-hook
Hook run by @kbd{x} after performing outstanding refile and delete
requests (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-before-commands-processed-hook
Hook run by @kbd{x} before performing outstanding refile and delete
requests (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-before-quit-hook
Hook run by q before quitting MH-E (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-mode-hook
Hook run by @code{mh-folder-mode} when visiting a new folder (default:
@code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-kill-folder-suppress-prompt-hook
Abnormal hook run at the beginning of @code{mh-kill-folder} (default:
@code{'mh-search-p}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-quit-hook
Hook run by q after quitting MH-E (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-refile-msg-hook
Hook run by o after marking each message for refiling (default:
@code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following faces are available for customizing the appearance of
the MH-Folder buffer. @xref{Scan Line Formats}.

@vtable @code
@item mh-folder-address
Recipient face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-body
Body text face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-cur-msg-number
Current message number face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-date
Date face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-deleted
Deleted message face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-followup
@samp{Re:} face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-msg-number
Message number face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-refiled
Refiled message face.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-format-nmh
@vindex mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp
@item mh-folder-sent-to-me-hint
Fontification hint face in messages sent directly to us. The detection
of messages sent to us is governed by the scan format
@code{mh-scan-format-nmh} and regular expression
@code{mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-format-nmh
@vindex mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp
@item mh-folder-scan-format
Sender face in messages sent directly to us. The detection of messages
sent to us is governed by the scan format @code{mh-scan-format-nmh}
and regular expression @code{mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-subject
Subject face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-tick
Ticked message face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-folder-to
@samp{To:} face.
@end vtable

@vindex mh-folder-mode-hook

The hook @code{mh-folder-mode-hook} is called when visiting a new
folder in MH-Folder mode. This could be used to set your own key
bindings, for example:

@vindex mh-folder-mode-hook, example

@smalllisp
@group
(defvar my-mh-init-done nil
  "Non-@code{nil} when one-time MH-E settings made.")

(defun my-mh-folder-mode-hook ()
  "Hook to set key bindings in MH-Folder mode."
  (if (not my-mh-init-done)             ; @r{only need to bind the keys once }
      (progn
        (local-set-key "//" 'my-search-msg)
        (local-set-key "b" 'mh-burst-digest)    ; @r{better use of @kbd{b}}
        (setq my-mh-init-done t))))

(add-hook 'mh-folder-mode-hook 'my-mh-folder-mode-hook)

(defun my-search-msg ()
  "Search for a regexp in the current message."
  (interactive)                         ; @r{user function}
  (save-window-excursion
    (other-window 1)                    ; @r{go to next window}
    (isearch-forward-regexp)))          ; @r{string search; hit return}
                                        ; @r{  when done}

@i{Create additional key bindings via mh-folder-mode-hook}

@end group
@end smalllisp

@cindex @command{folder}
@cindex @command{refile}
@cindex MH commands, @command{folder}
@cindex MH commands, @command{refile}
@findex mh-refile-msg
@kindex o
@vindex mh-refile-msg-hook

MH-E has analogies for each of the MH @command{folder} and
@command{refile} commands@footnote{See the sections
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/fol.html#Youfol, Your Current Folder:
folder} and @uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/fol.html#Movref, Moving and
Linking Messages: refile} in the MH book.}. To refile a message in
another folder, use the command @kbd{o} (@code{mh-refile-msg})
(mnemonic: ``output''). You are prompted for the folder name
(@pxref{Folder Selection}). Note that this command can also be used to
create folders. If you specify a folder that does not exist, you will
be prompted to create it. The hook @code{mh-refile-msg-hook} is called
after a message is marked to be refiled.

@findex mh-write-msg-to-file
@kindex !

If you are refiling several messages into the same folder, you can use
the command @kbd{!} (@code{mh-refile-or-write-again}) to repeat the
last refile or write (for the description of @kbd{>}
(@code{mh-write-msg-to-file}), @pxref{Files and Pipes}). You can use a
range in either case (for example, @kbd{C-u o 1 3 5-7 last:5 frombob
@key{RET}}, @pxref{Ranges}).

@cindex expunging refiles and deletes
@cindex undoing refiles and deletes
@findex mh-undo
@kindex u

If you've deleted a message or refiled it, but changed your mind, you
can cancel the action before you've executed it. Use @kbd{u}
(@code{mh-undo}) to undo a refile on or deletion of a single message.
You can also undo refiles and deletes for messages that are found in a
given range (@pxref{Ranges}).

@findex mh-undo-folder
@kindex F u

Alternatively, you can use @kbd{F u} (@code{mh-undo-folder}) to undo
all refiles and deletes in the current folder.

@findex mh-execute-commands
@kindex x

If you've marked messages to be deleted or refiled and you want to go
ahead and delete or refile the messages, use @kbd{x}
(@code{mh-execute-commands}). Many MH-E commands that may affect the
numbering of the messages (such as @kbd{F r} or @kbd{F p}) will ask if
you want to process refiles or deletes first and then either run
@kbd{x} for you or undo the pending refiles and deletes.

@kindex x
@vindex mh-after-commands-processed-hook
@vindex mh-before-commands-processed-hook

The command @kbd{x} runs @code{mh-before-commands-processed-hook}
before the commands are processed and
@code{mh-after-commands-processed-hook} after the commands are
processed. Variables that are useful with the former hook include
@code{mh-delete-list} and @code{mh-refile-list} which can be used to
see which changes will be made to the current folder,
@code{mh-current-folder}. Variables that are useful with the latter
hook include @code{mh-folders-changed}, which lists which folders were
affected by deletes and refiles. This list will always include the
current folder @code{mh-current-folder}.

@findex mh-copy-msg
@kindex c
@kindex o

If you wish to copy a message to another folder, you can use the
command @kbd{c} (@code{mh-copy-msg}) (see the @option{-link} argument
to @command{refile}(1)). Like the command @kbd{o}, this command
prompts you for the name of the target folder and you can specify a
range (@pxref{Ranges}). Note that unlike the command @kbd{o}, the copy
takes place immediately. The original copy remains in the current
folder.

@cindex junk mail
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex MH-Folder Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex modes, MH-Folder Show
@cindex spam
@findex mh-toggle-showing
@kindex t

The command @kbd{t} (@code{mh-toggle-showing}) switches between
MH-Folder mode and MH-Folder Show mode@footnote{For you Emacs wizards,
this is implemented as an Emacs minor mode.}. MH-Folder mode turns off
the associated show buffer so that you can perform operations on the
messages quickly without reading them. This is an excellent way to
prune out your junk mail or to refile a group of messages to another
folder for later examination.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex modes, MH-Show
@cindex moving between messages
@kindex t
@vindex mh-recenter-summary-flag

When you use @kbd{t} to toggle from MH-Folder Show mode to MH-Folder
mode, the MH-Show buffer is hidden and the MH-Folder buffer is left
alone. Setting @code{mh-recenter-summary-flag} to a non-@code{nil}
value causes the toggle to display as many scan lines as possible,
with the cursor at the middle. The effect of
@code{mh-recenter-summary-flag} is rather useful, but it can be
annoying on a slow network connection.

@findex mh-visit-folder
@kindex F v
@vindex mh-large-folder

When you want to read the messages that you have refiled into folders,
use the command @kbd{F v} (@code{mh-visit-folder}) to visit the
folder. You are prompted for the folder name. The folder buffer will
show just unseen messages if there are any; otherwise, it will show
all the messages in the buffer as long there are fewer than
@code{mh-large-folder} messages. If there are more, then you are
prompted for a range of messages to scan. You can provide a prefix
argument in order to specify a range of messages to show when you
visit the folder (@pxref{Ranges}). In this case, regions are not used
to specify the range and @code{mh-large-folder} is ignored. Note that
this command can also be used to create folders. If you specify a
folder that does not exist, you will be prompted to create it.

@findex mh-search
@kindex F s

If you forget where you've refiled your messages, you can find them
using @kbd{F s} (@code{mh-search}). @xref{Searching}.

@cindex @command{procmail}
@cindex @samp{unseen} sequence
@cindex sequence, @samp{unseen}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{procmail}
@cindex unseen messages, viewing
@findex mh-index-new-messages
@kindex F n
@vindex mh-new-messages-folders

If you use a program such as @command{procmail} to file your incoming
mail automatically, you can display new, unseen, messages using the
command @kbd{F n} (@code{mh-index-new-messages}). All messages in the
@samp{unseen} sequence from the folders in
@code{mh-new-messages-folders} are listed. However, this list of
folders can be overridden with a prefix argument: with a prefix
argument, enter a space-separated list of folders, or nothing to
search all folders.

@cindex @samp{tick} sequence
@cindex sequence, @samp{tick}
@cindex ticked messages, viewing
@findex mh-index-ticked-messages
@kindex F '
@vindex mh-ticked-messages-folders

If you have ticked messages (@pxref{Sequences}), you can display them
using the command @kbd{F '} (@code{mh-index-ticked-messages}). All
messages in the @samp{tick} sequence from the folders in
@code{mh-ticked-messages-folders} are listed. With a prefix argument,
enter a space-separated list of folders, or nothing to search all
folders.

@findex mh-index-sequenced-messages
@kindex F q
@vindex mh-new-messages-folders

You can display messages in any sequence with the command @kbd{F q}
(@code{mh-index-sequenced-messages}). All messages from the folders in
@code{mh-new-messages-folders} in the sequence you provide are listed.
With a prefix argument, enter a space-separated list of folders at the
prompt, or nothing to search all folders.

@vindex mh-new-messages-folders
@vindex mh-recursive-folders-flag
@vindex mh-ticked-messages-folders

Set the options @code{mh-new-messages-folders} and
@code{mh-ticked-messages-folders} to @samp{Inbox} to search the
@samp{+inbox} folder or @samp{All} to search all of the top level
folders. Otherwise, list the folders that should be searched with the
@samp{Choose Folders} menu item. See @code{mh-recursive-folders-flag}.

@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Folders*}
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Folders*}
@findex mh-kill-folder
@findex mh-list-folders
@findex mh-pack-folder
@findex mh-rescan-folder
@findex mh-sort-folder
@kindex F k
@kindex F l
@kindex F p
@kindex F r
@kindex F S

Other commands you can perform on folders include: @kbd{F l}
(@code{mh-list-folders}), to place a listing of all the folders in
your mail directory in a buffer called @samp{*MH-E Folders*}
(@pxref{Miscellaneous}); @kbd{F k} (@code{mh-kill-folder}), to remove
a folder; @kbd{F S} (@code{mh-sort-folder}), to sort the messages by
date (see @command{sortm}(1) to see how to sort by other criteria);
@kbd{F p} (@code{mh-pack-folder}), to pack a folder, removing gaps
from the numbering sequence; and @kbd{F r} (@code{mh-rescan-folder}),
to rescan the folder, which is useful to grab all messages in your
@samp{+inbox} after processing your new mail for the first time. If
you don't want to rescan the entire folder, the commands @kbd{F r} or
@kbd{F p} will accept a range (@pxref{Ranges}).

@kindex @key{TAB}
@vindex mh-recursive-folders-flag

By default, operations on folders work only one level at a time. Set
@code{mh-recursive-folders-flag} to non-@code{nil} to operate on all
folders. This mostly means that you'll be able to see all your folders
when you press @key{TAB} when prompted for a folder name.

@findex mh-search-p
@kindex k
@vindex mh-kill-folder-suppress-prompt-hooks

The hook @code{mh-kill-folder-suppress-prompt-hooks} is an abnormal
hook run at the beginning of the command @kbd{k}. The hook functions
are called with no arguments and should return a non-nil value to
suppress the normal prompt when you remove a folder. This is useful
for folders that are easily regenerated. The default value of
@code{mh-search-p} suppresses the prompt on folders generated by
searching.

@sp 1
@center @strong{NOTE}

@quotation
Use this hook with care. If there is a bug in your hook which returns
@code{t} on @samp{+inbox} and you press @kbd{k} by accident in the
@code{+inbox} folder, you will not be happy.
@end quotation
@sp 1

@cindex @command{sortm}
@cindex @file{.mh_profile}
@cindex files, @file{.mh_profile}
@cindex MH commands, @command{sortm}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{sortm:}
@cindex @samp{sortm:} MH profile component
@kindex F S
@vindex mh-sortm-args

The option @code{mh-sortm-args} holds extra arguments to pass on to
the command @command{sortm}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/sorsor.html, Sorting Messages: sortm} in the
MH book.} when a prefix argument is used with @kbd{F S}. Normally
default arguments to @command{sortm} are specified in the MH profile.
This option may be used to provide an alternate view. For example,
@samp{'(\"-nolimit\" \"-textfield\" \"subject\")} is a useful setting.

@cindex exiting
@cindex quitting
@findex mh-quit
@kindex q

When you want to quit using MH-E and go back to editing, you can use
the @kbd{q} (@code{mh-quit}) command. This buries the buffers of the
current MH-E folder and restores the buffers that were present when
you first ran @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}. It also removes any MH-E working
buffers whose name begins with @samp{ *mh-} or @samp{*MH-E }
(@pxref{Miscellaneous}). You can later restore your MH-E session by
selecting the @samp{+inbox} buffer or by running @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}
again.

@findex mh-execute-commands
@kindex q
@vindex mh-before-quit-hook
@vindex mh-before-quit-hook, example
@vindex mh-quit-hook
@vindex mh-quit-hook, example

The two hooks @code{mh-before-quit-hook} and @code{mh-quit-hook} are
called by @kbd{q}. The former one is called before the quit occurs, so
you might use it to perform any MH-E operations; you could perform
some query and abort the quit or call @code{mh-execute-commands}, for
example. The latter is not run in an MH-E context, so you might use it
to modify the window setup. If you find that @kbd{q} buries a lot of
buffers that you would rather remove, you can use both
@code{mh-before-quit-hook} and @code{mh-quit-hook} to accomplish that.

@smalllisp
@group
(defvar my-mh-folder-buffer-to-delete nil
  "Folder buffer that is being quit.")

(defun my-mh-before-quit-hook ()
  "Save folder buffer that is to be deleted."
  (setq my-mh-folder-buffer-to-delete (current-buffer)))

(defun my-mh-quit-hook ()
  "Kill folder buffer rather than just bury it."
  (set-buffer my-mh-folder-buffer-to-delete)
  (if (get-buffer mh-show-buffer)
      (kill-buffer mh-show-buffer))
  (kill-buffer (current-buffer)))

@i{Kill MH-Folder buffer instead of burying it}
@end group
@end smalllisp

@cindex folders, renaming
@cindex renaming folders
@findex dired
@findex dired-do-rename

You can use dired to manipulate the folders themselves. For example, I
renamed my @samp{+out} folder to the more common @samp{+outbox} by
running dired on my mail directory (@kbd{M-x dired RET ~/Mail RET}),
moving my cursor to @samp{out} and using the command @kbd{R}
(@code{dired-do-rename}).

@node Sending Mail, Editing Drafts, Folders, Top
@chapter Sending Mail

@cindex sending mail
@findex mh-smail
@kindex M-x mh-smail

You can send a mail message in several ways. You can call @kbd{M-x
mh-smail} directly, or from the command line like this:

@cindex starting from command line

@smallexample
$ @kbd{emacs -f mh-smail}
@end smallexample

@findex goto-address-at-point
@vindex mail-user-agent

There are some commands that need to send a mail message, such as
@code{goto-address-at-point}. You can configure Emacs to have these
commands use MH-E by setting the option @code{mail-user-agent} to
@samp{Emacs interface to MH}.

@cindex @samp{Message} menu
@cindex menu, @samp{Message}

From within MH-E's MH-Folder mode, other methods of sending mail are
available as well. These can also be found in the @samp{Message} menu.

@table @kbd
@cindex @samp{Message > Edit Message Again} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Edit Message Again}
@kindex e
@findex mh-edit-again
@item e
Edit a message to send it again (@code{mh-edit-again}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Re-edit a Bounced Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Re-edit a Bounced Message}
@kindex E
@findex mh-extract-rejected-mail
@item E
Edit a message that was returned by the mail system
(@code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Forward Message...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Forward Message...}
@kindex f
@findex mh-forward
@item f
Forward message (@code{mh-forward}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Reply to Message...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Reply to Message...}
@kindex r
@findex mh-reply
@item r
Reply to a message (@code{mh-reply}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Compose a New Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Compose a New Message}
@kindex s
@findex mh-send
@item s
Compose a message (@code{mh-send}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Message > Redistribute Message...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Message > Redistribute Message...}
@kindex M-d
@findex mh-redistribute
@item M-d
Redistribute a message (@code{mh-redistribute}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-smail
@item M-x mh-smail
Compose a message with the MH mail system.
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-smail-other-window
@item M-x mh-smail-other-window
Compose a message with the MH mail system in other window.
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-sending-mail} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-sending-mail}

In addition, several options from the @samp{mh-sending-mail}
customization group are useful when sending mail or replying to mail.
They are summarized in the following table.

@vtable @code
@item mh-compose-forward-as-mime-flag
On means that messages are forwarded as attachments (default:
@samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-compose-letter-function
Hook run when starting a new draft (default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-compose-prompt-flag
On means prompt for header fields when composing a new draft (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-forward-subject-format
Format string for forwarded message subject (default: @code{"%s:
%s"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-insert-x-mailer-flag
On means append an @samp{X-Mailer:} header field to the header
(default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-redist-full-contents-flag
On means the @command{dist} command needs entire letter for
redistribution (default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-reply-default-reply-to
Sets the person or persons to whom a reply will be sent (default:
@samp{Prompt}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-reply-show-message-flag
On means the MH-Show buffer is displayed using @kbd{r}
(@code{mh-reply}) (default: @samp{on}).
@end vtable

The following hooks are available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-forward-hook
Hook run by @code{mh-forward} on a forwarded letter (default:
@code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-letter-mode-hook
Hook run by @code{mh-letter-mode} on a new letter (default:
@code{nil}).
@end vtable

The functions and options introduced here are explained in more detail
in the following sections.

@menu
* Composing::
* Replying::
* Forwarding::
* Redistributing::
* Editing Again::
@end menu

@node Composing, Replying, Sending Mail, Sending Mail
@section Composing

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex composing mail
@cindex draft
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex sending mail
@findex mh-smail
@findex mh-smail-other-window
@kindex M-x mh-smail
@kindex M-x mh-smail-other-window

Outside of an MH-Folder buffer, you must call either @kbd{M-x
mh-smail} or @kbd{M-x mh-smail-other-window} to compose a new message.
The former command always creates a two-window layout with the current
buffer on top and the draft on the bottom. Use the latter command if
you would rather preserve the window layout. You may find adding the
following key bindings to @file{~/.emacs} useful:

@smalllisp
(global-set-key "\C-xm" 'mh-smail)
(global-set-key "\C-x4m" 'mh-smail-other-window)
@end smalllisp

@cindex draft folder
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@findex mh-send
@kindex m

From within a MH-Folder buffer, you can simply use the command @kbd{m}
(@code{mh-send}). However you invoke @code{mh-send}, your letter
appears in an Emacs buffer whose mode is MH-Letter (to see what the
buffer looks like, @pxref{Sending Mail Tour}). MH-Letter mode allows
you to edit your message, to check the validity of the recipients, to
insert attachments and other messages into your message, and to send
the message. We'll go more into depth about editing a
@dfn{draft}@footnote{I highly recommend that you use a @dfn{draft
folder} so that you can edit several drafts in parallel. To do so,
create a folder named @samp{+drafts} for example, and add the profile
component @samp{Draft-Folder: drafts} (see @code{mh-profile}(5)).} (a
message you're composing) in just a moment (@pxref{Editing Drafts}).

@vindex mh-compose-prompt-flag

If you prefer to be prompted for the recipient and subject fields
before the MH-Letter buffer appears, turn on the option
@code{mh-compose-prompt-flag}.

@cindex header field, @samp{X-Mailer:}
@cindex @samp{X-Mailer:} header field
@vindex mh-insert-x-mailer-flag

MH-E adds an @samp{X-Mailer:} header field to the header that includes
the version of MH-E and Emacs that you are using. If you don't want to
participate in our marketing, you can turn off the option
@code{mh-insert-x-mailer-flag}.

@cindex @command{repl}
@cindex @file{components}
@cindex MH commands, @command{repl}
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex Mail mode
@cindex files, @file{components}
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@cindex modes, Mail
@vindex mail-mode-hook
@vindex mh-letter-mode-hook
@vindex text-mode-hook

Two hooks are provided to run commands on your freshly created draft.
The first hook, @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}, allows you to do some
processing before editing a letter@footnote{Actually, because
MH-Letter mode inherits from Mail mode, the hooks
@code{text-mode-hook} and @code{mail-mode-hook} are run (in that
order) before @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}.}. For example, you may wish
to modify the header after @command{repl} has done its work, or you
may have a complicated @file{components} file and need to tell MH-E
where the cursor should go. Here's an example of how you would use
this hook.

@findex mh-insert-signature, example

@smalllisp
@group
(defvar letter-mode-init-done-flag nil
  "Non-nil means one-time MH-E settings have been made.")

(defun my-mh-letter-mode-hook ()
  "Prepare letter for editing."
  (when (not letter-mode-init-done)     ; @r{only need to bind the keys once}
    (local-set-key "\C-ctb" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-cti" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-ctf" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-cts" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-ctB" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-ctu" 'add-enriched-text)
    (local-set-key "\C-ctc" 'add-enriched-text)
    (setq letter-mode-init-done t))
  (save-excursion
    (goto-char (point-max))             ; @r{go to end of message to}
    (mh-insert-signature)))             ;   @r{insert signature}

@i{Prepare draft for editing via mh-letter-mode-hook}

@end group
@end smalllisp

The function, @code{add-enriched-text} is defined in the example in
@ref{Adding Attachments}.

@vindex mh-compose-letter-function
@vindex mh-letter-mode-hook

The second hook, a function really, is
@code{mh-compose-letter-function}. Like @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}, it
is called just before editing a new message; however, it is the last
function called before you edit your message. The consequence of this
is that you can write a function to write and send the message for
you. This function is passed three arguments: the contents of the
@samp{To:}, @samp{Subject:}, and @samp{Cc:} header fields.

@node Replying, Forwarding, Composing, Sending Mail
@section Replying to Mail

@cindex @command{mhl}
@cindex @file{mhl.reply}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhl}
@cindex files, @file{mhl.reply}
@cindex replying
@findex mh-reply
@kindex r

To compose a reply to a message, use the @kbd{r} (@code{mh-reply})
command.

When you reply to a message, you are first prompted with @samp{Reply
to whom?}. You have several choices here.

@quotation
@multitable @columnfractions .20 .80
@c @headitem Response @tab Reply Goes To
@c XXX @headitem not yet supported by SourceForge's texi2pdf.
@item @b{Response} @tab @b{Reply Goes To}
@c -------------------------
@item @kbd{from}
@tab
The person who sent the message. This is the default, so @key{RET} is
sufficient.
@c -------------------------
@item @kbd{to}
@tab
Replies to the sender, plus all recipients in the @samp{To:} header field.
@c -------------------------
@item @kbd{cc}@*@kbd{all}
@tab
Forms a reply to the addresses in the @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header
field if one exists; otherwise forms a reply to the sender, plus all
recipients.
@end multitable
@end quotation

@cindex @command{repl}
@cindex MH commands, @command{repl}
@vindex mh-reply-default-reply-to

Depending on your answer, @command{repl}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/reprep.html, Replying to Messages: repl} in
the MH book.} is given a different argument to form your reply.
Specifically, a choice of @kbd{from} or none at all runs @samp{repl
-nocc all}, and a choice of @kbd{to} runs @samp{repl -cc to}. Finally,
either @kbd{cc} or @kbd{all} runs @samp{repl -cc all -nocc me}. If you
find that most of the time you specify one of these choices when you
reply to a message, you can change the option
@code{mh-reply-default-reply-to} from its default value of
@samp{Prompt} to one of the choices listed above. You can always edit
the recipients in the draft.

@cindex @samp{repl:} MH profile component
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{repl:}
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex draft
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@cindex modes, MH-Show

Two windows are then created. One window contains the message to which
you are replying in an MH-Show buffer. Your draft, in MH-Letter mode
(@pxref{Editing Drafts}), is in the other window. If the reply draft
was not one that you expected, check the things that affect the
behavior of @command{repl} which include the @samp{repl:} profile
component and the @file{replcomps} and @file{replgroupcomps} files.

If you supply a prefix argument (as in @kbd{C-u r}), the message you
are replying to is inserted in your reply after having first been run
through @command{mhl} with the format file @file{mhl.reply}. See
@command{mhl}(1) or the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/shomes.html#Usisho, Using mhl} in the MH
book to see how you can modify the default @file{mhl.reply} file.

@vindex mh-yank-behavior

Alternatively, you can customize the option @code{mh-yank-behavior}
and choose one of its @samp{Automatically} variants to do the same
thing. @xref{Inserting Letter}. If you do so, the prefix argument has
no effect.

Another way to include the message automatically in your draft is to
use @samp{repl: -filter repl.filter} in your MH profile.

@vindex mh-reply-show-message-flag

If you include the message automatically, you can hide the MH-Show
buffer by turning off the option @code{mh-reply-show-message-flag}.

If you wish to customize the header or other parts of the reply draft,
please see @command{repl}(1) and @code{mh-format}(5).

@node Forwarding, Redistributing, Replying, Sending Mail
@section Forwarding Mail

@cindex @command{forw}
@cindex draft
@cindex forwarding
@cindex MH commands, @command{forw}
@findex mh-forward
@kindex f
@vindex mh-forward-hook

To forward a message, use the @kbd{f} (@code{mh-forward}) command. You
are prompted for the @samp{To:} and @samp{cc:} recipients. You are
given a draft to edit that looks like it would if you had run the MH
command @command{forw}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/forfor.html, Forwarding Messages: forw} in
the MH book.}. You can then add some text (@pxref{Editing Drafts}).
You can forward several messages by using a range (@pxref{Ranges}).
All of the messages in the range are inserted into your draft. The
hook @code{mh-forward-hook} is called on the draft.

@cindex @file{.mh_profile}
@cindex files, @file{.mh_profile}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{forw:}
@cindex @samp{forw:} MH profile component
@vindex mh-compose-forward-as-mime-flag

By default, the option @code{mh-compose-forward-as-mime-flag} is on
which means that the forwarded messages are included as attachments.
If you would prefer to forward your messages verbatim (as text,
inline), then turn off this option. Forwarding messages verbatim works
well for short, textual messages, but your recipient won't be able to
view any non-textual attachments that were in the forwarded message.
Be aware that if you have @samp{forw: -mime} in your MH profile, then
forwarded messages will always be included as attachments regardless
of the settings of @code{mh-compose-forward-as-mime-flag}.

@vindex mh-forward-subject-format

The format of the @samp{Subject:} header field for forwarded messages
is controlled by the option @code{mh-forward-subject-format}. This
option is a string which includes two escapes (@samp{%s}). The first
@samp{%s} is replaced with the sender of the original message, and the
second one is replaced with the original @samp{Subject:}. The default
value of @code{"%s: %s"} takes a message with the header:

@smallexample
@group
To: Bill Wohler <wohler@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
Subject: Re: 49er football
From: Greg DesBrisay <gd@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
@end group
@end smallexample

and creates a subject header field of:

@smallexample
Subject: Greg DesBrisay: Re: 49er football
@end smallexample

@node Redistributing, Editing Again, Forwarding, Sending Mail
@section Redistributing Your Mail

@cindex @command{dist}
@cindex MH commands, @command{dist}
@cindex redistributing
@findex mh-redistribute
@kindex M-d

The command @kbd{M-d} (@code{mh-redistribute}) is similar in function
to forwarding mail, but it does not allow you to edit the message, nor
does it add your name to the @samp{From:} header field. It appears to
the recipient as if the message had come from the original sender.
When you run this command, you are prompted for the recipients.

@findex mh-edit-again
@kindex e

For more information on redistributing messages, see
@command{dist}(1). Also investigate the command @kbd{e}
(@code{mh-edit-again}) for another way to redistribute messages
(@pxref{Editing Again}).

@cindex @command{send}
@cindex MH commands, @command{send}
@vindex mh-redist-full-contents-flag

The option @code{mh-redist-full-contents-flag} must be turned on if
@command{dist}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/disdis.html, Distributing Messages with
dist} in the MH book.} requires the whole letter for redistribution,
which is the case if @command{send}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/sensen.html, Sending Some Mail: comp send}
in the MH book.} is compiled with the @sc{berk} option (which many
people abhor). If you find that MH will not allow you to redistribute
a message that has been redistributed before, turn off this option.

@node Editing Again,  , Redistributing, Sending Mail
@section Editing Old Drafts and Bounced Messages

@cindex @file{draft}
@cindex files, @file{draft}
@cindex re-editing drafts
@findex mh-edit-again
@kindex F v drafts
@kindex e
@kindex n

If you don't complete a draft for one reason or another, and if the
draft buffer is no longer available, you can pick your draft up again
with @kbd{e} (@code{mh-edit-again}). If you don't use a draft
folder, your last @file{draft} file will be used. If you use draft
folders, you'll need to visit the draft folder with @kbd{F v drafts
@key{RET}}, use @kbd{n} to move to the appropriate message, and then
use @kbd{e} to prepare the message for editing.

@kindex e

The @kbd{e} command can also be used to take messages that were sent
to you and to send them to more people.

@cindex Mailer-Daemon
@findex mh-extract-rejected-mail
@kindex C-c C-c
@kindex E

Don't use @kbd{e} to re-edit a message from a @i{Mailer-Daemon} who
complained that your mail wasn't posted for some reason or another. In
this case, use @kbd{E} (@code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}) to prepare
the message for editing by removing the @i{Mailer-Daemon} envelope and
unneeded header fields. Fix whatever addressing problem you had, and
send the message again with @kbd{C-c C-c}.

@node Editing Drafts, Aliases, Sending Mail, Top
@chapter Editing a Draft

@cindex @samp{Letter} menu
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex draft
@cindex editing draft
@cindex menu, @samp{Letter}
@cindex modes, MH-Letter

When you edit a message that you want to send (called a @dfn{draft} in
this case), the mode used is MH-Letter. This mode provides several
commands in addition to the normal Emacs editing commands to help you
edit your draft. These can also be found in the @samp{Letter} menu.

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{SPC}
@findex mh-letter-complete-or-space
@item @key{SPC}
Perform completion or insert space (@code{mh-letter-complete-or-space}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@findex mh-letter-complete
@item M-@key{TAB}
Perform completion on header field or word preceding point
(@code{mh-letter-complete}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex , (comma)
@findex mh-letter-confirm-address
@item , (comma)
Flash alias expansion (@code{mh-letter-confirm-address}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex @key{TAB}
@findex mh-letter-next-header-field-or-indent
@item @key{TAB}
Cycle to next field (@code{mh-letter-next-header-field-or-indent}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@findex mh-letter-previous-header-field
@item S-@key{TAB}
Cycle to the previous header field
(@code{mh-letter-previous-header-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c ?
@findex mh-help
@item C-c ?
Display cheat sheet for the MH-E commands (@code{mh-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Send This Draft} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Send This Draft}
@kindex C-c C-c
@findex mh-send-letter
@item C-c C-c
Save draft and send message (@code{mh-send-letter}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-d
@findex mh-insert-identity
@item C-c C-d
Insert fields specified by the given identity
(@code{mh-insert-identity}). @xref{Identities}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Pull in All Compositions (MH)} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Pull in All Compositions (MH)}
@kindex C-c C-e
@findex mh-mh-to-mime
@item C-c C-e
Compose @sc{mime} message from MH-style directives
(@code{mh-mh-to-mime}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-a
@kindex C-c C-f a
@findex mh-to-field
@item C-c C-f C-a
@itemx C-c C-f a
Move to @samp{Mail-Reply-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-b
@kindex C-c C-f b
@item C-c C-f C-b
@itemx C-c C-f b
Move to @samp{Bcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@kindex C-c C-f c
@item C-c C-f C-c
@itemx C-c C-f c
Move to @samp{Cc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-d
@kindex C-c C-f d
@item C-c C-f C-d
@itemx C-c C-f d
Move to @samp{Dcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-f
@kindex C-c C-f f
@findex mh-to-fcc
@item C-c C-f C-f
@itemx C-c C-f f
Move to @samp{Fcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-fcc}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-l
@kindex C-c C-f l
@item C-c C-f C-l
@itemx C-c C-f l
Move to @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-m
@kindex C-c C-f m
@item C-c C-f C-m
@itemx C-c C-f m
Move to @samp{From:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-r
@kindex C-c C-f r
@item C-c C-f C-r
@itemx C-c C-f r
Move to @samp{Reply-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-s
@kindex C-c C-f s
@item C-c C-f C-s
@itemx C-c C-f s
Move to @samp{Subject:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-c C-f t
@item C-c C-f C-t
@itemx C-c C-f t
Move to @samp{To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Insert a Message...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Insert a Message...}
@kindex C-c C-i
@findex mh-insert-letter
@item C-c C-i
Insert a message (@code{mh-insert-letter}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m C-e
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt
@item C-c C-m C-e
Add tag to encrypt the message (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Compose Forward...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Compose Forward...}
@kindex C-c C-m C-f
@kindex C-c C-m f
@findex mh-compose-forward
@item C-c C-m C-f
@itemx C-c C-m f
Add tag to forward a message (@code{mh-compose-forward}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Compose Get File (MH)...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Compose Get File (MH)...}
@kindex C-c C-m C-g
@kindex C-c C-m g
@findex mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp
@item C-c C-m C-g
@itemx C-c C-m g
Add tag to include anonymous ftp reference to a file
(@code{mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Compose Insertion...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Compose Insertion...}
@kindex C-c C-m C-i
@kindex C-c C-m i
@findex mh-compose-insertion
@item C-c C-m C-i
@itemx C-c C-m i
Add tag to include a file such as an image or sound
(@code{mh-compose-insertion}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Pull in All Compositions (MML)} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Pull in All Compositions (MML)}
@kindex C-c C-m C-m
@kindex C-c C-m m
@findex mh-mml-to-mime
@item C-c C-m C-m
@itemx C-c C-m m
Compose @sc{mime} message from MML tags (@code{mh-mml-to-mime}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m C-n
@kindex C-c C-m n
@findex mh-mml-unsecure-message
@item C-c C-m C-n
@itemx C-c C-m n
Remove any secure message tags (@code{mh-mml-unsecure-message}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m C-s
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-sign
@item C-c C-m C-s
Add tag to sign the message (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-sign}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Compose Compressed tar (MH)...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Compose Compressed tar (MH)...}
@kindex C-c C-m C-t
@kindex C-c C-m t
@findex mh-mh-compose-external-compressed-tar
@item C-c C-m C-t
@itemx C-c C-m t
Add tag to include anonymous ftp reference to a compressed tar file
(@code{mh-mh-compose-external-compressed-tar}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Revert to Non-MIME Edit (MH)} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Revert to Non-MIME Edit (MH)}
@kindex C-c C-m C-u
@kindex C-c C-m u
@findex mh-mh-to-mime-undo
@item C-c C-m C-u
@itemx C-c C-m u
Undo effects of @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{mh-mh-to-mime-undo}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m C-x
@kindex C-c C-m x
@findex mh-mh-compose-external-type
@item C-c C-m C-x
@itemx C-c C-m x
Add tag to refer to a remote file
(@code{mh-mh-compose-external-type}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m e e
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt
@item C-c C-m e e
Add tag to encrypt the message (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m e s
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt
@item C-c C-m e s
Add tag to encrypt and sign the message@*
(@code{mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m s e
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt
@item C-c C-m s e
Add tag to encrypt and sign the message@*
(@code{mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-m s s
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-sign
@item C-c C-m s s
Add tag to sign the message (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-sign}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Split Current Line} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Split Current Line}
@kindex C-c C-o
@findex mh-open-line
@item C-c C-o
Insert a newline and leave point before it (@code{mh-open-line}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Kill This Draft} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Kill This Draft}
@kindex C-c C-q
@findex mh-fully-kill-draft
@item C-c C-q
Quit editing and delete draft message (@code{mh-fully-kill-draft}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Insert Signature} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Insert Signature}
@kindex C-c C-s
@findex mh-insert-signature
@item C-c C-s
Insert signature in message (@code{mh-insert-signature}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-t
@findex mh-letter-toggle-header-field-display
@item C-c C-t
Toggle display of header field at point
(@code{mh-letter-toggle-header-field-display}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Check Recipient} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Check Recipient}
@kindex C-c C-w
@findex mh-check-whom
@item C-c C-w
Verify recipients, showing expansion of any aliases
(@code{mh-check-whom}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Letter > Yank Current Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Letter > Yank Current Message}
@kindex C-c C-y
@findex mh-yank-cur-msg
@item C-c C-y
Insert the current message into the draft buffer
(@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c M-d
@findex mh-insert-auto-fields
@item C-c M-d
Insert custom fields if recipient is found in
@code{mh-auto-fields-list} (@code{mh-insert-auto-fields}).
@xref{Identities}.
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-letter} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-letter}

Several options from the @samp{mh-letter} customization group are used
while editing a draft.

@vtable @code
@item mh-compose-insertion
Type of @sc{mime} message tags in messages (default: @samp{MML} if
available; otherwise @samp{MH}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-compose-skipped-header-fields
List of header fields to skip over when navigating in draft (default:
@code{'("From"} @code{"Organization"} @code{"References"}
@code{"In-Reply-To"} @code{"X-Face"} @code{"Face"}
@code{"X-Image-URL"} @code{"X-Mailer")}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-compose-space-does-completion-flag
On means @key{SPC} does completion in message header (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-delete-yanked-msg-window-flag
On means delete any window displaying the message (default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-extract-from-attribution-verb
Verb to use for attribution when a message is yanked by @kbd{C-c C-y}
(default: @code{"wrote:"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-ins-buf-prefix
String to put before each line of a yanked or inserted message
(default: @code{"> "}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-letter-complete-function
Function to call when completing outside of address or folder fields
(default: @code{ispell-complete-word}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-letter-fill-column
Fill column to use in MH-Letter mode (default: 72).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-mml-method-default
Default method to use in security tags (default: @samp{PGP (MIME)} if
support for it is available; otherwise @samp{None}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-signature-file-name
Source of user's signature (default: @code{"~/.signature"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-signature-separator-flag
On means a signature separator should be inserted (default:
@samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-x-face-file
File containing X-Face or Face header field to insert in outgoing mail.
(default: @code{"~/.face"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-yank-behavior
Controls which part of a message is yanked by @kbd{C-c C-y} (default:
@samp{Body With Attribution}).
@end vtable

The following hooks are available.

@vtable @code
@item mail-citation-hook
Hook for modifying a citation just inserted in the mail buffer
(default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-before-send-letter-hook
Hook run at the beginning of the @kbd{C-c C-c} command (default:
@samp{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-mh-to-mime-hook
Hook run on the formatted letter by @kbd{C-c C-e} (default:
@samp{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-insert-signature-hook
Hook run by @kbd{C-c C-s} after signature has been inserted (default:
@code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following face is available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-letter-header-field
Editable header field value face in draft buffers.
@end vtable

The commands and options introduced here are explained in more
detail in the following sections.

@menu
* Editing Message::
* Inserting Letter::
* Inserting Messages::
* Signature::
* Picture::
* Adding Attachments::
* Sending PGP::
* Checking Recipients::
* Sending Message::
* Killing Draft::
@end menu

@node Editing Message, Inserting Letter, Editing Drafts, Editing Drafts
@section Editing the Message

@cindex @samp{Bcc:} header field
@cindex @samp{Cc:} header field
@cindex @samp{Dcc:} header field
@cindex @samp{From:} header field
@cindex @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header field
@cindex @samp{Mail-Reply-To:} header field
@cindex @samp{Reply-To:} header field
@cindex @samp{Subject:} header field
@cindex @samp{To:} header field
@cindex editing header
@cindex header field, @samp{Bcc:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Cc:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Dcc:}
@cindex header field, @samp{From:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Mail-Followup-To:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Mail-Reply-To:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Reply-To:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Subject:}
@cindex header field, @samp{To:}
@findex mh-to-field
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-c C-f t

Because the header is part of the message, you can edit the header
fields as you wish. However, several convenience commands exist to
help you create and edit them. For example, the command @kbd{C-c C-f
C-t} (@code{mh-to-field}; alternatively, @kbd{C-c C-f t}) moves the
cursor to the @samp{To:} header field, creating it if necessary. The
commands for moving to the @samp{Cc:}, @samp{Subject:}, @samp{From:},
@samp{Reply-To:}, @samp{Mail-Reply-To:}, @samp{Mail-Followup-To},
@samp{Bcc:}, and @samp{Dcc:} header fields are similar.

@findex mh-to-fcc
@kindex C-c C-f C-f
@kindex C-c C-f f

One command behaves differently from the others, namely, @kbd{C-c C-f
C-f} (@code{mh-to-fcc}; alternatively, @kbd{C-c C-f f}). This command
will prompt you for the folder name in which to file a copy of the
draft. @xref{Folder Selection}.

@findex indent-relative
@findex mh-letter-next-header-field-or-indent
@findex mh-letter-previous-header-field
@kindex @key{TAB}
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@vindex mh-compose-skipped-header-fields
@vindex mh-letter-header-field

Within the header of the message, the command@* @key{TAB}
(@code{mh-letter-next-header-field-or-indent}) moves between fields
that are highlighted with the face @code{mh-letter-header-field},
skipping those fields listed in
@code{mh-compose-skipped-header-fields}. After the last field, this
command then moves point to the message body before cycling back to
the first field. If point is already past the first line of the
message body, then this command indents by calling
@code{indent-relative} with the given prefix argument. The command
@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} (@code{mh-letter-previous-header-field}) moves
backwards between the fields and cycles to the body of the message
after the first field. Unlike the command @key{TAB}, it will always
take point to the last field from anywhere in the body.

@cindex alias completion
@cindex completion
@cindex spell check
@findex ispell-complete-word
@findex mh-letter-complete
@findex mh-letter-complete-or-space
@findex mh-letter-confirm-address
@kindex , (comma)
@kindex @key{SPC}
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@vindex mh-alias-flash-on-comma
@vindex mh-compose-space-does-completion-flag
@vindex mh-letter-complete-function

If the field contains addresses (for example, @samp{To:} or
@samp{Cc:}) or folders (for example, @samp{Fcc:}) then the command
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} (@code{mh-letter-complete}) will provide alias
completion (@pxref{Aliases}). In the body of the message,
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} runs @code{mh-letter-complete-function} instead,
which is set to @samp{'ispell-complete-word} by default. The command
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} (@code{mh-letter-complete}) takes a prefix argument
that is passed to the @code{mh-letter-complete-function}. In addition,
turn on the option @code{mh-compose-space-does-completion-flag} to use
the command @key{SPC} (@code{mh-letter-complete-or-space}) to perform
completion in the header as well; use a prefix argument to specify
more than one space. Addresses are separated by a comma; when you
press the comma, the command @code{mh-letter-confirm-address} flashes
the alias expansion in the minibuffer if
@code{mh-alias-flash-on-comma} is turned on.

@c XXX Document the replacement for the inaccessible 'long argument.

@findex mh-letter-toggle-header-field-display
@kindex C-c C-t

Use the command @kbd{C-c C-t}
@code{mh-letter-toggle-header-field-display} to display truncated
header fields. This command is a toggle so entering it again will hide
the field. This command takes a prefix argument: if negative then the
field is hidden, if positive then the field is displayed (for example,
@kbd{C-u C-c C-t}).

Be sure to leave a row of dashes or a blank line between the header
and the body of the message.

@vindex mh-letter-fill-column

The body of the message is edited as you would edit any Emacs buffer
although there are a few commands and options to assist you. You can
change the fill column in MH-Letter mode with the option
@code{mh-letter-fill-column}. By default, this option is 72 to allow
others to quote your message without line wrapping.

@cindex filling paragraphs
@cindex paragraphs, filling
@findex fill-paragraph
@kindex M-q
@vindex mh-ins-buf-prefix

You'll often include messages that were sent from user agents that
haven't yet realized that paragraphs consist of more than a single
line. This makes for long lines that wrap in an ugly fashion. You'll
find that @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph}) works well even on these
quoted messages, even if they are nested, just as long as all of the
quotes match the value of @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix} (@pxref{Inserting
Letter}). For example, let's assume you have the following in your
draft:

@smallexample
@group
> Hopefully this gives you an idea of what I'm currently doing. I'm \
not sure yet whether I'm completely satisfied with my setup, but    \
it's worked okay for me so far.
@end group
@end smallexample

Running @kbd{M-q} on this paragraph produces:

@smallexample
@group
> Hopefully this gives you an idea of what I'm currently doing. I'm not
> sure yet whether I'm completely satisfied with my setup, but it's
> worked okay for me so far.
@end group
@end smallexample

@findex mh-open-line
@findex open-line
@kindex C-c C-o
@kindex C-o

The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{mh-open-line}) is similar to the
command @kbd{C-o} (@code{open-line}) in that it inserts a newline
after point. It differs in that it also inserts the right number of
quoting characters and spaces so that the next line begins in the same
column as it was. This is useful when breaking up paragraphs in
replies. For example, if this command was used when point was after
the first period in the paragraph above, the result would be this:

@smallexample
@group
> Hopefully this gives you an idea of what I'm currently doing.

>                                                               I'm not
> sure yet whether I'm completely satisfied with my setup, but it's
> worked okay for me so far.
@end group
@end smallexample

@node Inserting Letter, Inserting Messages, Editing Message, Editing Drafts
@section Inserting Letter to Which You're Replying

@cindex inserting messages
@cindex replying to messages
@cindex yanking messages
@findex mh-yank-cur-msg
@kindex C-c C-y
@vindex mh-ins-buf-prefix

It is often useful to insert a snippet of text from a letter that
someone mailed to provide some context for your reply. The command
@kbd{C-c C-y} (@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}) does this by adding an
attribution, yanking a portion of text from the message to which
you're replying, and inserting @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix} (@samp{> })
before each line.

@smallexample
@group
Michael W Thelen <thelenm@@stop.mail-abuse.org> wrote:

> Hopefully this gives you an idea of what I'm currently doing. I'm not
> sure yet whether I'm completely satisfied with my setup, but it's
> worked okay for me so far.
@end group
@end smallexample

@vindex mh-extract-from-attribution-verb

The attribution consists of the sender's name and email address
followed by the content of the option
@code{mh-extract-from-attribution-verb}. This option can be set to
@samp{wrote:}, @samp{a �crit:}, and @samp{schrieb:}. You can also use
the @samp{Custom String} menu item to enter your own verb.

@vindex mail-citation-hook
@vindex mh-ins-buf-prefix
@vindex mh-yank-behavior

The prefix @code{"> "} is the default setting for the option
@code{mh-ins-buf-prefix}. I suggest that you not modify this option
since it is used by many mailers and news readers: messages are far
easier to read if several included messages have all been indented by
the same string. This prefix is not inserted if you use one of the
supercite flavors of @code{mh-yank-behavior} or you have added a
@code{mail-citation-hook} as described below.

@vindex mh-delete-yanked-msg-window-flag

You can also turn on the @code{mh-delete-yanked-msg-window-flag}
option to delete the window containing the original message after
yanking it to make more room on your screen for your reply.

@cindex Emacs, packages, supercite
@cindex supercite package
@kindex r
@vindex mail-citation-hook
@vindex mh-yank-behavior

You can control how the message to which you are replying is yanked
into your reply using @code{mh-yank-behavior}. To include the entire
message, including the entire header, use @samp{Body and
Header}@footnote{If you'd rather have the header cleaned up, use
@kbd{C-u r} instead of @kbd{r} when replying
(@pxref{Replying}).}@footnote{In the past you would use this setting
and set @code{mail-citation-hook} to @samp{supercite}, but this usage
is now deprecated in favor of the @samp{Invoke supercite} setting.}.
Use @samp{Body} to yank just the body without the header. To yank only
the portion of the message following the point, set this option to
@samp{Below Point}.

Choose @samp{Invoke supercite}@footnote{@emph{Supercite} is a
full-bodied, full-featured, citation package that comes standard with
Emacs.} to pass the entire message and header through supercite.

@vindex mh-extract-from-attribution-verb

If the @samp{Body With Attribution} setting is used, then the message
minus the header is yanked and a simple attribution line is added at
the top using the value of the option
@code{mh-extract-from-attribution-verb}. This is the default.

@kindex C-c C-y
@vindex mh-delete-yanked-msg-window-flag

If the @samp{Invoke supercite} or @samp{Body With Attribution}
settings are used, the @samp{-noformat} argument is passed to the
@command{repl} program to override a @samp{-filter} or @samp{-format}
argument. These settings also have @samp{Automatically} variants that
perform the action automatically when you reply so that you don't need
to use @kbd{C-c C-y} at all. Note that this automatic action is only
performed if the show buffer matches the message being replied to.
People who use the automatic variants tend to turn on the option
@code{mh-delete-yanked-msg-window-flag} as well so that the show
window is never displayed.

@vindex mh-yank-behavior

If the show buffer has a region, the option @code{mh-yank-behavior} is
ignored unless its value is one of @samp{Attribution} variants in
which case the attribution is added to the yanked region.

@findex trivial-cite
@vindex mail-citation-hook
@vindex mh-ins-buf-prefix
@vindex mh-yank-behavior

If this isn't enough, you can gain full control over the appearance of
the included text by setting @code{mail-citation-hook} to a function
that modifies it. This hook is ignored if the option
@code{mh-yank-behavior} is set to one of the supercite flavors.
Otherwise, this option controls how much of the message is passed to
the hook. The function can find the citation between point and mark
and it should leave point and mark around the modified citation text
for the next hook function. The standard prefix
@code{mh-ins-buf-prefix} is not added if this hook is set.

@cindex Emacs, packages, trivial-cite
@cindex trivial-cite package
@vindex mh-yank-behavior

For example, if you use the hook function
@uref{http://shasta.cs.uiuc.edu/~lrclause/tc.html,
@code{trivial-cite}} (which is NOT part of Emacs), set
@code{mh-yank-behavior} to @samp{Body and Header}.

@node Inserting Messages, Signature, Inserting Letter, Editing Drafts
@section Inserting Messages

@cindex inserting messages
@findex mh-insert-letter
@findex mh-yank-behavior
@kindex C-c C-i
@vindex mh-ins-buf-prefix
@vindex mh-invisible-header-fields-compiled
@vindex mh-yank-behavior

Messages can be inserted with @kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{mh-insert-letter}).
This command prompts you for the folder and message number, which
defaults to the current message in that folder. It then inserts the
messages, indented by @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix} (@samp{> }) unless
@code{mh-yank-behavior} is set to one of the supercite flavors in
which case supercite is used to format the message. Certain
undesirable header fields (see
@code{mh-invisible-header-fields-compiled}) are removed before
insertion.

If given a prefix argument (like @kbd{C-u C-c C-i}), the header is
left intact, the message is not indented, and @samp{> } is not
inserted before each line. This command leaves the mark before the
letter and point after it.

@node Signature, Picture, Inserting Messages, Editing Drafts
@section Inserting Your Signature

@cindex signature
@findex mh-insert-signature
@kindex C-c C-s

You can insert your signature at the current cursor location with the
command @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{mh-insert-signature}).

@cindex files, @file{.signature}
@cindex @file{.signature}
@cindex vCard
@vindex mh-signature-file-name

By default, the text of your signature is taken from the file
@file{~/.signature}. You can read from other sources by changing the
option @code{mh-signature-file-name}. This file may contain a
@dfn{vCard} in which case an attachment is added with the vCard.

@findex mh-signature-separator-p
@vindex mh-signature-file-name
@vindex mh-signature-separator
@vindex mh-signature-separator-regexp

The option @code{mh-signature-file-name} may also be a symbol, in
which case that function is called. You may not want a signature
separator to be added for you; instead you may want to insert one
yourself. Options that you may find useful to do this include
@code{mh-signature-separator} (when inserting a signature separator)
and @code{mh-signature-separator-regexp} (for finding said separator).
The function @code{mh-signature-separator-p}, which reports @code{t}
if the buffer contains a separator, may be useful as well.

@cindex signature separator
@vindex mh-signature-separator-flag

A signature separator (@code{"-- "}) will be added if the signature
block does not contain one and @code{mh-signature-separator-flag} is
on. It is not recommended that you change this option since various
mail user agents, including MH-E, use the separator to present the
signature differently, and to suppress the signature when replying or
yanking a letter into a draft.

@vindex mh-insert-signature-hook
@vindex mh-signature-file-name

The hook @code{mh-insert-signature-hook} is run after the signature is
inserted. Hook functions may access the actual name of the file or the
function used to insert the signature with
@code{mh-signature-file-name}.

The signature can also be inserted using Identities.
@xref{Identities}.

@node Picture, Adding Attachments, Signature, Editing Drafts
@section Inserting Your Picture

@cindex @file{.face}
@cindex files, @file{.face}
@vindex mh-x-face-file

You can insert your picture in the header of your mail message so that
recipients see your face in the @samp{From:} header field if their
mail user agent is sophisticated enough. In MH-E, this is done by
placing your image in the file named by the option
@code{mh-x-face-file} which is @file{~/.face} by default.

@cindex @samp{Face:} header field
@cindex @samp{X-Face:} header field
@cindex @samp{X-Image-URL:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{Face:}
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Face:}
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Image-URL:}

If the file starts with either of the strings @samp{X-Face:},
@samp{Face:} or @samp{X-Image-URL:} then the contents are added to the
message header verbatim. Otherwise it is assumed that the file
contains the value of the @samp{X-Face:} header field.

@cindex @command{compface}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{compface}

The @samp{X-Face:} header field, which is a low-resolution, black and
white image, can be generated using the
@uref{ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu/pub/faces/compface/compface.tar.Z,
@command{compface}} command. The @uref{http://www.dairiki.org/xface/,
@cite{Online X-Face Converter}} is a useful resource for quick
conversion of images into @samp{X-Face:} header fields.

Use the @uref{http://quimby.gnus.org/circus/face/make-face,
@command{make-face}} script to convert a JPEG image to the higher
resolution, color, @samp{Face:} header field.

The URL of any image can be used for the @samp{X-Image-URL:} field and
no processing of the image is required.

@vindex mh-x-face-file

To prevent the setting of any of these header fields, either set
@code{mh-x-face-file} to @code{nil}, or simply ensure that the file
defined by this option doesn't exist.

@xref{Viewing}, to see how these header fields are displayed in MH-E.

@node Adding Attachments, Sending PGP, Picture, Editing Drafts
@section Adding Attachments

@cindex @command{mhbuild}
@cindex @command{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhbuild}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhn}
@cindex MIME
@cindex multimedia mail

MH-E has the capability to create multimedia messages. It uses the
@sc{mime} (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
protocol@footnote{@sc{mime} is defined in
@uref{http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt, RFC 2045}.} The
@sc{mime} protocol allows you to incorporate images, sound, video,
binary files, and even commands that fetch a file with @samp{ftp} when
your recipient reads the message!

@kindex C-c C-m

If you were to create a multimedia message with plain MH commands, you
would insert @command{mhbuild} or @command{mhn} directives (henceforth
called @dfn{MH-style directives} into your draft and use the
@command{mhbuild} command in nmh or @command{mhn} command in MH and
GNU mailutils to expand them. MH-E works in much the same way,
although it provides a handful of commands prefixed with @kbd{C-c C-m}
to insert the directives so you don't need to remember the syntax of
them. Remember: you can always add MH-style directives by
hand@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/usimim.html#SeMIMa, Sending MIME Mail} in
the MH book.}.

@cindex MIME Meta Language (MML)
@cindex MML
@vindex mh-compose-insertion

In addition to MH-style directives, MH-E also supports MML (@sc{mime}
Meta Language) tags@footnote{
@ifinfo
@c Although the third argument should default to the
@c first, makeinfo goes to the wrong Info file without it being
@c different--it seems to be getting our own Composing node.
@xref{Composing,,Composing with MML,emacs-mime}.
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
See the section Composing in
@uref{http://www.gnus.org/manual/emacs-mime.html, @cite{The Emacs MIME
Manual}}.
@end ifnotinfo
}. The option @code{mh-compose-insertion} can be used to choose
between them. By default, this option is set to @samp{MML} if it is
supported since it provides a lot more functionality. This option can
also be set to @samp{MH} if MH-style directives are preferred.

@cindex media types
@cindex MIME, media types

The MH-E @sc{mime} commands require a @dfn{media type} for each body
part or attachment. For example, a PDF document is of type
@samp{application/pdf} and an HTML document is of type
@samp{text/html}. Some commands fill in the media type for you,
whereas others require you to enter one.

@cindex @command{file}
@cindex @file{/etc/mime.types}
@cindex files, @file{/etc/mime.types}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{file}
@findex mailcap-mime-types

In the cases where MH-E can do so, it will determine the media type
automatically. It uses the @command{file} command to do this. Failing
that, the Emacs function @code{mailcap-mime-types} is used to provide
a list from which to choose. This function usually reads the file
@file{/etc/mime.types}.

Whether the media type is chosen automatically, or you choose it from
a list, use the type that seems to match best the file that you are
including. In the case of binaries, the media type
@samp{application/x-executable} can be useful. If you can't find an
appropriate media type, use @samp{text/plain} for text messages and
@samp{application/octet-stream} for everything else.

@cindex content description
@cindex MIME, content description

You are also sometimes asked for a @dfn{content description}. This is
simply an optional brief phrase, in your own words, that describes the
object. If you don't care to enter a content description, just press
return and none will be included; however, a reader may skip over
multimedia fields unless the content description is compelling.

You can also create your own @sc{mime} body parts. In the following
example, I describe how you can create and edit a @samp{text/enriched}
body part to liven up your plain text messages with boldface,
underlining, and italics. I include an Emacs function which inserts
enriched text tags.

@smalllisp
@group
(defvar enriched-text-types '(("b" . "bold") ("i" . "italic")
                              ("u" . "underline")
                              ("s" . "smaller") ("B" . "bigger")
                              ("f" . "fixed")
                              ("c" . "center"))
  "Alist of (final-character . tag) choices for add-enriched-text.
Additional types can be found in RFC 1563.")

(defun add-enriched-text (begin end)
  "Add enriched text tags around region.
The tag used comes from the list enriched-text-types and is
specified by the last keystroke of the command.  When called from Lisp,
arguments are BEGIN and END@."
  (interactive "r")
  ;; @r{Set type to the tag indicated by the last keystroke.}
  (let ((type (cdr (assoc (char-to-string (logior last-input-char ?@w{`}))
                          enriched-text-types))))
    (save-restriction               ; @r{restores state from narrow-to-region}
      (narrow-to-region begin end)      ; @r{narrow view to region}
      (goto-char (point-min))           ; @r{move to beginning of text}
      (insert "<" type ">")             ; @r{insert beginning tag}
      (goto-char (point-max))           ; @r{move to end of text}
      (insert "</" type ">"))))         ; @r{insert terminating tag}
@i{Emacs function for entering enriched text}

@end group
@end smalllisp

To use the function @code{add-enriched-text}, first add it to
@file{~/.emacs} and create key bindings for it (@pxref{Composing}).

Then, in your plain text message, set the mark with @kbd{C-@@} or
@kbd{C-@key{SPC}}, type in the text to be highlighted, and type @kbd{C-c t
b}. This adds @samp{<bold>} where you set the mark and adds
@samp{</bold>} at the location of your cursor, giving you something
like: @samp{You should be <bold>very</bold>}.

Before sending this message, use @kbd{C-c C-m C-m}
(@code{mh-mml-to-mime})@footnote{Use @kbd{C-c C-e}
(@code{mh-mh-to-mime}) if you're using MH-style directives.} to add
MIME header fields. Then replace @samp{text/plain} with
@samp{text/enriched} in the @samp{Content-Type:} header field.

You may also be interested in investigating @code{sgml-mode}.

@subheading Including Files

@cindex attachments, inserting
@cindex images
@cindex MIME, images
@cindex MIME, sound
@cindex MIME, video
@cindex sound
@cindex video
@findex mh-compose-insertion
@kindex C-c C-m C-i
@kindex C-c C-m i
@vindex mh-compose-insertion

Binaries, images, sound, and video can be inserted in your message
with the command @kbd{C-c C-m C-i} (@code{mh-compose-insertion}). You
are prompted for the filename containing the object, the media type if
it cannot be determined automatically, and a content description. If
you're using MH-style directives, you will also be prompted for
additional attributes.

@subheading Forwarding Multimedia Messages

@findex mh-compose-forward
@kindex C-c C-m C-f
@kindex C-c C-m f

Mail may be forwarded with @sc{mime} using the command @kbd{C-c C-m
C-f} (@code{mh-compose-forward}). You are prompted for a content
description, the name of the folder in which the messages to forward
are located, and a range of messages, which defaults to the current
message in that folder. @xref{Ranges}.

@subheading Including an FTP Reference

@cindex @command{ftp}
@cindex MIME, @command{ftp}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{ftp}
@findex mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp
@kindex C-c C-m C-g
@kindex C-c C-m g

You can have your message initiate an @command{ftp} transfer when the
recipient reads the message. To do this, use the command @kbd{C-c C-m
C-g} (@code{mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp}). You are prompted for the remote
host and filename, the media type, and the content description.

@subheading Including tar Files

@cindex @command{ftp}
@cindex @command{tar}
@cindex MIME, @command{ftp}
@cindex MIME, @command{tar}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{ftp}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{tar}
@findex mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp
@findex mh-mh-compose-external-compressed-tar
@kindex C-c C-m C-g
@kindex C-c C-m C-t
@kindex C-c C-m t

If the remote file is a compressed tar file, you can use @kbd{C-c C-m
C-t} (@code{mh-mh-compose-external-compressed-tar}). Then, in addition
to retrieving the file via anonymous @emph{ftp} as per the command
@kbd{C-c C-m C-g} (@code{mh-mh-compose-anon-ftp}), the file will also
be uncompressed and untarred. You are prompted for the remote host and
filename and the content description.

@subheading Including Other External Files

@findex mh-mh-compose-external-type
@kindex C-c C-m C-x
@kindex C-c C-m x

The command @kbd{C-c C-m C-x} (@code{mh-mh-compose-external-type}) is
a general utility for referencing external files. In fact, all of the
other commands that insert tags to access external files call this
command. You are prompted for the access type, remote host and
filename, and content type. If you provide a prefix argument, you are
also prompted for a content description, attributes, parameters, and a
comment.

@subheading Previewing Multimedia Messages

When you are finished editing a @sc{mime} message, it might look like this:

@cartouche
@smallexample
3 t08/24  root               received fax files on Wed Aug 24 11:00:
4+t08/24  To:wohler          Test<<This is a test message to get the





--:%%  @{+inbox@} 4 msgs (1-4)   Bot L4     (MH-Folder Show)---------------
To: wohler
cc:
Subject: Test of MIME
--------
Here is the SETI@@Home logo:

<#part type="image/x-xpm" filename="~/lib/images/setiathome.xpm"
disposition=inline description="SETI@@home logo">
<#/part>
--:**  @{draft@}   All L8     (MH-Letter)----------------------------------

@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{MH-E @sc{mime} draft}

@findex mh-mml-to-mime
@kindex C-c C-m C-m
@kindex C-c C-m m

Typically, you send a message with attachments just like any other
message (@pxref{Sending Message}).

@findex mh-mml-to-mime
@kindex C-c C-m C-m

However, you may take a sneak preview of the @sc{mime} encoding if you
wish by running the command @kbd{C-c C-m C-m} (@code{mh-mml-to-mime}).
The following screen shows the @sc{mime} encoding specified by the
tags. You can see why mail user agents are usually built to hide these
details from the user.

@cartouche
@smallexample
To: wohler
cc:
Subject: Test of MIME
X-Mailer: MH-E 8.0; nmh 1.1; GNU Emacs 22.1
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="=-=-="
--------
--=-=-=

Here is the SETI@@Home logo:


--=-=-=
Content-Type: image/x-xpm
Content-Disposition: inline; filename=setiathome.xpm
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Description: SETI@@home logo

LyogWFBNICovCnN0YXRpYyBjaGFyICogc2V0aWF0aG9tZV94cG1bXSA9IHsKIjQ1IDQ1IDc2N
--:--  @{draft@}   Top L1     (MH-Letter)----------------------------------

@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{MH-E @sc{mime} draft ready to send}

@cindex undo effects of mh-mml-to-mime

This action can be undone by running @kbd{C-_} (@code{undo}).

@cindex @command{mhbuild}
@cindex @command{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhbuild}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mhn}
@cindex undo effects of mh-mh-to-mime
@findex mh-mh-to-mime
@findex mh-mh-to-mime-undo
@kindex C-c C-e
@kindex C-c C-m C-m
@kindex C-c C-m C-u
@kindex C-c C-m u

If you're using MH-style directives, use @kbd{C-c C-e}
(@code{mh-mh-to-mime}) instead of @kbd{C-c C-m C-m}. This runs the
command @command{mhbuild} (@command{mhn}) on the message which expands
the tags@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/usimim.html#SeMIMa, Sending MIME Mail} in
the MH book.}. This action can be undone by running @kbd{C-c C-m C-u}
(@code{mh-mh-to-mime-undo}), which works by reverting to a backup
file. You are prompted to confirm this action, but you can avoid the
confirmation by adding an argument (for example, @kbd{C-u C-c C-m
C-u}).

@kindex C-c C-e
@vindex mh-mh-to-mime-args

If you wish to pass additional arguments to @command{mhbuild}
(@command{mhn}) to affect how it builds your message, use the option
@code{mh-mh-to-mime-args}. For example, you can build a consistency
check into the message by setting @code{mh-mh-to-mime-args} to
@samp{-check}. The recipient of your message can then run
@samp{mhbuild -check} on the message---@command{mhbuild}
(@command{mhn}) will complain if the message has been corrupted on the
way. The command @kbd{C-c C-e} only consults this option when given a
prefix argument (as in @kbd{C-u C-c C-e}).

@kindex C-c C-e
@vindex mh-mh-to-mime-hook

The hook @code{mh-mh-to-mime-hook} is called after the message has
been formatted by @kbd{C-c C-e}.

@node Sending PGP, Checking Recipients, Adding Attachments, Editing Drafts
@section Signing and Encrypting Messages

@cindex signing messages
@cindex encrypting messages
@cindex RFC 3156

MH-E can sign and encrypt messages as defined in
@uref{http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3156.txt, RFC 3156}. If you
should choose to sign or encrypt your message, use one of the
following commands to do so any time before sending your message.

@findex mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-sign
@findex mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt
@kindex C-c C-m C-e
@kindex C-c C-m C-s
@kindex C-c C-m e e
@kindex C-c C-m e s
@kindex C-c C-m s e
@kindex C-c C-m s s

The command @kbd{C-c C-m C-s} (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-sign})
inserts the following tag:

@smallexample
<#secure method=pgpmime mode=sign>
@end smallexample

This is used to sign your message digitally. Likewise, the command
@kbd{C-c C-m C-e} (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-encrypt}) inserts the
following tag:

@smallexample
<#secure method=pgpmime mode=encrypt>
@end smallexample

This is used to encrypt your message. Finally, the command @kbd{C-c
C-m s e} (@code{mh-mml-secure-message-signencrypt}) inserts the
following tag:

@smallexample
<#secure method=pgpmime mode=signencrypt>
@end smallexample

@findex mh-mml-unsecure-message
@kindex C-c C-m C-n
@kindex C-c C-m n
@vindex mh-mml-method-default

This is used to sign and encrypt your message. In each of these cases,
a proper multipart message is created for you when you send the
message. Use the command @kbd{C-c C-m C-n}
(@code{mh-mml-unsecure-message}) to remove these tags. Use a prefix
argument (as in @kbd{C-u C-c C-m s e}) to be prompted for one of the
possible security methods (see @code{mh-mml-method-default}).

@vindex mh-mml-method-default

The option @code{mh-mml-method-default} is used to select between a
variety of mail security mechanisms. The default is @samp{PGP (MIME)}
if it is supported; otherwise, the default is @samp{None}. Other
mechanisms include vanilla @samp{PGP} and @samp{S/MIME}.

@cindex @samp{pgg} customization group
@cindex PGG
@cindex customization group, @samp{pgg}

The @samp{pgg} customization group may have some settings which may
interest you.
@iftex
See @cite{The PGG Manual}.
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@xref{Top, , The PGG Manual, pgg, The PGG Manual}.
@end ifinfo
@ifhtml
See
@uref{http://www.dk.xemacs.org/Documentation/packages/html/pgg.html,
@cite{The PGG Manual}}.
@end ifhtml

@cindex header field, @samp{Fcc:}
@cindex @samp{Fcc:} header field
@vindex pgg-encrypt-for-me

In particular, I turn on the option @code{pgg-encrypt-for-me} so that
all messages I encrypt are encrypted with my public key as well. If
you keep a copy of all of your outgoing mail with a @samp{Fcc:} header
field, this setting is vital so that you can read the mail you write!

@node Checking Recipients, Sending Message, Sending PGP, Editing Drafts
@section Checking Recipients

@cindex @samp{*MH-E Recipients*}
@cindex @command{whom}
@cindex MH commands, @command{whom}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Recipients*}
@cindex checking recipients
@cindex recipients, checking
@findex mh-check-whom
@kindex C-c C-w

The command @kbd{C-c C-w} (@code{mh-check-whom}) expands aliases so
you can check the actual address(es) in the alias. A new buffer named
@samp{*MH-E Recipients*} is created with the output of @command{whom}
(@pxref{Miscellaneous})@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/senove.html#WhaPro, What now? -- and the
whatnow Program} in the MH book.}.

@node Sending Message, Killing Draft, Checking Recipients, Editing Drafts
@section Sending a Message

@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Mail Delivery*}
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Mail Delivery*}
@cindex sending mail
@findex mh-send-letter
@kindex C-c C-c

When you are all through editing a message, you send it with the
command @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{mh-send-letter}). You can give a prefix
argument (as in @kbd{C-u C-c C-c}) to monitor the first stage of the
delivery; this output can be found in a buffer called @samp{*MH-E Mail
Delivery*} (@pxref{Miscellaneous}).

@cindex sending mail
@cindex spell check
@findex ispell-message
@kindex C-c C-c
@vindex mh-before-send-letter-hook

The hook @code{mh-before-send-letter-hook} is run at the beginning of
the command @kbd{C-c C-c}. For example, if you want to check your
spelling in your message before sending, add the function
@code{ispell-message}.

@cindex @command{send}
@cindex MH commands, @command{send}
@vindex mh-send-prog

In case the MH @command{send} program@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/sensen.html, Sending Some Mail: comp send}
in the MH book.} is installed under a different name, use
@code{mh-send-prog} to tell MH-E the name.

@node Killing Draft,  , Sending Message, Editing Drafts
@section Killing the Draft

@cindex killing draft
@findex kill-buffer
@findex mh-fully-kill-draft
@kindex C-c C-q
@kindex C-x k

If for some reason you are not happy with the draft, you can use the
command @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{mh-fully-kill-draft}) to kill the draft
buffer and delete the draft message. Use the command @kbd{C-x k}
(@code{kill-buffer}) if you don't want to delete the draft message.

@node Aliases, Identities, Editing Drafts, Top
@chapter Aliases

@cindex aliases

MH aliases are used in the same way in MH-E as they are in MH. Any
alias listed as a recipient will be expanded when the message is sent.
This chapter discusses other things you can do with aliases in MH-E.

@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter

The following commands are available in MH-Letter mode with the
exception of @code{mh-alias-reload} which can be called from anywhere.

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{SPC}
@findex mh-letter-complete-or-space
@item @key{SPC}
Perform completion or insert space (@code{mh-letter-complete-or-space}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@findex mh-letter-complete
@item M-@key{TAB}
Perform completion on header field or word preceding point
(@code{mh-letter-complete}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-alias-apropos
@item mh-alias-apropos
Show all aliases or addresses that match a regular expression.
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-alias-grab-from-field
@item mh-alias-grab-from-field
Add alias for the sender of the current message
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-alias-reload
@item mh-alias-reload
Reload MH aliases.
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-alias} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-alias}

The @samp{mh-alias} customization group contains options associated
with aliases.

@vtable @code
@item mh-alias-completion-ignore-case-flag
On means don't consider case significant in MH alias completion
(default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-expand-aliases-flag
On means to expand aliases entered in the minibuffer (default:
@samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-flash-on-comma
Specify whether to flash address or warn on translation (default: @samp{Flash
but Don't Warn If No Alias}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-insert-file
Filename used to store a new MH-E alias (default: @samp{Use Aliasfile
Profile Component}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-insertion-location
Specifies where new aliases are entered in alias files (default:
@samp{Alphabetical}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-local-users
If @samp{on}, local users are added to alias completion (default:
@samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-local-users-prefix
String prefixed to the real names of users from the password file
(default: @code{"local."}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-alias-passwd-gecos-comma-separator-flag
On means the GECOS field in the password file uses a comma separator
(default: @samp{on}).
@end vtable

The following hook is available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-alias-reloaded-hook
Hook run by @code{mh-alias-reload} after loading aliases (default:
@code{nil}).
@end vtable

@subheading Adding Addresses to Draft

You can use aliases when you are adding recipients to a message.

@findex minibuffer-complete
@kindex @key{TAB}
@vindex mh-alias-expand-aliases-flag
@vindex mh-compose-prompt-flag

In order to use minibuffer prompting for recipients and the subject
line in the minibuffer, turn on the option
@code{mh-compose-prompt-flag} (@pxref{Composing}), and use the
@key{TAB} (@code{minibuffer-complete}) command to complete aliases
(and optionally local logins) when prompted for the recipients. Turn
on the option @code{mh-alias-expand-aliases-flag} if you want these
aliases to be expanded to their respective addresses in the draft.

@findex mh-letter-complete
@findex mh-letter-complete-or-space
@kindex @key{SPC}
@kindex M-@key{TAB}

Otherwise, you can complete aliases in the header of the draft with
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} (@code{mh-letter-complete}) or @key{SPC}
(@code{mh-letter-complete-or-space}).

@vindex mh-alias-completion-ignore-case-flag

As MH ignores case in the aliases, so too does MH-E. However, you may
turn off the option @code{mh-alias-completion-ignore-case-flag} to
make case significant which can be used to segregate completion of
your aliases. You might use uppercase for mailing lists and lowercase
for people. For example, you might have:

@smallexample
mark.baushke: Mark Baushke <mdb@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
MH-E: MH-E Mailing List <mh-e-devel@@stop.mail-abuse.org>
@end smallexample

When this option is turned off, if you were to type @kbd{M} in the
@samp{To:} field and then @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}, then you'd get the list;
if you started with @kbd{m} and then entered @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}, then
you'd get Mark's address. Note that this option affects completion
only. If you were to enter @kbd{Mark.Baushke}, it would still be
identified with your @samp{mark.baushke} alias.

@findex mh-alias-minibuffer-confirm-address
@findex mh-letter-confirm-address
@vindex mh-alias-flash-on-comma
@vindex mh-compose-prompt-flag

To verify that the alias you've entered is valid, the alias will be
displayed in the minibuffer when you type a comma
(@code{mh-letter-confirm-address} or
@code{mh-alias-minibuffer-confirm-address} if the option
@code{mh-compose-prompt-flag} is turned on). @xref{Composing}. This
behavior can be controlled with the option
@code{mh-alias-flash-on-comma} which provides three choices:
@samp{Flash but Don't Warn If No Alias}, @samp{Flash and Warn If No
Alias}, and @samp{Don't Flash Nor Warn If No Alias}.

For another way to verify the alias expansion, see @ref{Checking
Recipients}.

@subheading Loading Aliases

@cindex @command{ali}
@cindex @file{/etc/nmh/MailAliases}
@cindex @samp{Aliasfile:} MH profile component
@cindex MH commands, @command{ali}
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Aliasfile:}
@cindex files, @file{/etc/nmh/MailAliases}

MH-E loads aliases for completion and folder name hints from various
places. It uses the MH command @command{ali}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/mh.html, MH Aliases} in the MH book.} to
read aliases from the files listed in the profile component
@samp{Aliasfile:} as well as system-wide aliases (for example,
@file{/etc/nmh/MailAliases}).

@cindex @file{/etc/passwd}
@cindex files, @file{/etc/passwd}

In addition, aliases are created from @file{/etc/passwd} entries with
a user ID larger than a magical number, typically 200. This can be a
handy tool on a machine where you and co-workers exchange messages.
These aliases have the form @samp{local.@var{first.last}} if a real
name is present in the password file. Otherwise, the alias will have
the form @samp{local.@var{login}}.

@vindex mh-alias-local-users-prefix

The prefix @samp{local.} can be modified via the option
@code{mh-alias-local-users-prefix}. This option can also be set to
@samp{Use Login}.

For example, consider the following password file entry:

@smallexample
psg:x:1000:1000:Peter S Galbraith,,,:/home/psg:/bin/tcsh
@end smallexample

@vindex mh-alias-local-users-prefix

The following settings of option @code{mh-alias-local-users-prefix}
will produce the associated aliases:

@table @code
@item "local."
local.peter.galbraith
@c -------------------------
@item ""
peter.galbraith
@c -------------------------
@item Use Login
psg
@end table

@vindex mh-alias-passwd-gecos-comma-separator-flag

In the example above, commas are used to separate different values
within the so-called GECOS field. This is a fairly common usage.
However, in the rare case that the GECOS field in your password file
is not separated by commas and whose contents may contain commas, you
can turn the option @code{mh-alias-passwd-gecos-comma-separator-flag}
off.

@cindex NIS, obtaining local aliases from
@cindex @samp{ypcat passwd}
@vindex mh-alias-local-users

If you're on a system with thousands of users you don't know, and the
loading of local aliases slows MH-E down noticeably, then the local
alias feature can be disabled by turning off the option
@code{mh-alias-local-users}. This option also takes a string which is
executed to generate the password file. For example, use @samp{ypcat
passwd} to obtain the NIS password file.

@findex mh-alias-reload
@kindex M-x mh-alias-reload
@vindex mh-alias-reloaded-hook

Since aliases are updated frequently, MH-E reloads aliases
automatically whenever an alias lookup occurs if an alias source has
changed. However, you can reload your aliases manually by calling the
command @kbd{M-x mh-alias-reload} directly. This command runs
@code{mh-alias-reloaded-hook} after the aliases have been loaded.

@subheading Adding Aliases

In the past, you have manually added aliases to your alias file(s)
listed in your @samp{Aliasfile:} profile component. MH-E provides
other methods for maintaining your alias file(s).

@findex mh-alias-add-alias
@kindex M-x mh-alias-add-alias

You can use the @kbd{M-x mh-alias-add-alias} command which will prompt
you for the alias and address that you would like to add. If the alias
exists already, you will have the choice of inserting the new alias
before or after the old alias. In the former case, this alias will be
used when sending mail to this alias. In the latter case, the alias
serves as an additional folder name hint when filing messages
(@pxref{Folder Selection}).

Earlier, the alias prefix @samp{local} was presented. You can use
other prefixes to organize your aliases or disambiguate entries. You
might use prefixes for locales, jobs, or activities. For example, I
have:

@smallexample
@group
; Work
attensity.don.mitchell: Don Mitchell <dmitchell@@stop.mail-abuse.com>
isharp.don.mitchell: Don Mitchell <donaldsmitchell@@stop.mail-abuse.com>
...
; Sport
diving.ken.mayer: Ken Mayer <kmayer@@stop.mail-abuse.com>
sailing.mike.maloney: Mike Maloney <mmaloney@@stop.mail-abuse.com>
...
; Personal
ariane.kolkmann: Ariane Kolkmann <ArianeKolkmann@@stop.mail-abuse.com>
...
@end group
@end smallexample

Using prefixes instead of postfixes helps you explore aliases during
completion. If you forget the name of an old dive buddy, you can enter
@samp{div} and then @key{SPC} to get a listing of all your dive buddies.

@kindex M-x mh-alias-add-address-under-point
@kindex M-x mh-alias-grab-from-field

An alias for the sender of the current message is added automatically
by clicking on the @samp{Grab From alias} tool bar button or by running
the @kbd{M-x mh-alias-grab-from-field} command. Aliases for other
recipients of the current message are added by placing your cursor
over the desired recipient and giving the @kbd{M-x
mh-alias-add-address-under-point} command.

@vindex mh-alias-insert-file
@vindex mh-alias-insertion-location

The options @code{mh-alias-insert-file} and
@code{mh-alias-insertion-location} controls how and where these aliases
are inserted.

@vindex mh-alias-insert-file

The default setting of option @code{mh-alias-insert-file} is @samp{Use
Aliasfile Profile Component}. This option can also hold the name of a
file or a list a file names. If this option is set to a list of file
names, or the @samp{Aliasfile:} profile component contains more than
one file name, MH-E will prompt for one of them.

@vindex mh-alias-insertion-location

The option @code{mh-alias-insertion-location} is set to
@samp{Alphabetical} by default. If you organize your alias file in
other ways, then the settings @samp{Top} and @samp{Bottom} might be
more appropriate.

@subheading Querying Aliases

@cindex regular expressions, @code{mh-alias-apropos}
@findex mh-alias-apropos
@kindex M-x mh-alias-apropos

If you can't quite remember an alias, you can use @kbd{M-x
mh-alias-apropos} to show all aliases or addresses that match a
regular expression
@ifnothtml
(@pxref{Regexps, , Syntax of Regular Expressions, emacs, The
GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
(see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Regexps.html,
Syntax of Regular Expressions} in
@cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifhtml

@node Identities, Speedbar, Aliases, Top
@chapter Identities

@cindex identities
@cindex multiple personalities

MH-E supports the concept of multiple personalities or identities.
This means that you can easily have a different header and signature
at home and at work.

@cindex @samp{Identity} menu
@cindex menu, @samp{Identity}

A couple of commands are used to insert identities in MH-Letter mode
which are also found in the @samp{Identity} menu.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-d
@findex mh-insert-identity
@item C-c C-d
Insert fields specified by given identity (@code{mh-insert-identity}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Identity > Insert Auto Fields} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Identity > Insert Auto Fields}
@kindex C-c M-d
@findex mh-insert-auto-fields
@item C-c M-d
Insert custom fields if recipient found in @code{mh-auto-fields-list}
(@code{mh-insert-auto-fields}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-identity} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-identity}

The @samp{mh-identity} customization group contains the following
options.

@vtable @code
@item mh-auto-fields-list
List of recipients for which header lines are automatically inserted
(default: @code{nil}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-auto-fields-prompt-flag
On means to prompt before sending if fields inserted (default:
@samp{on})
@c -------------------------
@item mh-identity-default
Default identity to use when @code{mh-letter-mode} is called (default:
@samp{None}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-identity-handlers
Handler functions for fields in @code{mh-identity-list}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-identity-list
List of identities (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

Some of the common header fields that people change depending on the
context are the @samp{From:} and @samp{Organization:} fields, as well
as the signature.

@vindex mh-identity-list

This is done by customizing the option @code{mh-identity-list}. In the
customization buffer for this option, click on the @samp{INS} button
and enter a label such as @samp{Home} or @samp{Work}. Then click on
the @samp{INS} button with the label @samp{Add at least one item
below}. The @samp{Value Menu} has the following menu items:

@table @samp
@cindex header field, @samp{From:}
@cindex @samp{From:} header field
@item From Field
Specify an alternate @samp{From:} header field. You must include a
valid email address. A standard format is @samp{First Last
<login@@host.domain>}. If you use an initial with a period, then you
must quote your name as in @samp{"First I. Last"
<login@@host.domain>}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex header field, @samp{Organization:}
@cindex @samp{Organization:} header field
@item Organization Field
People usually list the name of the company where they work here.
@c -------------------------
@item Other Field
Set any arbitrary header field and value here. Unless the header field
is a standard one, precede the name of your field's label with
@samp{X-}, as in @samp{X-Fruit-of-the-Day:}.
@c -------------------------
@item Attribution Verb
This value overrides the setting of
@code{mh-extract-from-attribution-verb}. @xref{Inserting Letter}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex signature
@vindex mh-signature-file-name
@item Signature
Set your signature with this item. You can specify the contents of
@code{mh-signature-file-name}, a file, or a function.
@xref{Signature}.
@c -------------------------
@item GPG Key ID
Specify a different key to sign or encrypt messages.
@end table

@cindex Identity menu
@cindex menu, Identity
@findex mh-insert-identity
@kindex C-c C-d

You can select the identities you have added via the menu called
@samp{Identity} in the MH-Letter buffer. You can also use @kbd{C-c
C-d} (@code{mh-insert-identity}). To clear the fields and signature
added by the identity, select the @samp{None} identity.

@cindex menu item, @samp{Identity > Customize Identities}
@cindex menu item, @samp{Identity > Save as Default}
@cindex menu item, @samp{Identity > Set Default for Session}
@cindex @samp{Identity > Customize Identities} menu item
@cindex @samp{Identity > Save as Default} menu item
@cindex @samp{Identity > Set Default for Session} menu item
@vindex mh-identity-default

The @samp{Identity} menu contains two other items to save you from
having to set the identity on every message. The menu item @samp{Set
Default for Session} can be used to set the default identity to the
current identity until you exit Emacs. The menu item @samp{Save as
Default} sets the option @code{mh-identity-default} to the current
identity setting. You can also customize the option
@code{mh-identity-default} in the usual fashion. If you find that you
need to add another identity, the menu item @samp{Customize
Identities} is available for your convenience.

@cindex regular expressions, @code{mh-auto-fields-list}
@vindex mh-auto-fields-list

The option @code{mh-auto-fields-list} can also be used to set the
identity depending on the recipient to provide even more control. To
customize @code{mh-auto-fields-list}, click on the @samp{INS} button
and enter a regular expression for the recipient's address
@ifnothtml
(@pxref{Regexps, , Syntax of Regular Expressions, emacs, The
GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
(see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Regexps.html,
Syntax of Regular Expressions} in
@cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}).
@end ifhtml
Click on the @samp{INS} button with the @samp{Add at least one item
below} label. The @samp{Value Menu} contains the following menu items:

@table @samp
@item Identity
Select an identity from those configured in @code{mh-identity-list}.
All of the information for that identity will be added if the
recipient matches.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Fcc:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{Fcc:}
@item Fcc Field
Insert an @samp{Fcc:} header field with the folder you provide. When
you send the message, MH will put a copy of your message in this
folder.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{Mail-Followup-To:}
@item Mail-Followup-To Field
Insert an @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header field with the recipients
you provide. If the recipient's mail user agent supports this header
field@footnote{@samp{Mail-Followup-To:} is supported by nmh.}, then
their replies will go to the addresses listed. This is useful if their
replies go both to the list and to you and you don't have a mechanism
to suppress duplicates. If you reply to someone not on the list, you
must either remove the @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} field, or ensure the
recipient is also listed there so that he receives replies to your
reply.
@c -------------------------
@item Other Field
Other header fields may be added using this menu item.
@end table

@findex mh-insert-auto-fields
@kindex C-c M-d
@vindex mh-auto-fields-prompt-flag

These fields can only be added after the recipient is known. Because
you can continue to add recipients as you edit the draft, MH-E waits
until the message is sent to perform the auto-insertions. This seems
strange at first, but you'll get used to it. There are two ways to
help you feel that the desired fields are added. The first is the
action when the message is sent: if any fields are added
automatically, you are given a chance to see and to confirm these
fields before the message is actually sent. You can do away with this
confirmation by turning off the option
@code{mh-auto-fields-prompt-flag}. The second method is manual: once
the header contains one or more recipients, you may run the command
@kbd{C-c M-d} (@code{mh-insert-auto-fields}) or choose the
@samp{Identity -> Insert Auto Fields} menu item to insert these fields
manually. However, if you use this command, the automatic insertion
when the message is sent is disabled.

@vindex mh-auto-fields-list
@vindex mh-identity-list

You should avoid using the same header field in
@code{mh-auto-fields-list} and @code{mh-identity-list} definitions
that may apply to the same message as the result is undefined.

@vindex mh-identity-handlers
@vindex mh-identity-list

The option @code{mh-identity-handlers} is used to change the way that
fields, signatures, and attributions in @code{mh-identity-list} are
added. To customize @code{mh-identity-handlers}, replace the name of
an existing handler function associated with the field you want to
change with the name of a function you have written. You can also
click on an @samp{INS} button and insert a field of your choice and
the name of the function you have written to handle it.

@vindex mh-identity-list

The @samp{Field} field can be any field that you've used in your
@code{mh-identity-list}. The special fields @samp{:attribution-verb},
@samp{:signature}, or @samp{:pgg-default-user-id} are used for the
@code{mh-identity-list} choices @samp{Attribution Verb},
@samp{Signature}, and @samp{GPG Key ID} respectively.

The handler associated with the @samp{:default} field is used when no
other field matches.

The handler functions are passed two or three arguments: the field
itself (for example, @samp{From}), or one of the special fields (for
example, @samp{:signature}), and the action @samp{'remove} or
@samp{'add}. If the action is @samp{'add}, an additional argument
containing the value for the field is given.

@node Speedbar, Menu Bar, Identities, Top
@chapter The Speedbar

@cindex folder navigation
@cindex speedbar
@findex mh-visit-folder
@kindex F v
@kindex M-x speedbar
@kindex Mouse-2

You can also use the speedbar
@ifnothtml
(@pxref{Speedbar, , Speedbar Frames, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual},)
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
(see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Speedbar.html,
Speedbar Frames} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual})
@end ifhtml
to view your folders. To bring up the speedbar, run @kbd{M-x speedbar
@key{RET}}. You will see a new frame appear with all of your MH
folders. Folders with unseen messages appear in boldface. Click on a
folder name with @kbd{Mouse-2} to visit that folder in a similar
fashion to the command @kbd{F v} (@code{mh-visit-folder})
(@pxref{Folders}). Click on the @samp{+} icon to expand and view the
sub-folders of that folder.

The speedbar can be manipulated with the keyboard as well. Use the
Emacs navigational keys (like the arrow keys, or @kbd{C-n}) to move
the cursor over the desired folder and then use the shortcuts for the
menu items listed in the table below.

@table @samp
@findex mh-speed-view
@item Visit Folder (@key{RET})
Visits the selected folder just as if you had used @kbd{F v}
(@code{mh-speed-view}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-speed-expand-folder
@item Expand Nested Folders (@kbd{+})
Expands the selected folder in the speedbar, exposing the children
folders inside it (@code{mh-speed-expand-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-speed-contract-folder
@item Contract Nested Folders (@kbd{-})
Contracts or collapses the selected folder in the speedbar, hiding the
children folders inside it (@code{mh-speed-contract-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-speed-refresh
@item Refresh Speedbar (@kbd{r})
Regenerates the list of folders in the speedbar. Run this command if
you've added or deleted a folder, or want to update the unseen message
count before the next automatic update (@code{mh-speed-refresh}).
@end table

@findex delete-frame
@kindex C-x 5 0
@kindex Mouse-3

You can click on @kbd{Mouse-3} to bring up a context menu that
contains these items. Dismiss the speedbar with @kbd{C-x 5 0}
(@code{delete-frame}).

@cindex @command{flists}
@cindex MH commands, @command{flists}
@cindex @samp{mh-speedbar} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-speedbar}

The MH-E speedbar uses the MH command @command{flists}@footnote{See
the section @uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/morseq.html#flist, Searching for
Sequences with flist} in the MH book.} to generate the list of
folders. The @samp{mh-speedbar} customization group contains the
following option which controls how often the speedbar calls
@command{flists}.

@vtable @code
@item mh-speed-update-interval
Time between speedbar updates in seconds (default: 60). Set to 0 to
disable automatic update.
@end vtable

You can modify the appearance of the folders in the speedbar by
customizing the following faces.

@vtable @code
@item mh-speedbar-folder
Basic folder face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-speedbar-folder-with-unseen-messages
Folder face when folder contains unread messages.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-speedbar-selected-folder
Selected folder face.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-speedbar-selected-folder-with-unseen-messages
Selected folder face when folder contains unread messages.
@end vtable

@node Menu Bar, Tool Bar, Speedbar, Top
@chapter The Menu Bar

@cindex @samp{Folder} menu
@cindex @samp{Identity} menu
@cindex @samp{Letter} menu
@cindex @samp{Message} menu
@cindex @samp{Search} menu
@cindex @samp{Sequence} menu
@cindex Folder menu
@cindex Identity menu
@cindex Letter menu
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex MH-Search mode
@cindex Message menu
@cindex Search menu
@cindex Sequence menu
@cindex menu bar
@cindex menu, Folder
@cindex menu, Identity
@cindex menu, Letter
@cindex menu, Message
@cindex menu, Search
@cindex menu, Sequence
@cindex menu, @samp{Folder}
@cindex menu, @samp{Identity}
@cindex menu, @samp{Letter}
@cindex menu, @samp{Message}
@cindex menu, @samp{Search}
@cindex menu, @samp{Sequence}
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@cindex modes, MH-Search

For those of you who prefer to mouse and menu instead of using the
meta-coke-bottle-bucky keys, MH-E provides menu items for most of its
functions. The MH-Folder buffer adds the @samp{Folder},
@samp{Message}, and @samp{Sequence} menus. The MH-Letter buffer adds
the @samp{Identity} and @samp{Letter} menus. The MH-Search buffer adds
the @samp{Search} menu. There's no need to list the actual items here,
as you can more easily see them for yourself, and the functions are
already described elsewhere in this manual.

For a description of the menu bar, please
@ifnothtml
@xref{Menu Bar, , The Menu Bar, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Menu-Bar.html,
The Menu Bar} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml

The Emacs manual describes how to get online help for a particular
menu item. You can also look up a menu item in the index of this
manual in two ways: all of the menu items are listed alphabetically,
and you can also browse all of the items under the index entry
@samp{menu item}.

@node Tool Bar, Searching, Menu Bar, Top
@chapter The Tool Bar

@cindex tool bar

Emacs also provides a graphical tool bar. For a description of the
tool bar, please
@ifnothtml
@xref{Tool Bars, , Tool Bars, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
see the section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Tool-Bars.html,
Tool Bars} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml

@cindex @samp{mh-tool-bar} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-tool-bar}

MH-E adds several icons to this tool bar; you can modify the MH-E
aspects of the tool bar via the @samp{mh-tool-bar} customization group.

@vtable @code
@item mh-tool-bar-folder-buttons
List of buttons to include in MH-Folder tool bar (default: a checklist
too long to list here).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-tool-bar-letter-buttons
List of buttons to include in MH-Letter tool bar (default: a checklist
too long to list here).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-tool-bar-search-function
Function called by the tool bar search button (default:
@code{mh-search}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-xemacs-tool-bar-position
Tool bar location (default: @samp{Same As Default Tool Bar}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-xemacs-use-tool-bar-flag
If @samp{on}, use tool bar (default: @samp{on}, if supported).
@end vtable

In GNU Emacs, icons for some of MH-E's functions are added to the tool
bar. In XEmacs, you have the opportunity to create a separate tool bar for
the MH-E icons.

@vindex mh-tool-bar-folder-buttons
@vindex mh-tool-bar-letter-buttons

In either case, you can select which of these functions you'd like to
see by customizing the options @code{mh-tool-bar-folder-buttons} and
@code{mh-tool-bar-letter-buttons}. As you probably guessed, the former
customizes the tool bar in MH-Folder mode and the latter in MH-Letter
mode. Both of these options present you with a list of functions;
check the functions whose icons you want to see and clear the check
boxes for those you don't.

@findex mh-search
@vindex mh-tool-bar-search-function

The function associated with the searching icon can be set via the
option @code{mh-tool-bar-search-function}. By default, this is set to
@code{mh-search}. @xref{Searching}. You can also choose @samp{Other
Function} from the @samp{Value Menu} and enter a function of your own
choosing.

@vindex mh-xemacs-use-tool-bar-flag

XEmacs provides a couple of extra options. The first,
@code{mh-xemacs-use-tool-bar-flag}, controls whether to show the MH-E
icons at all. By default, this option is turned on if the window
system supports tool bars. If your system doesn't support tool bars,
then you won't be able to turn on this option.

@vindex mh-xemacs-tool-bar-position

The second extra option is @code{mh-xemacs-tool-bar-position} which
controls the placement of the tool bar along the four edges of the
frame. You can choose from one of @samp{Same As Default Tool Bar},
@samp{Top}, @samp{Bottom}, @samp{Left}, or @samp{Right}. If this
variable is set to anything other than @samp{Same As Default Tool Bar}
and the default tool bar is in a different location, then two tool
bars will be displayed: the MH-E tool bar and the default tool bar.

@node Searching, Threading, Tool Bar, Top
@chapter Searching Through Messages

@cindex @samp{Search} menu
@cindex menu, @samp{Search}
@cindex searching
@findex mh-search
@kindex F s

Earlier, the command @kbd{F s} (@code{mh-search}) was introduced which
helps you find messages that lie buried in your folders
(@pxref{Folders}). This chapter covers this command in more detail.
Several commands are used to compose the search criteria and to start
searching. A couple of them can be found in the @samp{Search} menu.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c ?
@findex mh-help
@item C-c ?
Display cheat sheet for the MH-E commands (@code{mh-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Search > Perform Search} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Search > Perform Search}
@kindex C-c C-c
@findex mh-index-do-search
@item C-c C-c
Find messages using @code{mh-search-program}
(@code{mh-index-do-search}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Search > Search with pick} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Search > Search with pick}
@kindex C-c C-p
@findex mh-pick-do-search
@item C-c C-p
Find messages using @command{pick} (@code{mh-pick-do-search}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c ?
@findex mh-help
@item C-c ?
Display cheat sheet for the MH-E commands (@code{mh-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-a
@kindex C-c C-f a
@findex mh-to-field
@item C-c C-f a
@itemx C-c C-f C-a
Move to @samp{Mail-Reply-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-b
@kindex C-c C-f b
@item C-c C-f b
@itemx C-c C-f C-b
Move to @samp{Bcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@kindex C-c C-f c
@item C-c C-f c
@itemx C-c C-f C-c
Move to @samp{Cc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-d
@kindex C-c C-f d
@item C-c C-f d
@itemx C-c C-f C-d
Move to @samp{Dcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-f
@kindex C-c C-f f
@item C-c C-f f
@itemx C-c C-f C-f
Move to @samp{Fcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-l
@kindex C-c C-f l
@item C-c C-f l
@itemx C-c C-f C-l
Move to @samp{Mail-Followup-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-m
@kindex C-c C-f m
@item C-c C-f m
@itemx C-c C-f C-m
Move to @samp{From:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-r
@kindex C-c C-f r
@item C-c C-f r
@itemx C-c C-f C-r
Move to @samp{Reply-To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-s
@kindex C-c C-f s
@item C-c C-f s
@itemx C-c C-f C-s
Move to @samp{Subject:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-c C-f t
@item C-c C-f t
@itemx C-c C-f C-t
Move to @samp{To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).
@end table

Another few commands are available in the MH-Folder buffer resulting
from a search.

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@findex mh-index-next-folder
@item @key{TAB}
Jump to the next folder marker (@code{mh-index-next-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@findex mh-index-previous-folder
@item S-@key{TAB}
Jump to the previous folder marker (@code{mh-index-previous-folder}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex v
@findex mh-index-visit-folder
@item v
Visit original folder from where the message at point was found
(@code{mh-index-visit-folder}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-search} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-search}

There is one option from the @samp{mh-search} customization group used
in searching.

@vtable @code
@item mh-search-program
Search program that MH-E shall use (default: @samp{Auto-detect}).
@end vtable

The following hook is available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-search-mode-hook
Hook run upon entry to @code{mh-search-mode} (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

The following face is available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-search-folder
Folder heading face in MH-Folder buffers created by searches.
@end vtable

@findex mh-search-folder
@kindex F s

The command @kbd{F s} (@code{mh-search-folder}) helps you find
messages in your entire corpus of mail. You can search for messages to
or from a particular person or about a particular subject. In fact,
you can also search for messages containing selected strings in any
arbitrary header field or any string found within the messages.

@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @command{pick}

Out of the box, MH-E uses @command{pick} to find messages. With a
little extra effort, you can set an indexing program which rewards you
with extremely quick results. The drawback is that sometimes the index
does not contain the words you're looking for. You can still use
@command{pick} in these situations.

You are prompted for the folder to search. This can be @samp{all} to
search all folders. Note that the search works recursively on the
listed folder.

@cindex MH-Search mode
@cindex modes, MH-Search

Next, an MH-Search buffer appears where you can enter search criteria.

@cartouche
@smallexample
From:
To:
Cc:
Date:
Subject:
--------
#








--:**  search-pattern   All L7     (MH-Search)---------------------------
Type C-c C-c to search messages, C-c C-p to use pick, C-c ? for help
@end smallexample
@end cartouche
@i{Search window}

@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @command{pick}

Edit this template by entering your search criteria in an appropriate
header field that is already there, or create a new field yourself. If
the string you're looking for could be anywhere in a message, then
place the string underneath the row of dashes.

As an example, let's say that we want to find messages from Ginnean
about horseback riding in the Kosciusko National Park (Australia)
during January, 1994. Normally we would start with a broad search and
narrow it down if necessary to produce a manageable amount of data,
but we'll cut to the chase and create a fairly restrictive set of
criteria as follows:

@smallexample
@group
From: ginnean
To:
Cc:
Date: Jan 1994
Subject:
--------
horse
kosciusko
@end group
@end smallexample

@findex mh-to-field
@kindex C-c C-f C-t

As with MH-Letter mode, MH-Search provides commands like @kbd{C-c C-f
C-t} (@code{mh-to-field}) to help you fill in the blanks.
@xref{Editing Message}.

@kindex F s
@vindex mh-search-mode-hook

If you find that you do the same thing over and over when editing the
search template, you may wish to bind some shortcuts to keys. This can
be done with the variable @code{mh-search-mode-hook}, which is called
when @kbd{F s} is run on a new pattern.

@findex mh-index-do-search
@findex mh-pick-do-search
@kindex C-c C-c
@kindex C-c C-p

To perform the search, type @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{mh-index-do-search}).
Sometimes you're searching for text that is either not indexed, or
hasn't been indexed yet. In this case you can override the default
method with the pick method by running the command @kbd{C-c C-p}
(@code{mh-pick-do-search}).

@cindex folders, @samp{+mhe-index}
@cindex @samp{+mhe-index}
@findex mh-index-next-folder
@findex mh-index-previous-folder
@kindex @key{TAB}
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@vindex mh-search-folder

The messages that are found are put in a temporary sub-folder of
@samp{+mhe-index} and are displayed in an MH-Folder buffer. This
buffer is special because it displays messages from multiple folders;
each set of messages from a given folder has a heading with the folder
name. The appearance of the heading can be modified by customizing the
face @code{mh-search-folder}. You can jump back and forth between the
headings using the commands @kbd{@key{TAB}}
(@code{mh-index-next-folder}) and @kbd{S-@key{TAB}}
(@code{mh-index-previous-folder}).

@findex mh-index-visit-folder
@findex mh-rescan-folder
@kindex F r
@kindex v

In addition, the command @kbd{v} (@code{mh-index-visit-folder}) can be
used to visit the folder of the message at point. Initially, only the
messages that matched the search criteria are displayed in the folder.
While the temporary buffer has its own set of message numbers, the
actual messages numbers are shown in the visited folder. Thus, the
command @kbd{v} is useful to find the actual message number of an
interesting message, or to view surrounding messages with the command
@kbd{F r} @code{mh-rescan-folder}. @xref{Folders}.

@findex mh-kill-folder
@kindex F k

Because this folder is temporary, you'll probably get in the habit of
killing it when you're done with @kbd{F k} (@code{mh-kill-folder}).
@xref{Folders}.

@kindex F s

You can regenerate the results by running @kbd{F s} with a prefix
argument.

@cindex @command{procmail}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{procmail}
@cindex @samp{X-MHE-Checksum:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{X-MHE-Checksum:}

Note: This command uses an @samp{X-MHE-Checksum:} header field to
cache the MD5 checksum of a message. This means that if an incoming
message already contains an @samp{X-MHE-Checksum:} field, that message
might not be found by this command. The following @command{procmail}
recipe avoids this problem by renaming the existing header field:

@smallexample
@group
:0 wf
| formail -R "X-MHE-Checksum" "X-Old-MHE-Checksum"
@end group
@end smallexample

@xref{Limits}, for an alternative interface to searching.

@section Configuring Indexed Searches

@cindex @command{grep}
@cindex @command{mairix}
@cindex @command{namazu}
@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex @command{swish++}
@cindex @command{swish-e}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{grep}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{mairix}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{namazu}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{pick}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{swish++}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{swish-e}
@findex mh-search
@kindex F s
@vindex mh-search-program

The command @kbd{F s} (@code{mh-search}) runs the command defined by
the option @code{mh-search-program}. The default value is
@samp{Auto-detect} which means that MH-E will automatically choose one
of @command{swish++}, @command{swish-e}, @command{mairix},
@command{namazu}, @command{pick} and @command{grep} in that order. If,
for example, you have both @command{swish++} and @command{mairix}
installed and you want to use @command{mairix}, then you can set this
option to @samp{mairix}.

The following sub-sections describe how to set up the various indexing
programs to use with MH-E.

@subsection swish++

@cindex @command{swish++}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{swish++}

In the examples below, replace @file{/home/user/Mail} with the path to
your MH directory.

First create the directory @file{/home/user/Mail/.swish++}. Then
create the file @file{/home/user/Mail/.swish++/swish++.conf} with the
following contents:

@smallexample
@group
IncludeMeta         Bcc Cc Comments Content-Description From Keywords
IncludeMeta         Newsgroups Resent-To Subject To
IncludeMeta         Message-Id References In-Reply-To
IncludeFile         Mail    *
IndexFile           /home/user/Mail/.swish++/swish++.index
@end group
@end smallexample

Use the following command line to generate the swish index. Run this
daily from cron:

@smallexample
@group
find /home/user/Mail -path /home/user/Mail/mhe-index -prune \
                     -o -path /home/user/Mail/.swish++ -prune \
                     -o -name "[0-9]*" -print \
    | index -c /home/user/Mail/.swish++/swish++.conf -
@end group
@end smallexample

This command does not index the folders that hold the results of your
searches in @samp{+mhe-index} since they tend to be ephemeral and the
original messages are indexed anyway.

@cindex @command{index}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{index}
@cindex @command{index++}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{index++}

On some systems (Debian GNU/Linux, for example), use @command{index++}
instead of @command{index}.

@subsection swish

@cindex @command{swish-e}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{swish-e}

In the examples below, replace @file{/home/user/Mail} with the path to
your MH directory.

First create the directory @file{/home/user/Mail/.swish}. Then create
the file @file{/home/user/Mail/.swish/config} with the following
contents:

@smallexample
@group
DefaultContents TXT*
IndexDir /home/user/Mail
IndexFile /home/user/Mail/.swish/index
IndexName "Mail Index"
IndexDescription "Mail Index"
IndexPointer "http://nowhere"
IndexAdmin "nobody"
#MetaNames automatic
IndexReport 3
FollowSymLinks no
UseStemming no
IgnoreTotalWordCountWhenRanking yes
WordCharacters abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789-
BeginCharacters abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
EndCharacters abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789
IgnoreLimit 50 1000
IndexComments 0
FileRules filename contains \D
FileRules pathname contains /home/user/Mail/.swish
FileRules pathname contains /home/user/Mail/mhe-index
FileRules filename is index
@end group
@end smallexample

This configuration does not index the folders that hold the results of
your searches in @samp{+mhe-index} since they tend to be ephemeral and
the original messages are indexed anyway.

If there are any directories you would like to ignore, append lines
like the following to @file{config}:

@smallexample
FileRules pathname contains /home/user/Mail/scripts
@end smallexample

@cindex @command{swish-e}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{swish-e}

Use the following command line to generate the swish index. Run this
daily from cron:

@smallexample
swish-e -c /home/user/Mail/.swish/config
@end smallexample

@subsection mairix

@cindex @command{mairix}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{mairix}

In the examples below, replace @file{/home/user/Mail} with the path to
your MH directory.

First create the directory @file{/home/user/Mail/.mairix}. Then create
the file @file{/home/user/Mail/.mairix/config} with the following
contents:

@smallexample
@group
base=/home/user/Mail

# List of folders that should be indexed. 3 dots at the end means there
# are subfolders within the folder
mh=archive...:inbox:drafts:news:sent:trash

vfolder_format=raw
database=/home/user/Mail/mairix/database
@end group
@end smallexample

Use the following command line to generate the mairix index. Run this daily
from cron:

@smallexample
mairix -f /home/user/Mail/.mairix/config
@end smallexample

@subsection namazu

@cindex @command{namazu}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{namazu}

In the examples below, replace @file{/home/user/Mail} with the path to
your MH directory.

First create the directory @file{/home/user/Mail/.namazu}. Then create
the file @file{/home/user/Mail/.namazu/mknmzrc} with the following
contents:

@smallexample
@group
package conf;  # Don't remove this line!
$ADDRESS = 'user@@localhost';
$ALLOW_FILE = "[0-9]*";
$EXCLUDE_PATH = "^/home/user/Mail/(mhe-index|spam)";
@end group
@end smallexample

This configuration does not index the folders that hold the results of
your searches in @samp{+mhe-index} since they tend to be ephemeral and
the original messages are indexed anyway.

Use the following command line to generate the namazu index. Run this
daily from cron:

@smallexample
mknmz -f /home/user/Mail/.namazu/mknmzrc -O /home/user/Mail/.namazu \
         /home/user/Mail
@end smallexample

@subsection pick

@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @command{pick}

This search method does not require any setup.

Read @command{pick}(1) or the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/finpic.html, Finding Messages with pick} in
the MH book to find out more about how to enter the criteria.

@subsection grep

@cindex @command{grep}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{grep}

This search method does not require any setup.

Unlike the other search methods, this method does not use the
MH-Search buffer. Instead, you simply enter a regular expression in
the minibuffer. For help in constructing regular expressions, see your
man page for @command{grep}.

@node Threading, Limits, Searching, Top
@chapter Viewing Message Threads

@cindex threading

MH-E groups messages by @dfn{threads} which are messages that are part
of the same discussion and usually all have the same @samp{Subject:}
header field. Other ways to organize messages in a folder include
limiting (@pxref{Limits}) or using full-text indexed searches
(@pxref{Searching}).

@cindex root, in threads
@cindex siblings, in threads
@cindex ancestor, in threads

A thread begins with a single message called a @dfn{root}. All replies
to the same message are @dfn{siblings} of each other. Any message that
has replies to it is an @dfn{ancestor} of those replies.

There are several commands that you can use to navigate and operate on
threads.

@table @kbd
@kindex T ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item T ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T o
@findex mh-thread-refile
@item T o
Refile (output) thread into folder (@code{mh-thread-refile}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T d
@findex mh-thread-delete
@item T d
Delete thread (@code{mh-thread-delete}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T t
@findex mh-toggle-threads
@item T t
Toggle threaded view of folder (@code{mh-toggle-threads}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T n
@findex mh-thread-next-sibling
@item T n
Display next sibling (@code{mh-thread-next-sibling}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T p
@findex mh-thread-previous-sibling
@item T p
Display previous sibling (@code{mh-thread-previous-sibling}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex T u
@findex mh-thread-ancestor
@item T u
Display ancestor of current message (@code{mh-thread-ancestor}).
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-thread} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-thread}

The @samp{mh-thread} customization group contains one option.

@vtable @code
@item mh-show-threads-flag
On means new folders start in threaded mode (default: @samp{off}).
@end vtable

@findex mh-toggle-threads
@kindex T t
@vindex mh-large-folder
@vindex mh-show-threads-flag

Threading large number of messages can be time consuming so the option
@code{mh-show-threads-flag} is turned off by default. If you turn on
this option, then threading will be done only if the number of
messages being threaded is less than @code{mh-large-folder}. In any
event, threading can be turned on (and off) with the command @kbd{T t}
(@code{mh-toggle-threads}).

@findex mh-thread-ancestor
@findex mh-thread-next-sibling
@findex mh-thread-previous-sibling
@kindex T n
@kindex T p
@kindex T u

There are a few commands to help you navigate threads. If you do not
care for the way a particular thread has turned, you can move up the
chain of messages with the command @kbd{T u}
(@code{mh-thread-ancestor}. At any point you can use @kbd{T n}
(@code{mh-thread-next-sibling} or @kbd{T p}
(@code{mh-thread-previous-sibling}) to jump to the next or previous
sibling, skipping the sub-threads. The command @kbd{T u} can also take
a prefix argument to jump to the message that started everything.

@findex mh-delete-subject-or-thread
@findex mh-thread-delete
@findex mh-thread-refile
@kindex k
@kindex T d
@kindex T o

There are threaded equivalents for the commands that delete and refile
messages. For example, @kbd{T o} (@code{mh-thread-refile}) refiles the
current message and all its children. Similarly, the command @kbd{T d}
(@code{mh-thread-delete}) deletes the current message and all its
children. These commands do not refile or delete sibling messages.
@xref{Navigating}, for a description of the similar command @kbd{k}
(@code{mh-delete-subject-or-thread}).

@vindex mh-large-folder

If you find that threading is too slow, it may be that you have
@code{mh-large-folder} set too high. Also, threading is one of the few
features of MH-E that really benefits from compiling. If you haven't
compiled MH-E, I encourage you to do so@footnote{If you're not sure if
MH-E has been byte-compiled, you could try running @samp{locate
mh-thread.elc} or otherwise find MH-E on your system and ensure that
@file{mh-thread.elc} exists. If you have multiple versions and you
find that one is compiled but the other is not, then go into your
@samp{*scratch*} buffer in Emacs, enter @kbd{load-path C-j}, and
ensure that the byte-compiled version appears first in the
@code{load-path}. If you find that MH-E is not compiled and you
installed MH-E yourself, please refer to the installation directions
in the file @file{README} in the distribution.}.

@node Limits, Sequences, Threading, Top
@chapter Limiting Display

@cindex limits
@cindex filters

Another way to organize messages in a folder besides threading
(@pxref{Threading}) or using full-text indexed searches
(@pxref{Searching}) is by limiting the folder display to messages that
are similar to the current message.

@table @kbd
@kindex / ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item / ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Tick Sequence} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Tick Sequence}
@kindex / '
@findex mh-narrow-to-tick
@item / '
Limit to messages in the @samp{tick} sequence
(@code{mh-narrow-to-tick}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex / c
@findex mh-narrow-to-cc
@item / c
Limit to messages with the same @samp{Cc:} field
(@code{mh-narrow-to-cc}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex / m
@findex mh-narrow-to-from
@item / m
Limit to messages with the same @samp{From:} field
(@code{mh-narrow-to-from}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex / g
@findex mh-narrow-to-range
@item / g
Limit to range (@code{mh-narrow-to-range}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Subject Sequence} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Subject Sequence}
@kindex / s
@findex mh-narrow-to-subject
@item / s
Limit to messages with the same @samp{Subject:} field
(@code{mh-narrow-to-subject}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex / t
@findex mh-narrow-to-to
@item / t
Limit to messages with the same @samp{To:} field
(@code{mh-narrow-to-to}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Widen from Sequence} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Widen from Sequence}
@kindex / w
@findex mh-widen
@item / w
Remove last restriction (@code{mh-widen}).
@end table

All of the limiting commands above refine the display in some way.

@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @command{pick}
@findex mh-narrow-to-cc
@findex mh-narrow-to-from
@findex mh-narrow-to-subject
@findex mh-narrow-to-to
@kindex / c
@kindex / m
@kindex / s
@kindex / t

The commands @kbd{/ c} (@code{mh-narrow-to-cc}), @kbd{/ m}
(@code{mh-narrow-to-from}), @kbd{/ s} (@code{mh-narrow-to-subject}),
and @kbd{/ t} (@code{mh-narrow-to-to}) restrict the display to
messages matching the content of the respective field in the current
message. However, you can give any of these a prefix argument to edit
the @command{pick} expression used to narrow the view@footnote{See
@command{pick}(1) or the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/finpic.html, Finding Messages with pick} in
the MH book.}.

@cindex @samp{tick} sequence
@cindex sequence, @samp{tick}
@cindex ticked messages, viewing
@findex mh-narrow-to-range
@findex mh-narrow-to-tick
@kindex / '
@kindex / g

You can also limit the display to messages in the @samp{tick} sequence
with the command @kbd{/ '} (@code{mh-narrow-to-tick}).
@xref{Sequences}, for information on putting message into the
@samp{tick} sequence. Use the @kbd{/ g} (@code{mh-narrow-to-range})
command to limit the display to messages in a range (@pxref{Ranges}).

@findex mh-widen
@kindex / w

Each limit can be undone in turn with the @kbd{/ w} (@code{mh-widen})
command. Give this command a prefix argument to remove all limits.

@node Sequences, Junk, Limits, Top
@chapter Using Sequences

@cindex @samp{Sequence} menu
@cindex menu, @samp{Sequence}
@cindex sequences

For the whole scoop on MH sequences, refer to
@samp{mh-sequence}(5)@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/morseq.html, More About Sequences} in the MH
book.}. As you've read, several of the MH-E commands can operate on a
sequence, which is a shorthand for a range or group of messages. For
example, you might want to forward several messages to a friend or
colleague. Here's how to manipulate sequences. These commands are also
available in the @samp{Sequence} menu.

@table @kbd
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Toggle Tick Mark} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Toggle Tick Mark}
@kindex '
@findex mh-toggle-tick
@item '
Toggle tick mark of range (@code{mh-toggle-tick}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex S ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item S ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Tick Sequence} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Tick Sequence}
@kindex S '
@findex mh-narrow-to-tick
@item S '
Limit to ticked messages (@code{mh-narrow-to-tick}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Delete Message from Sequence...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Delete Message from Sequence...}
@kindex S d
@findex mh-delete-msg-from-seq
@item S d
Delete range from sequence (@code{mh-delete-msg-from-seq}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Delete Sequence...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Delete Sequence...}
@kindex S k
@findex mh-delete-seq
@item S k
Delete sequence (@code{mh-delete-seq}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > List Sequences in Folder...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > List Sequences in Folder...}
@kindex S l
@findex mh-list-sequences
@item S l
List all sequences in folder (@code{mh-list-sequences}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Sequence...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Narrow to Sequence...}
@kindex S n
@findex mh-narrow-to-seq
@item S n
Restrict display to messages in sequence (@code{mh-narrow-to-seq}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Add Message to Sequence...} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Add Message to Sequence...}
@kindex S p
@findex mh-put-msg-in-seq
@item S p
Add range to sequence (@code{mh-put-msg-in-seq}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > List Sequences for Message} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > List Sequences for Message}
@kindex S s
@findex mh-msg-is-in-seq
@item S s
Display the sequences in which the current message appears
(@code{mh-msg-is-in-seq}).
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{Sequence > Widen from Sequence} menu item
@cindex menu item, @samp{Sequence > Widen from Sequence}
@kindex S w
@findex mh-widen
@item S w
Remove last restriction (@code{mh-widen}).
@c -------------------------
@findex mh-update-sequences
@item M-x mh-update-sequences
Flush MH-E's state out to MH@.
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-sequences} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-sequences}

The @samp{mh-sequences} customization group contains the options
associated with sequences.

@vtable @code
@item mh-refile-preserves-sequences-flag
On means that sequences are preserved when messages are refiled
(default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-tick-seq
The name of the MH sequence for ticked messages (default: @samp{'tick}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-update-sequences-after-mh-show-flag
On means flush MH sequences to disk after message is shown (default:
@samp{on}).
@end vtable

The following hook is available.

@vtable @code
@item mh-unseen-updated-hook
Hook run after the unseen sequence has been updated (default: @code{nil}).
@end vtable

@cindex @command{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @command{pick}
@findex mh-put-msg-in-seq
@kindex S p

To place a message in a sequence, use @kbd{S p}
(@code{mh-put-msg-in-seq}). Give @kbd{S p} a range and you can add all
the messages in a sequence to another sequence (for example, @kbd{C-u
S p SourceSequence @key{RET} DestSequence @key{RET}}, @pxref{Ranges}).

@cindex @samp{tick} sequence
@cindex sequence, @samp{tick}
@cindex ticking messages
@findex mh-index-ticked-messages
@findex mh-toggle-tick
@kindex '
@kindex F '
@kindex S p

One specific use of the @kbd{S p} command is @kbd{'}
(@code{mh-toggle-tick}) which adds messages to the @samp{tick}
sequence. This sequence can be viewed later with the @kbd{F '}
(@code{mh-index-ticked-messages}) command (@pxref{Folders}).

@vindex mh-tick-seq

You can customize the option @code{mh-tick-seq} if you already use the
@samp{tick} sequence for your own use. You can also disable all of the
ticking functions by choosing the @samp{Disable Ticking} item but
there isn't much advantage to that.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@findex mh-narrow-to-seq
@findex mh-narrow-to-tick
@findex mh-widen
@kindex S '
@kindex S n
@kindex S w

Once you've placed some messages in a sequence, you may wish to narrow
the field of view to just those messages in the sequence you've
created. To do this, use @kbd{S n} (@code{mh-narrow-to-seq}). You are
prompted for the name of the sequence. What this does is show only
those messages that are in the selected sequence in the MH-Folder
buffer. In addition, it limits further MH-E searches to just those
messages. To narrow the view to the messages in the @samp{tick}
sequence, use @kbd{S '} (@code{mh-narrow-to-tick}). When you want to
widen the view to all your messages again, use @kbd{S w}
(@code{mh-widen}).

@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Sequences*}
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Sequences*}
@findex mh-list-sequences
@findex mh-msg-is-in-seq
@kindex S l
@kindex S s

You can see which sequences in which a message appears with the
command @kbd{S s} (@code{mh-msg-is-in-seq}). Use a prefix argument to
display the sequences in which another message appears (as in @kbd{C-u
42 S s @key{RET}}). Or, you can list all sequences in a selected
folder (default is current folder) with @kbd{S l}
(@code{mh-list-sequences}). The list appears in a buffer named
@samp{*MH-E Sequences*} (@pxref{Miscellaneous}).

@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Previous-Sequence:}
@cindex @samp{cur} sequence
@cindex @samp{Previous-Sequence:} MH profile component
@cindex sequence, @samp{cur}
@cindex sequence, @samp{Previous-Sequence}
@vindex mh-refile-preserves-sequences-flag

If a message is in any sequence (except
@samp{Previous-Sequence:}@footnote{See @samp{mh-profile}(5)).} and
@samp{cur}) when it is refiled, then it will still be in those
sequences in the destination folder. If this behavior is not desired,
then turn off the option @code{mh-refile-preserves-sequences-flag}.

@findex mh-delete-msg-from-seq
@findex mh-delete-seq
@kindex d
@kindex S d
@kindex S k

If you want to remove a message (or range, @pxref{Ranges}) from a
sequence, use @kbd{S d} (@code{mh-delete-msg-from-seq}). If you want
to delete an entire sequence, use @kbd{S k} (@code{mh-delete-seq}). In
the latter case you are prompted for the sequence to delete. Note that
this deletes only the sequence, not the messages in the sequence. If
you want to delete the messages, use @kbd{C-u d} (@pxref{Reading
Mail}).

@cindex @samp{Unseen-Sequence:} MH profile component
@cindex @samp{cur} sequence
@cindex @samp{tick} sequence
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Unseen-Sequence:}
@cindex sequence, @samp{Unseen-Sequence}
@cindex sequence, @samp{cur}
@cindex sequence, @samp{tick}
@findex mh-update-sequences
@kindex M-x mh-update-sequences
@kindex q
@kindex x
@vindex mh-tick-seq
@vindex mh-update-sequences-after-mh-show-flag

Three sequences are maintained internally by MH-E and pushed out to MH
when a message is shown. They include the sequence specified by your
@samp{Unseen-Sequence:} profile component, @samp{cur}, and the
sequence listed by the option @code{mh-tick-seq} which is @samp{tick}
by default. If you do not like this behavior, turn off the option
@code{mh-update-sequences-after-mh-show-flag}. You can then update the
state manually with the @kbd{x}, @kbd{q}, or @kbd{M-x
mh-update-sequences} commands.

@vindex mh-seen-list
@vindex mh-unseen-updated-hook

The hook @code{mh-unseen-updated-hook} is run after the unseen
sequence has been updated. The variable @code{mh-seen-list} can be
used by this hook to obtain the list of messages which were removed
from the unseen sequence.

@cindex @command{mark}
@cindex MH commands, @command{mark}
@kindex S n
@kindex S w

With the exceptions of @kbd{S n} and @kbd{S w}, the underlying MH
command dealing with sequences is @command{mark}@footnote{See the
section @uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/mmbwm.html, Make Message Bookmarks
with mark} in the MH book.}.

@node Junk, Miscellaneous, Sequences, Top
@chapter Dealing With Junk Mail

@cindex Marshall Rose
@cindex junk mail
@cindex spam

Marshall Rose once wrote a paper on MH entitled, @cite{How to process
200 messages a day and still get some real work done}. This chapter
could be entitled, @cite{How to process 1000 spams a day and still get
some real work done}.

@cindex blacklisting
@cindex ham
@cindex viruses
@cindex whitelisting
@cindex worms

We use the terms @dfn{junk mail} and @dfn{spam} interchangeably for
any unwanted message which includes spam, @dfn{viruses}, and
@dfn{worms}. The opposite of spam is @dfn{ham}. The act of classifying
a sender as one who sends junk mail is called @dfn{blacklisting}; the
opposite is called @dfn{whitelisting}.

@table @kbd
@kindex J ?
@findex mh-prefix-help
@item J ?
Display cheat sheet for the commands of the current prefix in
minibuffer (@code{mh-prefix-help}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex J b
@findex mh-junk-blacklist
@item J b
Blacklist range as spam (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}).
@c -------------------------
@kindex J w
@findex mh-junk-whitelist
@item J w
Whitelist range as ham (@code{mh-junk-whitelist}).
@c -------------------------
@item @code{mh-spamassassin-identify-spammers}
Identify spammers who are repeat offenders.
@end table

@cindex @samp{mh-junk} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-junk}

The following table lists the options from the @samp{mh-junk}
customization group.

@vtable @code
@item mh-junk-background
If on, spam programs are run in background (default: @samp{off}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-junk-disposition
Disposition of junk mail (default: @samp{Delete Spam}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-junk-program
Spam program that MH-E should use (default: @samp{Auto-detect}).
@end vtable

@cindex SpamProbe
@cindex Spamassassin
@cindex bogofilter
@cindex spam filters, SpamProbe
@cindex spam filters, Spamassassin
@cindex spam filters, bogofilter

MH-E depends on @uref{http://spamassassin.apache.org/, SpamAssassin},
@uref{http://bogofilter.sourceforge.net/, bogofilter}, or
@uref{http://spamprobe.sourceforge.net/, SpamProbe} to throw the dreck
away. This chapter describes briefly how to configure these programs
to work well with MH-E and how to use MH-E's interface that provides
continuing education for these programs.

@vindex mh-junk-program

The default setting of the option @code{mh-junk-program} is
@samp{Auto-detect} which means that MH-E will automatically choose one
of SpamAssassin, bogofilter, or SpamProbe in that order. If, for
example, you have both SpamAssassin and bogofilter installed and you
want to use bogofilter, then you can set this option to
@samp{Bogofilter}.

@findex mh-junk-blacklist
@kindex J b
@vindex mh-junk-disposition

The command @kbd{J b} (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}) trains the spam
program in use with the content of the range (@pxref{Ranges}) and then
handles the message(s) as specified by the option
@code{mh-junk-disposition}. By default, this option is set to
@samp{Delete Spam} but you can also specify the name of the folder
which is useful for building a corpus of spam for training purposes.

@findex mh-junk-whitelist
@kindex J w

In contrast, the command @kbd{J w} (@code{mh-junk-whitelist})
reclassifies a range of messages (@pxref{Ranges}) as ham if it were
incorrectly classified as spam. It then refiles the message into the
@file{+inbox} folder.

@cindex @samp{*MH-E Log*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Log*}
@findex call-process
@vindex mh-junk-background

By default, the programs are run in the foreground, but this can be
slow when junking large numbers of messages. If you have enough memory
or don't junk that many messages at the same time, you might try
turning on the option @code{mh-junk-background}. @footnote{Note that
the option @code{mh-junk-background} is used as the @code{display}
argument in the call to @code{call-process}. Therefore, turning on
this option means setting its value to @samp{0}. You can also set its
value to @samp{t} to direct the programs' output to the @samp{*MH-E
Log*} buffer; this may be useful for debugging.}

The following sections discuss the various counter-spam measures that
MH-E can work with.

@cindex @file{.procmailrc}
@cindex files, @file{.procmailrc}

@subheading SpamAssassin

@cindex Spamassassin
@cindex spam filters, Spamassassin

SpamAssassin is one of the more popular spam filtering programs. Get
it from your local distribution or from the
@uref{http://spamassassin.apache.org/, SpamAssassin web site}.

To use SpamAssassin, add the following recipes to @file{~/.procmailrc}:

@cindex @command{spamc}
@cindex @samp{X-Spam-Level:} header field
@cindex @samp{X-Spam-Status:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Spam-Level:}
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Spam-Status:}

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`

# Fight spam with SpamAssassin.
:0fw
| spamc

# Anything with a spam level of 10 or more is junked immediately.
:0:
* ^X-Spam-Level: ..........
/dev/null

:0:
* ^X-Spam-Status: Yes
spam/.
@end smallexample

If you don't use @command{spamc}, use @samp{spamassassin -P -a}.

Note that one of the recipes above throws away messages with a score
greater than or equal to 10. Here's how you can determine a value that
works best for you.

First, run @samp{spamassassin -t} on every mail message in your
archive and use @command{gnumeric} to verify that the average plus the
standard deviation of good mail is under 5, the SpamAssassin default
for ``spam''.

Using @command{gnumeric}, sort the messages by score and view the
messages with the highest score. Determine the score which encompasses
all of your interesting messages and add a couple of points to be
conservative. Add that many dots to the @samp{X-Spam-Level:} header
field above to send messages with that score down the drain.

In the example above, messages with a score of 5-9 are set aside in
the @samp{+spam} folder for later review. The major weakness of
rules-based filters is a plethora of false positives so it is
worthwhile to check.

@findex mh-junk-blacklist
@findex mh-junk-whitelist
@kindex J b
@kindex J w

If SpamAssassin classifies a message incorrectly, or is unsure, you can
use the MH-E commands @kbd{J b} (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}) and
@kbd{J w} (@code{mh-junk-whitelist}).

@cindex @command{sa-learn}
@cindex @file{.spamassassin/user_prefs}
@cindex files, @file{.spamassassin/user_prefs}

The command @kbd{J b} (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}) adds a
@samp{blacklist_from} entry to @file{~/spamassassin/user_prefs},
deletes the message, and sends the message to the Razor, so that
others might not see this spam. If the @command{sa-learn} command is
available, the message is also recategorized as spam.

The command@kbd{J w} (@code{mh-junk-whitelist}) adds a
@samp{whitelist_from} rule to @samp{~/.spamassassin/user_prefs}. If
the @command{sa-learn} command is available, the message is also
recategorized as ham.

Over time, you'll observe that the same host or domain occurs
repeatedly in the @samp{blacklist_from} entries, so you might think
that you could avoid future spam by blacklisting all mail from a
particular domain. The utility function
@code{mh-spamassassin-identify-spammers} helps you do precisely that.
This function displays a frequency count of the hosts and domains in
the @samp{blacklist_from} entries from the last blank line in
@file{~/.spamassassin/user_prefs} to the end of the file. This
information can be used so that you can replace multiple
@samp{blacklist_from} entries with a single wildcard entry such as:

@smallexample
blacklist_from *@@*amazingoffersdirect2u.com
@end smallexample

In versions of SpamAssassin (2.50 and on) that support a Bayesian
classifier, @kbd{J b} @code{(mh-junk-blacklist}) uses the program
@command{sa-learn} to recategorize the message as spam. Neither MH-E,
nor SpamAssassin, rebuilds the database after adding words, so you
will need to run @samp{sa-learn --rebuild} periodically. This can be
done by adding the following to your @file{crontab}:

@smallexample
0 * * * *	sa-learn --rebuild > /dev/null 2>&1
@end smallexample

@subheading Bogofilter

@cindex bogofilter
@cindex spam filters, bogofilter

Bogofilter is a Bayesian spam filtering program. Get it from your
local distribution or from the
@uref{http://bogofilter.sourceforge.net/, bogofilter web site}.

Bogofilter is taught by running:

@smallexample
bogofilter -n < good-message
@end smallexample

on every good message, and

@smallexample
bogofilter -s < spam-message
@end smallexample

@cindex full training

on every spam message. This is called a @dfn{full training}; three
other training methods are described in the FAQ that is distributed
with bogofilter. Note that most Bayesian filters need 1000 to 5000 of
each type of message to start doing a good job.

To use bogofilter, add the following recipes to @file{~/.procmailrc}:

@cindex @samp{X-Bogosity:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{X-Bogosity:}

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`

# Fight spam with Bogofilter.
:0fw
| bogofilter -3 -e -p

:0:
* ^X-Bogosity: Yes, tests=bogofilter
spam/.

:0:
* ^X-Bogosity: Unsure, tests=bogofilter
spam/unsure/.
@end smallexample

@findex mh-junk-blacklist
@findex mh-junk-whitelist
@kindex J b
@kindex J w

If bogofilter classifies a message incorrectly, or is unsure, you can
use the MH-E commands @kbd{J b} (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}) and @kbd{J
w} (@code{mh-junk-whitelist}) to update bogofilter's training.

The @cite{Bogofilter FAQ} suggests that you run the following
occasionally to shrink the database:

@smallexample
bogoutil -d wordlist.db | bogoutil -l wordlist.db.new
mv wordlist.db wordlist.db.prv
mv wordlist.db.new wordlist.db
@end smallexample

The @cite{Bogofilter tuning HOWTO} describes how you can fine-tune
bogofilter.

@subheading SpamProbe

@cindex SpamProbe
@cindex spam filters, SpamProbe

SpamProbe is a Bayesian spam filtering program. Get it from your local
distribution or from the @uref{http://spamprobe.sourceforge.net,
SpamProbe web site}.

To use SpamProbe, add the following recipes to @file{~/.procmailrc}:

@cindex @command{formail}
@cindex @samp{X-SpamProbe:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{X-SpamProbe:}

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`

# Fight spam with SpamProbe.
:0
SCORE=| spamprobe receive

:0 wf
| formail -I "X-SpamProbe: $SCORE"

:0:
*^X-SpamProbe: SPAM
spam/.
@end smallexample

@findex mh-junk-blacklist
@findex mh-junk-whitelist
@kindex J b
@kindex J w

If SpamProbe classifies a message incorrectly, you can use the MH-E
commands @kbd{J b} (@code{mh-junk-blacklist}) and @kbd{J w}
(@code{mh-junk-whitelist}) to update SpamProbe's training.

@subheading Other Things You Can Do

There are a couple of things that you can add to @file{~/.procmailrc}
in order to filter out a lot of spam and viruses. The first is to
eliminate any message with a Windows executable (which is most likely
a virus). The second is to eliminate mail in character sets that you
can't read.

@cindex @samp{Content-Transfer-Encoding:} header field
@cindex @samp{Content-Type:} header field
@cindex @samp{Subject:} header field
@cindex header field, @samp{Content-Transfer-Encoding:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Content-Type:}
@cindex header field, @samp{Subject:}

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`

#
# Filter messages with win32 executables/virii.
#
# These attachments are base64 and have a TVqQAAMAAAAEAAAA//8AALg
# pattern. The string "this program cannot be run in MS-DOS mode"
# encoded in base64 is 4fug4AtAnNIbg and helps to avoid false
# positives (Roland Smith via Pete from the bogofilter mailing list).
#
:0 B:
* ^Content-Transfer-Encoding:.*base64
* ^TVqQAAMAAAAEAAAA//8AALg
* 4fug4AtAnNIbg
spam/exe/.

#
# Filter mail in unreadable character sets (from the Bogofilter FAQ).
#
UNREADABLE='[^?"]*big5|iso-2022-jp|ISO-2022-KR|euc-kr|gb2312|ks_c_5601-1987'

:0:
* 1^0 $ ^Subject:.*=\?($UNREADABLE)
* 1^0 $ ^Content-Type:.*charset="?($UNREADABLE)
spam/unreadable/.

:0:
* ^Content-Type:.*multipart
* B ?? $ ^Content-Type:.*^?.*charset="?($UNREADABLE)
spam/unreadable/.
@end smallexample

@node Miscellaneous, Scan Line Formats, Junk, Top
@chapter Miscellaneous Commands, Variables, and Buffers

This chapter covers the following command and the various MH-E
buffers,

@ftable @code
@item mh-version
Display version information about MH-E and the MH mail handling
system.
@end ftable

@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Info*}
@cindex MH-E version
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Info*}
@cindex version
@kindex M-x mh-version

One command worth noting is @kbd{M-x mh-version}. You can compare the
version this command prints to the latest release (@pxref{Getting
MH-E}). The output of @kbd{M-x mh-version}, found in a buffer named
@samp{*MH-E Info*}, should usually be included with any bug report you
submit (@pxref{Bug Reports}).

@subheading MH-E Buffers

Besides the MH-Folder, MH-Show, and MH-Letter buffers, MH-E creates
several other buffers. They are:

@table @samp
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Folders*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Folders*}
@findex mh-list-folders
@item *MH-E Folders*
@kindex F l
This buffer contains the output of @kbd{F l} (@code{mh-list-folders}).
@xref{Folders}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Help*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Help*}
@findex mh-help
@item *MH-E Help*
@kindex ?
@kindex C-c ?
This buffer contains the output of @kbd{?} (@code{mh-help}) and
@kbd{C-c ?} in MH-Letter mode. @xref{Using This Manual}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Info*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Info*}
@item *MH-E Info*
This buffer contains the output of @kbd{M-x mh-version @key{RET}}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Log*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Log*}
@item *MH-E Log*
This buffer contains the last 100 lines of the output of the various
MH commands.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Mail Delivery*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Mail Delivery*}
@item *MH-E Mail Delivery*
This buffer contains the transcript of a mail delivery. @xref{Sending
Message}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Recipients*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Recipients*}
@findex mh-check-whom
@item *MH-E Recipients*
@kindex C-c C-w
This buffer contains the output of @kbd{C-c C-w}
(@code{mh-check-whom}) and is killed when draft is sent.
@xref{Checking Recipients}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*MH-E Sequences*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*MH-E Sequences*}
@item *MH-E Sequences*
This buffer contains the output of @kbd{S l}
(@code{mh-list-sequences}). @xref{Sequences}.
@c -------------------------
@cindex @samp{*mh-temp*}
@cindex buffers, @samp{*mh-temp*}
@item *mh-temp*
This is a scratch, ephemeral, buffer used by MH-E functions. Note that
it is hidden because the first character in the name is a space.
You'll generally not have any need for this buffer.
@end table

@node Scan Line Formats, Procmail, Miscellaneous, Top
@appendix Scan Line Formats

@cindex scan line formats

This appendix discusses how MH-E creates, parses, and manipulates scan
lines. If you have your own MH scan or inc format files, you
@strong{can} teach MH-E how to handle them, but it isn't easy as
you'll see.

@cindex @samp{mh-scan-line-formats} customization group
@cindex customization group, @samp{mh-scan-line-formats}

This table lists the options in the @samp{mh-scan-line-formats}
customization group.

@vtable @code
@item mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag
On means that the message number width is determined dynamically
(default: @samp{on}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-scan-format-file
Specifies the format file to pass to the scan program (default:
@samp{Use MH-E scan Format}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-scan-prog
Program used to scan messages (default: @code{"scan"}).
@end vtable

@vindex mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag

There are a couple of caveats when creating your own scan format file.
First, MH-E will not work if your scan lines do not include message
numbers. It will work poorly if you don't dedicate a column for
showing the current message and notations. You won't be able to use
the option @code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag} or the threading features
(@pxref{Threading}).

@cindex message numbers
@findex mh-set-cmd-note
@vindex mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag
@vindex mh-scan-format-file

If you've created your own format to handle long message numbers,
you'll be pleased to know you no longer need it since MH-E adapts its
internal format based upon the largest message number if
@code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag} is on (the default). If you prefer
fixed-width message numbers, turn off @code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag}
and call @code{mh-set-cmd-note} with the width specified by your
format file (see @code{mh-scan-format-file}). For example, the default
width is 4, so you would use @samp{(mh-set-cmd-note 4)}.

@vindex mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag
@vindex mh-scan-format-file
@vindex mh-scan-format-mh
@vindex mh-scan-format-nmh

The default setting for @code{mh-scan-format-file} is @samp{Use MH-E
scan Format}. This means that the format string will be taken from the
either @code{mh-scan-format-mh} or @code{mh-scan-format-nmh} depending
on whether MH or nmh (or GNU mailutils) is in use. This setting also
enables you to turn on the option @code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag}.
You can also set this option to @samp{Use Default scan Format} to get
the same output as you would get if you ran @command{scan} from the
shell. If you have a format file that you want MH-E to use but not MH,
you can set this option to @samp{Specify a scan Format File} and enter
the name of your format file.

@vindex mh-scan-format-file
@vindex mh-scan-format-mh
@vindex mh-scan-format-nmh

The scan format that MH-E uses when @code{mh-scan-format-file} is set
to its default of @samp{Use MH-E scan Format} is held in the variables
@code{mh-scan-format-nmh} and @code{mh-scan-format-mh} depending on
whether you are using nmh (or GNU mailutils) or not. Typically, you
create your own format files rather than modifying these variables.
The value of @code{mh-scan-format-nmh} is:

@smallexample
(concat
 "%4(msg)"
 "%<(cur)+%| %>"
 "%<@{replied@}-"
 "%?(nonnull(comp@{to@}))%<(mymbox@{to@})t%>"
 "%?(nonnull(comp@{cc@}))%<(mymbox@{cc@})c%>"
 "%?(nonnull(comp@{bcc@}))%<(mymbox@{bcc@})b%>"
 "%?(nonnull(comp@{newsgroups@}))n%>"
 "%<(zero) %>"
 "%02(mon@{date@})/%02(mday@{date@})%<@{date@} %|*%>"
 "%<(mymbox@{from@})%<@{to@}To:%14(decode(friendly@{to@}))%>%>"
 "%<(zero)%17(decode(friendly@{from@}))%>  "
 "%(decode@{subject@})%<@{body@}<<%@{body@}%>")
@end smallexample

@cindex decoding RFC 2047
@cindex RFC 2047, decoding
@vindex mh-scan-format-mh

The setting for @code{mh-scan-format-mh} is similar, except that MH
doesn't have the function @code{decode} (which is used to decode RFC
2047 encodings).

@cindex notations, scan line
@cindex scan line notations

These strings are passed to the @command{scan} program via the
@option{-format} argument. The formats are identical to the defaults
except that additional hints for fontification have been added to the
existing notations in the fifth column (remember that in Emacs, the
columns start at 0). The values of the fifth column, in priority
order, are: @samp{-} if the message has been replied to, @samp{t} if
an address in the @samp{To:} field matches one of the mailboxes of the
current user, @samp{c} if the @samp{Cc:} field matches, @samp{b} if
the @samp{Bcc:} field matches, and @samp{n} if a non-empty
@samp{Newsgroups:} field is present.

@cindex @command{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @command{scan}
@vindex mh-progs
@vindex mh-scan-prog

The name of the program that generates a listing of one line per
message is held in @code{mh-scan-prog} (default: @code{"scan"}).
Unless this variable contains an absolute pathname, it is assumed to
be in the @code{mh-progs} directory (@pxref{Getting Started}). You may
link another program to @command{scan} (see @samp{mh-profile}(5)) to
produce a different type of listing@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/faswsprs.html, Find and Specify with scan
pick Ranges Sequences} in the MH book.}.

@cindex regular expressions, scan line formats
@findex mh-set-cmd-note
@findex setq

If you change the format of the scan lines you'll need to tell MH-E
how to parse the new format. As you will see, quite a lot of variables
are involved to do that. Use @kbd{M-x apropos @key{RET}
mh-scan.*regexp @key{RET}} to obtain a list of these variables. You
will also have to call @code{mh-set-cmd-note} if your notations are
not in column 4 (columns in Emacs start with 0). Note that unlike most
of the user options described in this manual, these are variables and
must be set with @code{setq} instead of in a customization buffer. For
help with regular expressions, see
@ifnothtml
@ref{Regexps, , Syntax of Regular Expressions, emacs, The
GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifnothtml
@ifhtml
section
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/Regexps.html,
Syntax of Regular Expressions} in @cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}.
@end ifhtml

The first variable has to do with pruning out garbage.

@vtable @code
@cindex @command{inc}
@cindex MH commands, @command{inc}
@cindex @command{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @command{scan}
@item mh-scan-valid-regexp
This regular expression describes a valid scan line. This is used to
eliminate error messages that are occasionally produced by
@command{inc}@footnote{See the section
@uref{@value{MH-BOOK-HOME}/reapre.html, Reading Mail: inc show next
prev} in the MH book.} or @command{scan} (default: @code{"^ *[0-9]"}).
@end vtable

Next, many variables control how the scan lines are parsed.

@vtable @code
@vindex mh-folder-body
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@item mh-scan-body-regexp
This regular expression matches the message body fragment. Note that
the default setting of @code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects
this expression to contain at least one parenthesized expression which
matches the body text as in the default of
@code{"\\(<<\\([^\n]+\\)?\\)"}. If this regular expression is not
correct, the body fragment will not be highlighted with the face
@code{mh-folder-body}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-cur-msg-number
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-note-cur
@item mh-scan-cur-msg-number-regexp
This regular expression matches the current message. It must match
from the beginning of the line. Note that the default setting of
@code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this expression to contain
at least one parenthesized expression which matches the message number
as in the default of @w{@code{"^\\( *[0-9]+\\+\\).*"}}. This
expression includes the leading space and current message marker
@samp{+} within the parenthesis since it looks better to highlight
these items as well. The highlighting is done with the face
@code{mh-folder-cur-msg-number}. This regular expression should be
correct as it is needed by non-fontification functions. See also
@code{mh-note-cur}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-date
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp
@item mh-scan-date-regexp
This regular expression matches a valid date. It must @strong{not} be
anchored to the beginning or the end of the line. Note that the
default setting of @code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this
expression to contain only one parenthesized expression which matches
the date field as in the default of
@code{"\\([0-9][0-9]/[0-9][0-9]\\)"}. If this regular expression is
not correct, the date will not be highlighted with the face
@code{mh-folder-date}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-deleted
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-note-deleted
@item mh-scan-deleted-msg-regexp
This regular expression matches deleted messages. It must match from
the beginning of the line. Note that the default setting of
@code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this expression to contain
at least one parenthesized expression which matches the message number
as in the default of @code{"^\\( *[0-9]+\\)D"}. This expression
includes the leading space within the parenthesis since it looks
better to highlight it as well. The highlighting is done with the face
@code{mh-folder-deleted}. This regular expression should be correct as
it is needed by non-fontification functions. See also
@code{mh-note-deleted}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-folder-msg-number
@item mh-scan-good-msg-regexp
This regular expression matches ``good'' messages. It must match from
the beginning of the line. Note that the default setting of
@code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this expression to contain
at least one parenthesized expression which matches the message number
as in the default of @w{@code{"^\\( *[0-9]+\\)[^D^0-9]"}}. This
expression includes the leading space within the parenthesis since it
looks better to highlight it as well. The highlighting is done with
the face @code{mh-folder-msg-number}. This regular expression should
be correct as it is needed by non-fontification functions.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-format-file
@item mh-scan-msg-format-regexp
This regular expression finds the message number width in a scan
format. Note that the message number must be placed in a parenthesized
expression as in the default of @code{"%\\([0-9]*\\)(msg)"}. This
variable is only consulted if @code{mh-scan-format-file} is set to
@samp{Use MH-E scan Format}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-format-file
@item mh-scan-msg-format-string
This is a format string for the width of the message number in a scan
format. Use @samp{0%d} for zero-filled message numbers. This variable
is only consulted if @code{mh-scan-format-file} is set to @samp{Use
MH-E scan Format} (default: @code{"%d"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-scan-msg-number-regexp
This regular expression extracts the message number. It must match
from the beginning of the line. Note that the message number must be
placed in a parenthesized expression as in the default of @w{@code{"^
*\\([0-9]+\\)"}}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-scan-msg-overflow-regexp
This regular expression matches overflowed message numbers (default:
@code{"^[?0-9][0-9]"}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-scan-msg-search-regexp
This regular expression matches a particular message. It is a format
string; use @samp{%d} to represent the location of the message number
within the expression as in the default of @code{"^[^0-9]*%d[^0-9]"}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-address
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-folder-to
@item mh-scan-rcpt-regexp
This regular expression specifies the recipient in messages you sent.
Note that the default setting of @code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords}
expects this expression to contain two parenthesized expressions. The
first is expected to match the @samp{To:} that the default scan format
file generates. The second is expected to match the recipient's name
as in the default of @code{"\\(To:\\)\\(..............\\)"}. If this
regular expression is not correct, the @samp{To:} string will not be
highlighted with the face @code{mh-folder-to} and the recipient will not be
highlighted with the face @code{mh-folder-address}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-folder-refiled
@vindex mh-note-refiled
@item mh-scan-refiled-msg-regexp
This regular expression matches refiled messages. It must match from
the beginning of the line. Note that the default setting of
@code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this expression to contain
at least one parenthesized expression which matches the message number
as in the default of @w{@code{"^\\( *[0-9]+\\)\\^"}}. This expression
includes the leading space within the parenthesis since it looks
better to highlight it as well. The highlighting is done with the face
@code{mh-folder-refiled}. This regular expression should be correct as
it is needed by non-fontification functions. See also
@code{mh-note-refiled}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-folder-sent-to-me-sender
@vindex mh-mh-folder-sent-to-me-hint
@vindex mh-scan-format-nmh
@item mh-scan-sent-to-me-sender-regexp
This regular expression matches messages sent to us. Note that the
default setting of @code{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this
expression to contain at least two parenthesized expressions. The
first should match the fontification hint (see
@code{mh-scan-format-nmh}) and the second should match the user name
as in the default of
@w{@code{"^ *[0-9]+.\\([bct]\\).....[ ]*\\(..................\\)"}}.
If this regular expression is not correct, the notation hints will not
be highlighted with the face @code{mh-mh-folder-sent-to-me-hint} and
the sender will not be highlighted with the face
@code{mh-folder-sent-to-me-sender}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-folder-followup
@vindex mh-folder-font-lock-keywords
@vindex mh-folder-subject
@item mh-scan-subject-regexp
This regular expression matches the subject. It must match from the
beginning of the line. Note that the default setting of
@samp{mh-folder-font-lock-keywords} expects this expression to contain
at least three parenthesized expressions. The first is expected to
match the @samp{Re:} string, if any, and is highlighted with the face
@code{mh-folder-followup}. The second matches an optional bracketed
number after @samp{Re:}, such as in @samp{Re[2]:} (and is thus a
sub-expression of the first expression). The third is expected to
match the subject line itself which is highlighted with the face
@code{mh-folder-subject}. For example, the default is
@w{@code{"^ *[0-9]+........[ ]*...................}}@*
@w{@code{\\([Rr][Ee]\\(\\[[0-9]+\\]\\)?:\\s-*\\)*\\([^<\n]*\\)"}}.
This regular expression should be correct as it is needed by
non-fontification functions. Note that this example is broken up on
two lines for readability, but is actually a single string.
@end vtable

Finally, there are a slew of variables that control how MH-E annotates
the scan lines.

@vtable @code
@findex mh-set-cmd-note
@vindex mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag
@item mh-cmd-note
Column for notations (default: 4). This variable should be set with
the function @code{mh-set-cmd-note}. This variable may be updated
dynamically if @code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag} is on. The following
variables contain the notational characters. Note that columns in
Emacs start with 0.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-copied
Messages that have been copied are marked by this character (default:
@code{?C}).
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-cur-msg-number-regexp
@item mh-note-cur
The current message (in MH, not in MH-E) is marked by this character
(default: @code{?+}). See also @code{mh-scan-cur-msg-number-regexp}.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-deleted-msg-regexp
@item mh-note-deleted
Messages that have been deleted are marked by this character (default:
@code{?D}). See also @code{mh-scan-deleted-msg-regexp}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-dist
Messages that have been redistributed are marked by this character
(default: @code{?R}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-forw
Messages that have been forwarded are marked by this character
(default: @code{?F}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-printed
Messages that have been printed are marked by this character (default:
@code{?P}).
@c -------------------------
@vindex mh-scan-refiled-msg-regexp
@item mh-note-refiled
Messages that have been refiled are marked by this character (default:
@code{?^}). See also @code{mh-scan-refiled-msg-regexp}.
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-repl
Messages that have been replied to are marked by this character
(default: @code{?-}).
@c -------------------------
@item mh-note-seq
Messages in a user-defined sequence are marked by this character
(default: @code{?%}). Messages in the @samp{search} sequence are
marked by this character as well.
@end vtable

For example, let's say I have the following in @file{scan.format}
which displays the sender, the subject, and the message number. This
format places a @samp{+} after the message number for the current
message according to MH; it also uses that column for notations.

@smallexample
%20(decode(friendly@{from@})) %50(decode@{subject@})  %4(msg)%<(cur)+%| %>
@end smallexample

@vindex mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag
@vindex mh-scan-format-file
@vindex mh-scan-format-file, example

The first thing you have to do is tell MH-E to use this file.
Customize @code{mh-scan-format-file} and set its value to @samp{Use
Default scan Format}. If you didn't get already turn off
@code{mh-adaptive-cmd-note-flag}, you'll need to do that first.

Next, tell MH-E what a valid scan line looks like so that you can at
least display the output of scan in your MH-Folder buffer.

@vindex mh-scan-valid-regexp, example

@smalllisp
(setq mh-scan-valid-regexp "[0-9]+[+D^ ]$")
@end smalllisp

Now, in order to get rid of the @samp{Cursor not pointing to message}
message, you need to tell MH-E how to access the message number. You
should also see why MH-E requires that you include a message number in
the first place.

@vindex mh-scan-msg-number-regexp, example
@vindex mh-scan-msg-search-regexp, example

@smalllisp
(setq mh-scan-msg-number-regexp "^.* \\([0-9]+\\)[+D^ ]$")
(setq mh-scan-msg-search-regexp " %d[+D^ ]$")
@end smalllisp

In order to get the next and previous commands working, add this.

@vindex mh-scan-good-msg-regexp, example

@smalllisp
(setq mh-scan-good-msg-regexp "^.* \\([0-9]+\\)[+D^ ]$")
@end smalllisp

Note that the current message isn't marked with a @samp{+} when moving
between the next and previous messages. Here is the code required to
get this working.

@vindex set-mh-cmd-note, example
@vindex mh-scan-cur-msg-number-regexp, example

@smalllisp
(set-mh-cmd-note 76)
(setq mh-scan-cur-msg-number-regexp "^.* \\([0-9]+\\)\\+$")
@end smalllisp

Finally, add the following to delete and refile messages.

@vindex mh-scan-deleted-msg-regexp, example
@vindex mh-scan-refiled-msg-regexp, example

@smalllisp
(setq mh-scan-deleted-msg-regexp "^.* \\([0-9]+\\)D$")
(setq mh-scan-refiled-msg-regexp "^.* \\([0-9]+\\)\\^$")
@end smalllisp

This is just a bare minimum; it's best to adjust all of the regular
expressions to ensure that MH-E and highlighting perform well.

@node Procmail, Odds and Ends, Scan Line Formats, Top
@appendix Reading Mailing Lists Effectively

@cindex @command{procmail}
@cindex @command{slocal}
@cindex Gnus
@cindex MH commands, @command{slocal}
@cindex Unix commands, @command{procmail}
@cindex mailing lists, reading

This appendix explains how to use @uref{http://www.procmail.org/,
procmail} to file mail from mailing lists into folders which can then
be read easily with MH-E@footnote{The MH equivalent, @command{slocal},
can be used as well, but procmail is more flexible and more packages
exist for procmail than for slocal.}. Some mailing lists have such
high traffic that Gnus must be used and I discuss how to use Gnus
side-by-side with MH-E.

@cindex @file{.procmailrc}
@cindex files, @file{.procmailrc}

First, I'll describe how to put mail from your mailing lists directly
into an MH folder using @command{procmail}. First, add the following
to @file{~/.procmailrc}. While the logging variables aren't strictly
necessary, they are extremely useful.

@smallexample
[1]  # Update PATH so procmail can find myrcvstore, rcvstore and mhparam.
[2]  PATH=$PATH:/usr/lib/mh:/usr/bin/mh:$HOME/bin
[3]
[4]  # Point LOGFILE at the actual log file.
[5]  LOGFILE=$HOME/.procmail.log
[6]
[7]  # This setting provides just the right amount of information.
[8]  LOGABSTRACT=all
[9]
[10] # Uncomment the following line to see how your patterns match.
[11] #VERBOSE=yes
[12]
[13] # Place mail sent to any MH-E mailing list in +mh-e.
[14] :0 w: mh-e$LOCKEXT
[15] * ^TO.*mh-e-.*@.*sourceforge.net
[16] | myrcvstore -create +mh-e
@end smallexample

@cindex @command{rcvstore}
@cindex MH commands, @command{rcvstore}

Line 14 creates a lock file in your mail directory based upon the name
of the folder. This is done because @command{rcvstore} does not
perform locking. While this lock file will prevent @command{procmail}
from writing to a folder concurrently, there is a slight chance that
you might lose a message if you're performing operations on a folder
at the same time @command{rcvstore} is placing a message there. You
have been warned. Now that that disclaimer is out of the way, note
that I've been using this set-up for over a decade and haven't lost
anything to my knowledge@footnote{See
@uref{https://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?func=detailbug&bug_id=4361&group_id=2166,
Savannah issue #4361} to see if @command{rcvstore} locking is still an
issue.}.

@cindex @samp{Unseen-Sequence:} MH profile component
@cindex MH profile component, @samp{Unseen-Sequence:}

Line 16 uses the following script, @code{myrcvstore}, to massage the
message as described in the comment and file the message in the given
folder@footnote{The @samp{-create} argument wasn't always the default
to @command{rcvstore}.}.

@smallexample
#! /bin/sh

# Accepts a message on standard input and passes it through rcvstore
# after first passing it through any filters. All arguments are passed
# on to rcvstore.

# Force the "From user date" to become part of header. One reason this
# is done is because the presence of the From field confuses dist so
# that dist adds a new header, rather than using the existing header.
# Note that this should not be done for any message that goes into a
# Gnus incoming file (Gnus will thrown an error) nor should it be
# applied to any message that goes to the system mailbox because the
# entire mailbox will be incorporated as a single message.
formail -c -z -R 'From ' X-Envelope-From: |
rcvstore $@@
@end smallexample

If your version of @command{rcvstore} doesn't add messages to the
@samp{unseen} sequence by default, add the following line to your MH
profile:

@smallexample
Unseen-Sequence: unseen
@end smallexample

Now view your new messages with the speedbar (@pxref{Speedbar}) or with
@kbd{F n} (@code{mh-index-new-messages}). @xref{Folders}.

If you're on a mailing list that is so voluminous that it is
impossible to read every message, it usually better to read the
mailing list like a newsgroup in a news reader. Emacs has a built-in
newsreader called Gnus. The remainder of this appendix talks about how
to use Gnus with an MH message store. The version of Gnus that was
used to prepare this manual was 5.10. Versions 5.8 through 5.10 should
work but versions prior to 5.8 use different options.

This table contains a list of Gnus options that you will have to
modify. Note that for them to become accessible, you'll have to load
@file{nnml.el} first. This can be done with @kbd{M-x load-library
@key{RET} nnml @key{RET}}.

@vtable @code
@item gnus-secondary-select-methods
Select the @samp{nnml} value. This select method uses directories for
folders and individual files for messages, just like MH. You do not
have to set an address.
@c -------------------------
@item mail-sources
Select the @samp{Several files in a directory} value, check the
@samp{Path} box and enter @file{~/Mail} to tell Gnus where to find
your mail.
@c -------------------------
@vindex mail-user-agent
@item message-mail-user-agent
In order to send mail within Gnus using MH-E, set this option to
@samp{mail-user-agent} and set the @code{mail-user-agent} option to
@samp{Emacs interface to MH}.
@c -------------------------
@item nnmail-keep-last-article
Since Gnus keeps track of which messages you have read, it would be
bad if Gnus expired the last message, for example, message 100, and
@command{rcvstore} gave the next new message number 1. Gnus would then
ignore it since it thinks that you've read messages 1-100. Turning on
this option ensures that the last message is never removed thereby
eliminating this problem.
@end vtable

Next add the following to @file{~/.procmailrc}. If you don't subscribe
to the GnuCash mailing list, substitute one to which you are
subscribed.

@smallexample
PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin/mh
MAILDIR=$HOME/`mhparam Path`
# Place mail sent to the GnuCash mailing list in gnucash.spool, where
# Gnus will pick it up.
:0:
* ^TO.*gnucash.*@.*gnucash.org
gnucash.spool
@end smallexample

Wait for some messages to appear in @file{gnucash.spool} and run Gnus
with @kbd{M-x gnus @key{RET}}. To view the folder created in the
example above, you would tell Gnus about it the first time only with
@kbd{G m gnucash @key{RET} nnml @key{RET}}. In MH-E, this folder is
known as @samp{+gnucash}.

@node Odds and Ends, History, Procmail, Top
@appendix Odds and Ends

This appendix covers a few topics that don't fit elsewhere. Here I
tell you how to report bugs and how to get on the MH-E mailing lists.
I also point out some additional sources of information.

@menu
* Bug Reports::
* Mailing Lists::
* MH FAQ and Support::
* Getting MH-E::
@end menu

@node Bug Reports, Mailing Lists, Odds and Ends, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec Bug Reports

@cindex bugs
@cindex SourceForge
@kindex M-x mh-version

Bug reports should be filed at
@uref{https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?group_id=13357&atid=113357,
SourceForge}. You need to be a SourceForge user to submit bug reports,
but this is easy enough to do that it shouldn't be a restriction for
you. Please include the output of @kbd{M-x mh-version}
(@pxref{Miscellaneous}) in any bug report you send unless you're 110%
positive we won't ask for it.

@node Mailing Lists, MH FAQ and Support, Bug Reports, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec MH-E Mailing Lists

@cindex SourceForge
@cindex mailing lists

There are several mailing lists for MH-E. They are @i{mh-e-users at
lists.sourceforge.net}, @i{mh-e-announce at lists.sourceforge.net},
and @i{mh-e-devel at lists.sourceforge.net}. You can subscribe or view
the archives at @uref{https://sourceforge.net/mail/?group_id=13357,
SourceForge}. Do not report bugs on these lists; please submit them
via SourceForge (@pxref{Bug Reports}).

@node MH FAQ and Support, Getting MH-E, Mailing Lists, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec MH FAQ and Support

@cindex FAQ
@cindex MH FAQ

The article @uref{http://www.newt.com/faq/mh.html, @cite{MH Frequently
Asked Questions (FAQ) with Answers}} appears monthly in the newsgroup
@samp{comp.mail.mh}. While very little is there that deals with MH-E
specifically, there is an incredible wealth of material about MH
itself which you will find useful.

@cindex support

You can find FAQs on MH-E at the
@uref{https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?group_id=13357&atid=213357,
Support Requests} page on SourceForge. If you don't find the answer to
your question, file a support request and your question will become a
new FAQ!

@node Getting MH-E,  , MH FAQ and Support, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec Getting MH-E

@cindex MH-E, obtaining
@cindex getting MH-E
@cindex obtaining MH-E

Because MH-E is undergoing a phase of sustained growth, the version of
MH-E in your Emacs is likely to be out of date although it is most
likely to be more up to date than the copy that comes with the MH
distribution in @file{miscellany/mh-e}.

@cindex change log
@cindex release notes

New MH-E releases are always available for downloading at
@uref{https://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=13357,
SourceForge} before they appear in an Emacs release. You can read the
release notes on that page to determine if the given release of MH-E
is already installed in your version of Emacs. You can also read the
change log to see if you are interested in what the given release of
MH-E has to offer (although we have no doubt that you will be
extremely interested in all new releases).

@cindex Debian

If you use Debian, you can install the Debian
@uref{http://packages.debian.org/unstable/mail/mh-e, mh-e package}
instead.

@cindex files, @samp{MH-E-NEWS}
@cindex files, @samp{README}
@cindex news
@cindex @samp{MH-E-NEWS}
@cindex @samp{README}
@kindex M-x mh-version

After you download and extract the MH-E tarball, read the
@file{README} file and @file{MH-E-NEWS}. These correspond to the
release notes and change log mentioned above. The file @file{README}
contains instructions on installing MH-E. If you're already running
Emacs, please quit that session and start again to load in the new
MH-E. Check that you're running the new version with the command
@kbd{M-x mh-version}.

@cindex contributed software
@cindex manual
@cindex documentation

In addition to the mh-e package, the
@uref{https://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=13357,
SourceForge} site also contains doc and contrib packages. The former
is the latest release of this manual, and the latter contains a few
contributed packages you might find useful.

@node History, GFDL, Odds and Ends, Top
@appendix History of MH-E

@cindex Bill Wohler
@cindex Brian Reid
@cindex Gildea, Stephen
@cindex Jim Larus
@cindex Larus, Jim
@cindex MH-E, versions
@cindex Reid, Brian
@cindex SourceForge
@cindex Stephen Gildea
@cindex Wohler, Bill
@cindex history of MH-E
@cindex versions of MH-E

MH-E was originally written by Brian Reid in 1983 and has changed
hands several times since then. Jim Larus wanted to do something
similar for GNU Emacs, and ended up completely rewriting it that same
year. In 1989, Stephen Gildea picked it up and added many
improvements. Bill Wohler then took over in 2000 and moved its
development to @uref{http://sourceforge.net/, SourceForge} where it
lives today.

@menu
* From Brian Reid::
* From Jim Larus::
* From Stephen Gildea::
* From Bill Wohler::
@end menu

@node From Brian Reid, From Jim Larus, History, History
@appendixsec From Brian Reid

@cindex Brian Reid
@cindex Reid, Brian

One day in 1983 I got the flu and had to stay home from work for three
days with nothing to do. I used that time to write MHE@. The
fundamental idea behind MHE was that it was a ``puppeteer'' driving
the MH programs underneath it. MH had a model that the editor was
supposed to run as a sub-process of the mailer, which seemed to me at
the time to be the tail wagging the dog. So I turned it around and
made the editor drive the MH programs. I made sure that the UCI people
(who were maintaining MH at the time) took in my changes and made them
stick.

Today, I still use my own version of MHE because I don't at all like
the way that GNU MH-E works and I've never gotten to be good enough at
hacking Emacs Lisp to make GNU MH-E do what I want. The Gosling-emacs
version of MHE and the GNU Emacs version of MH-E have almost nothing
in common except similar names. They work differently, have different
conceptual models, and have different key bindings@footnote{After
reading this article, I questioned Brian about his version of MHE, and
received some great ideas for improving MH-E such as a dired-like
method of selecting folders; and removing the prompting when sending
mail, filling in the blanks in the draft buffer instead. I passed them
on to Stephen Gildea, the current maintainer, and he was excited about
the ideas as well. Perhaps one day, MH-E will again resemble MHE
(draft form editing was introduced in version 7.4).}.

Brian Reid, June 1994

@node From Jim Larus, From Stephen Gildea, From Brian Reid, History
@appendixsec From Jim Larus

@cindex Jim Larus
@cindex Larus, Jim

Brian Reid, while at CMU or shortly after going to Stanford wrote a
mail reading program called MHE for Gosling Emacs. It had much the
same structure as MH-E (i.e., invoked MH programs), though it was
simpler and the commands were slightly different. Unfortunately, I no
longer have a copy so the differences are lost in the mists of time.

In '82-83, I was working at BBN and wrote a lot of mlisp code in
Gosling Emacs to make it look more like Tennex Emacs. One of the
packages that I picked up and improved was Reid's mail system. In '83,
I went back to Berkeley. About that time, Stallman's first version of
GNU Emacs came out and people started to move to it from Gosling Emacs
(as I recall, the transition took a year or two). I decided to port
Reid's MHE and used the mlisp to Emacs Lisp translator that came with
GNU Emacs. It did a lousy job and the resulting code didn't work, so I
bit the bullet and rewrote the code by hand (it was a lot smaller and
simpler then, so it took only a day or two).

Soon after that, MH-E became part of the standard Emacs distribution
and suggestions kept dribbling in for improvements. MH-E soon reached
sufficient functionality to keep me happy, but I kept on improving it
because I was a graduate student with plenty of time on my hands and
it was more fun than my dissertation. In retrospect, the one thing
that I regret is not writing any documentation, which seriously
limited the use and appeal of the package.

@cindex @command{xmh}, in MH-E history

In '89, I came to Wisconsin as a professor and decided not to work on
MH-E. It was stable, except for minor bugs, and had enough
functionality, so I let it be for a few years. Stephen Gildea of BBN
began to pester me about the bugs, but I ignored them. In 1990, he
went off to the X Consortium, said good bye, and said that he would
now be using @command{xmh}. A few months later, he came back and said
that he couldn't stand @command{xmh} and could I put a few more bug fixes
into MH-E. At that point, I had no interest in fixing MH-E, so I gave
the responsibility of maintenance to him and he has done a fine job
since then.

Jim Larus, June 1994

@node From Stephen Gildea, From Bill Wohler, From Jim Larus, History
@appendixsec From Stephen Gildea

@cindex Gildea, Stephen
@cindex Stephen Gildea

In 1987 I went to work for Bolt Beranek and Newman, as Jim had before
me. In my previous job, I had been using RMAIL, but as my folders tend
to run large, I was frustrated with the speed of RMAIL@. However, I
stuck with it because I wanted the GNU Emacs interface. I am very
familiar and comfortable with the Emacs interface (with just a few
modifications of my own) and dislike having to use applications with
embedded editors; they never live up to Emacs.

MH is the mail reader of choice at BBN, so I converted to it. Since I
didn't want to give up using an Emacs interface, I started using MH-E.
As is my wont, I started hacking on it almost immediately. I first
used version 3.4m. One of the first features I added was to treat the
folder buffer as a file-visiting buffer: you could lock it, save it,
and be warned of unsaved changes when killing it. I also worked to
bring its functionality a little closer to RMAIL@. Jim Larus was very
cooperative about merging in my changes, and my efforts first appeared
in version 3.6, distributed with Emacs 18.52 in 1988. Next I decided
MH-E was too slow and optimized it a lot. Version, 3.7, distributed
with Emacs 18.56 in 1990, was noticeably faster.

When I moved to the X Consortium I became the first person there to
not use xmh. (There is now one other engineer there using MH-E.) About
this point I took over maintenance of MH-E from Jim and was finally
able to add some features Jim hadn't accepted, such as the backward
searching undo. My first release was 3.8 (Emacs 18.58) in 1992.

Now, in 1994, we see a flurry of releases, with both 4.0 and 5.0.
Version 4.0 added many new features, including background folder
collection and support for composing @sc{mime} messages. (Reading
@sc{mime} messages remains to be done, alas.) While writing this book,
Bill Wohler gave MH-E its closest examination ever, uncovering bugs
and inconsistencies that required a new major version to fix, and so
version 5 was released.

Stephen Gildea, June 1994

@node From Bill Wohler,  , From Stephen Gildea, History
@appendixsec From Bill Wohler

@cindex Wohler, Bill
@cindex Bill Wohler

The preface originally included the following text which I use to
begin my story:

@quotation
But it's important to note a brief history of MH-E.

@w{Version 3} was prevalent through the @w{Emacs 18} and early
@w{Emacs 19} years. Then @w{Version 4} came out (@w{Emacs 19.23}),
which introduced several new and changed commands. Next, @w{Version
5.0} was released, which fixed some bugs and incompatibilities, and
was incorporated into @w{Emacs 19.29}.
@end quotation

After a long break, Stephen handed the reins over to me in 2000. I
moved the project to a new site called SourceForge and organized a
great team of developers. Our first release in late 2001 was version
6. It appeared around the time of Emacs 21.2 and had menus and tool
bar buttons.

Then, indexed searches, improved MIME handling, a speedbar, multiple
identities, alias completion, an index view of unseen messages, spam
software support, Face and X-Image-URL header field support, Fcc
completion, arbitrary range handling, and draft form editing were
introduced in the version 7 series around the time of Emacs 21.4
(2004). Still, Emacs itself contained version 5 of MH-E released back
in 1994.

Version 8 development was mostly driven by the rewrite of the manual.
It also brought mailutils support, S/MIME support, picon support, and
an improved interface for hiding header fields. The CVS repository was
migrated from SourceForge to Savannah (only for those files that were
already part of Emacs) and the software was completely reorganized to
push back two decades of entropy. Version 8 will appear in Emacs 22.1,
expected to be released in 2006.

Bill Wohler, February 2006

@node GFDL, GPL, History, Top
@appendix GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
@center Version 1.2, November 2002

@display
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display
@sp 1
@enumerate 0
@item
PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document ``free'' in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

@sp 1
@item
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice grants a
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A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
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A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
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The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
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The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
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A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
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@sp 1
@item
VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
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conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
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You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
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@sp 1
@item
COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
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It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
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@sp 1
@item
MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
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and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
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A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
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D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.@*
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
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H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.@*
I. Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title, and add
   to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
   publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
   there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
   stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
   given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
   Version as stated in the previous sentence.@*
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
   public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
   the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
   it was based on.  These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
   You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
   least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
   publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.@*
K. For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'',
   Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
   the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
   and/or dedications given therein.@*
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
   unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
   or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.@*
M. Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements.''  Such a section
   may not be included in the Modified Version.@*
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements''
   or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.@*
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.@*
@sp 1
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
@sp 1
@item
COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
and any sections Entitled ``Dedications.''  You must delete all sections
Entitled ``Endorsements.''
@sp 1
@item
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
@sp 1
@item
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
aggregate.
@sp 1
@item
TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
``Dedications'', or ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
title.
@sp 1
@item
TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
@sp 1
@item
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

@end enumerate

@unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:

@smallexample
@group
Copyright (C)  @var{year}  @var{your name}.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
Free Documentation License''.
@end group
@end smallexample

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the ``with...Texts.'' line with this:

@smallexample
@group
with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with the
Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
@var{list}.
@end group
@end smallexample

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
to permit their use in free software.

@node GPL, Key Index, GFDL, Top
@appendix GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
@center Version 2, June 1991

@display
Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display

@unnumberedsec Preamble

  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

@iftex
@unnumberedsec TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end ifinfo

@enumerate 0
@item
This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program,'' below,
refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term ``modification.'')  Each licensee is addressed as ``you.''

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

@item
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

@item
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

@enumerate a
@item
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

@item
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.

@item
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
@end enumerate

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.

@item
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

@enumerate a
@item
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

@item
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,

@item
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
@end enumerate

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

@item
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

@item
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.

@item
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.

@item
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.

@item
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

@item
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.

@item
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

@iftex
@heading NO WARRANTY
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center NO WARRANTY
@end ifinfo

@item
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW@.  EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS'' WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU@.  SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

@item
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
@end enumerate

@iftex
@heading END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end ifinfo

@page
@unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

@smallexample
@var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
Copyright (C) @var{yyyy}  @var{name of author}

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.
@end smallexample

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:

@smallexample
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) @var{yyyy} @var{name of author}
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
for details.
@end smallexample

The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
@samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

@smallexample
@group
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
(which makes passes at compilers) written
by James Hacker.

@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
@end group
@end smallexample

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.

@node Key Index, Command Index, GPL, Top
@unnumbered Key (Character) Index
@printindex ky

@node Command Index, Option Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Command Index
@printindex fn

@node Option Index, Concept Index, Command Index, Top
@unnumbered Option (Variable) Index
@printindex vr

@node Concept Index,  , Option Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp

@bye

@c Ispell Helpers
@c
@c The following are words that ispell should ignore that would not
@c normally be in a dictionary (global or personal). Be careful not to
@c include words here that could potentially be typos of other words
@c (such as url, elisp, or MHE).
@c
@c LocalWords: CTRL ESC SPC f's
@c LocalWords: addr Aliasfile alist
@c LocalWords: Baushke Bcc BBN Beranek bogofilter bogofilter's
@c LocalWords: cmd CMU contrib cron
@c LocalWords: DesBrisay Dcc devel dir dired docstring filll forw
@c LocalWords: GECOS Gildea Gildea's Ginnean GnuCash goto gnuserv htm
@c LocalWords: ImageMagick inbox ispell keychain
@c LocalWords: Larus licensor LocalWords lookup lpr
@c LocalWords: makeinfo mairix mbox mh mhbuild mhl mhpath mlisp
@c LocalWords: MML msg multipart
@c LocalWords: Namazu NIS nenscript nnml num
@c LocalWords: packmbox passphrase pathname prev procmail prog repl
@c LocalWords: slocal sortm SpamAssassin spammers SpamProbe SpamProbe's
@c LocalWords: sublicense supercite speedbar
@c LocalWords: Tennex texi texinfo Thelen thelenm
@c LocalWords: UCI undeleted whatnow wohler xmh ypcat
@c
@c See http://www.oreilly.com/oreilly/author/stylesheet.html.
@c See http://en.wikipedia.org/.
@c
@c Note the lowercase mh which is needed to avoid hits in the
@c functions and variables. Occasionally, check for accidental
@c inclusion of mh in text by uncommenting the following and executing
@c it with C-x C-e. You want to see "Search failed"
@c   (let ((case-fold-search nil))
@c        (goto-char (point-min))
@c        (search-forward-regexp "^mh\\( \\|$\\)"))
@c
@c An extremely useful setting for texinfo-mode-hook is:
@c   (add-to-list
@c    'ispell-skip-region-alist
@c    (list
@c     (concat "\\(@\\(small\\)?\\(example\\|lisp\\)"
@c             "\\(@\\([irw]\\|code\\|var\\){[^}]+}\\|"
@c             "@[@{}.]\\|"
@c             "[^@]\\|"
@c             "@\\(end \\)?group\\|"
@c             "@\\(end \\)?cartouche\\)+"
@c             "@end \\(small\\)?\\(example\\|lisp\\)\\|"
@c             "@\\(code\\|command\\|file\\|kbd\\|sc\\){[^}]+}\\|"
@c             "^@end [a-z]+$\\|"
@c             "^@\\([fv]\\|print\\)index .*$\\|"
@c             "@uref{[^,]+,\\|"
@c             "@[a-z]+\\|"
@c             "/[a-z.]+[/}]\\)")))))
@c
@c Cross References
@c
@c See existing cross-references to the Emacs manual and the Emacs
@c Lisp manual (search for ``GNU Emacs Manual'' and ``GNU
@c Emacs Lisp Reference Manual'' respectively).

@c @ftable Sorting
@c
@c As per index (sort of): Punctuation, keyboard characters (such as
@c RET and BS) upper and lowercase mixed (lower comes before
@c uppercase), control characters go with uppercase C, meta characters
@c go with uppercase M.
@c In some cases, the sort isn't strictly ASCII.
@c For example, SPC (mh-page-msg) reads better before BS
@c (mh-previous-page) and . (mh-show) is better before ,
@c (mh-header-display).

@c @vtable Sorting
@c
@c Alphabetical, pull hooks into their own table.

@c Local Variables:
@c sentence-end-double-space: nil
@c End:

@ignore
   arch-tag: b778477d-1a10-4a99-84de-f877a2ea6bef
@end ignore