emacs / man / dired-x.texi

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\input texinfo  @comment -*-texinfo-*-

@c dired-x.texi --- Sebastian Kremer's Extra DIRED hacked up for GNU Emacs19
@c
@c Author: Sebastian Kremer <sk@thp.uni-koeln.de>
@c	Lawrence R. Dodd <dodd@roebling.poly.edu>
@c [Dodd's address no longer valid.]
@c Version: 2.53
@c Date: 2001/02/25 14:05:46
@c Keywords: dired extensions
@c dired-x.el REVISION NUMBER: 2

@c State: Released
@c Ident: dired-x.texi,v 2.53 2001/02/25 14:05:46 dodd Released

@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@c FOR GNU EMACS USE ../info/dired-x BELOW
@setfilename ../info/dired-x
@c dired-x.el REVISION NUMBER
@settitle Dired Extra Version 2 User's Manual
@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex
@c @setchapternewpage odd		% For book style double sided manual.
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)

@copying
Copyright @copyright{} 1994, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
2005, 2006, 2007, 2008  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``The GNU Manifesto'', ``Distribution'' and
``GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE'', with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
Manual'', and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License'' in the Emacs manual.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this document
separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Dired-X: (dired-x).   Dired Extra Features.
@end direntry

@c      @smallbook
@tex
\overfullrule=0pt
%\global\baselineskip 30pt      % For printing in double spaces
@end tex

@titlepage
@sp 6
@c dired-x.el REVISION NUMBER
@center @titlefont{Dired Extra Version 2}
@sp 2
@center @titlefont{For The GNU Emacs}
@sp 1
@center @titlefont{Directory Editor}
@sp 4
@center Lawrence R@. Dodd
@c @center @t{dodd@@roebling.poly.edu}
@sp 5
@center (Based on @file{dired.texi} by Sebastian Kremer <sk@@thp.uni-koeln.de>)
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@page

@ifnottex

@node Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@noindent
This documents the ``extra'' features for Dired Mode for GNU Emacs that are
provided by the file @file{dired-x.el}.

@itemize @bullet

@item
Based on @file{dired.texi} by Sebastian Kremer <sk@@thp.uni-koeln.de>

@c dired-x.el REVISION NUMBER
@item
For @file{dired-x.el} revision 2

@c @item
@c Revision of this manual: 2.53 (2001/02/25 14:05:46)

@c @item
@c Bugs to Lawrence R. Dodd <dodd@@roebling.poly.edu>.  @emph{Please} type
@c @kbd{M-x dired-x-submit-report} to submit a bug report (@pxref{Bugs}).

@c @item
@c You can obtain a copy of this package via anonymous ftp in
@c @t{/roebling.poly.edu:/pub/packages/dired-x.tar.gz}

@end itemize

@menu
* Introduction::
* Installation::
* Omitting Files in Dired::
* Local Variables::
* Shell Command Guessing::
* Virtual Dired::
* Advanced Mark Commands::
* Multiple Dired Directories::
* Find File At Point::
* Miscellaneous Commands::
* Bugs::

* GNU Free Documentation License::
* Concept Index::
* Command Index::
* Key Index::
* Variable Index::

@end menu

@end ifnottex

@node Introduction, Installation, Top, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction

This documents the @emph{extra} features for Dired Mode for GNU Emacs.  It
is derived from version 1.191 of Sebastian Kremer's @file{dired-x.el}.

In adopting this @file{dired-x.el} to GNU Emacs v19 some material that has
been incorporated into @file{dired.el} and @file{dired-aux.el} of the GNU Emacs
19 distribution has been removed and some material was modified for agreement
with the functions in @file{dired.el} and @file{dired-aux.el}.  For example,
the code using @code{gmhist} history functions was replaced with code using
the mini-buffer history now built into GNU Emacs.  Finally, a few other
features have been added and a few more functions have been bound to keys.

@ifnottex
@menu
* Features::
* Technical Details::
@end menu
@end ifnottex

@node Features, Technical Details, , Introduction
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Features
@cindex Features

Some features provided by Dired Extra

@enumerate
@item
Omitting uninteresting files from Dired listing.
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Omitting Files in Dired}.
@end itemize
@item
Local variables for Dired directories.
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Local Variables}.
@end itemize
@item
Guessing shell commands in Dired buffers.
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Shell Command Guessing}.
@end itemize
@item
Running Dired command in non-Dired buffers.
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Virtual Dired}.
@end itemize
@item
Finding a file mentioned in a buffer
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Find File At Point}.
@end itemize
@item
Commands using file marking.
@itemize @bullet
@xref{Advanced Mark Commands}.
@end itemize
@end enumerate

@noindent
@file{dired-x.el} binds some functions to keys in Dired Mode (@pxref{Key
Index}) and also binds @kbd{C-x C-j} and @kbd{C-x 4 C-j} @emph{globally} to
@code{dired-jump} (@pxref{Miscellaneous Commands}).  It may also bind @kbd{C-x
C-f} and @kbd{C-x 4 C-f} to @code{dired-x-find-file} and
@code{dired-x-find-file-other-window}, respectively (@pxref{Find File At
Point}).

@node Technical Details, , Features, Introduction
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Technical Details
@cindex Redefined functions
@cindex @file{dired-aux.el}

When loaded this code @emph{redefines} the following functions of GNU Emacs
from @file{dired.el}

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{dired-clean-up-after-deletion}
@item
@code{dired-find-buffer-nocreate}
@item
@code{dired-initial-position}
@item
@code{dired-up-directory}
@end itemize

@noindent
and the following functions from @file{dired-aux.el}

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{dired-add-entry}
@item
@code{dired-read-shell-command}
@end itemize

@node Installation, Omitting Files in Dired, Introduction, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Installation

@noindent
This manual describes the Dired features provided by the file
@file{dired-x.el}.  To take advantage of these features, you must load the
file and (optionally) set some variables.

@noindent
In your @file{.emacs} file in your home directory, or in the system-wide
initialization file @file{default.el} in the @file{site-lisp} directory, put

@example
(add-hook 'dired-load-hook
          (lambda ()
            (load "dired-x")
            ;; Set dired-x global variables here.  For example:
            ;; (setq dired-guess-shell-gnutar "gtar")
            ;; (setq dired-x-hands-off-my-keys nil)
            ))
(add-hook 'dired-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
            ;; Set dired-x buffer-local variables here.  For example:
            ;; (dired-omit-mode 1)
            ))
@end example

@noindent
This will load @file{dired-x.el} when Dired is first invoked (for example,
when you first type @kbd{C-x d}).

@ifnottex
@menu
* Optional Installation Dired Jump::
* Optional Installation File At Point::
@end menu
@end ifnottex

@node Optional Installation Dired Jump, Optional Installation File At Point, , Installation
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Optional Installation Dired Jump

@cindex Autoloading @code{dired-jump} and @code{dired-jump-other-window}

In order to have @code{dired-jump} and @code{dired-jump-other-window}
(@pxref{Miscellaneous Commands}) work @emph{before} @code{dired} and
@code{dired-x} have been properly loaded the user should set-up an autoload
for these functions.  In your @file{.emacs} file put

@example
;; Autoload `dired-jump' and `dired-jump-other-window'.
;; We autoload from FILE dired.el.  This will then load dired-x.el
;; and hence define `dired-jump' and `dired-jump-other-window'.
(define-key global-map "\C-x\C-j" 'dired-jump)
(define-key global-map "\C-x4\C-j" 'dired-jump-other-window)

(autoload (quote dired-jump) "dired" "\
Jump to Dired buffer corresponding to current buffer.
If in a file, Dired the current directory and move to file's line.
If in Dired already, pop up a level and goto old directory's line.
In case the proper Dired file line cannot be found, refresh the Dired
buffer and try again." t nil)

(autoload (quote dired-jump-other-window) "dired" "\
Like \\[dired-jump] (dired-jump) but in other window." t nil)
@end example

Note that in recent releases of GNU Emacs 19 (i.e., 19.25 or later) the file
@file{../lisp/loaddefs.el} of the Emacs distribution already contains the
proper auto-loading for @code{dired-jump} so you need only put

@example
(define-key global-map "\C-x\C-j" 'dired-jump)
@end example

@noindent
in your @file{.emacs} file in order to have @kbd{C-x C-j} work
before @code{dired} is loaded.

@node Optional Installation File At Point, , Optional Installation Dired Jump, Installation
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Optional Installation File At Point

@cindex Binding @code{dired-x-find-file}
If you choose to have @file{dired-x.el} bind @code{dired-x-find-file} over
@code{find-file} (@pxref{Find File At Point}), then you will need to set
@code{dired-x-hands-off-my-keys} and make a call to the function
@code{dired-x-bind-find-file} in the @code{dired-load-hook}:

@example
(add-hook 'dired-load-hook
          (lambda ()
            (load "dired-x")
            ;; Bind dired-x-find-file.
            (setq dired-x-hands-off-my-keys nil)
            ;; Make sure our binding preference is invoked.
            (dired-x-bind-find-file)
            ))
@end example

Alternatively, you can set the variable @emph{before} @file{dired-x.el} is
loaded

@example
(add-hook 'dired-load-hook
          (lambda ()
            ;; Bind dired-x-find-file.
            (setq dired-x-hands-off-my-keys nil)
            (load "dired-x")
            ))
@end example

@node Omitting Files in Dired, Local Variables, Installation, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Omitting Files in Dired

@cindex Omitting Files in Dired
@cindex Uninteresting files
@dfn{Omitting} a file means removing it from the directory listing.  Omitting
is useful for keeping Dired buffers free of ``uninteresting'' files (for
instance, auto-save, auxiliary, backup, and revision control files) so that
the user can concentrate on the interesting files.  Like hidden files, omitted
files are never seen by Dired.  Omitting differs from hiding in several
respects:

@itemize @bullet

@item
Omitting works on individual files, not on directories; an entire directory
cannot be omitted (though each of its files could be).

@item
Omitting is wholesale; if omitting is turned on for a Dired buffer, then all
uninteresting files listed in that buffer are omitted.  The user does not omit
(or unomit) files one at a time.

@item
Omitting can be automatic; uninteresting file lines in the buffer can be
removed before the user ever sees them.

@item
Marked files are never omitted.
@end itemize

@table @kbd
@item M-o
@kindex M-o
@findex dired-omit-mode
(@code{dired-omit-mode}) Toggle between displaying and omitting
``uninteresting'' files.
@item * O
@kindex * O
@findex dired-mark-omitted
(@code{dired-mark-omitted}) Mark ``uninteresting'' files.
@end table

@noindent
In order to make Dired Omit work you first need to load @file{dired-x.el}
inside @code{dired-load-hook} (@pxref{Installation}) and then evaluate
@code{(dired-omit-mode 1)} in some way (@pxref{Omitting Variables}).

@ifnottex
@menu
* Omitting Variables::
* Omitting Examples::
* Omitting Technical::
@end menu
@end ifnottex

@node Omitting Variables, Omitting Examples, , Omitting Files in Dired
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@section Omitting Variables

@cindex Customizing file omitting
The following variables can be used to customize omitting.

@table @code

@vindex dired-omit-mode
@item dired-omit-mode

Default: @code{nil}

@cindex How to make omitting the default in Dired
If non-@code{nil}, ``uninteresting'' files are not listed.
Uninteresting files are those whose files whose names match regexp
@code{dired-omit-files}, plus those ending with extensions in
@code{dired-omit-extensions}.  @kbd{M-o} (@code{dired-omit-mode})
toggles its value, which is buffer-local.  Put

@example
(dired-omit-mode 1)
@end example

@noindent
inside your @code{dired-mode-hook} to have omitting initially turned on in
@emph{every} Dired buffer (@pxref{Installation}).  You can then use @kbd{M-o} to
unomit in that buffer.

To enable omitting automatically only in certain directories one can use Dired
Local Variables and put

@example
Local Variables:
dired-omit-mode: t
End:
@end example

@noindent
into a file @file{.dired} (the default value of
@code{dired-local-variables-file}) in that directory (@pxref{Local Variables}).

@table @code
@findex dired-omit-here-always
@item dired-omit-here-always

This is an interactive function that creates a local variables file exactly
like the example above (if it does not already exist) in the file
@code{dired-local-variables-file} in the current directory and then refreshes
the directory listing (@pxref{Local Variables}).
@end table

@vindex dired-omit-files
@item dired-omit-files

Default: @code{"^#\\|\\.$"}

Files whose names match this buffer-local regexp will not be displayed.
This only has effect when @code{dired-omit-mode}'s value is @code{t}.

The default value omits the special directories @file{.} and @file{..}  and
autosave files (plus other files ending in @file{.}) (@pxref{Omitting Examples}).

@vindex dired-omit-extensions
@item dired-omit-extensions

Default: The elements of @code{completion-ignored-extensions},
@code{dired-latex-unclean-extensions}, @code{dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions}
and @code{dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions}.

If non-@code{nil}, a list of extensions (strings) to omit from Dired listings.
Its format is the same as that of @code{completion-ignored-extensions}.

@vindex dired-omit-localp
@item dired-omit-localp

Default:  @code{no-dir}

The @var{localp} argument @code{dired-omit-expunge} passes to
@code{dired-get-filename}.  If it is @code{no-dir}, omitting is much faster,
but you can only match against the non-directory part of the file name.  Set it
to @code{nil} if you need to match the whole file name or @code{t} to match the
file name relative to the buffer's top-level directory.

@item dired-omit-marker-char
@vindex dired-omit-marker-char
@cindex Omitting additional files
Default: @kbd{C-o}

Temporary marker used by Dired to implement omitting.  Should never be used
as marker by the user or other packages.  There is one exception to this rule:
by adding

@example
(setq dired-mark-keys "\C-o")
;; i.e., the value of dired-omit-marker-char
;; (which is not defined yet)
@end example

@noindent
to your @file{~/.emacs}, you can bind the @kbd{C-o} key to insert a
@kbd{C-o} marker, thus causing these files to be omitted in addition to the
usually omitted files.  Unfortunately the files you omitted manually this way
will show up again after reverting the buffer, unlike the others.

@end table

@node Omitting Examples, Omitting Technical, Omitting Variables, Omitting Files in Dired
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Examples of Omitting Various File Types

@itemize @bullet

@item
@cindex RCS files, how to omit them in Dired
@cindex Omitting RCS files in Dired
If you wish to avoid seeing RCS files and the @file{RCS} directory, then put

@example
(setq dired-omit-files
      (concat dired-omit-files "\\|^RCS$\\|,v$"))
@end example

@noindent
in the @code{dired-load-hook} (@pxref{Installation}).  This assumes
@code{dired-omit-localp} has its default value of @code{no-dir} to make the
@code{^}-anchored matches work.  As a slower alternative, with
@code{dired-omit-localp} set to @code{nil}, you can use @code{/} instead of
@code{^} in the regexp.

@item
@cindex Tib files, how to omit them in Dired
@cindex Omitting tib files in Dired
If you use @code{tib}, the bibliography program for use with @TeX{} and
La@TeX{}, and you
want to omit the @file{INDEX} and the @file{*-t.tex} files, then put

@example
(setq dired-omit-files
      (concat dired-omit-files "\\|^INDEX$\\|-t\\.tex$"))
@end example

@noindent
in the @code{dired-load-hook} (@pxref{Installation}).

@item
@cindex Dot files, how to omit them in Dired
@cindex Omitting dot files in Dired
If you do not wish to see @samp{dot} files (files starting with a @file{.}),
then put

@example
(setq dired-omit-files
      (concat dired-omit-files "\\|^\\..+$"))
@end example

@noindent
in the @code{dired-load-hook} (@pxref{Installation}).

@end itemize

@node Omitting Technical, , Omitting Examples, Omitting Files in Dired
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Some Technical Details of Omitting

Loading @file{dired-x.el} will install Dired Omit by putting
@code{dired-omit-expunge} on your @code{dired-after-readin-hook}, and will
call @code{dired-extra-startup}, which in turn calls @code{dired-omit-startup}
in your @code{dired-mode-hook}.

@node Local Variables, Shell Command Guessing, Omitting Files in Dired, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Local Variables for Dired Directories

@cindex Local Variables for Dired Directories
@vindex dired-local-variables-file
@vindex dired-enable-local-variables
@noindent
When Dired visits a directory, it looks for a file whose name is the value of
variable @code{dired-local-variables-file} (default: @file{.dired}).  If such
a file is found, Dired will temporarily insert it into the Dired buffer and
run @code{hack-local-variables}.

@noindent
For example, if the user puts

@example
Local Variables:
dired-actual-switches: "-lat"
dired-omit-mode: t
End:
@end example

@noindent
into a file called @file{.dired} in a directory then when that directory is
viewed it will be

@enumerate
@item
sorted by date
@item
omitted automatically
@end enumerate

@noindent
You can set @code{dired-local-variables-file} to @code{nil} to suppress this.
The value of @code{dired-enable-local-variables} controls if and how these
local variables are read.  This variable exists so that if may override the
default value of @code{enable-local-variables}.

@noindent
Please see the GNU Emacs Manual to learn more about local variables.
@xref{File Variables,Local Variables in Files,Local Variables in
Files,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}.

@noindent
The following variables affect Dired Local Variables

@table @code
@vindex dired-local-variables-file
@item dired-local-variables-file
Default: @code{".dired"}

If non-@code{nil}, file name for local variables for Dired.  If Dired finds a
file with that name in the current directory, it will temporarily insert it
into the Dired buffer and run @code{hack-local-variables}.

@vindex dired-enable-local-variables
@item dired-enable-local-variables
Default: @code{t}

Controls the use of local-variables lists in Dired.  The value can be @code{t},
@code{nil}, or something else.  A value of @code{t} means local-variables
lists are obeyed in the @code{dired-local-variables-file}; @code{nil} means
they are ignored; anything else means query.  This variable temporarily
overrides the value of @code{enable-local-variables} when the Dired Local
Variables are hacked.
@end table

@node Shell Command Guessing, Virtual Dired, Local Variables, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Shell Command Guessing
@cindex Guessing shell commands for files.

Based upon the name of a file, Dired tries to guess what shell
command you might want to apply to it.  For example, if you have point
on a file named @file{foo.tar} and you press @kbd{!}, Dired will guess
you want to @samp{tar xvf} it and suggest that as the default shell
command.

The default is mentioned in brackets and you can type @kbd{M-p} to get
the default into the minibuffer and then edit it, e.g., to change
@samp{tar xvf} to @samp{tar tvf}.  If there are several commands for a given
file, e.g., @samp{xtex} and @samp{dvips} for a @file{.dvi} file, you can type
@kbd{M-p} several times to see each of the matching commands.

Dired only tries to guess a command for a single file, never for a list
of marked files.

@table @code
@item dired-guess-shell-alist-default
@vindex dired-guess-shell-alist-default
Predefined rules for shell commands.  Set this to @code{nil} to turn guessing off.
The elements of @code{dired-guess-shell-alist-user} (defined by the
user) will override these rules.@refill

@item dired-guess-shell-alist-user
@vindex dired-guess-shell-alist-user
If non-@code{nil}, a user-defined alist of file regexps and their suggested
commands.  These rules take precedence over the predefined rules in the
variable @code{dired-guess-shell-alist-default} (to which they are prepended)
when @code{dired-do-shell-command} is run).
@refill

Each element of the alist looks like

@example
(@var{regexp} @var{command}@dots{})
@end example

@noindent
where each @var{command} can either be a string or a Lisp expression
that evaluates to a string.  If several commands are given, all of
them will temporarily be pushed onto the history.

If @samp{*} in the shell command, that means to substitute the file
name.

You can set this variable in your @file{~/.emacs}.  For example,
to add rules for @samp{.foo} and @samp{.bar} file extensions, write

@example
(setq dired-guess-shell-alist-user
      (list
       (list "\\.foo$" "@var{foo-command}");; fixed rule
       ;; possibly more rules...
       (list "\\.bar$";; rule with condition test
              '(if @var{condition}
                   "@var{bar-command-1}"
                 "@var{bar-command-2}"))))
@end example

@noindent
This will override any predefined rules for the same extensions.

@item dired-guess-shell-case-fold-search
@vindex dired-guess-shell-case-fold-search
Default: @code{t}

Non-@code{nil} means @code{dired-guess-shell-alist-default} and
@code{dired-guess-shell-alist-user} are matched case-insensitively.

@item dired-guess-shell-gnutar
@vindex dired-guess-shell-gnutar
@cindex Passing GNU Tar its @samp{z} switch.
Default: @code{nil}

If non-@code{nil}, this is the name of the GNU Tar executable (e.g.,
@samp{tar} or @samp{gnutar}).  GNU Tar's @samp{z} switch is used for
compressed tar files.
If you don't have GNU tar, set this to @code{nil}: a pipe using @samp{zcat} is
then used.

@item dired-guess-shell-gzip-quiet
@vindex dired-guess-shell-gzip-quiet
@cindex @code{gzip}
Default: @code{t}

A non-@code{nil} value means that @samp{-q} is passed to @code{gzip}
overriding a verbose option in the @env{GZIP} environment variable.

@item dired-guess-shell-znew-switches nil
@vindex dired-guess-shell-znew-switches nil
@cindex @code{znew}
Default: @code{nil}

A string of switches passed to @code{znew}.  An example is
@samp{-K} which will make @code{znew} keep a @file{.Z} file when it is
smaller than the @file{.gz} file.

@item dired-shell-command-history nil
@vindex dired-shell-command-history nil

History list for commands that read dired-shell commands.
@end table

@node Virtual Dired, Advanced Mark Commands, Shell Command Guessing, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Virtual Dired

@cindex Virtual Dired
@cindex Perusing @code{ls} listings
@cindex @code{ls} listings, how to peruse them in Dired
Using @dfn{Virtual Dired} means putting a buffer with Dired-like
contents in Dired mode.  The files described by the buffer contents need
not actually exist.  This is useful if you want to peruse an @samp{ls -lR}
output file, for example one you got from an FTP server.  You can use
all motion commands usually available in Dired.  You can also use
it to save a Dired buffer in a file and resume it in a later session.

@findex dired-virtual
@kindex g
@findex dired-virtual-revert
Type @kbd{M-x dired-virtual} to put the current buffer into virtual
Dired mode.  You will be prompted for the top level directory of this
buffer, with a default value guessed from the buffer contents.  To
convert the virtual to a real Dired buffer again, type @kbd{g} (which
calls @code{dired-virtual-revert}) in the virtual Dired buffer and
answer @samp{y}.  You don't have to do this, though: you can relist
single subdirectories using @kbd{l} (@code{dired-do-redisplay}) on the subdirectory
headerline, leaving the buffer in virtual Dired mode all the time.

@findex dired-virtual-mode
@vindex auto-mode-alist
The function @samp{dired-virtual-mode} is specially designed to turn on
virtual Dired mode from the @code{auto-mode-alist}.  To edit all
@file{*.dired} files automatically in virtual Dired mode, put this into your
@file{~/.emacs}:

@example
(setq auto-mode-alist (cons '("[^/]\\.dired$" . dired-virtual-mode)
                              auto-mode-alist))
@end example

@noindent
The regexp is a bit more complicated than usual to exclude @file{.dired}
local-variable files.

@node Advanced Mark Commands, Multiple Dired Directories, Virtual Dired, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Advanced Mark Commands

@table @kbd
@item F
@kindex F
@cindex Visiting several files at once
@cindex Simultaneous visiting of several files
@findex dired-do-find-marked-files
(@code{dired-do-find-marked-files}) Find all marked files at once displaying
them simultaneously.  If optional @var{noselect} is non-@code{nil} then just
find the
files but do not select.  If you want to keep the Dired buffer displayed, type
@kbd{C-x 2} first.  If you want just the marked files displayed and nothing
else, type @kbd{C-x 1} first.

The current window is split across all files marked, as evenly as possible.
Remaining lines go to the bottom-most window.  The number of files that can be
displayed this way is restricted by the height of the current window and the
variable @code{window-min-height}.
@end table

@table @code
@item dired-mark-extension
@findex dired-mark-extension
Mark all files with a certain extension for use in later commands.  A @samp{.}
is not automatically prepended to the string entered, you must type it
explicitly.

When called from Lisp, @var{extension} may also be a list of extensions
and an optional argument @var{marker-char} specifies the marker used.

@item dired-flag-extension
@findex dired-flag-extension
Flag all files with a certain extension for deletion.  A @samp{.} is
@emph{not} automatically prepended to the string entered.
@end table

@ifnottex
@menu
* Advanced Cleaning Functions::
* Advanced Cleaning Variables::
* Special Marking Function::
@end menu
@end ifnottex

@node Advanced Cleaning Functions, Advanced Cleaning Variables, , Advanced Mark Commands
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@section Advanced Cleaning Functions

@table @code
@item dired-clean-patch
@findex dired-clean-patch
Flag dispensable files created by the @samp{patch} program for deletion.  See
variable @code{dired-patch-unclean-extensions}.

@item dired-clean-tex
@findex dired-clean-tex
Flag dispensable files created by @TeX{}, La@TeX{}, and @samp{texinfo} for
deletion.  See the following variables (@pxref{Advanced Cleaning Variables}):

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{dired-tex-unclean-extensions}
@item
@code{dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions}
@item
@code{dired-latex-unclean-extensions}
@item
@code{dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions}
@end itemize

@item dired-very-clean-tex
@findex dired-very-clean-tex
Flag dispensable files created by @TeX{}, La@TeX{}, @samp{texinfo},
and @file{*.dvi} files for deletion.
@end table

@node Advanced Cleaning Variables, Special Marking Function, Advanced Cleaning Functions, Advanced Mark Commands
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@section Advanced Cleaning Variables

@noindent Variables used by the above cleaning commands (and in the default value for
variable @code{dired-omit-extensions}, @pxref{Omitting Variables})

@table @code
@item dired-patch-unclean-extensions
@vindex dired-patch-unclean-extensions
Default: @code{(".rej" ".orig")}

List of extensions of dispensable files created by the @samp{patch} program.

@item dired-tex-unclean-extensions
@vindex dired-tex-unclean-extensions
Default:  @code{(".toc" ".log" ".aux")}

List of extensions of dispensable files created by @TeX{}.

@item dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions
@vindex dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions
Default: @code{(".cp" ".cps" ".fn" ".fns" ".ky" ".kys"}
@code{".pg" ".pgs" ".tp" ".tps" ".vr" ".vrs")}

List of extensions of dispensable files created by @samp{texinfo}.

@item dired-latex-unclean-extensions
@vindex dired-latex-unclean-extensions
Default: @code{(".idx" ".lof" ".lot" ".glo")}

List of extensions of dispensable files created by La@TeX{}.

@item dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions
@vindex dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions
Default:  @code{(".blg" ".bbl")}

List of extensions of dispensable files created by Bib@TeX{}.
@end table

@node Special Marking Function, , Advanced Cleaning Variables, Advanced Mark Commands
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@section Special Marking Function

@table @kbd
@item M-(
@kindex M-(
@findex dired-mark-sexp
@cindex Lisp expression, marking files with in Dired
@cindex Mark file by Lisp expression
(@code{dired-mark-sexp}) Mark files for which @var{predicate} returns
non-@code{nil}.  With a prefix argument, unflag those files instead.

The @var{predicate} is a Lisp expression that can refer to the following
symbols:
@table @code
@item inode
[@i{integer}] the inode of the file (only for @samp{ls -i} output)
@item s
[@i{integer}] the size of the file for @samp{ls -s} output (usually in blocks or,
with @samp{-k}, in KBytes)
@item mode
[@i{string}]  file permission bits, e.g., @samp{-rw-r--r--}
@item nlink
[@i{integer}] number of links to file
@item uid
[@i{string}]  owner
@item gid
[@i{string}]  group  (If the gid is not displayed by @samp{ls}, this
will still be set (to the same as uid))
@item size
[@i{integer}] file size in bytes
@item time
[@i{string}]  the time that @samp{ls} displays, e.g., @samp{Feb 12 14:17}
@item name
[@i{string}]  the name of the file
@item sym
[@i{string}]  if file is a symbolic link, the linked-to name, else @code{""}
@end table

@noindent
For example, use
@example
(equal 0 size)
@end example
to mark all zero length files.

To find out all not yet compiled Emacs Lisp files in a directory, Dired
all @file{.el} files in the lisp directory using the wildcard
@samp{*.el}.  Then use @kbd{M-(} with
@example
(not (file-exists-p (concat name "c")))
@end example
to mark all @file{.el} files without a corresponding @file{.elc} file.

@end table

@node Multiple Dired Directories, Find File At Point, Advanced Mark Commands, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Multiple Dired Directories and Non-Dired Commands

@cindex Multiple Dired directories
@cindex Working directory
An Emacs buffer can have but one working directory, stored in the
buffer-local variable @code{default-directory}.  A Dired buffer may have
several subdirectories inserted, but it still has only one working
directory: that of the top-level Dired directory in that buffer.  For
some commands it is appropriate that they use the current Dired
directory instead of @code{default-directory}, e.g., @code{find-file} and
@code{compile}.

A general mechanism is provided for special handling of the working
directory in special major modes:

@table @code
@item default-directory-alist
@vindex default-directory-alist
Default: @code{((dired-mode . (dired-current-directory)))}

Alist of major modes and their notion of @code{default-directory}, as a
Lisp expression to evaluate.  A resulting value of @code{nil} is ignored
in favor of @code{default-directory}.

@item dired-default-directory
@findex dired-default-directory
Use this function like you would use the variable
@code{default-directory}, except that @code{dired-default-directory}
also consults the variable @code{default-directory-alist}.
@end table

@node Find File At Point, Miscellaneous Commands, Multiple Dired Directories, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up

@section Find File At Point
@cindex Visiting a file mentioned in a buffer
@cindex Finding a file at point

@file{dired-x} provides a method of visiting or editing a file mentioned in
the buffer you are viewing (e.g., a mail buffer, a news article, a
@file{README} file, etc.) or to test if that file exists.  You can then modify
this in the minibuffer after snatching the file name.

When installed @file{dired-x} will substitute @code{dired-x-find-file} for
@code{find-file} (normally bound to @kbd{C-x C-f}) and
@code{dired-x-find-file-other-window} for @code{find-file-other-window}
(normally bound to @kbd{C-x 4 C-f}).

In order to use this feature, you will need to set
@code{dired-x-hands-off-my-keys} to @code{nil} inside @code{dired-load-hook}
(@pxref{Optional Installation File At Point}).

@table @code
@item dired-x-find-file
@findex dired-x-find-file
@kindex C-x C-f

@code{dired-x-find-file} behaves exactly like @code{find-file} (normally bound
to @kbd{C-x C-f}) unless a prefix argument is passed to the function in which
case it will use the file name at point as a guess for the file to visit.

For example, if the buffer you were reading contained the words

@example
Available via anonymous ftp in

   /roebling.poly.edu:/pub/lisp/crypt++.el.gz
@end example

@noindent
then you could move your cursor to the line containing the ftp address and
type @kbd{C-u C-x C-f} (the @kbd{C-u} is a universal argument).  The
minibuffer would read

@example
Find file: /roebling.poly.edu:/pub/lisp/crypt++.el.gz
@end example

@noindent
with the point after the last @code{/}.  If you hit @key{RET}, emacs will visit
the file at that address.  This also works with files on your own computer.

@item dired-x-find-file-other-window
@findex dired-x-find-file-other-window
@kindex C-x 4 C-f

@code{dired-x-find-file-other-window} behaves exactly like
@code{find-file-other-window} (normally bound to @kbd{C-x 4 C-f}) unless a
prefix argument is used.  See @code{dired-x-find-file} for more information.

@item dired-x-hands-off-my-keys
@vindex dired-x-hands-off-my-keys
If set to @code{t}, then it means that @file{dired-x} should @emph{not} bind
@code{dired-x-find-file} over @code{find-file} on keyboard.  Similarly, it
should not bind @code{dired-x-find-file-other-window} over
@code{find-file-other-window}.  If you change this variable after
@file{dired-x.el} is loaded then do @kbd{M-x dired-x-bind-find-file}.  The
default value of this variable is @code{t}; by default, the binding is not
done.  See @xref{Optional Installation File At Point}.

@item dired-x-bind-find-file
@findex dired-x-bind-find-file
A function, which can be called interactively or in your @file{~/.emacs} file,
that uses the value of @code{dired-x-hands-off-my-keys} to determine if
@code{dired-x-find-file} should be bound over @code{find-file} and
@code{dired-x-find-file-other-window} bound over
@code{find-file-other-window}.  See @xref{Optional Installation File At Point}.
@end table

@node Miscellaneous Commands, Bugs, Find File At Point, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Miscellaneous Commands

Miscellaneous features not fitting anywhere else:

@table @code
@item dired-find-subdir
@vindex dired-find-subdir
Default: @code{nil}

If non-@code{nil}, Dired does not make a new buffer for a directory if it can
be found (perhaps as subdirectory) in some existing Dired buffer.

If there are several Dired buffers for a directory, the most recently
used is chosen.

Dired avoids switching to the current buffer, so that if you have a
normal and a wildcard buffer for the same directory, @kbd{C-x d RET}
will toggle between those two.
@end table

@table @kbd
@findex dired-goto-subdir
@kindex M-G
@item M-G
(@code{dired-goto-subdir}) Go to the header line of an inserted directory.
This command reads its argument, with completion derived from the names of the
inserted subdirectories.
@end table

@table @code
@item dired-smart-shell-command
@findex dired-smart-shell-command
@findex shell-command
@kindex M-!
Like function @code{shell-command}, but in the current Dired directory.
Bound to @kbd{M-!} in Dired buffers.

@item dired-jump
@findex dired-jump
@kindex C-x C-j
@cindex Jumping to Dired listing containing file.
Bound to @kbd{C-x C-j}.  Jump back to Dired: If in a file, edit the current
directory and move to file's line.  If in Dired already, pop up a level and
go to old directory's line.  In case the proper Dired file line cannot be
found, refresh the Dired buffer and try again.

@item dired-jump-other-window
@findex dired-jump-other-window
@kindex C-x 4 C-j
Bound to @kbd{C-x 4 C-j}. Like @code{dired-jump}, but to other window.

These functions can be autoloaded so they work even though @file{dired-x.el}
has not been loaded yet (@pxref{Optional Installation Dired Jump}).

@vindex dired-bind-jump
If the variable @code{dired-bind-jump} is @code{nil}, @code{dired-jump} will not be
bound to @kbd{C-x C-j} and @code{dired-jump-other-window} will not be bound to
@kbd{C-x 4 C-j}.

@item dired-vm
@cindex Reading mail.
@kindex V
@findex dired-vm
Bound to @kbd{V} if @code{dired-bind-vm} is @code{t}.  Run VM on this
file (assumed to be a UNIX mail folder).

@vindex dired-vm-read-only-folders
If you give this command a prefix argument, it will visit the folder
read-only.  This only works in VM 5, not VM 4.

If the variable @code{dired-vm-read-only-folders} is @code{t},
@code{dired-vm} will
visit all folders read-only.  If it is neither @code{nil} nor @code{t}, e.g.,
the symbol @code{if-file-read-only}, only files not writable by you are
visited read-only.  This is the recommended value if you run VM 5.

@vindex dired-bind-vm
If the variable @code{dired-bind-vm} is @code{t}, @code{dired-vm} will be bound
to @kbd{V}.  Otherwise, @code{dired-bind-rmail} will be bound.

@item dired-rmail
@cindex Reading mail.
@findex dired-rmail
Bound to @kbd{V} if @code{dired-bind-vm} is @code{nil}.  Run Rmail on this
file (assumed to be mail folder in Rmail/BABYL format).

@item dired-info
@kindex I
@cindex Running info.
@findex dired-info
Bound to @kbd{I}.  Run Info on this file (assumed to be a file in Info
format).

@vindex dired-bind-info
If the variable @code{dired-bind-info} is @code{nil}, @code{dired-info} will
not be bound to @kbd{I}.

@item dired-man
@cindex Running man.
@kindex N
@findex dired-man
Bound to @kbd{N}.  Run man on this file (assumed to be a file in @code{nroff}
format).

@vindex dired-bind-man
If the variable @code{dired-bind-man} is @code{nil}, @code{dired-man} will not
be bound to @kbd{N}.

@item dired-do-relsymlink
@cindex Relative symbolic links.
@kindex Y
@findex dired-do-relsymlink
Bound to @kbd{Y}.  Relative symlink all marked (or next ARG) files into a
directory, or make a relative symbolic link to the current file.  This creates
relative symbolic links like

@example
    foo -> ../bar/foo
@end example

@noindent
not absolute ones like

@example
    foo -> /ugly/path/that/may/change/any/day/bar/foo
@end example

@item dired-do-relsymlink-regexp
@kindex %Y
@findex dired-do-relsymlink-regexp
Bound to @kbd{%Y}.  Relative symlink all marked files containing
@var{regexp} to @var{newname}.  See functions
@code{dired-do-rename-regexp} and @code{dired-do-relsymlink} for more
info.
@end table

@node Bugs, GNU Free Documentation License, Miscellaneous Commands, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Bugs
@cindex Bugs
@findex dired-x-submit-report

@noindent
If you encounter a bug in this package, wish to suggest an
enhancement, or want to make a smart remark, then type

@example
@kbd{M-x dired-x-submit-report}
@end example

@noindent
to set up an outgoing mail buffer, with the proper address to the
@file{dired-x.el} maintainer automatically inserted in the @samp{To:@:} field.
This command also inserts information that the Dired X maintainer can use to
recreate your exact setup, making it easier to verify your bug or social
maladjustment.

Lawrence R. Dodd
@c <dodd@@roebling.poly.edu>

@node GNU Free Documentation License, Concept Index, Bugs, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi

@node     Concept Index, Command Index, GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp

@node     Command Index, Key Index, Concept Index, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Function Index
@printindex fn

@node     Key Index, Variable Index, Command Index, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Key Index
@printindex ky

@node     Variable Index,  , Key Index, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Variable Index
@printindex vr

@setchapternewpage odd
@c @summarycontents
@contents

@bye
@c dired-x.texi ends here.

@ignore
   arch-tag: 201727aa-9318-4c74-a0d7-4f51c550c4de
@end ignore
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