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\input texinfo

@setfilename ../info/vip
@settitle VIP

@copying
Copyright @copyright{} 1987, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
Manual'', and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License'' in the Emacs manual.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this document
separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
@sp 10
@center @titlefont{VIP}
@sp 1
@center A Vi Package for GNU Emacs
@center (Version 3.5, September 15, 1987)
@sp 2
@center Masahiko Sato
@page
@vskip 0pt plus1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* VIP: (vip).		An older VI-emulation for Emacs.
@end direntry

@finalout

@ifnottex
@node Top, Survey,, (DIR)
@top VIP

VIP is a Vi emulating package written in Emacs Lisp.  VIP implements most
Vi commands including Ex commands.  It is therefore hoped that this package
will enable you to do Vi style editing under the powerful GNU Emacs
environment.  This info file describes the usage of VIP assuming that you
are fairly accustomed to Vi but not so much with Emacs.  Also we will
concentrate mainly on differences from Vi, especially features unique to
VIP.

It is recommended that you read nodes on survey and on customization before
you start using VIP.  Other nodes may be visited as needed.

Comments and bug reports are welcome.  Please send messages to
@code{ms@@Sail.Stanford.Edu} if you are outside of Japan and to
@code{masahiko@@sato.riec.tohoku.junet} if you are in Japan.@refill

@end ifnottex

@menu
* Survey::		A survey of VIP.
* Vi Commands::		Details of Vi commands.
* Ex Commands::		Details of Ex commands.
* Customization::	How to customize VIP.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.

@end menu
@iftex
@unnumbered Introduction

VIP is a Vi emulating package written in Emacs Lisp.  VIP implements most
Vi commands including Ex commands.  It is therefore hoped that this package
will enable you to do Vi style editing under the powerful GNU Emacs
environment.  This manual describes the usage of VIP assuming that you are
fairly accustomed to Vi but not so much with Emacs.  Also we will
concentrate mainly on differences from Vi, especially features unique to
VIP.

It is recommended that you read chapters on survey and on customization
before you start using VIP.  Other chapters may be used as future
references.

Comments and bug reports are welcome.  Please send messages to
@code{ms@@Sail.Stanford.Edu} if you are outside of Japan and to
@code{masahiko@@unsun.riec.tohoku.junet} if you are in Japan.
@end iftex

@node Survey, Basic Concepts, Top, Top
@chapter A Survey of VIP

In this chapter we describe basics of VIP with emphasis on the features not
found in Vi and on how to use VIP under GNU Emacs.

@menu
* Basic Concepts::	Basic concepts in Emacs.
* Loading VIP::		How to load VIP automatically.
* Modes in VIP::	VIP has three modes, which are orthogonal to modes
			in Emacs.
* Differences from Vi:: Differences of VIP from Vi is explained.
@end menu

@node Basic Concepts, Loading VIP, Survey, Survey
@section Basic Concepts

We begin by explaining some basic concepts of Emacs.  These concepts are
explained in more detail in the GNU Emacs Manual.

@cindex buffer
@cindex point
@cindex mark
@cindex text
@cindex looking at
@cindex end (of buffer)
@cindex region

Conceptually, a @dfn{buffer} is just a string of @acronym{ASCII} characters and two
special characters @key{PNT} (@dfn{point}) and @key{MRK} (@dfn{mark}) such
that the character @key{PNT} occurs exactly once and @key{MRK} occurs at
most once.  The @dfn{text} of a buffer is obtained by deleting the
occurrences of @key{PNT} and @key{MRK}.  If, in a buffer, there is a
character following @key{PNT} then we say that point is @dfn{looking at}
the character; otherwise we say that point is @dfn{at the end of buffer}.
@key{PNT} and @key{MRK} are used
to indicate positions in a buffer and they are not part of the text of the
buffer.  If a buffer contains a @key{MRK} then the text between @key{MRK}
and @key{PNT} is called the @dfn{region} of the buffer.@refill

@cindex window

Emacs provides (multiple) @dfn{windows} on the screen, and you can see the
content of a buffer through the window associated with the buffer.  The
cursor of the screen is always positioned on the character after @key{PNT}.
@refill

@cindex mode
@cindex keymap
@cindex local keymap
@cindex global keymap

A @dfn{keymap} is a table that records the bindings between characters and
command functions.  There is the @dfn{global keymap} common to all the
buffers.  Each buffer has its @dfn{local keymap} that determines the
@dfn{mode} of the buffer.  Local keymap overrides global keymap, so that if
a function is bound to some key in the local keymap then that function will
be executed when you type the key.  If no function is bound to a key in the
local map, however, the function bound to the key in the global map becomes
in effect.@refill

@node Loading VIP, Modes in VIP, Basic Concepts, Survey
@section Loading VIP

The recommended way to load VIP automatically is to include the line:
@example
(load "vip")
@end example
@noindent
in your @file{.emacs} file.  The @file{.emacs} file is placed in your home
directory and it will be executed every time you invoke Emacs.  If you wish
to be in vi mode whenever Emacs starts up, you can include the following
line in your @file{.emacs} file instead of the above line:
@example
(setq term-setup-hook 'vip-mode)
@end example
@noindent
(@xref{Vi Mode}, for the explanation of vi mode.)

Even if your @file{.emacs} file does not contain any of the above lines,
you can load VIP and enter vi mode by typing the following from within
Emacs.
@example
M-x vip-mode
@end example
@noindent

@node Modes in VIP, Emacs Mode, Loading VIP, Survey
@section Modes in VIP

@kindex 032 @kbd{C-z} (@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi})
@kindex 0301 @kbd{C-x C-z} (@code{suspend-emacs})

Loading VIP has the effect of globally binding @kbd{C-z} (@kbd{Control-z})
to the function @code{vip-change-mode-to-vi}. The default binding of @kbd{C-z}
in GNU Emacs is @code{suspend-emacs}, but, you can also call
@code{suspend-emacs} by typing @kbd{C-x C-z}.  Other than this, all the
key bindings of Emacs remain the same after loading VIP.@refill

@cindex vi mode

Now, if you hit @kbd{C-z}, the function @code{vip-change-mode-to-vi} will be
called and you will be in @dfn{vi mode}.  (Some major modes may locally bind
@kbd{C-z} to some special functions.  In such cases, you can call
@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi} by @code{execute-extended-command} which is
invoked by @kbd{M-x}.  Here @kbd{M-x} means @kbd{Meta-x}, and if your
terminal does not have a @key{META} key you can enter it by typing
@kbd{@key{ESC} x}.  The same effect can also be achieve by typing
@kbd{M-x vip-mode}.)@refill

@cindex mode line

You can observe the change of mode by looking at the @dfn{mode line}.  For
instance, if the mode line is:@refill
@example
-----Emacs: *scratch*              (Lisp Interaction)----All------------
@end example
@noindent
then it will change to:
@example
-----Vi:    *scratch*              (Lisp Interaction)----All------------
@end example
@noindent
Thus the word @samp{Emacs} in the mode line will change to @samp{Vi}.

@cindex insert mode
@cindex emacs mode

You can go back to the original @dfn{emacs mode} by typing @kbd{C-z} in
vi mode.  Thus @kbd{C-z} toggles between these two modes.@refill

Note that modes in VIP exist orthogonally to modes in Emacs.  This means
that you can be in vi mode and at the same time, say, shell mode.

Vi mode corresponds to Vi's command mode.  From vi mode you can enter
@dfn{insert mode} (which corresponds to Vi's insert mode) by usual Vi command
keys like @kbd{i}, @kbd{a}, @kbd{o} @dots{} etc.

In insert mode, the mode line will look like this:
@example
-----Insert *scratch*              (Lisp Interaction)----All------------
@end example
@noindent
You can exit from insert mode by hitting @key{ESC} key as you do in Vi.

That VIP has three modes may seem very complicated, but in fact it is not
so.  VIP is implemented so that you can do most editing remaining only
in the two modes for Vi (that is vi mode and insert mode).

@ifinfo
The figure below shows the transition of three modes in VIP.
@display


           === C-z ==>          == i,o ... ==>
emacs mode             vi mode                 insert mode
           <== X-z ===          <=== ESC ====
@end display
@end ifinfo

@menu
* Emacs Mode::		This is the mode you should know better.
* Vi Mode::		Vi commands are executed in this mode.
* Insert Mode::		You can enter text, and also can do editing if you
			know enough Emacs commands.
@end menu

@node Emacs Mode, Vi Mode, Modes in VIP, Modes in VIP
@subsection Emacs Mode

@kindex 032 @kbd{C-z} (@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi})

You will be in this mode just after you loaded VIP.  You can do all
normal Emacs editing in this mode.  Note that the key @kbd{C-z} is globally
bound to @code{vip-change-mode-to-vi}.  So, if you type @kbd{C-z} in this mode
then you will be in vi mode.@refill

@node Vi Mode, Insert Mode, Emacs Mode, Modes in VIP
@subsection Vi Mode

This mode corresponds to Vi's command mode.  Most Vi commands work as they
do in Vi.  You can go back to emacs mode by typing @kbd{C-z}.  You can
enter insert mode, just as in Vi, by typing @kbd{i}, @kbd{a} etc.

@node Insert Mode, Differences from Vi, Vi Mode, Modes in VIP
@subsection Insert Mode

The key bindings in this mode is the same as in the emacs mode except for
the following 4 keys.  So, you can move around in the buffer and change
its content while you are in insert mode.

@table @kbd
@item @key{ESC}
@kindex 033 @kbd{ESC} (@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi}) (insert mode)
This key will take you back to vi mode.
@item C-h
@kindex 010 @kbd{C-h} (@code{vip-delete-backward-char}) (insert mode)
Delete previous character.
@item C-w
@kindex 027 @kbd{C-w} (@code{vip-delete-backward-word}) (insert mode)
Delete previous word.
@item C-z
@kindex 032 @kbd{C-z} (@code{vip-ESC}) (insert mode)
Typing this key has the same effect as typing @key{ESC} in emacs mode.
Thus typing @kbd{C-z x} in insert mode will have the same effect as typing
@kbd{ESC x} in emacs mode.
@end table

@node Differences from Vi, Undoing, Insert Mode, Survey
@section Differences from Vi

The major differences from Vi are explained below.

@menu
* Undoing::		You can undo more in VIP.
* Changing::		Commands for changing the text.
* Searching::		Search commands.
* z Command::		You can now use zH, zM and zL as well as z- etc.
* Counts::		Some Vi commands which do not accept a count now
			accept one.
* Marking::		You can now mark the current point, beginning of
			the buffer etc.
* Region Commands::	You can now give a region as an argument for delete
			commands etc.
* New Commands::	Some new commands not available in Vi are added.
* New Bindings::	Bindings of some keys are changed for the
			convenience of editing under Emacs.
* Window Commands::	Commands for moving among windows etc.
* Buffer Commands::	Commands for selecting buffers etc.
* File Commands::	Commands for visiting files etc.
* Misc Commands::	Other useful commands.
@end menu

@node Undoing, Changing, Differences from Vi, Differences from Vi
@subsection Undoing

@kindex 165 @kbd{u} (@code{vip-undo})
@kindex 056 @kbd{.} (@code{vip-repeat})

You can repeat undoing by the @kbd{.} key.  So, @kbd{u} will undo
a single change, while @kbd{u .@: .@: .@:}, for instance, will undo 4 previous
changes.  Undo is undoable as in Vi.  So the content of the buffer will
be the same before and after @kbd{u u}.@refill

@node Changing, Searching, Undoing, Differences from Vi
@subsection Changing

Some commands which change a small number of characters are executed
slightly differently.  Thus, if point is at the beginning of a word
@samp{foo} and you wished to change it to @samp{bar} by typing @w{@kbd{c w}},
then VIP will prompt you for a new word in the minibuffer by the prompt
@samp{foo => }.  You can then enter @samp{bar} followed by @key{RET} or
@key{ESC} to complete the command.  Before you enter @key{RET} or
@key{ESC} you can abort the command by typing @kbd{C-g}.  In general,
@kindex 007 @kbd{C-g} (@code{vip-keyboard-quit})
you can abort a partially formed command by typing @kbd{C-g}.@refill

@node Searching, z Command, Changing, Differences from Vi
@subsection Searching

@kindex 057 @kbd{/} (@code{vip-search-forward})
@kindex 077 @kbd{?} (@code{vip-search-backward})

As in Vi, searching is done by @kbd{/} and @kbd{?}.  The string will be
searched literally by default.  To invoke a regular expression search,
first execute the search command @kbd{/} (or @kbd{?}) with empty search
string.  (I.e, type @kbd{/} followed by @key{RET}.)
A search for empty string will toggle the search mode between vanilla
search and regular expression search.  You cannot give an offset to the
search string.  (It is a limitation.)  By default, search will wrap around
the buffer as in Vi.  You can change this by rebinding the variable
@code{vip-search-wrap-around}.  @xref{Customization}, for how to do this.@refill

@node z Command, Counts, Searching, Differences from Vi
@subsection z Command

@kindex 1723 @kbd{z H} (@code{vip-line-to-top})
@kindex 1721 @kbd{z RET} (@code{vip-line-to-top})
@kindex 1723 @kbd{z M} (@code{vip-line-to-middle})
@kindex 1722 @kbd{z .} (@code{vip-line-to-middle})
@kindex 1723 @kbd{z L} (@code{vip-line-to-bottom})
@kindex 1722 @kbd{z -} (@code{vip-line-to-bottom})

For those of you who cannot remember which of @kbd{z} followed by @key{RET},
@kbd{.}@: and @kbd{-} do what.  You can also use @kbd{z} followed by @kbd{H},
@kbd{M} and @kbd{L} to place the current line in the Home (Middle, and
Last) line of the window.@refill

@node Counts, Marking, z Command, Differences from Vi
@subsection Counts

Some Vi commands which do not accept a count now accept one

@table @kbd
@item p
@itemx P
@kindex 160 @kbd{p} (@code{vip-put-back})
@kindex 120 @kbd{P} (@code{vip-Put-back})
Given counts, text will be yanked (in Vi's sense) that many times.  Thus
@kbd{3 p} is the same as @kbd{p p p}.
@item o
@itemx O
@kindex 157 @kbd{o} (@code{vip-open-line})
@kindex 117 @kbd{O} (@code{vip-Open-line})
Given counts, that many copies of text will be inserted. Thus
@kbd{o a b c @key{ESC}} will insert 3 lines of @samp{abc} below the current
line.
@item /
@itemx ?
@kindex 057 @kbd{/} (@code{vip-search-forward})
@kindex 077 @kbd{?} (@code{vip-search-backward})
Given a count @var{n}, @var{n}-th occurrence will be searched.
@end table

@node Marking, Region Commands, Counts, Differences from Vi
@subsection Marking

Typing an @kbd{m} followed by a lower-case character @var{ch} marks the
point to the register named @var{ch} as in Vi.  In addition to these, we
have following key bindings for marking.

@kindex 155 @kbd{m} (@code{vip-mark-point})

@table @kbd
@item m <
Set mark at the beginning of buffer.
@item m >
Set mark at the end of buffer.
@item m .
Set mark at point (and push old mark on mark ring).
@item m ,
Jump to mark (and pop mark off the mark ring).
@end table

@node Region Commands, New Commands, Marking, Differences from Vi
@subsection Region Commands

@cindex region

Vi operators like @kbd{d}, @kbd{c} etc. are usually used in combination
with motion commands.  It is now possible to use current region as the
argument to these operators.  (A @dfn{region} is a part of buffer
delimited by point and mark.)  The key @kbd{r} is used for this purpose.
Thus @kbd{d r} will delete the current region.  If @kbd{R} is used instead
of @kbd{r} the region will first be enlarged so that it will become the
smallest region containing the original region and consisting of whole
lines.  Thus @kbd{m .@: d R} will have the same effect as @kbd{d d}.@refill

@node New Commands, New Bindings, Region Commands, Differences from Vi
@subsection Some New Commands

Note that the keys below (except for @kbd{R}) are not used in Vi.

@table @kbd
@item C-a
@kindex 001 @kbd{C-a} (@code{vip-beginning-of-line})
Move point to the beginning of line.
@item C-n
@kindex 016 @kbd{C-n} (@code{vip-next-window})
If you have two or more windows in the screen, this key will move point to
the next window.
@item C-o
@kindex 017 @kbd{C-o} (@code{vip-open-line-at-point})
Insert a newline and leave point before it, and then enter insert mode.
@item C-r
@kindex 022 @kbd{C-r} (@code{isearch-backward})
Backward incremental search.
@item C-s
@kindex 023 @kbd{C-s} (@code{isearch-forward})
Forward incremental search.
@item C-c
@itemx C-x
@itemx @key{ESC}
@kindex 003 @kbd{C-c} (@code{vip-ctl-c})
@kindex 0300 @kbd{C-x} (@code{vip-ctl-x})
@kindex 033 @kbd{ESC} (@code{vip-ESC})
These keys will exit from vi mode and return to emacs mode temporarily.  If
you hit one of these keys, Emacs will be in emacs mode and will believe
that you hit that key in emacs mode. For example, if you hit @kbd{C-x}
followed by @kbd{2}, then the current window will be split into 2 and you
will be in vi mode again.
@item \
@kindex 134 @kbd{\} (@code{vip-escape-to-emacs})
Escape to emacs mode.  Hitting @kbd{\} will take you to emacs mode, and you
can execute a single Emacs command.  After executing the Emacs command you
will be in vi mode again.  You can give a count before typing @kbd{\}.
Thus @kbd{5 \ *}, as well as @kbd{\ C-u 5 *}, will insert @samp{*****}
before point.  Similarly @kbd{1 0 \ C-p} will move the point 10 lines above
the current line.@refill
@item K
@kindex 113 @kbd{K} (@code{vip-kill-buffer})
Kill current buffer if it is not modified.  Useful when you selected a
buffer which you did not want.
@item Q
@itemx R
@kindex 121 @kbd{Q} (@code{vip-query-replace})
@kindex 122 @kbd{R} (@code{vip-replace-string})
@kbd{Q} is for query replace and @kbd{R} is for replace.  By default,
string to be replaced are treated literally.  If you wish to do a regular
expression replace, first do replace with empty string as the string to be
replaced.  In this way, you can toggle between vanilla and regular
expression replacement.
@item v
@itemx V
@kindex 166 @kbd{v} (@code{vip-find-file})
@kindex 126 @kbd{V} (@code{vip-find-file-other-window})
These keys are used to Visit files.  @kbd{v} will switch to a buffer
visiting file whose name can be entered in the minibuffer. @kbd{V} is
similar, but will use window different from the current window.
@item #
@kindex 0430 @kbd{#} (@code{vip-command-argument})
If followed by a certain character @var{ch}, it becomes an operator whose
argument is the region determined by the motion command that follows.
Currently, @var{ch} can be one of @kbd{c}, @kbd{C}, @kbd{g}, @kbd{q} and
@kbd{s}.@refill
@item # c
@kindex 0432 @kbd{# c} (@code{downcase-region})
Change upper-case characters in the region to lower case
(@code{downcase-region}).
@item # C
@kindex 0431 @kbd{# C} (@code{upcase-region})
Change lower-case characters in the region to upper case. For instance,
@kbd{# C 3 w} will capitalize 3 words from the current point
(@code{upcase-region}).
@item # g
@kindex 0432 @kbd{# g} (@code{vip-global-execute})
Execute last keyboard macro for each line in the region
(@code{vip-global-execute}).@refill
@item # q
@kindex 0432 @kbd{# q} (@code{vip-quote-region})
Insert specified string at the beginning of each line in the region
(@code{vip-quote-region}).
@item # s
@kindex 0432 @kbd{# s} (@code{spell-region})
Check spelling of words in the region (@code{spell-region}).
@item *
@kindex 052 @kbd{*} (@code{vip-call-last-kbd-macro})
Call last keyboard macro.
@end table

@node New Bindings, Window Commands, New Commands, Differences from Vi
@subsection New Key Bindings

In VIP the meanings of some keys are entirely different from Vi.  These key
bindings are done deliberately in the hope that editing under Emacs will
become easier.  It is however possible to rebind these keys to functions
which behave similarly as in Vi.  @xref{Customizing Key Bindings}, for
details.

@table @kbd
@item C-g
@itemx g
@kindex 007 @kbd{C-g} (@code{vip-keyboard-quit})
@kindex 147 @kbd{g} (@code{vip-info-on-file})
In Vi, @kbd{C-g} is used to get information about the file associated to
the current buffer.  Here, @kbd{g} will do that, and @kbd{C-g} is
used to abort a command (this is for compatibility with emacs mode.)
@item SPC
@itemx @key{RET}
@kindex 040 @kbd{SPC} (@code{vip-scroll})
@kindex 015 @kbd{RET} (@code{vip-scroll-back})
Now these keys will scroll up and down the text of current window.
Convenient for viewing the text.
@item s
@itemx S
@kindex 163 @kbd{s} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer})
@kindex 123 @kbd{S} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer-other-window})
They are used to switch to a specified buffer.  Useful for switching to
already existing buffer since buffer name completion is provided.  Also
a default buffer will be given as part of the prompt, to which you can
switch by just typing @key{RET} key.  @kbd{s} is used to select buffer
in the current window, while @kbd{S} selects buffer in another window.
@item C
@itemx X
@kindex 103 @kbd{C} (@code{vip-ctl-c-equivalent})
@kindex 1300 @kbd{X} (@code{vip-ctl-x-equivalent})
These keys will exit from vi mode and return to emacs mode temporarily.
If you type @kbd{C} (@kbd{X}), Emacs will be in emacs mode and will believe
that you have typed @kbd{C-c} (@kbd{C-x}, resp.) in emacs mode. Moreover,
if the following character you type is an upper-case letter, then Emacs
will believe that you have typed the corresponding control character.
You will be in vi mode again after the command is executed.  For example,
typing @kbd{X S} in vi mode is the same as typing @kbd{C-x C-s} in emacs
mode.  You get the same effect by typing @kbd{C-x C-s} in vi mode, but
the idea here is that you can execute useful Emacs commands without typing
control characters. For example, if you hit @kbd{X} (or @kbd{C-x}) followed
by @kbd{2}, then the current window will be split into 2 and you will be in
vi mode again.@refill
@end table

In addition to these, @code{ctl-x-map} is slightly modified:

@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 3} (@code{vip-buffer-in-two-windows})

@table @kbd
@item X 3
@itemx C-x 3
This is equivalent to @kbd{C-x 1 C-x 2} (1 + 2 = 3).
@end table

@node Window Commands, Buffer Commands, New Bindings, Differences from Vi
@subsection Window Commands

In this and following subsections, we give a summary of key bindings for
basic functions related to windows, buffers and files.

@table @kbd
@item C-n
@kindex 016 @kbd{C-n} (@code{vip-next-window})
Switch to next window.
@item X 1
@itemx C-x 1
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 1} (@code{delete-other-windows})
Delete other windows.
@item X 2
@itemx C-x 2
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 2} (@code{split-window-vertically})
Split current window into two windows.
@item X 3
@itemx C-x 3
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 3} (@code{vip-buffer-in-two-windows})
Show current buffer in two windows.
@end table

@node Buffer Commands, File Commands, Window Commands, Differences from Vi
@subsection Buffer Commands

@table @kbd
@item s
@kindex 163 @kbd{s} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer})
Switch to the specified buffer in the current window
(@code{vip-switch-to-buffer}).
@item S
@kindex 123 @kbd{S} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer-other-window})
Switch to the specified buffer in another window
(@code{vip-switch-to-buffer-other-window}).
@item K
@kindex 113 @kbd{K} (@code{vip-kill-buffer})
Kill the current buffer if it is not modified.
@item X S
@itemx C-x C-s
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X S} (@code{save-buffer})
Save the current buffer in the file associated to the buffer.
@end table

@node File Commands, Misc Commands, Buffer Commands, Differences from Vi
@subsection File Commands

@table @kbd
@item v
@kindex 166 @kbd{v} (@code{vip-find-file})
Visit specified file in the current window.
@item V
@kindex 126 @kbd{V} (@code{vip-find-file-other-window})
Visit specified file in another window.
@item X W
@itemx C-x C-w
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X W} (@code{write-file})
Write current buffer into the specified file.
@item X I
@itemx C-x C-i
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X I} (@code{insert-file})

Insert specified file at point.
@end table

@node Misc Commands, Vi Commands, File Commands, Differences from Vi
@subsection Miscellaneous Commands

@table @kbd
@item X (
@itemx C-x (
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X (} (@code{start-kbd-macro})
Start remembering keyboard macro.
@item X )
@itemx C-x )
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X )} (@code{end-kbd-macro})
Finish remembering keyboard macro.
@item *
@kindex 052 @kbd{*} (@code{vip-call-last-kbd-macro})
Call last remembered keyboard macro.
@item X Z
@itemx C-x C-z
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X Z} (@code{suspend-emacs})
Suspend Emacs.
@item Z Z
Exit Emacs.
@itemx Q
Query replace.
@itemx R
Replace.
@end table

@node Vi Commands, Numeric Arguments, Misc Commands, Top
@chapter Vi Commands

This chapter describes Vi commands other than Ex commands implemented in
VIP.  Except for the last section which discusses insert mode, all the
commands described in this chapter are to be used in vi mode.

@menu
* Numeric Arguments::	Many commands accept numeric arguments
* Important Keys::	Some very important keys.
* Buffers and Windows::	Commands for handling buffers and windows.
* Files::		Commands for handling files.
* Viewing the Buffer::	How you can view the current buffer.
* Mark Commands::	Marking positions in a buffer.
* Motion Commands::	Commands for moving point.
* Searching and Replacing::	Commands for searching and replacing.
* Modifying Commands::	Commands for modifying the buffer.
* Other Vi Commands::	Miscellaneous Commands.
* Commands in Insert Mode::	Commands for entering insert mode.
@end menu

@node Numeric Arguments, Important Keys, Vi Commands, Vi Commands
@section Numeric Arguments

@cindex numeric arguments
@cindex count
@kindex 061 @kbd{1} (numeric argument)
@kindex 062 @kbd{2} (numeric argument)
@kindex 063 @kbd{3} (numeric argument)
@kindex 064 @kbd{4} (numeric argument)
@kindex 065 @kbd{5} (numeric argument)
@kindex 066 @kbd{6} (numeric argument)
@kindex 067 @kbd{7} (numeric argument)
@kindex 068 @kbd{8} (numeric argument)
@kindex 069 @kbd{9} (numeric argument)

Most Vi commands accept a @dfn{numeric argument} which can be supplied as
a prefix to the commands.  A numeric argument is also called a @dfn{count}.
In many cases, if a count is given, the command is executed that many times.
For instance, @kbd{5 d d} deletes 5 lines while simple @kbd{d d} deletes a
line.  In this manual the metavariable @var{n} will denote a count.@refill

@node Important Keys, Buffers and Windows, Numeric Arguments, Vi Commands
@section Important Keys

The keys @kbd{C-g} and @kbd{C-l} are unique in that their associated
functions are the same in any of emacs, vi and insert mode.

@table @kbd
@item C-g
@kindex 007 @kbd{C-g} (@code{vip-keyboard-quit})
Quit.  Cancel running or partially typed command (@code{keyboard-quit}).
@item C-l
@kindex 014 @kbd{C-l} (@code{recenter})
Clear the screen and reprint everything (@code{recenter}).
@end table

In Emacs many commands are bound to the key strokes that start with
@kbd{C-x}, @kbd{C-c} and @key{ESC}.  These commands can be
accessed from vi mode as easily as from emacs mode.@refill

@table @kbd
@item C-x
@itemx C-c
@itemx @key{ESC}
@kindex 003 @kbd{C-c} (@code{vip-ctl-c})
@kindex 0300 @kbd{C-x} (@code{vip-ctl-x})
@kindex 033 @kbd{ESC} (@code{vip-ESC})
Typing one of these keys have the same effect as typing it in emacs mode.
Appropriate command will be executed according as the keys you type after
it.  You will be in vi mode again after the execution of the command.
For instance, if you type @kbd{@key{ESC} <} (in vi mode) then the cursor will
move to the beginning of the buffer and you will still be in vi mode.
@item C
@itemx X
@kindex 103 @kbd{C} (@code{vip-ctl-c-equivalent})
@kindex 1300 @kbd{X} (@code{vip-ctl-x-equivalent})
Typing one of these keys have the effect of typing the corresponding
control character in emacs mode.  Moreover, if you type an upper-case
character following it, that character will also be translated to the
corresponding control character.  Thus typing @kbd{X W} in vi mode is the
same as typing @kbd{C-x C-w} in emacs mode.  You will be in vi mode again
after the execution of a command.
@item \
@kindex 134 @kbd{\} (@code{vip-escape-to-emacs})
Escape to emacs mode.  Hitting the @kbd{\} key will take you to emacs mode,
and you can execute a single Emacs command.  After executing the
Emacs command you will be in vi mode again.  You can give a count before
typing @kbd{\}.  Thus @kbd{5 \ +}, as well as @kbd{\ C-u 5 +}, will insert
@samp{+++++} before point.@refill
@end table

@node Buffers and Windows, Files, Important Keys, Vi Commands
@section Buffers and Windows

@cindex buffer
@cindex selected buffer
@cindex current buffer

In Emacs the text you edit is stored in a @dfn{buffer}.
See GNU Emacs Manual, for details.  There is always one @dfn{current}
buffer, also called the @dfn{selected buffer}.@refill

@cindex window
@cindex modified (buffer)

You can see the contents of buffers through @dfn{windows} created by Emacs.
When you have multiple windows on the screen only one of them is selected.
Each buffer has a unique name, and each window has a mode line which shows
the name of the buffer associated with the window and other information
about the status of the buffer.  You can change the format of the mode
line, but normally if you see @samp{**} at the beginning of a mode line it
means that the buffer is @dfn{modified}.  If you write out the content of
the buffer to a file, then the buffer will become not modified.  Also if
you see @samp{%%} at the beginning of the mode line, it means that the file
associated with the buffer is write protected.

We have the following commands related to windows and buffers.

@table @kbd
@item C-n
@kindex 016 @kbd{C-n} (@code{vip-next-window})
Move cursor to the next-window (@code{vip-next-window}).
@item X 1
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 1} (@code{delete-other-windows})
Delete other windows and make the selected window fill the screen
@*(@code{delete-other-windows}).
@item X 2
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 2} (@code{split-window-vertically})
Split current window into two windows (@code{split-window-vertically}).
@item X 3
@kindex 1301 @kbd{X 3} (@code{vip-buffer-in-two-windows})
Show current buffer in two windows.
@item s @var{buffer} @key{RET}
@kindex 163 @kbd{s} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer})
Select or create a buffer named @var{buffer} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer}).
@item S @var{buffer} @key{RET}
@kindex 123 @kbd{S} (@code{vip-switch-to-buffer-other-window})
Similar but select a buffer named @var{buffer} in another window
@*(@code{vip-switch-to-buffer-other-window}).
@item K
@kindex 113 @kbd{K} (@code{vip-kill-buffer})
Kill the current buffer if it is not modified or if it is not associated
with a file @*(@code{vip-kill-buffer}).
@item X B
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X B} (@code{list-buffers})
List the existing buffers (@code{list-buffers}).
@end table

@cindex buffer name completion

As @dfn{buffer name completion} is provided, you have only to type in
initial substring of the buffer name which is sufficient to identify it
among names of existing buffers.  After that, if you hit @key{TAB} the rest
of the buffer name will be supplied by the system, and you can confirm it
by @key{RET}.  The default buffer name to switch to will also be prompted,
and you can select it by giving a simple @key{RET}.  See GNU Emacs Manual
for details of completion.

@node Files, Viewing the Buffer, Buffers and Windows, Vi Commands
@section Files

We have the following commands related to files.  They are used to visit,
save and insert files.

@table @kbd
@item v @var{file} @key{RET}
@kindex 166 @kbd{v} (@code{vip-find-file})
Visit specified file in the current window (@code{vip-find-file}).
@item V @var{file} @key{RET}
@kindex 126 @kbd{V} (@code{vip-find-file-other-window})
Visit specified file in another window (@code{vip-find-file-other-window}).
@item X S
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X S} (@code{save-buffer})
Save current buffer to the file associated with the buffer.  If no file is
associated with the buffer, the name of the file to write out the content
of the buffer will be asked in the minibuffer.
@item X W @var{file} @key{RET}
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X W} (@code{write-file})
Write current buffer into a specified file.
@item X I @var{file} @key{RET}
@kindex 1302 @kbd{X I} (@code{insert-file})
Insert a specified file at point.
@item g
@kindex 147 @kbd{g} (@code{vip-info-on-file})
Give information on the file associated with the current buffer.  Tell you
the name of the file associated with the buffer, the line number of the
current point and total line numbers in the buffer.  If no file is
associated with the buffer, this fact will be indicated by the null file
name @samp{""}.
@end table

@cindex visiting (a file)
@cindex default directory

In Emacs, you can edit a file by @dfn{visiting} it.  If you wish to visit a
file in the current window, you can just type @kbd{v}.  Emacs maintains the
@dfn{default directory} which is specific to each buffer.  Suppose, for
instance, that the default directory of the current buffer is
@file{/usr/masahiko/lisp/}.  Then you will get the following prompt in the
minibuffer.@refill
@example
visit file: /usr/masahiko/lisp/
@end example
@noindent
@cindex file name completion
If you wish to visit, say, @file{vip.el} in this directory, then you can
just type @samp{vip.el} followed by @key{RET}.  If the file @file{vip.el}
already exists in the directory, Emacs will visit that file, and if not,
the file will be created.  Emacs will use the file name (@file{vip.el}, in
this case) as the name of the buffer visiting the file.  In order to make
the buffer name unique, Emacs may append @samp{<2>}, @samp{<3>} etc., to
the buffer name.  As the @dfn{file name completion} is provided here, you
can sometime save typing.  For instance, suppose there is only one file in the
default directory whose name starts with @samp{v}, that is @samp{vip.el}.
Then if you just type @kbd{v @key{TAB}} then it will be completed to
@samp{vip.el}.  Thus, in this case, you just have to type @kbd{v v @key{TAB}
@key{RET}} to visit @file{/usr/masahiko/lisp/vip.el}.  Continuing the
example, let us now suppose that you wished to visit the file
@file{/usr/masahiko/man/vip.texinfo}.  Then to the same prompt which you get
after you typed @kbd{v}, you can enter @samp{/usr/masahiko/man/vip.texinfo} or
@samp{../man/vip.texinfo} followed by @key{RET}.

Use @kbd{V} instead of @kbd{v}, if you wish to visit a file in another
window.

You can verify which file you are editing by typing @kbd{g}.  (You can also
type @kbd{X B} to get information on other buffers too.)  If you type
@kbd{g} you will get an information like below in the echo area:@refill
@example
"/usr/masahiko/man/vip.texinfo" line 921 of 1949
@end example

After you edited the buffer (@samp{vip.texinfo}, in our example) for a while,
you may wish to save it in a file.  If you wish to save it in the file
associated with the buffer (@file{/usr/masahiko/man/vip.texinfo}, in this
case), you can just say @kbd{X S}.  If you wish to save it in another file,
you can type @kbd{X W}.  You will then get a similar prompt as you get for
@kbd{v}, to which you can enter the file name.@refill

@node Viewing the Buffer, Mark Commands, Files, Vi Commands
@section Viewing the Buffer

In this and next section we discuss commands for moving around in the
buffer.  These command do not change the content of the buffer.  The
following commands are useful for viewing the content of the current
buffer.

@table @kbd
@item @key{SPC}
@itemx C-f
@kindex 040 @kbd{SPC} (@code{vip-scroll})
@kindex 006 @kbd{C-f} (@code{vip-scroll-back})
Scroll text of current window upward almost full screen.  You can go
@i{forward} in the buffer by this command (@code{vip-scroll}).
@item @key{RET}
@itemx C-b
@kindex 015 @kbd{RET} (@code{vip-scroll-back})
@kindex 002 @kbd{C-b} (@code{vip-scroll-back})
Scroll text of current window downward almost full screen.  You can go
@i{backward} in the buffer by this command (@code{vip-scroll-back}).
@itemx C-d
@kindex 004 @kbd{C-d} (@code{vip-scroll-up})
Scroll text of current window upward half screen.  You can go
@i{down} in the buffer by this command (@code{vip-scroll-down}).
@itemx C-u
@kindex 025 @kbd{C-u} (@code{vip-scroll-down})
Scroll text of current window downward half screen.  You can go
@i{up} in the buffer by this command (@code{vip-scroll-up}).
@item C-y
@kindex 031 @kbd{C-y} (@code{vip-scroll-down-one})
Scroll text of current window upward by one line (@code{vip-scroll-down-one}).
@item C-e
@kindex 005 @kbd{C-e} (@code{vip-scroll-up-one})
Scroll text of current window downward by one line (@code{vip-scroll-up-one}).
@end table
@noindent
You can repeat these commands by giving a count.  Thus, @kbd{2 @key{SPC}}
has the same effect as @kbd{@key{SPC} @key{SPC}}.

The following commands reposition point in the window.

@table @kbd
@item z H
@itemx z @key{RET}
@kindex 1723 @kbd{z H} (@code{vip-line-to-top})
@kindex 1721 @kbd{z RET} (@code{vip-line-to-top})
Put point on the top (@i{home}) line in the window.  So the current line
becomes the top line in the window.  Given a count @var{n}, point will be
placed in the @var{n}-th line from top (@code{vip-line-to-top}).
@item z M
@itemx z .
@kindex 1723 @kbd{z M} (@code{vip-line-to-middle})
@kindex 1722 @kbd{z .} (@code{vip-line-to-middle})
Put point on the @i{middle} line in the window.  Given a count @var{n},
point will be placed in the @var{n}-th line from the middle line
(@code{vip-line-to-middle}).
@item z L
@itemx z -
@kindex 1723 @kbd{z L} (@code{vip-line-to-bottom})
@kindex 1722 @kbd{z -} (@code{vip-line-to-bottom})
Put point on the @i{bottom} line in the window.  Given a count @var{n},
point will be placed in the @var{n}-th line from bottom
(@code{vip-line-to-bottom}).
@item C-l
Center point in window and redisplay screen (@code{recenter}).
@end table

@node Mark Commands, Motion Commands, Viewing the Buffer, Vi Commands
@section Mark Commands

The following commands are used to mark positions in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@item m @var{ch}
@kindex 155 @kbd{m} (@code{vip-mark-point})
Store current point in the register @var{ch}.  @var{ch} must be a
lower-case @acronym{ASCII} letter.
@item m <
Set mark at the beginning of current buffer.
@item m >
Set mark at the end of current buffer.
@item m .
Set mark at point.
@item m ,
Jump to mark (and pop mark off the mark ring).
@end table

@cindex mark ring

Emacs uses the @dfn{mark ring} to store marked positions.  The commands
@kbd{m <}, @kbd{m >} and @kbd{m .}@: not only set mark but also add it as the
latest element of the mark ring (replacing the oldest one).  By repeating
the command `@kbd{m ,}' you can visit older and older marked positions.  You
will eventually be in a loop as the mark ring is a ring.

@node Motion Commands, Searching and Replacing, Mark Commands, Vi Commands
@section Motion Commands

Commands for moving around in the current buffer are collected here.  These
commands are used as an `argument' for the delete, change and yank commands
to be described in the next section.

@table @kbd
@item h
@kindex 150 @kbd{h} (@code{vip-backward-char})
Move point backward by one character.  Signal error if point is at the
beginning of buffer, but (unlike Vi) do not complain otherwise
(@code{vip-backward-char}).
@item l
@kindex 154 @kbd{l} (@code{vip-forward-char})
Move point backward by one character.  Signal error if point is at the
end of buffer, but (unlike Vi) do not complain otherwise
(@code{vip-forward-char}).
@item j
@kindex 152 @kbd{j} (@code{vip-next-line})
Move point to the next line keeping the current column.  If point is on the
last line of the buffer, a new line will be created and point will move to
that line (@code{vip-next-line}).
@item k
@kindex 153 @kbd{k} (@code{vip-previous-line})
Move point to the previous line keeping the current column
(@code{vip-next-line}).
@item +
@kindex 053 @kbd{+} (@code{vip-next-line-at-bol})
Move point to the next line at the first non-white character.  If point is
on the last line of the buffer, a new line will be created and point will
move to the beginning of that line (@code{vip-next-line-at-bol}).
@item -
@kindex 055 @kbd{-} (@code{vip-previous-line-at-bol})
Move point to the previous line at the first non-white character
(@code{vip-previous-line-at-bol}).
@end table
@noindent
If a count is given to these commands, the commands will be repeated that
many times.

@table @kbd
@item 0
@kindex 060 @kbd{0} (@code{vip-beginning-of-line})
Move point to the beginning of line (@code{vip-beginning-of-line}).
@item ^
@kindex 136 @kbd{^} (@code{vip-bol-and-skip-white})
Move point to the first non-white character on the line
(@code{vip-bol-and-skip-white}).
@item $
@kindex 044 @kbd{$} (@code{vip-goto-eol})
Move point to the end of line (@code{vip-goto-eol}).
@item @var{n} |
@kindex 174 @kbd{|} (@code{vip-goto-col})
Move point to the @var{n}-th column on the line (@code{vip-goto-col}).
@end table
@noindent
Except for the @kbd{|} command, these commands neglect a count.

@cindex word

@table @kbd
@item w
@kindex 167 @kbd{w} (@code{vip-forward-word})
Move point forward to the beginning of the next word
(@code{vip-forward-word}).
@item W
@kindex 127 @kbd{W} (@code{vip-forward-Word})
Move point forward to the beginning of the next word, where a @dfn{word} is
considered as a sequence of non-white characters (@code{vip-forward-Word}).
@item b
@kindex 142 @kbd{b} (@code{vip-backward-word})
Move point backward to the beginning of a word (@code{vip-backward-word}).
@item B
@kindex 102 @kbd{B} (@code{vip-backward-Word})
Move point backward to the beginning of a word, where a @i{word} is
considered as a sequence of non-white characters (@code{vip-forward-Word}).
@item e
@kindex 145 @kbd{e} (@code{vip-end-of-word})
Move point forward to the end of a word (@code{vip-end-of-word}).
@item E
@kindex 105 @kbd{E} (@code{vip-end-of-Word})
Move point forward to the end of a word, where a @i{word} is
considered as a sequence of non-white characters (@code{vip-end-of-Word}).
@end table
@noindent
@cindex syntax table
Here the meaning of the word `word' for the @kbd{w}, @kbd{b} and @kbd{e}
commands is determined by the @dfn{syntax table} effective in the current
buffer.  Each major mode has its syntax mode, and therefore the meaning of
a word also changes as the major mode changes.  See GNU Emacs Manual for
details of syntax table.

@table @kbd
@item H
@kindex 110 @kbd{H} (@code{vip-window-top})
Move point to the beginning of the @i{home} (top) line of the window.
Given a count @var{n}, go to the @var{n}-th line from top
(@code{vip-window-top}).
@item M
@kindex 115 @kbd{M} (@code{vip-window-middle})
Move point to the beginning of the @i{middle} line of the window.  Given
a count @var{n}, go to the @var{n}-th line from the middle line
(@code{vip-window-middle}).
@item L
@kindex 114 @kbd{L} (@code{vip-window-bottom})
Move point to the beginning of the @i{lowest} (bottom) line of the
window.  Given count, go to the @var{n}-th line from bottom
(@code{vip-window-bottom}).
@end table
@noindent
These commands can be used to go to the desired line visible on the screen.

@table @kbd
@item (
@kindex 050 @kbd{(} (@code{vip-backward-sentence})
Move point backward to the beginning of the sentence
(@code{vip-backward-sentence}).
@item )
@kindex 051 @kbd{)} (@code{vip-forward-sentence})
Move point forward to the end of the sentence
(@code{vip-forward-sentence}).
@item @{
@kindex 173 @kbd{@{} (@code{vip-backward-paragraph})
Move point backward to the beginning of the paragraph
(@code{vip-backward-paragraph}).
@item @}
@kindex 175 @kbd{@}} (@code{vip-forward-paragraph})
Move point forward to the end of the paragraph
(@code{vip-forward-paragraph}).
@end table
@noindent
A count repeats the effect for these commands.

@table @kbd
@item G
@kindex 107 @kbd{G} (@code{vip-goto-line})
Given a count @var{n}, move point to the @var{n}-th line in the buffer on
the first non-white character.  Without a count, go to the end of the buffer
(@code{vip-goto-line}).
@item ` `
@kindex 140 @kbd{`} (@code{vip-goto-mark})
Exchange point and mark (@code{vip-goto-mark}).
@item ` @var{ch}
Move point to the position stored in the register @var{ch}.  @var{ch} must
be a lower-case letter.
@item ' '
@kindex 047 @kbd{'} (@code{vip-goto-mark-and-skip-white})
Exchange point and mark, and then move point to the first non-white
character on the line (@code{vip-goto-mark-and-skip-white}).
@item ' @var{ch}
Move point to the position stored in the register @var{ch} and skip to the
first non-white character on the line.  @var{ch} must be a lower-case letter.
@item %
@kindex 045 @kbd{%} (@code{vip-paren-match})
Move point to the matching parenthesis if point is looking at @kbd{(},
@kbd{)}, @kbd{@{}, @kbd{@}}, @kbd{[} or @kbd{]}
@*(@code{vip-paren-match}).
@end table
@noindent
The command @kbd{G} mark point before move, so that you can return to the
original point by @kbd{` `}.  The original point will also be stored in
the mark ring.

The following commands are useful for moving points on the line.  A count
will repeat the effect.

@table @kbd
@item f @var{ch}
@kindex 146 @kbd{f} (@code{vip-find-char-forward})
Move point forward to the character @var{ch} on the line.  Signal error if
@var{ch} could not be found (@code{vip-find-char-forward}).
@item F @var{ch}
@kindex 106 @kbd{F} (@code{vip-find-char-backward})
Move point backward to the character @var{ch} on the line.  Signal error if
@var{ch} could not be found (@code{vip-find-char-backward}).
@item t @var{ch}
@kindex 164 @kbd{t} (@code{vip-goto-char-forward})
Move point forward upto the character @var{ch} on the line.  Signal error if
@var{ch} could not be found (@code{vip-goto-char-forward}).
@item T @var{ch}
@kindex 124 @kbd{T} (@code{vip-goto-char-backward})
Move point backward upto the character @var{ch} on the line.  Signal error if
@var{ch} could not be found (@code{vip-goto-char-backward}).
@item ;
@kindex 073 @kbd{;} (@code{vip-repeat-find})
Repeat previous @kbd{f}, @kbd{t}, @kbd{F} or @kbd{T} command
(@code{vip-repeat-find}).
@item ,
@kindex 054 @kbd{,} (@code{vip-repeat-find-opposite})
Repeat previous @kbd{f}, @kbd{t}, @kbd{F} or @kbd{T} command, in the
opposite direction (@code{vip-repeat-find-opposite}).
@end table

@node Searching and Replacing, Modifying Commands, Motion Commands, Vi Commands
@section Searching and Replacing

Following commands are available for searching and replacing.

@cindex regular expression (search)

@table @kbd
@item / @var{string} @key{RET}
@kindex 057 @kbd{/} (@code{vip-search-forward})
Search the first occurrence of the string @var{string} forward starting
from point.  Given a count @var{n}, the @var{n}-th occurrence of
@var{string} will be searched.  If the variable @code{vip-re-search} has value
@code{t} then @dfn{regular expression} search is done and the string
matching the regular expression @var{string} is found.  If you give an
empty string as @var{string} then the search mode will change from vanilla
search to regular expression search and vice versa
(@code{vip-search-forward}).
@item ? @var{string} @key{RET}
@kindex 077 @kbd{?} (@code{vip-search-backward})
Same as @kbd{/}, except that search is done backward
(@code{vip-search-backward}).
@item n
@kindex 156 @kbd{n} (@code{vip-search-next})
Search the previous search pattern in the same direction as before
(@code{vip-search-next}).
@item N
@kindex 116 @kbd{N} (@code{vip-search-Next})
Search the previous search pattern in the opposite direction
(@code{vip-search-Next}).
@item C-s
@kindex 023 @kbd{C-s} (@code{isearch-forward})
Search forward incrementally.  See GNU Emacs Manual for details
(@code{isearch-forward}).
@item C-r
@kindex 022 @kbd{C-r} (@code{isearch-backward})
Search backward incrementally (@code{isearch-backward}).
@cindex vanilla (replacement)
@cindex regular expression (replacement)
@item R @var{string} RET @var{newstring}
@kindex 122 @kbd{R} (@code{vip-replace-string})
There are two modes of replacement, @dfn{vanilla} and @dfn{regular expression}.
If the mode is @i{vanilla} you will get a prompt @samp{Replace string:},
and if the mode is @i{regular expression} you will ge a prompt
@samp{Replace regexp:}.  The mode is initially @i{vanilla}, but you can
toggle these modes by giving a null string as @var{string}.  If the mode is
vanilla, this command replaces every occurrence of @var{string} with
@var{newstring}.  If the mode is regular expression, @var{string} is
treated as a regular expression and every string matching the regular
expression is replaced with @var{newstring} (@code{vip-replace-string}).
@item Q	@var{string} RET @var{newstring}
@kindex 121 @kbd{Q} (@code{vip-query-replace})
Same as @kbd{R} except that you will be asked form confirmation before each
replacement
@*(@code{vip-query-replace}).
@item r @var{ch}
@kindex 162 @kbd{r} (@code{vip-replace-char})
Replace the character point is looking at by the character @var{ch}.  Give
count, replace that many characters by @var{ch} (@code{vip-replace-char}).
@end table
@noindent
The commands @kbd{/} and @kbd{?} mark point before move, so that you can
return to the original point by @w{@kbd{` `}}.

@node Modifying Commands, Delete Commands, Searching and Replacing, Vi Commands
@section Modifying Commands

In this section, commands for modifying the content of a buffer are
described.  These commands affect the region determined by a motion command
which is given to the commands as their argument.

@cindex point commands
@cindex line commands

We classify motion commands into @dfn{point commands} and
@dfn{line commands}.  The point commands are as follows:
@example
@kbd{h}, @kbd{l}, @kbd{0}, @kbd{^}, @kbd{$}, @kbd{w}, @kbd{W}, @kbd{b}, @kbd{B}, @kbd{e}, @kbd{E}, @kbd{(}, @kbd{)}, @kbd{/}, @kbd{?}, @kbd{`}, @kbd{f}, @kbd{F}, @kbd{t}, @kbd{T}, @kbd{%}, @kbd{;}, @kbd{,}
@end example
@noindent
The line commands are as follows:
@example
@kbd{j}, @kbd{k}, @kbd{+}, @kbd{-}, @kbd{H}, @kbd{M}, @kbd{L}, @kbd{@{}, @kbd{@}}, @kbd{G}, @kbd{'}
@end example
@noindent
@cindex expanding (region)
If a point command is given as an argument to a modifying command, the
region determined by the point command will be affected by the modifying
command. On the other hand, if a line command is given as an argument to a
modifying command, the region determined by the line command will be
enlarged so that it will become the smallest region properly containing the
region and consisting of whole lines (we call this process @dfn{expanding
the region}), and then the enlarged region will be affected by the modifying
command.

@menu
* Delete Commands::	Commands for deleting text.
* Yank Commands::	Commands for yanking text in Vi's sense.
* Put Back Commands::	Commands for putting back deleted/yanked text.
* Change Commands::	Commands for changing text.
* Repeating and Undoing Modifications::
@end menu
@node Delete Commands, Yank Commands, Modifying Commands, Modifying Commands
@subsection Delete Commands

@table @kbd
@item d @var{motion-command}
@kindex 1440 @kbd{d} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Delete the region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command}.
@end table
@noindent
For example, @kbd{d $} will delete the region between point and end of
current line since @kbd{$} is a point command that moves point to end of line.
@kbd{d G} will delete the region between the beginning of current line and
end of the buffer, since @kbd{G} is a line command.  A count given to the
command above will become the count for the associated motion command.
Thus, @kbd{3 d w} will delete three words.

@kindex 042 @kbd{"} (@code{vip-command-argument})
It is also possible to save the deleted text into a register you specify.
For example, you can say @kbd{" t 3 d w} to delete three words and save it
to register @kbd{t}.  The name of a register is a lower-case letter between
@kbd{a} and @kbd{z}.  If you give an upper-case letter as an argument to
a delete command, then the deleted text will be appended to the content of
the register having the corresponding lower-case letter as its name.  So,
@kbd{" T d w} will delete a word and append it to register @kbd{t}.  Other
modifying commands also accept a register name as their argument, and we
will not repeat similar explanations.

We have more delete commands as below.

@table @kbd
@item d d
@kindex 1442 @kbd{d d}
Delete a line.  Given a count @var{n}, delete @var{n} lines.
@item d r
@kindex 1442 @kbd{d r}
Delete current region.
@item d R
@kindex 1441 @kbd{d R}
Expand current region and delete it.
@item D
@kindex 104 @kbd{D} (@code{vip-kill-line})
Delete to the end of a line (@code{vip-kill-line}).
@item x
@kindex 170 @kbd{x} (@code{vip-delete-char})
Delete a character after point.  Given @var{n}, delete @var{n} characters
(@code{vip-delete-char}).
@item @key{DEL}
@kindex 177 @kbd{DEL} (@code{vip-delete-backward-char})
Delete a character before point.  Given @var{n}, delete @var{n} characters
(@code{vip-delete-backward-char}).
@end table

@node Yank Commands, Put Back Commands, Delete Commands, Modifying Commands
@subsection Yank Commands

@cindex yank

Yank commands @dfn{yank} a text of buffer into a (usually anonymous) register.
Here the word `yank' is used in Vi's sense.  Thus yank commands do not
alter the content of the buffer, and useful only in combination with
commands that put back the yanked text into the buffer.

@table @kbd
@item y @var{motion-command}
@kindex 1710 @kbd{y} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Yank the region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command}.
@end table
@noindent
For example, @kbd{y $} will yank the text between point and the end of line
into an anonymous register, while @kbd{"c y $} will yank the same text into
register @kbd{c}.

Use the following command to yank consecutive lines of text.

@table @kbd
@item y y
@itemx Y
@kindex 131 @kbd{Y} (@code{vip-yank-line})
@kindex 1712 @kbd{y y} (@code{vip-yank-line})
Yank a line.  Given @var{n}, yank @var{n} lines (@code{vip-yank-line}).
@item y r
@kindex 1712 @kbd{y r}
Yank current region.
@item y R
@kindex 1711 @kbd{y R}
Expand current region and yank it.
@end table

@node Put Back Commands, Change Commands, Yank Commands, Modifying Commands
@subsection Put Back Commands
Deleted or yanked texts can be put back into the buffer by the command
below.

@table @kbd
@item p
@kindex 160 @kbd{p} (@code{vip-put-back})
Insert, after the character point is looking at, most recently
deleted/yanked text from anonymous register. Given a register name
argument, the content of the named register will be put back.  Given a
count, the command will be repeated that many times. This command also
checks if the text to put back ends with a new line character, and if so
the text will be put below the current line (@code{vip-put-back}).
@item P
@kindex 120 @kbd{P} (@code{vip-Put-back})
Insert at point most recently deleted/yanked text from anonymous register.
Given a register name argument, the content of the named register will
be put back.  Given a count, the command will be repeated that many times.
This command also checks if the text to put back ends with a new line
character, and if so the text will be put above the current line rather
than at point (@code{vip-Put-back}).
@end table
@noindent
@cindex number register
Thus, @kbd{" c p} will put back the content of the register @kbd{c} into the
buffer.  It is also possible to specify @dfn{number register} which is a
numeral between @kbd{1} and @kbd{9}.  If the number register @var{n} is
specified, @var{n}-th previously deleted/yanked text will be put back.  It
is an error to specify a number register for the delete/yank commands.

@node Change Commands, Repeating and Undoing Modifications, Put Back Commands, Modifying Commands
@subsection Change Commands

Most commonly used change command takes the following form.

@table @kbd
@item c @var{motion-command}
@kindex 1430 @kbd{c} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Replace the content of the region determined by the motion command
@var{motion-command} by the text you type.  If the motion command is a
point command then you will type the text into minibuffer, and if the
motion command is a line command then the region will be deleted first and
you can insert the text in @var{insert mode}.
@end table
@noindent
For example, if point is at the beginning of a word @samp{foo} and you
wish to change it to @samp{bar}, you can type @kbd{c w}.  Then, as @kbd{w}
is a point command, you will get the prompt @samp{foo =>} in the
minibuffer, for which you can type @kbd{b a r @key{RET}} to complete the change
command.@refill

@table @kbd
@item c c
@kindex 1432 @kbd{c c}
Change a line.  Given a count, that many lines are changed.
@item c r
@kindex 1432 @kbd{c r}
Change current region.
@item c R
@kindex 1431 @kbd{c R}
Expand current region and change it.
@end table

@node Repeating and Undoing Modifications, Other Vi Commands, Change Commands, Modifying Commands
@subsection Repeating and Undoing Modifications

VIP records the previous modifying command, so that it is easy to repeat
it.  It is also very easy to undo changes made by modifying commands.

@table @kbd
@item u
@kindex 165 @kbd{u} (@code{vip-undo})
Undo the last change.  You can undo more by repeating undo by the repeat
command @samp{.}.  For example, you can undo 5 previous changes by typing
@samp{u....}.  If you type @samp{uu}, then the second @samp{u} undoes the
first undo command (@code{vip-undo}).
@item .
@kindex 056 @kbd{.} (@code{vip-repeat})
Repeat the last modifying command.  Given count @var{n} it becomes the new
count for the repeated command.  Otherwise, the count for the last
modifying command is used again (@code{vip-repeat}).
@end table

@node Other Vi Commands, Commands in Insert Mode, Repeating and Undoing Modifications, Vi Commands
@section Other Vi Commands

Miscellaneous Vi commands are collected here.

@table @kbd
@item Z Z
@kindex 132 @kbd{Z Z} (@code{save-buffers-kill-emacs})
Exit Emacs.  If modified buffers exist, you will be asked whether you wish
to save them or not (@code{save-buffers-kill-emacs}).
@item !@: @var{motion-command} @var{format-command}
@itemx @var{n} !@: !@: @var{format-command}
@kindex 041 @kbd{!} (@code{vip-command-argument})
The region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command} will be
given to the shell command @var{format-command} and the region will be
replaced by its output.  If a count is given, it will be passed to
@var{motion-command}.  For example, @samp{3!Gsort} will sort the region
between point and the 3rd line.  If @kbd{!} is used instead of
@var{motion-command} then @var{n} lines will be processed by
@var{format-command} (@code{vip-command-argument}).
@item J
@kindex 112 @kbd{J} (@code{vip-join-lines})
Join two lines.  Given count, join that many lines.  A space will be
inserted at each junction (@code{vip-join-lines}).
@item < @var{motion-command}
@itemx @var{n} < <
@kindex 074 @kbd{<} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Shift region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command} to
left by @var{shift-width} (default is 8).  If @kbd{<} is used instead of
@var{motion-command} then shift @var{n} lines
@*(@code{vip-command-argument}).
@item > @var{motion-command}
@itemx @var{n} > >
@kindex 076 @kbd{>} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Shift region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command} to
right by @var{shift-width} (default is 8).  If @kbd{<} is used instead of
@var{motion-command} then shift @var{n} lines
@*(@code{vip-command-argument}).
@item = @var{motion-command}
@kindex 075 @kbd{=} (@code{vip-command-argument})
Indent region determined by the motion command @var{motion-command}.  If
@kbd{=} is used instead of @var{motion-command} then indent @var{n} lines
(@code{vip-command-argument}).
@item *
@kindex 052 @kbd{*} (@code{vip-call-last-kbd-macro})
Call last remembered keyboard macro.
@item #
A new vi operator. @xref{New Commands}, for more details.
@end table

The following keys are reserved for future extensions, and currently
assigned to a function that just beeps (@code{vip-nil}).

@kindex 046 @kbd{&} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 100 @kbd{@@} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 125 @kbd{U} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 133 @kbd{[} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 135 @kbd{]} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 137 @kbd{_} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 161 @kbd{q} (@code{vip-nil})
@kindex 176 @kbd{~} (@code{vip-nil})

@example
&, @@, U, [, ], _, q, ~
@end example

VIP uses a special local keymap to interpret key strokes you enter in vi
mode.  The following keys are bound to @var{nil} in the keymap.  Therefore,
these keys are interpreted by the global keymap of Emacs.  We give below a
short description of the functions bound to these keys in the global
keymap.  See GNU Emacs Manual for details.

@table @kbd
@item C-@@
@kindex 000 @kbd{C-@@} (@code{set-mark-command})
Set mark and push previous mark on mark ring (@code{set-mark-command}).
@item TAB
@kindex 011 TAB (@code{indent-for-tab-command})
Indent line for current major mode (@code{indent-for-tab-command}).
@item C-j
@kindex 012 @kbd{C-j} (@code{newline-and-indent})
Insert a newline, then indent according to mode (@code{newline-and-indent}).
@item C-k
@kindex 013 @kbd{C-k} (@code{kill-line})
Kill the rest of the current line; before a newline, kill the newline.
With a numeric argument, kill that many lines from point.  Negative arguments
kill lines backward (@code{kill-line}).
@item C-l
@kindex 014 @kbd{C-l} (@code{recenter})
Clear the screen and reprint everything (@code{recenter}).
@item @var{n} C-p
@kindex 020 @kbd{C-p} (@code{previous-line})
Move cursor vertically up @var{n} lines (@code{previous-line}).
@item C-q
@kindex 021 @kbd{C-q} (@code{quoted-insert})
Read next input character and insert it.  Useful for inserting control
characters
@*(@code{quoted-insert}).
@item C-r
@kindex 022 @kbd{C-r} (@code{isearch-backward})
Search backward incrementally (@code{isearch-backward}).
@item C-s
@kindex 023 @kbd{C-s} (@code{isearch-forward})
Search forward incrementally (@code{isearch-forward}).
@item @var{n} C-t
@kindex 024 @kbd{C-t} (@code{transpose-chars})
Interchange characters around point, moving forward one character.  With
count @var{n}, take character before point and drag it forward past @var{n}
other characters.  If no argument and at end of line, the previous two
characters are exchanged (@code{transpose-chars}).
@item @var{n} C-v
@kindex 026 @kbd{C-v} (@code{scroll-up})
Scroll text upward @var{n} lines.  If @var{n} is not given, scroll near
full screen (@code{scroll-up}).
@item C-w
@kindex 027 @kbd{C-w} (@code{kill-region})
Kill between point and mark.  The text is save in the kill ring.  The
command @kbd{P} or @kbd{p} can retrieve it from kill ring
(@code{kill-region}).
@end table

@node Commands in Insert Mode, Ex Commands, Other Vi Commands, Vi Commands
@section Insert Mode

You can enter insert mode by one of the following commands.  In addition to
these, you will enter insert mode if you give a change command with a line
command as the motion command.  Insert commands are also modifying commands
and you can repeat them by the repeat command @kbd{.} (@code{vip-repeat}).

@table @kbd
@item i
@kindex 151 @kbd{i} (@code{vip-insert})
Enter insert mode at point (@code{vip-insert}).
@item I
@kindex 111 @kbd{I} (@code{vip-Insert})
Enter insert mode at the first non white character on the line
(@code{vip-Insert}).
@item a
@kindex 141 @kbd{a} (@code{vip-append})
Move point forward by one character and then enter insert mode
(@code{vip-append}).
@item A
@kindex 101 @kbd{A} (@code{vip-Append})
Enter insert mode at end of line (@code{vip-Append}).
@item o
@kindex 157 @kbd{o} (@code{vip-open-line})
Open a new line below the current line and enter insert mode
(@code{vip-open-line}).
@item O
@kindex 117 @kbd{O} (@code{vip-Open-line})
Open a new line above the current line and enter insert mode
(@code{vip-Open-line}).
@item C-o
@kindex 017 @kbd{C-o} (@code{vip-open-line-at-point})
Insert a newline and leave point before it, and then enter insert mode
@*(@code{vip-open-line-at-point}).
@end table

Insert mode is almost like emacs mode.  Only the following 4 keys behave
differently from emacs mode.

@table @kbd
@item @key{ESC}
@kindex 033 @kbd{ESC} (@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi}) (insert mode)
This key will take you back to vi mode (@code{vip-change-mode-to-vi}).
@item C-h
@kindex 010 @kbd{C-h} (@code{delete-backward-char}) (insert mode)
Delete previous character (@code{delete-backward-char}).
@item C-w
@kindex 027 @kbd{C-w} (@code{vip-delete-backward-word}) (insert mode)
Delete previous word (@code{vip-delete-backward-word}).
@item C-z
@kindex 032 @kbd{C-z} (@code{vip-ESC}) (insert mode)
This key simulates @key{ESC} key in emacs mode.  For instance, typing
@kbd{C-z x} in insert mode is the same as typing @kbd{ESC x} in emacs mode
(@code{vip-ESC}).
@end table
@noindent
You can also bind @kbd{C-h} to @code{help-command} if you like.
(@xref{Customizing Key Bindings}, for details.)  Binding @kbd{C-h} to
@code{help-command} has the effect of making the meaning of @kbd{C-h}
uniform among emacs, vi and insert modes.

When you enter insert mode, VIP records point as the start point of
insertion, and when you leave insert mode the region between point and
start point is saved for later use by repeat command etc.  Therefore, repeat
command will not really repeat insertion if you move point by emacs
commands while in insert mode.

@node Ex Commands, Ex Command Reference, Commands in Insert Mode, Top
@chapter Ex Commands

@kindex 072 @kbd{:} (@code{vip-ex})

In vi mode, you can execute an Ex command @var{ex-command} by typing:
@example
@kbd{:@: @var{ex-command} @key{RET}}
@end example
Every Ex command follows the following pattern:
@example
@var{address command} @kbd{!}@: @var{parameters count flags}
@end example
@noindent
@cindex address
where all parts are optional.  For the syntax of @dfn{address}, the reader
is referred to the reference manual of Ex.

@cindex magic
@cindex regular expression

In the current version of VIP, searching by Ex commands is always
@dfn{magic}.  That is, search patterns are always treated as @dfn{regular
expressions}.  For example, a typical forward search would be invoked by
@kbd{:/@var{pat}/}.  If you wish to include @samp{/} as part of
@var{pat} you must preceded it by @samp{\}.  VIP strips off these @kbd{\}'s
before @kbd{/} and the resulting @var{pat} becomes the actual search
pattern.  Emacs provides a different and richer class or regular
expressions than Vi/Ex, and VIP uses Emacs' regular expressions.  See GNU
Emacs Manual for details of regular expressions.

Several Ex commands can be entered in a line by separating them by a pipe
character @samp{|}.

@menu
* Ex Command Reference::	Explain all the Ex commands available in VIP.
@end menu
@node Ex Command Reference, Customization, Ex Commands, Ex Commands
@section Ex Command Reference
In this section we briefly explain all the Ex commands supported by VIP.
Most Ex commands expect @var{address} as their argument, and they use
default addresses if they are not explicitly given.  In the following, such
default addresses will be shown in parentheses.

Most command names can and preferably be given in abbreviated forms.  In
the following, optional parts of command names will be enclosed in
brackets.  For example, @samp{co[py]} will mean that copy command can be
give as @samp{co} or @samp{cop} or @samp{copy}.

If @var{command} is empty, point will move to the beginning of the line
specified by the @var{address}.  If @var{address} is also empty, point will
move to the beginning of the current line.

@cindex flag

Some commands accept @dfn{flags} which are one of @kbd{p}, @kbd{l} and
@kbd{#}.  If @var{flags} are given, the text affected by the commands will
be displayed on a temporary window, and you will be asked to hit return to
continue.  In this way, you can see the text affected by the commands
before the commands will be executed.  If you hit @kbd{C-g} instead of
@key{RET} then the commands will be aborted.  Note that the meaning of
@var{flags} is different in VIP from that in Vi/Ex.

@table @kbd
@item (.,.@:) co[py] @var{addr} @var{flags}
@itemx (.,.@:) t @var{addr} @var{flags}
Place a copy of specified lines after @var{addr}.  If @var{addr} is
@kbd{0}, it will be placed before the first line.
@item (.,.@:) d[elete] @var{register} @var{count} @var{flags}
Delete specified lines.  Text will be saved in a named @var{register} if a
lower-case letter is given, and appended to a register if a capital letter is
given.
@item e[dit] !@: +@var{addr} @var{file}
@itemx e[x] !@: +@var{addr} @var{file}
@itemx vi[sual] !@: +@var{addr} @var{file}
Edit a new file @var{file} in the current window.  The command will abort
if current buffer is modified, which you can override by giving @kbd{!}.
If @kbd{+}@var{addr} is given, @var{addr} becomes the current line.
@item file
Give information about the current file.
@item (1,$) g[lobal] !@: /@var{pat}/ @var{cmds}
@itemx (1,$) v /@var{pat}/ @var{cmds}
Among specified lines first mark each line which matches the regular
expression @var{pat}, and then execute @var{cmds} on each marked line.
If @kbd{!}@: is given, @var{cmds} will be executed on each line not matching
@var{pat}.  @kbd{v} is same as @kbd{g!}.
@item (.,.+1) j[oin] !@: @var{count} @var{flags}
Join specified lines into a line.  Without @kbd{!}, a space character will
be inserted at each junction.
@item (.@:) k @var{ch}
@itemx (.@:) mar[k] @var{ch}
Mark specified line by a lower-case character @var{ch}.  Then the
addressing form @kbd{'}@var{ch} will refer to this line.  No white space is
required between @kbd{k} and @var{ch}.  A white space is necessary between
@kbd{mark} and @var{ch}, however.
@item map @var{ch} @var{rhs}
Define a macro for vi mode.  After this command, the character @var{ch}
will be expanded to @var{rhs} in vi mode.
@item (.,.@:) m[ove] @var{addr}
Move specified lines after @var{addr}.
@item (.@:) pu[t] @var{register}
Put back previously deleted or yanked text.  If @var{register} is given,
the text saved in the register will be put back; otherwise, last deleted or
yanked text will be put back.
@item q[uit] !
Quit from Emacs.  If modified buffers with associated files exist, you will
be asked whether you wish to save each of them.  At this point, you may
choose not to quit, by hitting @kbd{C-g}.  If @kbd{!}@: is given, exit from
Emacs without saving modified buffers.
@item (.@:) r[ead] @var{file}
Read in the content of the file @var{file} after the specified line.
@item (.@:) r[ead] !@: @var{command}
Read in the output of the shell command @var{command} after the specified
line.
@item se[t]
Set a variable's value.  @xref{Customizing Constants}, for the list of variables
you can set.
@item sh[ell]
Run a subshell in a window.
@item (.,.@:) s[ubstitute] /@var{pat}/@var{repl}/ @var{options} @var{count} @var{flags}
@itemx (.,.@:) & @var{options} @var{count} @var{flags}
On each specified line, the first occurrence of string matching regular
expression @var{pat} is replaced by replacement pattern @var{repl}.  Option
characters are @kbd{g} and @kbd{c}.  If global option character @kbd{g}
appears as part of @var{options}, all occurrences are substituted.  If
confirm option character @kbd{c} appears, you will be asked to give
confirmation before each substitution.  If @kbd{/@var{pat}/@var{repl}/} is
missing, the last substitution is repeated.
@item st[op]
Suspend Emacs.
@item ta[g] @var{tag}
@cindex tag
@cindex selected tags table
Find first definition of @var{tag}.  If no @var{tag} is given, previously
given @var{tag} is used and next alternate definition is find.  By default,
the file @file{TAGS} in the current directory becomes the @dfn{selected tags
table}.  You can select another tags table by @kbd{set} command.
@xref{Customizing Constants}, for details.
@item und[o]
Undo the last change.
@item unm[ap] @var{ch}
The macro expansion associated with @var{ch} is removed.
@item ve[rsion]
Tell the version number of VIP.
@item (1,$) w[rite] !@: @var{file}
Write out specified lines into file @var{file}.  If no @var{file} is given,
text will be written to the file associated to the current buffer.  Unless
@kbd{!}@: is given, if @var{file} is different from the file associated to
the current buffer and if the file @var{file} exists, the command will not
be executed.  Unlike Ex, @var{file} becomes the file associated to the
current buffer.
@item (1,$) w[rite]>> @var{file}
Write out specified lines at the end of file @var{file}.  @var{file}
becomes the file associated to the current buffer.
@item (1,$) wq !@: @var{file}
Same as @kbd{write} and then @kbd{quit}.  If @kbd{!}@: is given, same as
@kbd{write !}@: then @kbd{quit}.
@item (.,.) y[ank] @var{register} @var{count}
Save specified lines into register @var{register}.  If no register is
specified, text will be saved in an anonymous register.
@item @var{addr} !@: @var{command}
Execute shell command @var{command}.  The output will be shown in a new
window.  If @var{addr} is given, specified lines will be used as standard
input to @var{command}.
@item ($) =
Print the line number of the addressed line.
@item (.,.) > @var{count} @var{flags}
Shift specified lines to the right.  The variable @code{vip-shift-width}
(default value is 8) determines the amount of shift.
@item (.,.) < @var{count} @var{flags}
Shift specified lines to the left.  The variable @code{vip-shift-width}
(default value is 8) determines the amount of shift.
@item (.,.@:) ~ @var{options} @var{count} @var{flags}
Repeat the previous @kbd{substitute} command using previous search pattern
as @var{pat} for matching.
@end table

The following Ex commands are available in Vi, but not implemented in VIP.
@example
@kbd{abbreviate}, @kbd{list}, @kbd{next}, @kbd{print}, @kbd{preserve}, @kbd{recover}, @kbd{rewind}, @kbd{source},
@kbd{unabbreviate}, @kbd{xit}, @kbd{z}
@end example

@node Customization, Customizing Constants, Ex Command Reference, Top
@chapter Customization

If you have a file called @file{.vip} in your home directory, then it
will also be loaded when VIP is loaded.  This file is thus useful for
customizing VIP.

@menu
* Customizing Constants::	How to change values of constants.
* Customizing Key Bindings::	How to change key bindings.
@end menu

@node Customizing Constants, Customizing Key Bindings, Customization, Customization
@section Customizing Constants
An easy way to customize VIP is to change the values of constants used
in VIP.  Here is the list of the constants used in VIP and their default
values.

@table @code
@item vip-shift-width 8
The number of columns shifted by @kbd{>} and @kbd{<} command.
@item vip-re-replace nil
If @code{t} then do regexp replace, if @code{nil} then do string replace.
@item vip-search-wrap-around t
If @code{t}, search wraps around the buffer.
@item vip-re-search nil
If @code{t} then search is reg-exp search, if @code{nil} then vanilla
search.
@item vip-case-fold-search nil
If @code{t} search ignores cases.
@item vip-re-query-replace nil
If @code{t} then do reg-exp replace in query replace.
@item vip-open-with-indent nil
If @code{t} then indent to the previous current line when open a new line
by @kbd{o} or @kbd{O} command.
@item vip-tags-file-name "TAGS"
The name of the file used as the tags table.
@item vip-help-in-insert-mode nil
If @code{t} then @key{C-h} is bound to @code{help-command} in insert mode,
if @code{nil} then it sis bound to @code{delete-backward-char}.
@end table
@noindent
You can reset these constants in VIP by the Ex command @kbd{set}.  Or you
can include a line like this in your @file{.vip} file:
@example
(setq vip-case-fold-search t)
@end example

@node Customizing Key Bindings,, Customizing Constants, Customization
@section Customizing Key Bindings

@cindex local keymap

VIP uses @code{vip-command-mode-map} as the @dfn{local keymap} for vi mode.
For example, in vi mode, @key{SPC} is bound to the function
@code{vip-scroll}.  But, if you wish to make @key{SPC} and some other keys
 behave like Vi, you can include the following lines in your @file{.vip}
file.

@example
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "\C-g" 'vip-info-on-file)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "\C-h" 'vip-backward-char)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "\C-m" 'vip-next-line-at-bol)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map " " 'vip-forward-char)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "g" 'vip-keyboard-quit)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "s" 'vip-substitute)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "C" 'vip-change-to-eol)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "R" 'vip-change-to-eol)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "S" 'vip-substitute-line)
(define-key vip-command-mode-map "X" 'vip-delete-backward-char)
@end example

@node GNU Free Documentation License,,, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi


@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp

@setchapternewpage odd
@contents
@bye

@ignore
   arch-tag: 7c5d17b9-1d21-4261-a88a-b9fdbbf1020b
@end ignore