Source

emacs / doc / misc / dbus.texi

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\input texinfo   @c -*-texinfo-*-
@setfilename ../../info/dbus
@c %**start of header
@settitle Using of D-Bus
@c @setchapternewpage odd
@c %**end of header

@syncodeindex vr cp
@syncodeindex fn cp

@copying
Copyright @copyright{} 2007-2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual'',
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs lisp libraries
@direntry
* D-Bus: (dbus).                Using D-Bus in Emacs.
@end direntry

@contents


@node Top, Overview, (dir), (dir)
@top D-Bus integration in Emacs

This manual documents an API for usage of D-Bus in Emacs.  D-Bus is a
message bus system, a simple way for applications to talk to one
another.  An overview of D-Bus can be found at
@uref{http://dbus.freedesktop.org/}.

@ifnottex
@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Overview::                    An overview of D-Bus.
* Inspection::                  Inspection of D-Bus services.
* Type Conversion::             Mapping Lisp types and D-Bus types.
* Synchronous Methods::         Calling methods in a blocking way.
* Asynchronous Methods::        Calling methods non-blocking.
* Receiving Method Calls::      Offering own methods.
* Signals::                     Sending and receiving signals.
* Alternative Buses::           Alternative buses.
* Errors and Events::           Errors and events.
* Index::                       Index including concepts, functions, variables.

* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
@end menu


@node Overview
@chapter An overview of D-Bus
@cindex overview

D-Bus is an inter-process communication mechanism for applications
residing on the same host.  The communication is based on
@dfn{messages}.  Data in the messages is carried in a structured way,
it is not just a byte stream.

The communication is connection oriented to two kinds of message
buses: a so called @dfn{system bus}, and a @dfn{session bus}.  On a
given machine, there is always one single system bus for miscellaneous
system-wide communication, like changing of hardware configuration.
On the other hand, the session bus is always related to a single
user's session.

Every client application, which is connected to a bus, registers under
a @dfn{unique name} at the bus.  This name is used for identifying the
client application.  Such a unique name starts always with a colon,
and looks like @samp{:1.42}.

Additionally, a client application can register itself to a so called
@dfn{known name}, which is a series of identifiers separated by dots,
as in @samp{org.gnu.Emacs}.  If several applications register to the
same known name, these registrations are queued, and only the first
application which has registered for the known name is reachable via
this name.  If this application disconnects from the bus, the next
queued unique name becomes the owner of this known name.

An application can install one or several objects under its name.
Such objects are identified by an @dfn{object path}, which looks
similar to paths in a filesystem.  An example of such an object path
could be @samp{/org/gnu/Emacs/}.

Applications might send a request to an object, that means sending a
message with some data as input parameters, and receiving a message
from that object with the result of this message, the output
parameters.  Such a request is called @dfn{method} in D-Bus.

The other form of communication are @dfn{signals}.  The underlying
message is emitted from an object and will be received by all other
applications which have registered for such a signal.

All methods and signals an object supports are called @dfn{interface}
of the object.  Interfaces are specified under a hierarchical name in
D-Bus; an object can support several interfaces.  Such an interface
name could be @samp{org.gnu.Emacs.TextEditor} or
@samp{org.gnu.Emacs.FileManager}.


@node Inspection
@chapter Inspection of D-Bus services.
@cindex inspection

@menu
* Bus names::                   Discovering D-Bus names.
* Introspection::               Knowing the details of D-Bus services.
* Nodes and Interfaces::        Detecting object paths and interfaces.
* Methods and Signal::          Applying the functionality.
* Properties and Annotations::  What else to know about interfaces.
* Arguments and Signatures::    The final details.
@end menu


@node Bus names
@section Bus names.

There are several basic functions which inspect the buses for
registered names.  Internally they use the basic interface
@samp{org.freedesktop.DBus}, which is supported by all objects of a bus.

@defun dbus-list-activatable-names &optional bus
This function returns the D-Bus service names, which can be activated
for @var{bus}.  It must be either the symbol @code{:system} (the
default) or the symbol @code{:session}.  An activatable service is
described in a service registration file.  Under GNU/Linux, such files
are located at @file{/usr/share/dbus-1/system-services/} (for the
@code{:system} bus) or @file{/usr/share/dbus-1/services/}.  An
activatable service is not necessarily registered at @var{bus} at already.

The result is a list of strings, which is @code{nil} when there are no
activatable service names at all.  Example:

@lisp
;; Check, whether the document viewer can be accessed via D-Bus.
(member "org.gnome.evince.Daemon"
        (dbus-list-activatable-names :session))
@end lisp

@end defun

@defun dbus-list-names bus
All service names, which are registered at D-Bus @var{bus}, are
returned.  The result is a list of strings, which is @code{nil} when
there are no registered service names at all.  Well known names are
strings like @samp{org.freedesktop.DBus}.  Names starting with
@samp{:} are unique names for services.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.
@end defun

@defun dbus-list-known-names bus
Retrieves all registered services which correspond to a known name in @var{bus}.
A service has a known name if it doesn't start with @samp{:}.  The
result is a list of strings, which is @code{nil} when there are no
known names at all.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.
@end defun

@defun dbus-list-queued-owners bus service
For a given service, registered at D-Bus @var{bus} under the name
@var{service}, all queued unique names are returned.  The result is a
list of strings, or @code{nil} when there are no queued names for
@var{service} at all.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.  @var{service} must be a known service name as
string.
@end defun

@defun dbus-get-name-owner bus service
For a given service, registered at D-Bus @var{bus} under the name
@var{service}, the unique name of the name owner is returned.  The
result is a string, or @code{nil} when there exist no name owner of
@var{service}.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.  @var{service} must be a known service name as
string.
@end defun

@defun dbus-ping bus service &optional timeout
Check whether the service name @var{service} is registered at D-Bus
@var{bus}.  @var{service} might not have been started yet, it is
autostarted if possible.  The result is either @code{t} or @code{nil}.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.  @var{service} must be a string.  @var{timeout}, a
nonnegative integer, specifies the maximum number of milliseconds
@code{dbus-ping} must return.  The default value is 25,000.  Example:

@lisp
(message
   "%s screensaver on board."
   (cond
     ((dbus-ping :session "org.gnome.ScreenSaver" 100) "Gnome")
     ((dbus-ping :session "org.freedesktop.ScreenSaver" 100) "KDE")
     (t "No")))
@end lisp

If it shall be checked whether @var{service} is already running
without autostarting it, one shall apply

@lisp
(member service (dbus-list-known-names bus))
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-get-unique-name bus
The unique name, under which Emacs is registered at D-Bus @var{bus},
is returned as string.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.
@end defun


@node Introspection
@section Knowing the details of D-Bus services.

D-Bus services publish their interfaces.  This can be retrieved and
analyzed during runtime, in order to understand the used
implementation.

The resulting introspection data are in XML format.  The root
introspection element is always a @code{node} element.  It might have
a @code{name} attribute, which denotes the (absolute) object path an
interface is introspected.

The root @code{node} element may have @code{node} and @code{interface}
children.  A child @code{node} element must have a @code{name}
attribute, this case it is the relative object path to the root
@code{node} element.

An @code{interface} element has just one attribute, @code{name}, which
is the full name of that interface.  The default interface
@samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable} is always present.  Example:

@example
<node name="/org/bluez">
  <interface name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable">
    @dots{}
  </interface>
  <interface name="org.bluez.Manager">
    @dots{}
  </interface>
  <interface name="org.bluez.Database">
    @dots{}
  </interface>
  <interface name="org.bluez.Security">
    @dots{}
  </interface>
  <node name="service_audio"/>
  <node name="service_input"/>
  <node name="service_network"/>
  <node name="service_serial"/>
</node>
@end example

Children of an @code{interface} element can be @code{method},
@code{signal} and @code{property} elements.  A @code{method} element
stands for a D-Bus method of the surrounding interface.  The element
itself has a @code{name} attribute, showing the method name.  Children
elements @code{arg} stand for the arguments of a method.  Example:

@example
<method name="ResolveHostName">
  <arg name="interface" type="i" direction="in"/>
  <arg name="protocol" type="i" direction="in"/>
  <arg name="name" type="s" direction="in"/>
  <arg name="aprotocol" type="i" direction="in"/>
  <arg name="flags" type="u" direction="in"/>
  <arg name="interface" type="i" direction="out"/>
  <arg name="protocol" type="i" direction="out"/>
  <arg name="name" type="s" direction="out"/>
  <arg name="aprotocol" type="i" direction="out"/>
  <arg name="address" type="s" direction="out"/>
  <arg name="flags" type="u" direction="out"/>
</method>
@end example

@code{arg} elements can have the attributes @code{name}, @code{type}
and @code{direction}.  The @code{name} attribute is optional.  The
@code{type} attribute stands for the @dfn{signature} of the argument
in D-Bus.  For a discussion of D-Bus types and their Lisp
representation see @ref{Type Conversion}.@footnote{D-Bus signatures
are explained in the D-Bus specification
@uref{http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html#message-protocol-signatures}.}
The @code{direction} attribute of an @code{arg} element can be only
@samp{in} or @samp{out}; in case it is omitted, it defaults to
@samp{in}.

A @code{signal} element of an @code{interface} has a similar
structure.  The @code{direction} attribute of an @code{arg} child
element can be only @samp{out} here; which is also the default value.
Example:

@example
<signal name="StateChanged">
  <arg name="state" type="i"/>
  <arg name="error" type="s"/>
</signal>
@end example

A @code{property} element has no @code{arg} child
element.  It just has the attributes @code{name}, @code{type} and
@code{access}, which are all mandatory.  The @code{access} attribute
allows the values @samp{readwrite}, @samp{read}, and @samp{write}.
Example:

@example
<property name="Status" type="u" direction="read"/>
@end example

@code{annotation} elements can be children of @code{interface},
@code{method}, @code{signal}, and @code{property} elements.  Unlike
properties, which can change their values during lifetime of a D-Bus
object, annotations are static.  Often they are used for code
generators of D-Bus language bindings.  Example:

@example
<annotation name="de.berlios.Pinot.GetStatistics" value="pinotDBus"/>
@end example

Annotations have just @code{name} and @code{value} attributes, both
must be strings.

@defun dbus-introspect bus service path
This function returns all interfaces and sub-nodes of @var{service},
registered at object path @var{path} at bus @var{bus}.

@var{bus} must be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.  @var{service} must be a known service name, and
@var{path} must be a valid object path.  The last two parameters are
strings.  The result, the introspection data, is a string in XML
format.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
  "/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer")

@result{} "<!DOCTYPE node PUBLIC
    "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Object Introspection 1.0//EN"
    "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/introspect.dtd">
    <node>
      <interface name="org.freedesktop.Hal.Device">
        <method name="GetAllProperties">
          <arg name="properties" direction="out" type="a@{sv@}"/>
        </method>
        @dots{}
        <signal name="PropertyModified">
          <arg name="num_updates" type="i"/>
          <arg name="updates" type="a(sbb)"/>
        </signal>
      </interface>
      @dots{}
    </node>"
@end lisp

This example informs us, that the service @samp{org.freedesktop.Hal}
at object path @samp{/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer} offers the
interface @samp{org.freedesktop.Hal.Device} (and 2 other interfaces
not documented here).  This interface contains the method
@samp{GetAllProperties}, which needs no input parameters, but returns
as output parameter an array of dictionary entries (key-value pairs).
Every dictionary entry has a string as key, and a variant as value.

The interface offers also a signal, which returns 2 parameters: an
integer, and an array consisting of elements which are a struct of a
string and 2 boolean values.@footnote{ The interfaces of the service
@samp{org.freedesktop.Hal} are described at
@uref{http://people.freedesktop.org/~david/hal-spec/hal-spec.html#interfaces}.}
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-xml bus service path
This function has the same intention as function
@code{dbus-introspect}.  The returned value is a parsed XML tree,
which can be used for further analysis.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-xml
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main")

@result{} (node ((name . "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"))
     (interface ((name . "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search"))
       (method ((name . "GetHitData"))
         (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s") (direction . "in")))
         (arg ((name . "hit_ids") (type . "au") (direction . "in")))
         (arg ((name . "fields") (type . "as") (direction . "in")))
         (arg ((name . "hit_data") (type . "aav") (direction . "out")))
       )
       @dots{}
       (signal ((name . "HitsAdded"))
         (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s")))
         (arg ((name . "count") (type . "u")))
       )
     )
     @dots{}
   )
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-attribute object attribute
It returns the @var{attribute} value of a D-Bus introspection
@var{object}.  @var{object} can be every subtree of a parsed XML tree
as retrieved with @code{dbus-introspect-xml}.  @var{attribute} must be
a string according to the attribute names in the D-Bus specification.
Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-attribute
  (dbus-introspect-xml :system "org.freedesktop.SystemToolsBackends"
    "/org/freedesktop/SystemToolsBackends/UsersConfig")
  "name")

@result{} "/org/freedesktop/SystemToolsBackends/UsersConfig"
@end lisp

If @var{object} has no @var{attribute}, the function returns
@code{nil}.
@end defun


@node Nodes and Interfaces
@section Detecting object paths and interfaces.

The first elements, to be introspected for a D-Bus object, are further
object paths and interfaces.

@defun dbus-introspect-get-node-names bus service path
All node names of @var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path
@var{path} are returned as list of strings.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-node-names
  :session "org.gnome.seahorse" "/org/gnome/seahorse")

@result{} ("crypto" "keys")
@end lisp

The node names stand for further object paths of the D-Bus
@var{service}, relative to @var{path}.  In the example,
@samp{/org/gnome/seahorse/crypto} and @samp{/org/gnome/seahorse/keys}
are also object paths of the D-Bus service @samp{org.gnome.seahorse}.
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-all-nodes bus service path
This function returns all node names of @var{service} in D-Bus
@var{bus} at object path @var{path}.  It returns a list of strings
with all object paths of @var{service}, starting at @var{path}.
Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-all-nodes :session "org.gnome.seahorse" "/")

@result{} ("/" "/org" "/org/gnome" "/org/gnome/seahorse"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/crypto"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys/openpgp"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys/openpgp/local"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys/openssh"
    "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys/openssh/local")
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-interface-names bus service path
There will be returned a list strings of all interface names of
@var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path @var{path}.  This list
will contain the default interface @samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable}.

Another default interface is @samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties}.
If present, @code{interface} elements can also have @code{property}
children.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-interface-names
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
  "/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer")

@result{} ("org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable"
    "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device"
    "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device.SystemPowerManagement"
    "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device.CPUFreq")
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-interface bus service path interface
Return @var{interface} of @var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object
path @var{path}.  The return value is an XML element.  @var{interface}
must be a string, element of the list returned by
@code{dbus-introspect-get-interface-names}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-interface
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search")

@result{} (interface ((name . "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search"))
     (method ((name . "GetHitData"))
       (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s") (direction . "in")))
       (arg ((name . "hit_ids") (type . "au") (direction . "in")))
       (arg ((name . "fields") (type . "as") (direction . "in")))
       (arg ((name . "hit_data") (type . "aav") (direction . "out")))
     )
     @dots{}
     (signal ((name . "HitsAdded"))
       (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s")))
       (arg ((name . "count") (type . "u")))
     )
   )
@end lisp
@end defun

@noindent
With these functions, it is possible to retrieve all introspection
data from a running system:

@lisp
(with-current-buffer (switch-to-buffer "*introspect*")
  (erase-buffer)
  (dolist (service (dbus-list-known-names :session))
    (dolist (path (dbus-introspect-get-all-nodes :session service "/"))
      ;; We want to introspect only elements, which have more than
      ;; the default interface "org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable".
      (when (delete
             "org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable"
             (dbus-introspect-get-interface-names :session service path))
        (insert (message "\nservice: \"%s\" path: \"%s\"\n" service path)
                (dbus-introspect :session service path))
        (redisplay t)))))
@end lisp


@node Methods and Signal
@section Applying the functionality.

Methods and signals are the communication means to D-Bus.  The
following functions return their specifications.

@defun dbus-introspect-get-method-names bus service path interface
Return a list of strings of all method names of @var{interface} of
@var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path @var{path}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-method-names
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search")

@result{} ("GetState" "StartSearch" "GetHitCount" "GetHits" "NewSession"
    "CloseSession" "GetHitData" "SetProperty" "NewSearch"
    "GetProperty" "CloseSearch")
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-method bus service path interface method
This function returns @var{method} of @var{interface} as XML element.
It must be located at @var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path
@var{path}.  @var{method} must be a string, element of the list
returned by @code{dbus-introspect-get-method-names}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-method
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "GetHitData")

@result{} (method ((name . "GetHitData"))
     (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s") (direction . "in")))
     (arg ((name . "hit_ids") (type . "au") (direction . "in")))
     (arg ((name . "fields") (type . "as") (direction . "in")))
     (arg ((name . "hit_data") (type . "aav") (direction . "out")))
   )
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-signal-names bus service path interface
Return a list of strings of all signal names of @var{interface} of
@var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path @var{path}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-signal-names
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search")

@result{} ("StateChanged" "SearchDone" "HitsModified"
    "HitsRemoved" "HitsAdded")
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-signal bus service path interface signal
This function returns @var{signal} of @var{interface} as XML element.
It must be located at @var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path
@var{path}.  @var{signal} must be a string, element of the list
returned by @code{dbus-introspect-get-signal-names}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-signal
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "HitsAdded")

@result{} (signal ((name . "HitsAdded"))
     (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s")))
     (arg ((name . "count") (type . "u")))
   )
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Properties and Annotations
@section What else to know about interfaces.

Interfaces can have properties.  These can be exposed via the
@samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties} interface@footnote{See
@uref{http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html#standard-interfaces-properties}}.
That is, properties can be retrieved and changed during lifetime of an
element.

Annotations, on the other hand, are static values for an element.
Often, they are used to instruct generators, how to generate code from
the interface for a given language binding.

@defun dbus-introspect-get-property-names bus service path interface
Return a list of strings with all property names of @var{interface} of
@var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path @var{path}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-property-names
  :session "org.kde.kded" "/modules/networkstatus"
  "org.kde.Solid.Networking.Client")

@result{} ("Status")
@end lisp

If an interface declares properties, the corresponding element supports
also the @samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties} interface.
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-property bus service path interface property
This function returns @var{property} of @var{interface} as XML element.
It must be located at @var{service} in D-Bus @var{bus} at object path
@var{path}.  @var{property} must be a string, element of the list
returned by @code{dbus-introspect-get-property-names}.

A @var{property} value can be retrieved by the function
@code{dbus-introspect-get-attribute}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-property
  :session "org.kde.kded" "/modules/networkstatus"
  "org.kde.Solid.Networking.Client" "Status")

@result{} (property ((access . "read") (type . "u") (name . "Status")))

(dbus-introspect-get-attribute
  (dbus-introspect-get-property
    :session "org.kde.kded" "/modules/networkstatus"
    "org.kde.Solid.Networking.Client" "Status")
  "access")

@result{} "read"
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-get-property bus service path interface property
This function returns the value of @var{property} of @var{interface}.
It will be checked at @var{bus}, @var{service}, @var{path}.  The
result can be any valid D-Bus value, or @code{nil} if there is no
@var{property}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-get-property
  :session "org.kde.kded" "/modules/networkstatus"
  "org.kde.Solid.Networking.Client" "Status")

@result{} 4
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-set-property bus service path interface property value
Set value of @var{property} of @var{interface} to @var{value}.  It
will be checked at @var{bus}, @var{service}, @var{path}.  When the
value has been set successful, the result is @var{value}.  Otherwise,
@code{nil} is returned.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-set-property
  :session "org.kde.kaccess" "/MainApplication"
  "com.trolltech.Qt.QApplication" "doubleClickInterval" 500)

@result{} 500
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-get-all-properties bus service path interface
This function returns all properties of @var{interface}.  It will be
checked at @var{bus}, @var{service}, @var{path}.  The result is a list
of cons.  Every cons contains the name of the property, and its value.
If there are no properties, @code{nil} is returned.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-get-all-properties
  :session "org.kde.kaccess" "/MainApplication"
  "com.trolltech.Qt.QApplication")

@result{} (("cursorFlashTime" . 1000) ("doubleClickInterval" . 500)
    ("keyboardInputInterval" . 400) ("wheelScrollLines" . 3)
    ("globalStrut" 0 0) ("startDragTime" . 500)
    ("startDragDistance" . 4) ("quitOnLastWindowClosed" . t)
    ("styleSheet" . ""))
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-annotation-names bus service path interface &optional name
Return a list of all annotation names as list of strings.  If
@var{name} is @code{nil}, the annotations are children of
@var{interface}, otherwise @var{name} must be a @code{method},
@code{signal}, or @code{property} XML element, where the annotations
belong to.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-annotation-names
  :session "de.berlios.Pinot" "/de/berlios/Pinot"
  "de.berlios.Pinot" "GetStatistics")

@result{} ("de.berlios.Pinot.GetStatistics")
@end lisp

Default annotation names@footnote{See
@uref{http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html#introspection-format}}
are

@table @samp
@item org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated
Whether or not the entity is deprecated; defaults to @code{nil}

@item org.freedesktop.DBus.GLib.CSymbol
The C symbol; may be used for @code{methods} and @code{interfaces}

@item org.freedesktop.DBus.Method.NoReply
If set, don't expect a reply to the @code{method} call; defaults to @code{nil}
@end table
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-annotation bus service path interface name annotation
Return annotation @var{ANNOTATION} as XML object.  If @var{name} is
@code{nil}, @var{ANNOTATION} is a child of @var{interface}, otherwise
@var{name} must be the name of a @code{method}, @code{signal}, or
@code{property} XML element, where the @var{ANNOTATION} belongs to.

An attribute value can be retrieved by
@code{dbus-introspect-get-attribute}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-annotation
  :session "de.berlios.Pinot" "/de/berlios/Pinot"
  "de.berlios.Pinot" "GetStatistics"
  "de.berlios.Pinot.GetStatistics")

@result{} (annotation ((name . "de.berlios.Pinot.GetStatistics")
                (value . "pinotDBus")))

(dbus-introspect-get-attribute
  (dbus-introspect-get-annotation
    :session "de.berlios.Pinot" "/de/berlios/Pinot"
    "de.berlios.Pinot" "GetStatistics"
    "de.berlios.Pinot.GetStatistics")
  "value")

@result{} "pinotDBus"
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Arguments and Signatures
@section The final details.

Methods and signals have arguments.  They are described in the
@code{arg} XML elements.

@defun dbus-introspect-get-argument-names bus service path interface name
Return a list of all argument names as list of strings.  @var{name}
must be a @code{method} or @code{signal} XML element.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-argument-names
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "GetHitData")

@result{} ("search" "hit_ids" "fields" "hit_data")
@end lisp

Argument names are optional; the function can return @code{nil}
therefore, even if the method or signal has arguments.
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-argument bus service path interface name arg
Return argument @var{ARG} as XML object.  @var{name}
must be a @code{method} or @code{signal} XML element.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-argument
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "GetHitData" "search")

@result{} (arg ((name . "search") (type . "s") (direction . "in")))
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-introspect-get-signature bus service path interface name &optional direction
Return signature of a @code{method} or @code{signal}, represented by
@var{name}, as string.

If @var{name} is a @code{method}, @var{direction} can be either
@samp{in} or @samp{out}.  If @var{direction} is @code{nil}, @samp{in}
is assumed.

If @var{name} is a @code{signal}, and @var{direction} is
non-@code{nil}, @var{direction} must be @samp{out}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-introspect-get-signature
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "GetHitData" "in")

@result{} "sauas"

(dbus-introspect-get-signature
  :session "org.freedesktop.xesam.searcher"
  "/org/freedesktop/xesam/searcher/main"
  "org.freedesktop.xesam.Search" "HitsAdded")

@result{} "su"
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Type Conversion
@chapter Mapping Lisp types and D-Bus types.
@cindex type conversion

D-Bus method calls and signals accept usually several arguments as
parameters, either as input parameter, or as output parameter.  Every
argument belongs to a D-Bus type.

Such arguments must be mapped between the value encoded as a D-Bus
type, and the corresponding type of Lisp objects.  The mapping is
applied Lisp object @expansion{} D-Bus type for input parameters, and
D-Bus type @expansion{} Lisp object for output parameters.


@section Input parameters.

Input parameters for D-Bus methods and signals occur as arguments of a
Lisp function call.  The following mapping to D-Bus types is
applied, when the corresponding D-Bus message is created:

@example
@multitable {negative integer} {@expansion{}} {DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN}
@item Lisp type               @tab              @tab D-Bus type
@item
@item @code{t} and @code{nil} @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN
@item natural number          @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_UINT32
@item negative integer        @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_INT32
@item float                   @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_DOUBLE
@item string                  @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_STRING
@item list                    @tab @expansion{} @tab DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY
@end multitable
@end example

Other Lisp objects, like symbols or hash tables, are not accepted as
input parameters.

If it is necessary to use another D-Bus type, a corresponding type
symbol can be prepended to the corresponding Lisp object.  Basic D-Bus
types are represented by the type symbols @code{:byte},
@code{:boolean}, @code{:int16}, @code{:uint16}, @code{:int32},
@code{:uint32}, @code{:int64}, @code{:uint64}, @code{:double},
@code{:string}, @code{:object-path}, @code{:signature} and
@code{:unix-fd}.

@noindent
Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method @dots{} @var{NAT-NUMBER} @var{STRING})
@end lisp

is equivalent to

@lisp
(dbus-call-method @dots{} :uint32 @var{NAT-NUMBER} :string @var{STRING})
@end lisp

but different to

@lisp
(dbus-call-method @dots{} :int32 @var{NAT-NUMBER} :signature @var{STRING})
@end lisp

The value for a byte D-Bus type can be any integer in the range 0
through 255.  If a character is used as argument, modifiers
represented outside this range are stripped of.  For example,
@code{:byte ?x} is equal to @code{:byte ?\M-x}, but it is not equal to
@code{:byte ?\C-x} or @code{:byte ?\M-\C-x}.

A D-Bus compound type is always represented as a list.  The @sc{car}
of this list can be the type symbol @code{:array}, @code{:variant},
@code{:struct} or @code{:dict-entry}, which would result in a
corresponding D-Bus container.  @code{:array} is optional, because
this is the default compound D-Bus type for a list.

The objects being elements of the list are checked according to the
D-Bus compound type rules.

@itemize
@item An array must contain only elements of the same D-Bus type.  It
can be empty.

@item A variant must contain only one single element.

@item A dictionary entry must be element of an array, and it must
contain only a key-value pair of two elements, with a basic D-Bus type
key.

@item There is no restriction for structs.
@end itemize

If an empty array needs an element D-Bus type other than string, it
can contain exactly one element of D-Bus type @code{:signature}.  The
value of this element (a string) is used as the signature of the
elements of this array.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method
  :session "org.freedesktop.Notifications"
  "/org/freedesktop/Notifications"
  "org.freedesktop.Notifications" "Notify"
  "GNU Emacs"                 ;; Application name.
  0                           ;; No replacement of other notifications.
  ""                          ;; No icon.
  "Notification summary"      ;; Summary.
  (format                     ;; Body.
    "This is a test notification, raised from %s" (emacs-version))
  '(:array)                   ;; No actions (empty array of strings).
  '(:array :signature "@{sv@}") ;; No hints
                              ;; (empty array of dictionary entries).
  :int32 -1)                 ;; Default timeout.

@result{} 3
@end lisp

@defun dbus-string-to-byte-array string
Sometimes, D-Bus methods require as input parameter an array of bytes,
instead of a string.  If it is guaranteed, that @var{string} is an
UTF8 string, this function performs the conversion.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-string-to-byte-array "/etc/hosts")

@result{} (:array :byte 47 :byte 101 :byte 116 :byte 99 :byte 47
           :byte 104 :byte 111 :byte 115 :byte 116 :byte 115)
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-escape-as-identifier string
Escape an arbitrary @var{string} so it follows the rules for a C
identifier.  The escaped string can be used as object path component,
interface element component, bus name component or member name in
D-Bus.

The escaping consists of replacing all non-alphanumerics, and the
first character if it's a digit, with an underscore and two
lower-case hex digits.  As a special case, "" is escaped to
"_".  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-escape-as-identifier "0123abc_xyz\x01\xff")

@result{} "_30123abc_5fxyz_01_ff"
@end lisp
@end defun


@section Output parameters.

Output parameters of D-Bus methods and signals are mapped to Lisp
objects.

@example
@multitable {DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH} {@expansion{}} {natural number or float}
@item D-Bus type            @tab              @tab Lisp type
@item
@item DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN     @tab @expansion{} @tab @code{t} or @code{nil}
@item DBUS_TYPE_BYTE        @tab @expansion{} @tab natural number
@item DBUS_TYPE_UINT16      @tab @expansion{} @tab natural number
@item DBUS_TYPE_INT16       @tab @expansion{} @tab integer
@item DBUS_TYPE_UINT32      @tab @expansion{} @tab natural number or float
@item DBUS_TYPE_UNIX_FD     @tab @expansion{} @tab natural number or float
@item DBUS_TYPE_INT32       @tab @expansion{} @tab integer or float
@item DBUS_TYPE_UINT64      @tab @expansion{} @tab natural number or float
@item DBUS_TYPE_INT64       @tab @expansion{} @tab integer or float
@item DBUS_TYPE_DOUBLE      @tab @expansion{} @tab float
@item DBUS_TYPE_STRING      @tab @expansion{} @tab string
@item DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH @tab @expansion{} @tab string
@item DBUS_TYPE_SIGNATURE   @tab @expansion{} @tab string
@item DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY       @tab @expansion{} @tab list
@item DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT     @tab @expansion{} @tab list
@item DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT      @tab @expansion{} @tab list
@item DBUS_TYPE_DICT_ENTRY  @tab @expansion{} @tab list
@end multitable
@end example

A float object in case of @code{DBUS_TYPE_UINT32},
@code{DBUS_TYPE_INT32}, @code{DBUS_TYPE_UINT64},
@code{DBUS_TYPE_INT64} and @code{DBUS_TYPE_UNIX_FD} is returned, when
the C value exceeds the Emacs number size range.

The resulting list of the last 4 D-Bus compound types contains as
elements the elements of the D-Bus container, mapped according to the
same rules.

The signal @code{PropertyModified}, discussed as example in
@ref{Inspection}, would offer as Lisp data the following object
(@var{BOOL} stands here for either @code{nil} or @code{t}):

@lisp
(@var{INTEGER} ((@var{STRING} @var{BOOL} @var{BOOL}) (@var{STRING} @var{BOOL} @var{BOOL}) @dots{}))
@end lisp

@defun dbus-byte-array-to-string byte-array
If a D-Bus method or signal returns an array of bytes, which are known
to represent an UTF8 string, this function converts @var{byte-array}
to the corresponding string.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-byte-array-to-string '(47 101 116 99 47 104 111 115 116 115))

@result{} "/etc/hosts"
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-unescape-from-identifier string
Retrieve the original string from the encoded @var{string}.
@var{string} must have been coded with
@code{dbus-escape-as-identifier}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-unescape-from-identifier "_30123abc_5fxyz_01_ff")

@ifinfo
@result{} "0123abc_xyz^Aÿ"
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@result{} "0123abc_xyz^A@"y"
@end ifnotinfo
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Synchronous Methods
@chapter Calling methods in a blocking way.
@cindex method calls, synchronous
@cindex synchronous method calls

Methods can be called synchronously (@dfn{blocking}) or asynchronously
(@dfn{non-blocking}).

At D-Bus level, a method call consist of two messages: one message
which carries the input parameters to the object owning the method to
be called, and a reply message returning the resulting output
parameters from the object.

@defun dbus-call-method bus service path interface method &optional :timeout timeout &rest args
This function calls @var{method} on the D-Bus @var{bus}.  @var{bus} is
either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol @code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name to be used.  @var{path} is the
D-Bus object path, @var{service} is registered at.  @var{interface} is
an interface offered by @var{service}.  It must provide @var{method}.

If the parameter @code{:timeout} is given, the following integer
@var{timeout} specifies the maximum number of milliseconds the method
call must return.  The default value is 25,000.  If the method call
doesn't return in time, a D-Bus error is raised (@pxref{Errors and
Events}).

All other arguments args are passed to @var{method} as arguments.
They are converted into D-Bus types as described in @ref{Type
Conversion}.

The function returns the resulting values of @var{method} as a list of
Lisp objects, according to the type conversion rules described in
@ref{Type Conversion}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method
  :session "org.gnome.seahorse" "/org/gnome/seahorse/keys/openpgp"
  "org.gnome.seahorse.Keys" "GetKeyField"
  "openpgp:657984B8C7A966DD" "simple-name")

@result{} (t ("Philip R. Zimmermann"))
@end lisp

If the result of the method call is just one value, the converted Lisp
object is returned instead of a list containing this single Lisp
object.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
  "/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer"
  "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device" "GetPropertyString"
  "system.kernel.machine")

@result{} "i686"
@end lisp

With the @code{dbus-introspect} function it is possible to explore the
interfaces of @samp{org.freedesktop.Hal} service. It offers the
interfaces @samp{org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager} for the object at the
path @samp{/org/freedesktop/Hal/Manager} as well as the interface
@samp{org.freedesktop.Hal.Device} for all objects prefixed with the
path @samp{/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices}.  With the methods
@samp{GetAllDevices} and @samp{GetAllProperties}, it is simple to
emulate the @code{lshal} command on GNU/Linux systems:

@lisp
(dolist (device
          (dbus-call-method
            :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
            "/org/freedesktop/Hal/Manager"
            "org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager" "GetAllDevices"))
  (message "\nudi = %s" device)
  (dolist (properties
            (dbus-call-method
              :system "org.freedesktop.Hal" device
              "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device" "GetAllProperties"))
    (message "  %s = %S"
             (car properties) (or (caar (cdr properties)) ""))))

@print{} "udi = /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer
      info.addons = (\"hald-addon-acpi\")
      info.bus = \"unknown\"
      info.product = \"Computer\"
      info.subsystem = \"unknown\"
      info.udi = \"/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer\"
      linux.sysfs_path_device = \"(none)\"
      power_management.acpi.linux.version = \"20051216\"
      power_management.can_suspend_to_disk = t
      power_management.can_suspend_to_ram = \"\"
      power_management.type = \"acpi\"
      smbios.bios.release_date = \"11/07/2001\"
      system.chassis.manufacturer = \"COMPAL\"
      system.chassis.type = \"Notebook\"
      system.firmware.release_date = \"03/19/2005\"
      @dots{}"
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-call-method-non-blocking bus service path interface method &optional :timeout timeout &rest args
Call @var{method} on the D-Bus @var{bus}, but don't block the event queue.
This is necessary for communicating to registered D-Bus methods,
which are running in the same Emacs process.

The arguments are the same as in @code{dbus-call-method}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method-non-blocking
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
  "/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer"
  "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device" "GetPropertyString"
  "system.kernel.machine")

@result{} "i686"
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Asynchronous Methods
@chapter Calling methods non-blocking.
@cindex method calls, asynchronous
@cindex asynchronous method calls

@defun dbus-call-method-asynchronously bus service path interface method handler &optional :timeout timeout &rest args
This function calls @var{method} on the D-Bus @var{bus}
asynchronously.  @var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the
symbol @code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name to be used.  @var{path} is the
D-Bus object path, @var{service} is registered at.  @var{interface} is
an interface offered by @var{service}.  It must provide @var{method}.

@var{handler} is a Lisp function, which is called when the
corresponding return message has arrived.  If @var{handler} is
@code{nil}, no return message will be expected.

If the parameter @code{:timeout} is given, the following integer
@var{timeout} specifies the maximum number of milliseconds a reply
message must arrive.  The default value is 25,000.  If there is no
reply message in time, a D-Bus error is raised (@pxref{Errors and
Events}).

All other arguments args are passed to @var{method} as arguments.
They are converted into D-Bus types as described in @ref{Type
Conversion}.

Unless @var{handler} is @code{nil}, the function returns a key into
the hash table @code{dbus-registered-objects-table}.  The
corresponding entry in the hash table is removed, when the return
message has been arrived, and @var{handler} is called.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-call-method-asynchronously
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal"
  "/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer"
  "org.freedesktop.Hal.Device" "GetPropertyString" 'message
  "system.kernel.machine")

@result{} (:system 2)

@print{} i686
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Receiving Method Calls
@chapter Offering own methods.
@cindex method calls, returning
@cindex returning method calls

In order to register methods on the D-Bus, Emacs has to request a well
known name on the D-Bus under which it will be available for other
clients.  Names on the D-Bus can be registered and unregistered using
the following functions:

@defun dbus-register-service bus service &rest flags
Register the known name @var{service} on D-Bus @var{bus}.

@var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.

@var{service} is the service name to be registered on the D-Bus.  It
must be a known name.

@var{flags} is a subset of the following keywords:

@itemize
@item @code{:allow-replacement}: Allow another service to become the primary
owner if requested.

@item @code{:replace-existing}: Request to replace the current primary owner.

@item @code{:do-not-queue}: If we can not become the primary owner do not
place us in the queue.
@end itemize

One of the following keywords is returned:

@itemize

@item @code{:primary-owner}: We have become the primary owner of the name
@var{service}.

@item @code{:in-queue}: We could not become the primary owner and
have been placed in the queue.

@item @code{:exists}: We already are in the queue.

@item @code{:already-owner}: We already are the primary
owner.
@end itemize
@end defun

@defun dbus-unregister-service bus service
Unregister all objects from D-Bus @var{bus}, registered by Emacs for
@var{service}.

@var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name of the D-Bus.  It must be a
known name.  Emacs releases its association to @var{service} from
D-Bus.

One of the following keywords is returned:

@itemize
@item @code{:released}: We successfully released the name @var{service}.
@item @code{:non-existent}: The name @var{service} does not exist on the bus.
@item @code{:not-owner}: We are not an owner of the name @var{service}.
@end itemize
@end defun

When a name has been chosen, Emacs can offer own methods, which can be
called by other applications.  These methods could be an
implementation of an interface of a well known service, like
@samp{org.freedesktop.TextEditor}.

It could be also an implementation of an own interface.  In this case,
the service name must be @samp{org.gnu.Emacs}.  The object path shall
begin with @samp{/org/gnu/Emacs/@strong{Application}/}, and the
interface name shall be @code{org.gnu.Emacs.@strong{Application}}.
@samp{@strong{Application}} is the name of the application which
provides the interface.

@deffn Constant dbus-service-emacs
The well known service name of Emacs.
@end deffn

@deffn Constant dbus-path-emacs
The object path head "/org/gnu/Emacs" used by Emacs.  All object
paths, used by offered methods or signals, shall start with this
string.
@end deffn

@defun dbus-register-method bus service path interface method handler dont-register-service
With this function, an application registers @var{method} on the D-Bus
@var{bus}.

@var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name of the D-Bus object
@var{method} is registered for.  It must be a known name (See
discussion of @var{dont-register-service} below).

@var{path} is the D-Bus object path @var{service} is registered (See
discussion of @var{dont-register-service} below).

@var{interface} is the interface offered by @var{service}.  It must
provide @var{method}.

@var{handler} is a Lisp function to be called when a @var{method} call
is received.  It must accept as arguments the input arguments of
@var{method}.  @var{handler} should return a list, whose elements are
to be used as arguments for the reply message of @var{method}.  This
list can be composed like the input parameters in @ref{Type
Conversion}.

If @var{handler} wants to return just one Lisp object and it is not a
cons cell, @var{handler} can return this object directly, instead of
returning a list containing the object.

In case @var{handler} shall return a reply message with an empty
argument list, @var{handler} must return the symbol @code{:ignore}.

When @var{dont-register-service} is non-@code{nil}, the known name
@var{service} is not registered.  This means that other D-Bus clients
have no way of noticing the newly registered method.  When interfaces
are constructed incrementally by adding single methods or properties
at a time, @var{dont-register-service} can be used to prevent other
clients from discovering the still incomplete interface.

The default D-Bus timeout when waiting for a message reply is 25
seconds.  This value could be even smaller, depending on the calling
client.  Therefore, @var{handler} shall not last longer than
absolutely necessary.

@code{dbus-register-method} returns a Lisp object, which can be used
as argument in @code{dbus-unregister-object} for removing the
registration for @var{method}.  Example:

@lisp
(defun my-dbus-method-handler (filename)
  (let (result)
    (if (find-file filename)
        (setq result '(:boolean t))
      (setq result '(:boolean nil)))
    result))

@result{} my-dbus-method-handler

(dbus-register-method
  :session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
  "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "OpenFile"
  'my-dbus-method-handler)

@result{} ((:session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "OpenFile")
    ("org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
     my-dbus-method-handler))
@end lisp

If you invoke the method @samp{org.freedesktop.TextEditor.OpenFile}
from another D-Bus application with a filename as parameter, the file
is opened in Emacs, and the method returns either @var{true} or
@var{false}, indicating the success of the method.  As test tool one
could use the command line tool @code{dbus-send} in a shell:

@example
# dbus-send --session --print-reply \
    --dest="org.freedesktop.TextEditor" \
    "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor" \
    "org.freedesktop.TextEditor.OpenFile" string:"/etc/hosts"

@print{} method return sender=:1.22 -> dest=:1.23 reply_serial=2
      boolean true
@end example

You can indicate an error by raising the Emacs signal
@code{dbus-error}.  The handler above could be changed like this:

@lisp
(defun my-dbus-method-handler (&rest args)
  (unless (and (= (length args) 1) (stringp (car args)))
    (signal 'dbus-error (list (format "Wrong argument list: %S" args))))
  (condition-case err
      (find-file (car args))
    (error (signal 'dbus-error (cdr err))))
  t)

@result{} my-dbus-method-handler
@end lisp

The test runs then

@example
# dbus-send --session --print-reply \
    --dest="org.freedesktop.TextEditor" \
    "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor" \
    "org.freedesktop.TextEditor.OpenFile" \
    string:"/etc/hosts" string:"/etc/passwd"

@print{} Error org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.Failed:
   Wrong argument list: ("/etc/hosts" "/etc/passwd")
@end example
@end defun

@defun dbus-register-property bus service path interface property access value &optional emits-signal dont-register-service
With this function, an application declares a @var{property} on the D-Bus
@var{bus}.

@var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name of the D-Bus.  It must be a
known name.

@var{path} is the D-Bus object path @var{service} is registered (See
discussion of @var{dont-register-service} below).

@var{interface} is the name of the interface used at @var{path},
@var{property} is the name of the property of @var{interface}.

@var{access} indicates, whether the property can be changed by other
services via D-Bus.  It must be either the symbol @code{:read} or
@code{:readwrite}.  @var{value} is the initial value of the property,
it can be of any valid type (see @code{dbus-call-method} for details).

If @var{property} already exists on @var{path}, it will be
overwritten.  For properties with access type @code{:read} this is the
only way to change their values.  Properties with access type
@code{:readwrite} can be changed by @code{dbus-set-property}.

The interface @samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties} is added to
@var{path}, including a default handler for the @samp{Get},
@samp{GetAll} and @samp{Set} methods of this interface.  When
@var{emits-signal} is non-@code{nil}, the signal
@samp{PropertiesChanged} is sent when the property is changed by
@code{dbus-set-property}.

When @var{dont-register-service} is non-@code{nil}, the known name
@var{service} is not registered.  This means that other D-Bus clients
have no way of noticing the newly registered method.  When interfaces
are constructed incrementally by adding single methods or properties
at a time, @var{dont-register-service} can be used to prevent other
clients from discovering the still incomplete interface.

@noindent Example:

@lisp
(dbus-register-property
  :session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
  "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "name" :read "GNU Emacs")

@result{} ((:session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "name")
    ("org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"))

(dbus-register-property
  :session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
  "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "version" :readwrite emacs-version t)

@result{} ((:session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "version")
    ("org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"))
@end lisp

Other D-Bus applications can read the property via the default methods
@samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Get} and
@samp{org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll}.  Testing is also
possible via the command line tool @code{dbus-send} in a shell:

@example
# dbus-send --session --print-reply \
    --dest="org.freedesktop.TextEditor" \
    "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor" \
    "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll" \
    string:"org.freedesktop.TextEditor"

@print{} method return sender=:1.22 -> dest=:1.23 reply_serial=3
      array [
         dict entry(
            string "name"
            variant             string "GNU Emacs"
         )
         dict entry(
            string "version"
            variant             string "23.1.50.5"
         )
      ]
@end example

It is also possible, to apply the @code{dbus-get-property},
@code{dbus-get-all-properties} and @code{dbus-set-property} functions
(@pxref{Properties and Annotations}).

@lisp
(dbus-set-property
  :session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
  "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "version" "23.1.50")

@result{} "23.1.50"

(dbus-get-property
  :session "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "/org/freedesktop/TextEditor"
  "org.freedesktop.TextEditor" "version")

@result{} "23.1.50"
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-unregister-object object
Unregister @var{object} from the D-Bus.  @var{object} must be the
result of a preceding @code{dbus-register-method},
@code{dbus-register-property} or @code{dbus-register-signal} call
(@pxref{Signals}).  It returns @code{t} if @var{object} has been
unregistered, @code{nil} otherwise.

When @var{object} identifies the last method or property, which is
registered for the respective service, Emacs releases its association
to the service from D-Bus.
@end defun


@node Signals
@chapter Sending and receiving signals.
@cindex signals

Signals are broadcast messages.  They carry input parameters, which
are received by all objects which have registered for such a signal.

@defun dbus-send-signal bus service path interface signal &rest args
This function is similar to @code{dbus-call-method}.  The difference
is, that there are no returning output parameters.

The function emits @var{signal} on the D-Bus @var{bus}.  @var{bus} is
either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol @code{:session}.  It
doesn't matter whether another object has registered for @var{signal}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name of the object the signal is
emitted from.  @var{path} is the corresponding D-Bus object path,
@var{service} is registered at.  @var{interface} is an interface
offered by @var{service}.  It must provide @var{signal}.

All other arguments args are passed to @var{signal} as arguments.
They are converted into D-Bus types as described in @ref{Type
Conversion}.  Example:

@lisp
(dbus-send-signal
  :session dbus-service-emacs dbus-path-emacs
  (concat dbus-service-emacs ".FileManager") "FileModified"
  "/home/albinus/.emacs")
@end lisp
@end defun

@defun dbus-register-signal bus service path interface signal handler &rest args
With this function, an application registers for @var{signal} on the
D-Bus @var{bus}.

@var{bus} is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}.

@var{service} is the D-Bus service name used by the sending D-Bus
object.  It can be either a known name or the unique name of the D-Bus
object sending the signal.  In case of a unique name, signals won't be
received any longer once the object owning this unique name has
disappeared, and a new queued object has replaced it.

When @var{service} is @code{nil}, related signals from all D-Bus
objects shall be accepted.

@var{path} is the corresponding D-Bus object path, @var{service} is
registered at.  It can also be @code{nil} if the path name of incoming
signals shall not be checked.

@var{interface} is an interface offered by @var{service}.  It must
provide @var{signal}.

@var{handler} is a Lisp function to be called when the @var{signal} is
received.  It must accept as arguments the output parameters
@var{signal} is sending.

All other arguments @var{args}, if specified, must be strings.  They
stand for the respective arguments of @var{signal} in their order, and
are used for filtering as well.  A @code{nil} argument might be used
to preserve the order.

@code{dbus-register-signal} returns a Lisp object, which can be used
as argument in @code{dbus-unregister-object} for removing the
registration for @var{signal}.  Example:

@lisp
(defun my-dbus-signal-handler (device)
  (message "Device %s added" device))

@result{} my-dbus-signal-handler

(dbus-register-signal
  :system "org.freedesktop.Hal" "/org/freedesktop/Hal/Manager"
  "org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager" "DeviceAdded"
  'my-dbus-signal-handler)

@result{} ((:system "org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager" "DeviceAdded")
    ("org.freedesktop.Hal" "/org/freedesktop/Hal/Manager"
     my-signal-handler))
@end lisp

As we know from the introspection data of interface
@samp{org.freedesktop.Hal.Manager}, the signal @samp{DeviceAdded}
provides one single parameter, which is mapped into a Lisp string.
The callback function @code{my-dbus-signal-handler} must define one
single string argument therefore.  Plugging an USB device to your
machine, when registered for signal @samp{DeviceAdded}, will show you
which objects the GNU/Linux @code{hal} daemon adds.
@end defun


@node Alternative Buses
@chapter Alternative buses.
@cindex bus names
@cindex UNIX domain socket

Until now, we have spoken about the system and the session buses,
which are the default buses to be connected to.  However, it is
possible to connect to any bus, from which the address is known.  This
is a UNIX domain socket.  Everywhere, where a @var{bus} is mentioned
as argument of a function (the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}), this address can be used instead.  The connection to
this bus must be initialized first.

@defun dbus-init-bus bus
Establish the connection to D-Bus @var{bus}.

@var{bus} can be either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol
@code{:session}, or it can be a string denoting the address of the
corresponding bus.  For the system and session busses, this function
is called when loading @file{dbus.el}, there is no need to call it
again.

Example: You open another session bus in a terminal window on your host:

@example
# eval `dbus-launch --auto-syntax`
# echo $DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS

@print{} unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-JoFtAVG92w,guid=2f320a1ebe50b7ef58e
@end example

In Emacs, you can access to this bus via its address:

@lisp
(setq my-bus
      "unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-JoFtAVG92w,guid=2f320a1ebe50b7ef58e")

@result{} "unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-JoFtAVG92w,guid=2f320a1ebe50b7ef58e"

(dbus-init-bus my-bus)

@result{} nil

(dbus-get-unique-name my-bus)

@result{} ":1.0"
@end lisp
@end defun


@node Errors and Events
@chapter Errors and events.
@cindex debugging
@cindex errors
@cindex events

The internal actions can be traced by running in a debug mode.

@defvar dbus-debug
If this variable is non-@code{nil}, D-Bus specific debug messages are raised.
@end defvar

Input parameters of @code{dbus-call-method},
@code{dbus-call-method-non-blocking},
@code{dbus-call-method-asynchronously}, and
@code{dbus-register-signal} are checked for correct D-Bus types. If
there is a type mismatch, the Lisp error @code{wrong-type-argument}
@code{D-Bus ARG} is raised.

All errors raised by D-Bus are signaled with the error symbol
@code{dbus-error}.  If possible, error messages from D-Bus are
appended to the @code{dbus-error}.

@defspec dbus-ignore-errors forms@dots{}
This executes @var{forms} exactly like a @code{progn}, except that
@code{dbus-error} errors are ignored during the @var{forms}.  These
errors can be made visible when @code{dbus-debug} is set to @code{t}.
@end defspec

Incoming D-Bus messages are handled as Emacs events, see @pxref{Misc
Events, , , elisp}.  They are retrieved only, when Emacs runs in
interactive mode.  The generated event has this form:

@lisp
(dbus-event @var{bus} @var{type} @var{serial} @var{service} @var{path} @var{interface} @var{member} @var{handler}
        &rest @var{args})
@end lisp

@var{bus} identifies the D-Bus the message is coming from.  It is
either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol @code{:session}.

@var{type} is the D-Bus message type which has caused the event.  It
can be @code{dbus-message-type-invalid},
@code{dbus-message-type-method-call},
@code{dbus-message-type-method-return},
@code{dbus-message-type-error}, or @code{dbus-message-type-signal}.
@var{serial} is the serial number of the received D-Bus message.

@var{service} and @var{path} are the unique name and the object path
of the D-Bus object emitting the message.  @var{interface} and
@var{member} denote the message which has been sent.

@var{handler} is the callback function which has been registered for
this message (see @pxref{Signals}).  When a @code{dbus-event} event
arrives, @var{handler} is called with @var{args} as arguments.

In order to inspect the @code{dbus-event} data, you could extend the
definition of the callback function in @ref{Signals}:

@lisp
(defun my-dbus-signal-handler (&rest args)
  (message "my-dbus-signal-handler: %S" last-input-event))
@end lisp

There exist convenience functions which could be called inside a
callback function in order to retrieve the information from the event.

@defun dbus-event-bus-name event
Returns the bus name @var{event} is coming from.
The result is either the symbol @code{:system} or the symbol @code{:session}.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-message-type event
Returns the message type of the corresponding D-Bus message.  The
result is a natural number.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-serial-number event
Returns the serial number of the corresponding D-Bus message.
The result is a natural number.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-service-name event
Returns the unique name of the D-Bus object @var{event} is coming from.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-path-name event
Returns the object path of the D-Bus object @var{event} is coming from.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-interface-name event
Returns the interface name of the D-Bus object @var{event} is coming from.
@end defun

@defun dbus-event-member-name event
Returns the member name of the D-Bus object @var{event} is coming
from.  It is either a signal name or a method name.
@end defun

D-Bus errors are not propagated during event handling, because it is
usually not desired.  D-Bus errors in events can be made visible by
setting the variable @code{dbus-debug} to @code{t}.  They can also be
handled by a hook function.

@defvar dbus-event-error-hooks
This hook variable keeps a list of functions, which are called when a
D-Bus error happens in the event handler.  Every function must accept
two arguments, the event and the error variable caught in
@code{condition-case} by @code{dbus-error}.

Such functions can be used the adapt the error signal to be raised.
Example:

@lisp
(defun my-dbus-event-error-handler (event error)
  (when (string-equal (concat dbus-service-emacs ".FileManager")
                      (dbus-event-interface-name event))
    (message "my-dbus-event-error-handler: %S %S" event error)
    (signal 'file-error (cdr error))))

(add-hook 'dbus-event-error-hooks 'my-dbus-event-error-handler)
@end lisp
@end defvar

Hook functions shall take into account, that there might be other
D-Bus applications running.  Therefore, they shall check carefully,
whether a given D-Bus error is related to them.


@node Index
@unnumbered Index

@printindex cp


@node GNU Free Documentation License
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi

@bye
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