Source

emacs / lispref / elisp.texi

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\input texinfo  @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename elisp
@settitle GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@c %**end of header

@c Version of the manual and of Emacs.
@c Please remember to update the edition number in README as well.
@set VERSION  2.9
@set EMACSVER 22.0.50

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Elisp: (elisp).	The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual.
@end direntry

@smallbook
@setchapternewpage odd
@finalout

@c Combine indices.
@synindex cp fn
@syncodeindex vr fn
@syncodeindex ky fn
@syncodeindex pg fn
@c We use the "type index" to index new functions and variables.
@c @syncodeindex tp fn

@copying
This is edition @value{VERSION} of the GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual, corresponding to Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.

Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000,
  2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``GNU General Public License'', with the
Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual'', and with the Back-Cover
Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
@title GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@subtitle For Emacs Version @value{EMACSVER}
@subtitle Revision @value{VERSION}, January 2002

@author by Bil Lewis, Dan LaLiberte, Richard Stallman
@author and the GNU Manual Group
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying

@sp 1
Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor @*
Boston, MA 02110-1301 @*
USA @*
ISBN 1-882114-73-6

@sp 1
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.
@end titlepage


@c Print the tables of contents
@summarycontents
@contents


@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Emacs Lisp

This Info file contains edition @value{VERSION} of the GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual, corresponding to GNU Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::            Introduction and conventions used.

* Lisp Data Types::         Data types of objects in Emacs Lisp.
* Numbers::                 Numbers and arithmetic functions.
* Strings and Characters::  Strings, and functions that work on them.
* Lists::                   Lists, cons cells, and related functions.
* Sequences Arrays Vectors::  Lists, strings and vectors are called sequences.
                                Certain functions act on any kind of sequence.
                                The description of vectors is here as well.
* Hash Tables::             Very fast lookup-tables.
* Symbols::                 Symbols represent names, uniquely.

* Evaluation::              How Lisp expressions are evaluated.
* Control Structures::      Conditionals, loops, nonlocal exits.
* Variables::               Using symbols in programs to stand for values.
* Functions::               A function is a Lisp program
                              that can be invoked from other functions.
* Macros::                  Macros are a way to extend the Lisp language.
* Customization::           Writing customization declarations.

* Loading::                 Reading files of Lisp code into Lisp.
* Byte Compilation::        Compilation makes programs run faster.
* Advising Functions::      Adding to the definition of a function.
* Debugging::               Tools and tips for debugging Lisp programs.

* Read and Print::          Converting Lisp objects to text and back.
* Minibuffers::             Using the minibuffer to read input.
* Command Loop::            How the editor command loop works,
                              and how you can call its subroutines.
* Keymaps::                 Defining the bindings from keys to commands.
* Modes::                   Defining major and minor modes.
* Documentation::           Writing and using documentation strings.

* Files::                   Accessing files.
* Backups and Auto-Saving:: Controlling how backups and auto-save
                              files are made.
* Buffers::                 Creating and using buffer objects.
* Windows::                 Manipulating windows and displaying buffers.
* Frames::		    Making multiple system-level windows.
* Positions::               Buffer positions and motion functions.
* Markers::                 Markers represent positions and update
                              automatically when the text is changed.

* Text::                    Examining and changing text in buffers.
* Non-ASCII Characters::    Non-ASCII text in buffers and strings.
* Searching and Matching::  Searching buffers for strings or regexps.
* Syntax Tables::           The syntax table controls word and list parsing.
* Abbrevs::                 How Abbrev mode works, and its data structures.

* Processes::               Running and communicating with subprocesses.
* Display::	            Features for controlling the screen display.
* System Interface::        Getting the user id, system type, environment
                              variables, and other such things.

Appendices

* Antinews::                Info for users downgrading to Emacs 21.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation
* GPL::                     Conditions for copying and changing GNU Emacs.
* Tips::                    Advice and coding conventions for Emacs Lisp.
* GNU Emacs Internals::     Building and dumping Emacs;
                              internal data structures.
* Standard Errors::         List of all error symbols.
* Standard Buffer-Local Variables::
                            List of variables buffer-local in all buffers.
* Standard Keymaps::        List of standard keymaps.
* Standard Hooks::          List of standard hook variables.

* Index::                   Index including concepts, functions, variables,
                              and other terms.

* New Symbols::             New functions and variables in Emacs @value{EMACSVER}.

Detailed Node Listing
---------------------

Here are other nodes that are inferiors of those already listed,
mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

Introduction

* Caveats::                 Flaws and a request for help.
* Lisp History::            Emacs Lisp is descended from Maclisp.
* Conventions::             How the manual is formatted.
* Version Info::            Which Emacs version is running?
* Acknowledgements::        The authors, editors, and sponsors of this manual.

Conventions

* Some Terms::              Explanation of terms we use in this manual.
* nil and t::               How the symbols @code{nil} and @code{t} are used.
* Evaluation Notation::     The format we use for examples of evaluation.
* Printing Notation::       The format we use for examples that print output.
* Error Messages::          The format we use for examples of errors.
* Buffer Text Notation::    The format we use for buffer contents in examples.
* Format of Descriptions::  Notation for describing functions, variables, etc.

Format of Descriptions

* A Sample Function Description::
* A Sample Variable Description::

Lisp Data Types

* Printed Representation::  How Lisp objects are represented as text.
* Comments::                Comments and their formatting conventions.
* Programming Types::       Types found in all Lisp systems.
* Editing Types::           Types specific to Emacs.
* Circular Objects::            Read syntax for circular structure.
* Type Predicates::         Tests related to types.
* Equality Predicates::     Tests of equality between any two objects.

Programming Types

* Integer Type::        Numbers without fractional parts.
* Floating Point Type:: Numbers with fractional parts and with a large range.
* Character Type::      The representation of letters, numbers and
                          control characters.
* Symbol Type::         A multi-use object that refers to a function,
                        variable, property list, or itself.
* Sequence Type::       Both lists and arrays are classified as sequences.
* Cons Cell Type::      Cons cells, and lists (which are made from cons cells).
* Array Type::          Arrays include strings and vectors.
* String Type::         An (efficient) array of characters.
* Vector Type::         One-dimensional arrays.
* Char-Table Type::     One-dimensional sparse arrays indexed by characters.
* Bool-Vector Type::    One-dimensional arrays of @code{t} or @code{nil}.
* Hash Table Type::     Super-fast lookup tables.
* Function Type::       A piece of executable code you can call from elsewhere.
* Macro Type::          A method of expanding an expression into another
                          expression, more fundamental but less pretty.
* Primitive Function Type::     A function written in C, callable from Lisp.
* Byte-Code Type::      A function written in Lisp, then compiled.
* Autoload Type::       A type used for automatically loading seldom-used
                          functions.

Cons Cell and List Types

* Box Diagrams::            Drawing pictures of lists.
* Dotted Pair Notation::    An alternative syntax for lists.
* Association List Type::   A specially constructed list.

Editing Types

* Buffer Type::             The basic object of editing.
* Marker Type::             A position in a buffer.
* Window Type::             What makes buffers visible.
* Frame Type::		    Windows subdivide frames.
* Window Configuration Type::Save what the screen looks like.
* Frame Configuration Type::Recording the status of all frames.
* Process Type::            A process running on the underlying OS.
* Stream Type::             Receive or send characters.
* Keymap Type::             What function a keystroke invokes.
* Overlay Type::            How an overlay is represented.

Numbers

* Integer Basics::            Representation and range of integers.
* Float Basics::	      Representation and range of floating point.
* Predicates on Numbers::     Testing for numbers.
* Comparison of Numbers::     Equality and inequality predicates.
* Numeric Conversions::	      Converting float to integer and vice versa.
* Arithmetic Operations::     How to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
* Rounding Operations::       Explicitly rounding floating point numbers.
* Bitwise Operations::        Logical and, or, not, shifting.
* Math Functions::            Trig, exponential and logarithmic functions.
* Random Numbers::            Obtaining random integers, predictable or not.

Strings and Characters

* String Basics::           Basic properties of strings and characters.
* Predicates for Strings::  Testing whether an object is a string or char.
* Creating Strings::        Functions to allocate new strings.
* Modifying Strings::         Altering the contents of an existing string.
* Text Comparison::         Comparing characters or strings.
* String Conversion::       Converting characters or strings and vice versa.
* Formatting Strings::      @code{format}: Emacs's analogue of @code{printf}.
* Case Conversion::         Case conversion functions.
* Case Tables::		      Customizing case conversion.

Lists

* Cons Cells::              How lists are made out of cons cells.
* List-related Predicates:: Is this object a list?  Comparing two lists.
* List Elements::           Extracting the pieces of a list.
* Building Lists::          Creating list structure.
* Modifying Lists::         Storing new pieces into an existing list.
* Sets And Lists::          A list can represent a finite mathematical set.
* Association Lists::       A list can represent a finite relation or mapping.
* Rings::                   Managing a fixed-size ring of objects.

Modifying Existing List Structure

* Setcar::                  Replacing an element in a list.
* Setcdr::                  Replacing part of the list backbone.
                              This can be used to remove or add elements.
* Rearrangement::           Reordering the elements in a list; combining lists.

Sequences, Arrays, and Vectors

* Sequence Functions::      Functions that accept any kind of sequence.
* Arrays::                  Characteristics of arrays in Emacs Lisp.
* Array Functions::         Functions specifically for arrays.
* Vectors::                 Functions specifically for vectors.
* Vector Functions::        Functions specifically for vectors.
* Char-Tables::             How to work with char-tables.
* Bool-Vectors::            How to work with bool-vectors.

Hash Tables

* Creating Hash::           Functions to create hash tables.
* Hash Access::             Reading and writing the hash table contents.
* Defining Hash::           Defining new comparison methods
* Other Hash::              Miscellaneous.

Symbols

* Symbol Components::       Symbols have names, values, function definitions
                              and property lists.
* Definitions::             A definition says how a symbol will be used.
* Creating Symbols::        How symbols are kept unique.
* Property Lists::          Each symbol has a property list
                              for recording miscellaneous information.

Evaluation

* Intro Eval::              Evaluation in the scheme of things.
* Forms::                   How various sorts of objects are evaluated.
* Quoting::                 Avoiding evaluation (to put constants in
                              the program).
* Eval::                    How to invoke the Lisp interpreter explicitly.

Kinds of Forms

* Self-Evaluating Forms::   Forms that evaluate to themselves.
* Symbol Forms::            Symbols evaluate as variables.
* Classifying Lists::       How to distinguish various sorts of list forms.
* Function Indirection::    When a symbol appears as the car of a list,
			      we find the real function via the symbol.
* Function Forms::          Forms that call functions.
* Macro Forms::             Forms that call macros.
* Special Forms::           ``Special forms'' are idiosyncratic primitives,
                              most of them extremely important.
* Autoloading::             Functions set up to load files
                              containing their real definitions.

Control Structures

* Sequencing::              Evaluation in textual order.
* Conditionals::            @code{if}, @code{cond}, @code{when}, @code{unless}.
* Combining Conditions::    @code{and}, @code{or}, @code{not}.
* Iteration::               @code{while} loops.
* Nonlocal Exits::          Jumping out of a sequence.

Nonlocal Exits

* Catch and Throw::         Nonlocal exits for the program's own purposes.
* Examples of Catch::       Showing how such nonlocal exits can be written.
* Errors::                  How errors are signaled and handled.
* Cleanups::                Arranging to run a cleanup form if an
                              error happens.

Errors

* Signaling Errors::        How to report an error.
* Processing of Errors::    What Emacs does when you report an error.
* Handling Errors::         How you can trap errors and continue execution.
* Error Symbols::           How errors are classified for trapping them.

Variables

* Global Variables::        Variable values that exist permanently, everywhere.
* Constant Variables::      Certain "variables" have values that never change.
* Local Variables::         Variable values that exist only temporarily.
* Void Variables::          Symbols that lack values.
* Defining Variables::      A definition says a symbol is used as a variable.
* Tips for Defining::       Things you should think about when you
                              define a variable.
* Accessing Variables::     Examining values of variables whose names
                              are known only at run time.
* Setting Variables::       Storing new values in variables.
* Variable Scoping::        How Lisp chooses among local and global values.
* Buffer-Local Variables::  Variable values in effect only in one buffer.
* Frame-Local Variables::   Variable values in effect only in one frame.
* Future Local Variables::  New kinds of local values we might add some day.
* File Local Variables::    Handling local variable lists in files.
* Variable Aliases::        Variables that are aliases for other variables.
* Variables with Restricted Values::  Non-constant variables whose value can
                                        @emph{not} be an arbitrary Lisp object.

Scoping Rules for Variable Bindings

* Scope::                   Scope means where in the program a value
                              is visible.  Comparison with other languages.
* Extent::                  Extent means how long in time a value exists.
* Impl of Scope::           Two ways to implement dynamic scoping.
* Using Scoping::           How to use dynamic scoping carefully and
                              avoid problems.

Buffer-Local Variables

* Intro to Buffer-Local::   Introduction and concepts.
* Creating Buffer-Local::   Creating and destroying buffer-local bindings.
* Default Value::           The default value is seen in buffers
                              that don't have their own buffer-local values.

Functions

* What Is a Function::      Lisp functions vs primitives; terminology.
* Lambda Expressions::      How functions are expressed as Lisp objects.
* Function Names::          A symbol can serve as the name of a function.
* Defining Functions::      Lisp expressions for defining functions.
* Calling Functions::       How to use an existing function.
* Mapping Functions::       Applying a function to each element of a list, etc.
* Anonymous Functions::     Lambda-expressions are functions with no names.
* Function Cells::          Accessing or setting the function definition
                              of a symbol.
* Obsolete Functions::      Declaring functions obsolete.
* Inline Functions::	    Defining functions that the compiler will open code.
* Function Safety::         Determining whether a function is safe to call.
* Related Topics::          Cross-references to specific Lisp primitives
                              that have a special bearing on how
                              functions work.

Lambda Expressions

* Lambda Components::       The parts of a lambda expression.
* Simple Lambda::           A simple example.
* Argument List::           Details and special features of argument lists.
* Function Documentation::  How to put documentation in a function.

Macros

* Simple Macro::            A basic example.
* Expansion::               How, when and why macros are expanded.
* Compiling Macros::        How macros are expanded by the compiler.
* Defining Macros::         How to write a macro definition.
* Backquote::               Easier construction of list structure.
* Problems with Macros::    Don't evaluate the macro arguments too many times.
                              Don't hide the user's variables.
* Indenting Macros::        Specifying how to indent macro calls.

Writing Customization Definitions

* Common Keywords::         Common keyword arguments for all kinds of
                              customization declarations.
* Group Definitions::       Writing customization group definitions.
* Variable Definitions::    Declaring user options.
* Customization Types::     Specifying the type of a user option.

Loading

* How Programs Do Loading:: The @code{load} function and others.
* Load Suffixes::           Details about the suffixes that @code{load} tries.
* Library Search::          Finding a library to load.
* Loading Non-ASCII::       Non-@acronym{ASCII} characters in Emacs Lisp files.
* Autoload::                Setting up a function to autoload.
* Repeated Loading::        Precautions about loading a file twice.
* Named Features::          Loading a library if it isn't already loaded.
* Where Defined::           Finding which file defined a certain symbol.
* Unloading::		    How to ``unload'' a library that was loaded.
* Hooks for Loading::	    Providing code to be run when
			      particular libraries are loaded.

Byte Compilation

* Speed of Byte-Code::      An example of speedup from byte compilation.
* Compilation Functions::   Byte compilation functions.
* Docs and Compilation::    Dynamic loading of documentation strings.
* Dynamic Loading::         Dynamic loading of individual functions.
* Eval During Compile::     Code to be evaluated when you compile.
* Compiler Errors::         Handling compiler error messages.
* Byte-Code Objects::	    The data type used for byte-compiled functions.
* Disassembly::             Disassembling byte-code; how to read byte-code.

Advising Emacs Lisp Functions

* Simple Advice::           A simple example to explain the basics of advice.
* Defining Advice::         Detailed description of @code{defadvice}.
* Around-Advice::           Wrapping advice around a function's definition.
* Computed Advice::         ...is to @code{defadvice} as @code{fset} is to @code{defun}.
* Activation of Advice::    Advice doesn't do anything until you activate it.
* Enabling Advice::         You can enable or disable each piece of advice.
* Preactivation::           Preactivation is a way of speeding up the
                              loading of compiled advice.
* Argument Access in Advice:: How advice can access the function's arguments.
* Advising Primitives::     Accessing arguments when advising a primitive.
* Combined Definition::     How advice is implemented.

Debugging Lisp Programs

* Debugger::                How the Emacs Lisp debugger is implemented.
* Edebug::                  A source-level Emacs Lisp debugger.
* Syntax Errors::           How to find syntax errors.
* Test Coverage::           Ensuring you have tested all branches in your code.
* Compilation Errors::      How to find errors that show up in
                              byte compilation.

The Lisp Debugger

* Error Debugging::         Entering the debugger when an error happens.
* Infinite Loops::	    Stopping and debugging a program that doesn't exit.
* Function Debugging::      Entering it when a certain function is called.
* Explicit Debug::          Entering it at a certain point in the program.
* Using Debugger::          What the debugger does; what you see while in it.
* Debugger Commands::       Commands used while in the debugger.
* Invoking the Debugger::   How to call the function @code{debug}.
* Internals of Debugger::   Subroutines of the debugger, and global variables.

Edebug

* Using Edebug::	    Introduction to use of Edebug.
* Instrumenting::	    You must instrument your code
			      in order to debug it with Edebug.
* Edebug Execution Modes::  Execution modes, stopping more or less often.
* Jumping::		    Commands to jump to a specified place.
* Edebug Misc::		    Miscellaneous commands.
* Breaks::		    Setting breakpoints to make the program stop.
* Trapping Errors::	    Trapping errors with Edebug.
* Edebug Views::	    Views inside and outside of Edebug.
* Edebug Eval::		    Evaluating expressions within Edebug.
* Eval List::		    Expressions whose values are displayed
			      each time you enter Edebug.
* Printing in Edebug::	    Customization of printing.
* Trace Buffer::	    How to produce trace output in a buffer.
* Coverage Testing::	    How to test evaluation coverage.
* The Outside Context::	    Data that Edebug saves and restores.
* Edebug and Macros::       Specifying how to handle macro calls.
* Edebug Options::	    Option variables for customizing Edebug.

Debugging Invalid Lisp Syntax

* Excess Open::             How to find a spurious open paren or missing close.
* Excess Close::            How to find a spurious close paren or missing open.

Reading and Printing Lisp Objects

* Streams Intro::           Overview of streams, reading and printing.
* Input Streams::           Various data types that can be used as
                              input streams.
* Input Functions::         Functions to read Lisp objects from text.
* Output Streams::          Various data types that can be used as
                              output streams.
* Output Functions::        Functions to print Lisp objects as text.
* Output Variables::        Variables that control what the printing
                              functions do.

Minibuffers

* Intro to Minibuffers::    Basic information about minibuffers.
* Text from Minibuffer::    How to read a straight text string.
* Object from Minibuffer::  How to read a Lisp object or expression.
* Minibuffer History::	    Recording previous minibuffer inputs
			      so the user can reuse them.
* Initial Input::           Specifying initial contents for the minibuffer.
* Completion::              How to invoke and customize completion.
* Yes-or-No Queries::       Asking a question with a simple answer.
* Multiple Queries::	    Asking a series of similar questions.
* Reading a Password::	    Reading a password from the terminal.
* Minibuffer Commands::     Commands used as key bindings in minibuffers.
* Minibuffer Contents::     How such commands access the minibuffer text.
* Minibuffer Windows::      Operating on the special minibuffer windows.
* Recursive Mini::          Whether recursive entry to minibuffer is allowed.
* Minibuffer Misc::         Various customization hooks and variables.

Completion

* Basic Completion::        Low-level functions for completing strings.
                              (These are too low level to use the minibuffer.)
* Minibuffer Completion::   Invoking the minibuffer with completion.
* Completion Commands::     Minibuffer commands that do completion.
* High-Level Completion::   Convenient special cases of completion
                              (reading buffer name, file name, etc.)
* Reading File Names::      Using completion to read file names.
* Programmed Completion::   Finding the completions for a given file name.

Command Loop

* Command Overview::    How the command loop reads commands.
* Defining Commands::   Specifying how a function should read arguments.
* Interactive Call::    Calling a command, so that it will read arguments.
* Command Loop Info::   Variables set by the command loop for you to examine.
* Adjusting Point::     Adjustment of point after a command.
* Input Events::	What input looks like when you read it.
* Reading Input::       How to read input events from the keyboard or mouse.
* Special Events::      Events processed immediately and individually.
* Waiting::             Waiting for user input or elapsed time.
* Quitting::            How @kbd{C-g} works.  How to catch or defer quitting.
* Prefix Command Arguments::    How the commands to set prefix args work.
* Recursive Editing::   Entering a recursive edit,
                          and why you usually shouldn't.
* Disabling Commands::  How the command loop handles disabled commands.
* Command History::     How the command history is set up, and how accessed.
* Keyboard Macros::     How keyboard macros are implemented.

Defining Commands

* Using Interactive::       General rules for @code{interactive}.
* Interactive Codes::       The standard letter-codes for reading arguments
                              in various ways.
* Interactive Examples::    Examples of how to read interactive arguments.

Keymaps

* Keymap Terminology::        	Definitions of terms pertaining to keymaps.
* Format of Keymaps::		What a keymap looks like as a Lisp object.
* Creating Keymaps:: 		Functions to create and copy keymaps.
* Inheritance and Keymaps::	How one keymap can inherit the bindings
				  of another keymap.
* Prefix Keys::                 Defining a key with a keymap as its definition.
* Active Keymaps::	        Each buffer has a local keymap
                                  to override the standard (global) bindings.
				  Each minor mode can also override them.
* Key Lookup::                  How extracting elements from keymaps works.
* Functions for Key Lookup::    How to request key lookup.
* Changing Key Bindings::       Redefining a key in a keymap.
* Remapping Commands::          Bindings that translate one command to another.
* Key Binding Commands::        Interactive interfaces for redefining keys.
* Scanning Keymaps::            Looking through all keymaps, for printing help.
* Menu Keymaps::		A keymap can define a menu for X
				  or for use from the terminal.

Major and Minor Modes

* Hooks::                   How to use hooks; how to write code that
                              provides hooks.
* Major Modes::             Defining major modes.
* Minor Modes::             Defining minor modes.
* Mode Line Format::        Customizing the text that appears in the mode line.
* Imenu::                   How a mode can provide a menu
                              of definitions in the buffer.
* Font Lock Mode::          How modes can highlight text according to syntax.
* Desktop Save Mode::       How modes can have buffer state saved between
                              Emacs sessions.

Major Modes

* Major Mode Basics::
* Major Mode Conventions::  Coding conventions for keymaps, etc.
* Example Major Modes::     Text mode and Lisp modes.
* Auto Major Mode::         How Emacs chooses the major mode automatically.
* Mode Help::               Finding out how to use a mode.
* Derived Modes::           Defining a new major mode based on another major
                              mode.
* Generic Modes::           Defining a simple major mode that supports
                              comment syntax and Font Lock mode.
* Mode Hooks::              Hooks run at the end of major mode functions.

Minor Modes

* Minor Mode Conventions::  Tips for writing a minor mode.
* Keymaps and Minor Modes:: How a minor mode can have its own keymap.
* Defining Minor Modes::    A convenient facility for defining minor modes.

Mode Line Format

* Mode Line Basics::
* Mode Line Data::          The data structure that controls the mode line.
* Mode Line Variables::     Variables used in that data structure.
* %-Constructs::            Putting information into a mode line.
* Properties in Mode::      Using text properties in the mode line.
* Header Lines::            Like a mode line, but at the top.
* Emulating Mode Line::     Formatting text as the mode line would.

Documentation

* Documentation Basics::    Good style for doc strings.
                              Where to put them.  How Emacs stores them.
* Accessing Documentation:: How Lisp programs can access doc strings.
* Keys in Documentation::   Substituting current key bindings.
* Describing Characters::   Making printable descriptions of
                              non-printing characters and key sequences.
* Help Functions::          Subroutines used by Emacs help facilities.

Files

* Visiting Files::          Reading files into Emacs buffers for editing.
* Saving Buffers::          Writing changed buffers back into files.
* Reading from Files::      Reading files into other buffers.
* Writing to Files::        Writing new files from parts of buffers.
* File Locks::              Locking and unlocking files, to prevent
                              simultaneous editing by two people.
* Information about Files:: Testing existence, accessibility, size of files.
* Changing Files::          Renaming files, changing protection, etc.
* File Names::              Decomposing and expanding file names.
* Contents of Directories:: Getting a list of the files in a directory.
* Create/Delete Dirs::	    Creating and Deleting Directories.
* Magic File Names::	    Defining "magic" special handling
			      for certain file names.
* Format Conversion::       Conversion to and from various file formats.

Visiting Files

* Visiting Functions::      The usual interface functions for visiting.
* Subroutines of Visiting:: Lower-level subroutines that they use.

Information about Files

* Testing Accessibility::   Is a given file readable?  Writable?
* Kinds of Files::          Is it a directory?  A symbolic link?
* Truenames::		    Eliminating symbolic links from a file name.
* File Attributes::         How large is it?  Any other names?  Etc.

File Names

* File Name Components::    The directory part of a file name, and the rest.
* Relative File Names::     Some file names are relative to a
                              current directory.
* Directory Names::         A directory's name as a directory
                              is different from its name as a file.
* File Name Expansion::     Converting relative file names to absolute ones.
* Unique File Names::       Generating names for temporary files.
* File Name Completion::    Finding the completions for a given file name.
* Standard File Names::     If your package uses a fixed file name,
                              how to handle various operating systems simply.

Backups and Auto-Saving

* Backup Files::            How backup files are made; how their names
                              are chosen.
* Auto-Saving::             How auto-save files are made; how their
                              names are chosen.
* Reverting::               @code{revert-buffer}, and how to customize
                              what it does.

Backup Files

* Making Backups::          How Emacs makes backup files, and when.
* Rename or Copy::          Two alternatives: renaming the old file
                              or copying it.
* Numbered Backups::        Keeping multiple backups for each source file.
* Backup Names::            How backup file names are computed; customization.

Buffers

* Buffer Basics::           What is a buffer?
* Current Buffer::          Designating a buffer as current
                              so primitives will access its contents.
* Buffer Names::            Accessing and changing buffer names.
* Buffer File Name::        The buffer file name indicates which file
                              is visited.
* Buffer Modification::     A buffer is @dfn{modified} if it needs to be saved.
* Modification Time::       Determining whether the visited file was changed
                              ``behind Emacs's back''.
* Read Only Buffers::       Modifying text is not allowed in a
                              read-only buffer.
* The Buffer List::         How to look at all the existing buffers.
* Creating Buffers::        Functions that create buffers.
* Killing Buffers::         Buffers exist until explicitly killed.
* Indirect Buffers::        An indirect buffer shares text with some
                              other buffer.
* Buffer Gap::              The gap in the buffer.

Windows

* Basic Windows::           Basic information on using windows.
* Splitting Windows::       Splitting one window into two windows.
* Deleting Windows::        Deleting a window gives its space to other windows.
* Selecting Windows::       The selected window is the one that you edit in.
* Cyclic Window Ordering::  Moving around the existing windows.
* Buffers and Windows::     Each window displays the contents of a buffer.
* Displaying Buffers::      Higher-lever functions for displaying a buffer
                              and choosing a window for it.
* Choosing Window::	    How to choose a window for displaying a buffer.
* Window Point::            Each window has its own location of point.
* Window Start::            The display-start position controls which text
                              is on-screen in the window.
* Textual Scrolling::       Moving text up and down through the window.
* Vertical Scrolling::      Moving the contents up and down on the window.
* Horizontal Scrolling::    Moving the contents sideways on the window.
* Size of Window::          Accessing the size of a window.
* Resizing Windows::        Changing the size of a window.
* Coordinates and Windows:: Converting coordinates to windows.
* Window Configurations::   Saving and restoring the state of the screen.
* Window Hooks::            Hooks for scrolling, window size changes,
                              redisplay going past a certain point,
                              or window configuration changes.

Frames

* Creating Frames::	    Creating additional frames.
* Multiple Displays::       Creating frames on other X displays.
* Frame Parameters::	    Controlling frame size, position, font, etc.
* Frame Titles::            Automatic updating of frame titles.
* Deleting Frames::	    Frames last until explicitly deleted.
* Finding All Frames::	    How to examine all existing frames.
* Frames and Windows::	    A frame contains windows;
			      display of text always works through windows.
* Minibuffers and Frames::  How a frame finds the minibuffer to use.
* Input Focus::		    Specifying the selected frame.
* Visibility of Frames::    Frames may be visible or invisible, or icons.
* Raising and Lowering::    Raising a frame makes it hide other X windows;
			      lowering it puts it underneath the others.
* Frame Configurations::    Saving the state of all frames.
* Mouse Tracking::	    Getting events that say when the mouse moves.
* Mouse Position::	    Asking where the mouse is, or moving it.
* Pop-Up Menus::	    Displaying a menu for the user to select from.
* Dialog Boxes::            Displaying a box to ask yes or no.
* Pointer Shapes::          Specifying the shape of the mouse pointer.
* Window System Selections::Transferring text to and from other windows.
* Color Names::	            Getting the definitions of color names.
* Text Terminal Colors::    Defining colors for text-only terminals.
* Resources::		    Getting resource values from the server.
* Display Feature Testing:: Determining the features of a terminal.

Positions

* Point::                   The special position where editing takes place.
* Motion::                  Changing point.
* Excursions::              Temporary motion and buffer changes.
* Narrowing::               Restricting editing to a portion of the buffer.

Motion

* Character Motion::        Moving in terms of characters.
* Word Motion::             Moving in terms of words.
* Buffer End Motion::       Moving to the beginning or end of the buffer.
* Text Lines::              Moving in terms of lines of text.
* Screen Lines::            Moving in terms of lines as displayed.
* List Motion::             Moving by parsing lists and sexps.
* Skipping Characters::     Skipping characters belonging to a certain set.

Markers

* Overview of Markers::     The components of a marker, and how it relocates.
* Predicates on Markers::   Testing whether an object is a marker.
* Creating Markers::        Making empty markers or markers at certain places.
* Information from Markers::Finding the marker's buffer or character
                              position.
* Marker Insertion Types::  Two ways a marker can relocate when you
                              insert where it points.
* Moving Markers::          Moving the marker to a new buffer or position.
* The Mark::                How ``the mark'' is implemented with a marker.
* The Region::              How to access ``the region''.

Text

* Near Point::              Examining text in the vicinity of point.
* Buffer Contents::         Examining text in a general fashion.
* Comparing Text::          Comparing substrings of buffers.
* Insertion::               Adding new text to a buffer.
* Commands for Insertion::  User-level commands to insert text.
* Deletion::                Removing text from a buffer.
* User-Level Deletion::     User-level commands to delete text.
* The Kill Ring::           Where removed text sometimes is saved for
                              later use.
* Undo::                    Undoing changes to the text of a buffer.
* Maintaining Undo::        How to enable and disable undo information.
			      How to control how much information is kept.
* Filling::                 Functions for explicit filling.
* Margins::                 How to specify margins for filling commands.
* Adaptive Fill::           Adaptive Fill mode chooses a fill prefix
                              from context.
* Auto Filling::            How auto-fill mode is implemented to break lines.
* Sorting::                 Functions for sorting parts of the buffer.
* Columns::                 Computing horizontal positions, and using them.
* Indentation::             Functions to insert or adjust indentation.
* Case Changes::            Case conversion of parts of the buffer.
* Text Properties::         Assigning Lisp property lists to text characters.
* Substitution::            Replacing a given character wherever it appears.
* Transposition::           Swapping two portions of a buffer.
* Registers::               How registers are implemented.  Accessing
                              the text or position stored in a register.
* Base 64::                 Conversion to or from base 64 encoding.
* MD5 Checksum::            Compute the MD5 ``message digest''/``checksum''.
* Atomic Changes::          Installing several buffer changes ``atomically''.
* Change Hooks::            Supplying functions to be run when text is changed.

The Kill Ring

* Kill Ring Concepts::      What text looks like in the kill ring.
* Kill Functions::          Functions that kill text.
* Yanking::                 How yanking is done.
* Yank Commands::           Commands that access the kill ring.
* Low-Level Kill Ring::	    Functions and variables for kill ring access.
* Internals of Kill Ring::  Variables that hold kill-ring data.

Indentation

* Primitive Indent::        Functions used to count and insert indentation.
* Mode-Specific Indent::    Customize indentation for different modes.
* Region Indent::           Indent all the lines in a region.
* Relative Indent::         Indent the current line based on previous lines.
* Indent Tabs::             Adjustable, typewriter-like tab stops.
* Motion by Indent::        Move to first non-blank character.

Text Properties

* Examining Properties::    Looking at the properties of one character.
* Changing Properties::	    Setting the properties of a range of text.
* Property Search::	    Searching for where a property changes value.
* Special Properties::	    Particular properties with special meanings.
* Format Properties::       Properties for representing formatting of text.
* Sticky Properties::       How inserted text gets properties from
                              neighboring text.
* Saving Properties::       Saving text properties in files, and reading
                              them back.
* Lazy Properties::         Computing text properties in a lazy fashion
                              only when text is examined.
* Clickable Text::          Using text properties to make regions of text
                              do something when you click on them.
* Links and Mouse-1::       How to make @key{Mouse-1} follow a link.
* Fields::                  The @code{field} property defines
                              fields within the buffer.
* Not Intervals::	    Why text properties do not use
			      Lisp-visible text intervals.

Non-ASCII Characters

* Text Representations::    Unibyte and multibyte representations
* Converting Representations::  Converting unibyte to multibyte and vice versa.
* Selecting a Representation::  Treating a byte sequence as unibyte or multi.
* Character Codes::         How unibyte and multibyte relate to
                                codes of individual characters.
* Character Sets::          The space of possible characters codes
                                is divided into various character sets.
* Chars and Bytes::         More information about multibyte encodings.
* Splitting Characters::    Converting a character to its byte sequence.
* Scanning Charsets::       Which character sets are used in a buffer?
* Translation of Characters::   Translation tables are used for conversion.
* Coding Systems::          Coding systems are conversions for saving files.
* Input Methods::           Input methods allow users to enter various
                                non-ASCII characters without special keyboards.
* Locales::                 Interacting with the POSIX locale.

Searching and Matching

* String Search::           Search for an exact match.
* Searching and Case::      Case-independent or case-significant searching.
* Regular Expressions::     Describing classes of strings.
* Regexp Search::           Searching for a match for a regexp.
* POSIX Regexps::           Searching POSIX-style for the longest match.
* Match Data::              Finding out which part of the text matched,
                              after a string or regexp search.
* Search and Replace::	    Commands that loop, searching and replacing.
* Standard Regexps::        Useful regexps for finding sentences, pages,...

Regular Expressions

* Syntax of Regexps::       Rules for writing regular expressions.
* Regexp Example::          Illustrates regular expression syntax.
* Regexp Functions::        Functions for operating on regular expressions.

Syntax Tables

* Syntax Basics::           Basic concepts of syntax tables.
* Syntax Descriptors::      How characters are classified.
* Syntax Table Functions::  How to create, examine and alter syntax tables.
* Syntax Properties::       Overriding syntax with text properties.
* Motion and Syntax::	    Moving over characters with certain syntaxes.
* Parsing Expressions::     Parsing balanced expressions
                              using the syntax table.
* Standard Syntax Tables::  Syntax tables used by various major modes.
* Syntax Table Internals::  How syntax table information is stored.
* Categories::              Another way of classifying character syntax.

Syntax Descriptors

* Syntax Class Table::      Table of syntax classes.
* Syntax Flags::            Additional flags each character can have.

Abbrevs And Abbrev Expansion

* Abbrev Mode::             Setting up Emacs for abbreviation.
* Abbrev Tables::           Creating and working with abbrev tables.
* Defining Abbrevs::        Specifying abbreviations and their expansions.
* Abbrev Files::            Saving abbrevs in files.
* Abbrev Expansion::        Controlling expansion; expansion subroutines.
* Standard Abbrev Tables::  Abbrev tables used by various major modes.

Processes

* Subprocess Creation::     Functions that start subprocesses.
* Shell Arguments::         Quoting an argument to pass it to a shell.
* Synchronous Processes::   Details of using synchronous subprocesses.
* Asynchronous Processes::  Starting up an asynchronous subprocess.
* Deleting Processes::      Eliminating an asynchronous subprocess.
* Process Information::     Accessing run-status and other attributes.
* Input to Processes::      Sending input to an asynchronous subprocess.
* Signals to Processes::    Stopping, continuing or interrupting
                              an asynchronous subprocess.
* Output from Processes::   Collecting output from an asynchronous subprocess.
* Sentinels::               Sentinels run when process run-status changes.
* Query Before Exit::       Whether to query if exiting will kill a process.
* Transaction Queues::      Transaction-based communication with subprocesses.
* Network::                 Opening network connections.
* Network Servers::         Network servers let Emacs accept net connections.
* Datagrams::               UDP network connections.
* Low-Level Network::       Lower-level but more general function
                              to create connections and servers.
* Misc Network::            Additional relevant functions for network connections.
* Byte Packing::            Using bindat to pack and unpack binary data.

Receiving Output from Processes

* Process Buffers::         If no filter, output is put in a buffer.
* Filter Functions::        Filter functions accept output from the process.
* Decoding Output::         Filters can get unibyte or multibyte strings.
* Accepting Output::        How to wait until process output arrives.

Emacs Display

* Refresh Screen::          Clearing the screen and redrawing everything on it.
* Forcing Redisplay::       Forcing redisplay.
* Truncation::              Folding or wrapping long text lines.
* The Echo Area::           Displaying messages at the bottom of the screen.
* Warnings::                Displaying warning messages for the user.
* Invisible Text::          Hiding part of the buffer text.
* Selective Display::       Hiding part of the buffer text (the old way).
* Temporary Displays::      Displays that go away automatically.
* Overlays::		    Use overlays to highlight parts of the buffer.
* Width::                   How wide a character or string is on the screen.
* Line Height::             Controlling the height of lines.
* Faces::		    A face defines a graphics style
                              for text characters: font, colors, etc.
* Fringes::                 Controlling window fringes.
* Scroll Bars::             Controlling vertical scroll bars.
* Pointer Shape::           Controlling the mouse pointer shape.
* Display Property::        Enabling special display features.
* Images::                  Displaying images in Emacs buffers.
* Buttons::                 Adding clickable buttons to Emacs buffers.
* Blinking::                How Emacs shows the matching open parenthesis.
* Usual Display::	    The usual conventions for displaying nonprinting chars.
* Display Tables::	    How to specify other conventions.
* Beeping::                 Audible signal to the user.
* Window Systems::          Which window system is being used.

Operating System Interface

* Starting Up::             Customizing Emacs start-up processing.
* Getting Out::             How exiting works (permanent or temporary).
* System Environment::      Distinguish the name and kind of system.
* User Identification::     Finding the name and user id of the user.
* Time of Day::		    Getting the current time.
* Time Conversion::         Converting a time from numeric form to a string, or
                              to calendrical data (or vice versa).
* Time Parsing::            Converting a time from numeric form to text
                              and vice versa.
* Processor Run Time::      Getting the run time used by Emacs.
* Time Calculations::       Adding, subtracting, comparing times, etc.
* Timers::		    Setting a timer to call a function at a certain time.
* Terminal Input::          Recording terminal input for debugging.
* Terminal Output::         Recording terminal output for debugging.
* Sound Output::            Playing sounds on the computer's speaker.
* X11 Keysyms::             Operating on key symbols for X Windows
* Batch Mode::              Running Emacs without terminal interaction.
* Session Management::      Saving and restoring state with X Session Management.

Starting Up Emacs

* Startup Summary::         Sequence of actions Emacs performs at start-up.
* Init File::               Details on reading the init file (@file{.emacs}).
* Terminal-Specific::       How the terminal-specific Lisp file is read.
* Command-Line Arguments::  How command line arguments are processed,
                              and how you can customize them.

Getting out of Emacs

* Killing Emacs::           Exiting Emacs irreversibly.
* Suspending Emacs::        Exiting Emacs reversibly.

Tips and Conventions

* Coding Conventions::      Conventions for clean and robust programs.
* Key Binding Conventions::   Which keys should be bound by which programs.
* Programming Tips::          Making Emacs code fit smoothly in Emacs.
* Compilation Tips::          Making compiled code run fast.
* Warning Tips::              Turning off compiler warnings.
* Documentation Tips::      Writing readable documentation strings.
* Comment Tips::	    Conventions for writing comments.
* Library Headers::         Standard headers for library packages.

GNU Emacs Internals

* Building Emacs::          How to preload Lisp libraries into Emacs.
* Pure Storage::            A kludge to make preloaded Lisp functions sharable.
* Garbage Collection::      Reclaiming space for Lisp objects no longer used.
* Memory Usage::            Info about total size of Lisp objects made so far.
* Writing Emacs Primitives::  Writing C code for Emacs.
* Object Internals::        Data formats of buffers, windows, processes.

Object Internals

* Buffer Internals::        Components of a buffer structure.
* Window Internals::        Components of a window structure.
* Process Internals::       Components of a process structure.
@end menu

@include intro.texi
@include objects.texi
@include numbers.texi
@include strings.texi

@include lists.texi
@include sequences.texi
@include hash.texi
@include symbols.texi
@include eval.texi

@include control.texi
@include variables.texi
@include functions.texi
@include macros.texi

@include customize.texi
@include loading.texi
@include compile.texi
@include advice.texi

@include debugging.texi
@include streams.texi
@include minibuf.texi
@include commands.texi

@include keymaps.texi
@include modes.texi
@include help.texi
@include files.texi

@include backups.texi
@include buffers.texi
@include windows.texi
@include frames.texi

@include positions.texi
@include markers.texi
@include text.texi
@include nonascii.texi

@include searching.texi
@include syntax.texi
@include abbrevs.texi
@include processes.texi

@include display.texi
@include os.texi

@c MOVE to Emacs Manual:  include misc-modes.texi

@c appendices

@c  REMOVE this:  include non-hacker.texi

@include anti.texi
@include doclicense.texi
@include gpl.texi
@include tips.texi
@include internals.texi
@include errors.texi
@include locals.texi
@include maps.texi
@include hooks.texi

@include index.texi

@node New Symbols, , Index, Top
@unnumbered New Symbols Since the Previous Edition

@printindex tp

@bye


These words prevent "local variables" above from confusing Emacs.

@ignore
   arch-tag: f7e9a219-a0e1-4776-b631-08eaa1d49b34
@end ignore
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.