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What does "python-apsw must be linked dynamically to sqlite3" mean?

This error occurs if your python apsw module is statically linked against SQLite. You need to recompile and install the module with the proper settings for dynamic linking.

If you are using Ubuntu or Debian, make sure that you are not using the apsw PPA at, since this PPA provides statically linked packages. Instead, use the python-apsw packages shipped with Debian/Ubuntu or the S3QL PPA. You can reinstall the package (after removing the apsw PPA from /etc/apt/sources.list and /etc/apt/sources.list.d/*) with

# dpkg --purge --force-depends python-apsw
# apt-get install python-apsw

How can I improve the file system throughput?

There are three possible limiting factors for file system throughput:

  1. Throughput from process through kernel to S3QL
  2. Compression speed
  3. Upload speed

To figure out what's the limiting factor in your case, you can use the script contrib/ in the S3QL tarball. It will determine the individual throughputs, and also give a recommendation for compression algorithm and number of upload threads.

Why does df show 1 TB of free space?

The file system size of S3QL is unlimited. However, most Unix utilities (including df) have no concept of an infinite size, so S3QL has to provide some numerical value. Therefore, S3QL always reports that the file system is 50% free, but it also reports at least 1 TB. This means that if you store 1.5 TB you will have another 1.5 TB free, but if you store just 2 MB, you will still have TB free rather than just another 2 MB.

Which operating systems are supported?

S3QL is developed on Linux, but should in principle work on all FUSE supported operating systems that have the required Python modules. The umount.s3ql program does some tricks which may not work on non-Linux systems, but you can always umount with the fusermount -u command provided by FUSE itself (the only difference is that it will not block until all data has been uploaded to S3 but return immediately). Please report your success (or failure) with other operating systems on the mailing list, so that this information can be extended.

Is there a file size limit?

No, S3QL puts no limits on the size of your files. Any limits on maximum object size imposed by the storage service do not matter for S3QL, since files are automatically and transparently split into smaller blocks.

Suppose I want to make a small change in a very large file. Will S3QL download and re-upload the entire file?

No, S3QL splits files in blocks of a configurable size (default: 10 MB). So to make a small change in a big file, only one block needs to be transferred and not the entire file.

I don't quite understand this de-duplication feature...

The great thing about data de-duplication is that you don't need to know anything about it and will still get all the benefits. Towards you, S3QL will behave and look exactly like a file system without data duplication. When talking to the storage backend, however, the S3QL will try to store identical data only once and thus occupy less space than an ordinary file system would.

What does the "Transport endpoint not connected" error mean?

It means that the file system has crashed. Please check mount.log for a more useful error message and report a bug if appropriate. If you can't find any errors in mount.log, the mount process may have "segfaulted". To confirm this, look for a corresponding message in the dmesg output. If the mount process segfaulted, please try to obtain a C backtrace (see Providing Debugging Info) of the crash and file a bug report.

To make the mountpoint available again (i.e., unmount the crashed file system), use the fusermount -u command.

Before reporting a bug, please make sure that you're not just using the most recent S3QL version, but also the most-recent version of the most important dependencies (python-llfuse, python-apsw, python-lzma).

What does "Backend reports that fs is still mounted elsewhere, aborting" mean?

It means that either the file systems has not been unmounted cleanly, or the data from the most-recent mount is not yet available from the backend. In the former case you should try to run fsck on the computer where the file system has been mounted most recently. In the later case, waiting may fix the problem: many storage providers have a so-called "consistency window" for which recently uploaded data may not yet be available for download. If you know that your backend is fully consistent, or the consistency window has passed, you can also run fsck in this situation. S3QL will then assume that whatever data is missing at this point is not going to show up again in the future. Affected files will be moved to /lost+found.

Can I access an S3QL file system on multiple computers simultaneously?

To share a file system between several computers, you need to have a method for these computers to communicate, so that they can tell each other when they are changing data. However, S3QL is designed to store data in cloud storage services which can not be used for this kind of communication, because different computers may end up talking to different servers in the cloud (and there is no way for S3QL to force the cloud servers to synchronize quickly and often enough).

Therefore, the only way to share an S3QL file system among different computers is to have one "master" computer that runs mount.s3ql, and then shares the mountpoint over a network file system like NFS, CIFS or sshfs. If the participating computers are connected over an insecure network, NFS and CIFS should be combined with VPN software like Tinc (which is very easy to set up for a few computers) or OpenVPN (which is a lot more complicated).

In principle, both VPN and NFS/CIFS-alike functionality could be integrated into S3QL to allow simultaneous mounting using mount.s3ql directly. However, consensus among the S3QL developers is that this is not worth the increased complexity.

What maximum object size should I use?

The --max-obj-size option of the mkfs.s3ql command determines the maximum size of the data chunks that S3QL exchanges with the backend server.

For files smaller than the maximum object size, this option has no effect. Files larger than the maximum object size are split into multiple chunks. Whenever you upload or download data from the backend, this is done in complete chunks. So if you have configured a maximum object size of 10 MB, and want to read (or write) 5 bytes in a 100 MB file, you will still download (or upload) 10 MB of data. If you decreased the maximum object size to 5 MB, you'd download/upload 5 MB.

On the other hand, if you want to read the whole 100 MB, and have configured an object size of 10 MB, S3QL will have to send 10 separate requests to the backend. With a maximum object size of 1 MB, there'd be 100 separate requests. The larger the number of requests, the more inefficient this becomes, because there is a fixed time associated with the processing of each request. Also, many storage providers charge a fixed amount for each request, so downloading 100 MB in one request of 100 MB is cheaper than downloading it with 100 requests of 1 MB.

When choosing a maximum object size, you have to find a balance between these two effects. The bigger the size, the less requests will be used, but the more data is transfered uselessly. The smaller the size, the more requests will be used, but less traffic will be wasted.

Generally you should go with the default unless you have a good reason to change it. When adjusting the value, keep in mind that it only affects files larger than the maximum object size. So if most of your files are less than 1 MB, decreasing the maximum object size from the default 10 MB to 1 MB will have almost no effect.

Is there a way to make the cache persistent / access the file system offline?

No, there is no way to do this. However, for most use-cases this feature is actually not required. If you want to ensure that all data in a directory is stored in the cloud and available offline, all you need to do is store your data in a local directory that you periodically synchronize to an S3QL mountpoint. For example, if you would like to have an S3QL mountpoint with persistent cache at /mnt/data, you get can this as follows:

  1. Mount a local block device at /mnt/data, e.g. using ext4 or btrfs
  2. Mount an S3QL file system at /mnt/data_online using a small cache size and number of threads (eg. --threads 2 --max-cache-entries 10).
  3. Keep /mnt/data_online synchronized with /mnt/data by either
    • Periodically running rsync, e.g. by calling rsync -aHA --delete-during --partial from cron
    • Continously synchronizing using e.g. or lsyncd (these programs use inotify to constantly monitor the source directory and immediately copy over any changes)
  4. Now use /mnt/data in the same way as you would use an S3QL file system with a persistent cache.

I would like to use S3QL with Hubic, but...

hubiC has a terribly designed API, effectively no customer service, and the servers are unreliable and produce sporadic weird errors. Don't expect any help if you encounter problems with S3QL and hubiC.

What's a reasonable metadata upload interval?

The metadata upload interval can be specified using the --metadata-upload-interval option of mount.s3ql and a reasonable value to use is (surprise!) the default of 24 hours.

To understand why intervals smaller than a few hours do not make sense, consider what happens during a metadata upload:

  1. The file system is frozen (all requests will block)
  2. The entire SQLite database holding the metadata is dumped into a more space efficient format.
  3. The file system is unfrozen
  4. The dumped database is uploaded
  5. The previous metadata is backed up, and backups are rotated

In other words, uploading metadata is a very expensive operation that typically takes several seconds to several minutes.

On the other hand, consider the situation that the periodic upload is intended to prevent:

  1. Your computer crashes, and the SQLite database in your S3QL cache directory is irreparably corrupted or lost.

This is a very unlikely situation. When mount.s3ql crashes (but your computer keeps running), the local metadata will not get corrupted. If your entire computer crashes (e.g. because of a power outage), fsck.s3ql is almost always still able to recover the local metadata. You have to be exceedingly unlucky to depend on the periodically uploaded metadata.

In other words, if you set the metadata upload interval to x hours, what you are saying is that you consider your system so unstable that there is a good chance that your local hard disk will be irreparably corrupted sometime in the next x hours. In such a situation, you should thus be backing up your entire system every x hours (not just the S3QL metadata). If the metadata upload interval coincides with the interval at which you're doing full system backups (not necessarily using S3QL), you are using the right value. If the metadata upload interval is smaller (or if you're not doing full system backups at all), you are probably uploading metadata too often.