angular-seed — the seed for AngularJS apps
This project is an application skeleton for a typical AngularJS web app. You can use it
to quickly bootstrap your angular webapp projects and dev environment for these projects.
The seed contains a sample AngularJS application and is preconfigured to install the Angular
framework and a bunch of development and testing tools for instant web development gratification.
The seed app doesn't do much, just shows how to wire two controllers and views together.
To get you started you can simply clone the
angular-seed repository and install the dependencies:
You need git to clone the
angular-seed repository. You can get git from here.
We also use a number of Node.js tools to initialize and test
angular-seed. You must have Node.js
and its package manager (npm) installed. You can get them from here.
angular-seed repository using git:
git clone https://github.com/angular/angular-seed.git cd angular-seed
If you just want to start a new project without the
angular-seed commit history then you can do:
git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/angular/angular-seed.git <your-project-name>
depth=1 tells git to only pull down one commit worth of historical data.
We have two kinds of dependencies in this project: tools and Angular framework code. The tools help
us manage and test the application.
- We get the tools we depend upon via
npm, the Node package manager.
- We get the Angular code via
bower, a client-side code package manager.
- In order to run the end-to-end tests, you will also need to have the
Java Development Kit (JDK) installed on your machine. Check out the section on
end-to-end testing for more info.
We have preconfigured
npm to automatically run
bower so we can simply do:
Behind the scenes this will also call
bower install. After that, you should find out that you have
two new folders in your project.
node_modules- contains the npm packages for the tools we need
app/bower_components- contains the Angular framework files
Note that the
bower_components folder would normally be installed in the root folder but
angular-seed changes this location through the
.bowerrc file. Putting it in the
makes it easier to serve the files by a web server.
Run the Application
We have preconfigured the project with a simple development web server. The simplest way to start
this server is:
Now browse to the app at
app/ --> all of the source files for the application app.css --> default stylesheet components/ --> all app specific modules version/ --> version related components version.js --> version module declaration and basic "version" value service version_test.js --> "version" value service tests version-directive.js --> custom directive that returns the current app version version-directive_test.js --> version directive tests interpolate-filter.js --> custom interpolation filter interpolate-filter_test.js --> interpolate filter tests view1/ --> the view1 view template and logic view1.html --> the partial template view1.js --> the controller logic view1_test.js --> tests of the controller view2/ --> the view2 view template and logic view2.html --> the partial template view2.js --> the controller logic view2_test.js --> tests of the controller app.js --> main application module index.html --> app layout file (the main html template file of the app) index-async.html --> just like index.html, but loads js files asynchronously karma.conf.js --> config file for running unit tests with Karma e2e-tests/ --> end-to-end tests protractor-conf.js --> Protractor config file scenarios.js --> end-to-end scenarios to be run by Protractor
There are two kinds of tests in the
angular-seed application: Unit tests and end-to-end tests.
Running Unit Tests
- The configuration is found at
- The unit tests are found next to the code they are testing and have an
The easiest way to run the unit tests is to use the supplied npm script:
This script will start the Karma test runner to execute the unit tests. Moreover, Karma will start
watching the source and test files for changes and then re-run the tests whenever any of them
This is the recommended strategy; if your unit tests are being run every time you save a file then
you receive instant feedback on any changes that break the expected code functionality.
You can also ask Karma to do a single run of the tests and then exit. This is useful if you want to
check that a particular version of the code is operating as expected. The project contains a
predefined script to do this:
npm run test-single-run
Running End-to-End Tests
angular-seed app comes with end-to-end tests, again written in Jasmine. These tests
are run with the Protractor End-to-End test runner. It uses native events and has
special features for Angular applications.
- The configuration is found at
- The end-to-end tests are found in
Protractor simulates interaction with our web app and verifies that the application responds
correctly. Therefore, our web server needs to be serving up the application, so that Protractor can
interact with it.
Before starting Protractor, open a separate terminal window and run:
In addition, since Protractor is built upon WebDriver, we need to ensure that it is installed and
angular-seed project is configured to do this automatically before running the
end-to-end tests, so you don't need to worry about it. If you want to manually update the WebDriver,
you can run:
npm run update-webdriver
Once you have ensured that the development web server hosting our application is up and running, you
can run the end-to-end tests using the supplied npm script:
npm run protractor
This script will execute the end-to-end tests against the application being hosted on the
Under the hood, Protractor uses the Selenium Standalone Server, which in turn requires
the Java Development Kit (JDK) to be installed on your local machine. Check this by running
java -version from the command line.
If JDK is not already installed, you can download it here.
Since the Angular framework library code and tools are acquired through package managers (npm and
bower) you can use these tools to easily update the dependencies. Simply run the preconfigured
npm run update-deps
This will call
npm update and
bower update, which in turn will find and install the latest
versions that match the version ranges specified in the
Loading Angular Asynchronously
angular-seed project supports loading the framework and application scripts asynchronously.
index-async.html is designed to support this style of loading. For it to work you must
npm run update-index-async
This will copy the contents of the
angular-loader.js library file into the
page. You can run this every time you update the version of Angular that you are using.
Serving the Application Files
While Angular is client-side-only technology and it is possible to create Angular web apps that
do not require a backend server at all, we recommend serving the project files using a local
web server during development to avoid issues with security restrictions (sandbox) in browsers. The
sandbox implementation varies between browsers, but quite often prevents things like cookies, XHR,
etc to function properly when an HTML page is opened via the
file:// scheme instead of
Running the App during Development
angular-seed project comes preconfigured with a local development web server. It is a Node.js
tool called http-server. You can start this web server with
npm start, but you may
choose to install the tool globally:
sudo npm install -g http-server
Then you can start your own development web server to serve static files from a folder by running:
http-server -a localhost -p 8000
Alternatively, you can choose to configure your own web server, such as Apache or Nginx. Just
configure your server to serve the files under the
Running the App in Production
This really depends on how complex your app is and the overall infrastructure of your system, but
the general rule is that all you need in production are the files under the
Everything else should be omitted.
somewhere they can be accessed by browsers.
If your Angular app is talking to the backend server via XHR or other means, you need to figure out
what is the best way to host the static files to comply with the same origin policy if applicable.
Usually this is done by hosting the files by the backend server or through reverse-proxying the
backend server(s) and web server(s).
Travis CI is a continuous integration service, which can monitor GitHub for new commits to
your repository and execute scripts such as building the app or running tests. The
project contains a Travis configuration file,
.travis.yml, which will cause Travis to run your
tests when you push to GitHub.
You will need to enable the integration between Travis and GitHub. See the
Travis website for instructions on how to do this.
For more information on AngularJS please check out angularjs.org.