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Alex Khomenko committed 4944e64

jQuery 1.7.1, Backbone 0.5.3, Underscore 1.2.3

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public/assets/js/libs/backbone-0.5.3.js

+//     Backbone.js 0.5.3
+//     (c) 2010 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
+//     Backbone may be freely distributed under the MIT license.
+//     For all details and documentation:
+//     http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone
+
+(function(){
+
+  // Initial Setup
+  // -------------
+
+  // Save a reference to the global object.
+  var root = this;
+
+  // Save the previous value of the `Backbone` variable.
+  var previousBackbone = root.Backbone;
+
+  // The top-level namespace. All public Backbone classes and modules will
+  // be attached to this. Exported for both CommonJS and the browser.
+  var Backbone;
+  if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
+    Backbone = exports;
+  } else {
+    Backbone = root.Backbone = {};
+  }
+
+  // Current version of the library. Keep in sync with `package.json`.
+  Backbone.VERSION = '0.5.3';
+
+  // Require Underscore, if we're on the server, and it's not already present.
+  var _ = root._;
+  if (!_ && (typeof require !== 'undefined')) _ = require('underscore')._;
+
+  // For Backbone's purposes, jQuery or Zepto owns the `$` variable.
+  var $ = root.jQuery || root.Zepto;
+
+  // Runs Backbone.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `Backbone` variable
+  // to its previous owner. Returns a reference to this Backbone object.
+  Backbone.noConflict = function() {
+    root.Backbone = previousBackbone;
+    return this;
+  };
+
+  // Turn on `emulateHTTP` to support legacy HTTP servers. Setting this option will
+  // fake `"PUT"` and `"DELETE"` requests via the `_method` parameter and set a
+  // `X-Http-Method-Override` header.
+  Backbone.emulateHTTP = false;
+
+  // Turn on `emulateJSON` to support legacy servers that can't deal with direct
+  // `application/json` requests ... will encode the body as
+  // `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` instead and will send the model in a
+  // form param named `model`.
+  Backbone.emulateJSON = false;
+
+  // Backbone.Events
+  // -----------------
+
+  // A module that can be mixed in to *any object* in order to provide it with
+  // custom events. You may `bind` or `unbind` a callback function to an event;
+  // `trigger`-ing an event fires all callbacks in succession.
+  //
+  //     var object = {};
+  //     _.extend(object, Backbone.Events);
+  //     object.bind('expand', function(){ alert('expanded'); });
+  //     object.trigger('expand');
+  //
+  Backbone.Events = {
+
+    // Bind an event, specified by a string name, `ev`, to a `callback` function.
+    // Passing `"all"` will bind the callback to all events fired.
+    bind : function(ev, callback, context) {
+      var calls = this._callbacks || (this._callbacks = {});
+      var list  = calls[ev] || (calls[ev] = []);
+      list.push([callback, context]);
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Remove one or many callbacks. If `callback` is null, removes all
+    // callbacks for the event. If `ev` is null, removes all bound callbacks
+    // for all events.
+    unbind : function(ev, callback) {
+      var calls;
+      if (!ev) {
+        this._callbacks = {};
+      } else if (calls = this._callbacks) {
+        if (!callback) {
+          calls[ev] = [];
+        } else {
+          var list = calls[ev];
+          if (!list) return this;
+          for (var i = 0, l = list.length; i < l; i++) {
+            if (list[i] && callback === list[i][0]) {
+              list[i] = null;
+              break;
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Trigger an event, firing all bound callbacks. Callbacks are passed the
+    // same arguments as `trigger` is, apart from the event name.
+    // Listening for `"all"` passes the true event name as the first argument.
+    trigger : function(eventName) {
+      var list, calls, ev, callback, args;
+      var both = 2;
+      if (!(calls = this._callbacks)) return this;
+      while (both--) {
+        ev = both ? eventName : 'all';
+        if (list = calls[ev]) {
+          for (var i = 0, l = list.length; i < l; i++) {
+            if (!(callback = list[i])) {
+              list.splice(i, 1); i--; l--;
+            } else {
+              args = both ? Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1) : arguments;
+              callback[0].apply(callback[1] || this, args);
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+      return this;
+    }
+
+  };
+
+  // Backbone.Model
+  // --------------
+
+  // Create a new model, with defined attributes. A client id (`cid`)
+  // is automatically generated and assigned for you.
+  Backbone.Model = function(attributes, options) {
+    var defaults;
+    attributes || (attributes = {});
+    if (defaults = this.defaults) {
+      if (_.isFunction(defaults)) defaults = defaults.call(this);
+      attributes = _.extend({}, defaults, attributes);
+    }
+    this.attributes = {};
+    this._escapedAttributes = {};
+    this.cid = _.uniqueId('c');
+    this.set(attributes, {silent : true});
+    this._changed = false;
+    this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
+    if (options && options.collection) this.collection = options.collection;
+    this.initialize(attributes, options);
+  };
+
+  // Attach all inheritable methods to the Model prototype.
+  _.extend(Backbone.Model.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+
+    // A snapshot of the model's previous attributes, taken immediately
+    // after the last `"change"` event was fired.
+    _previousAttributes : null,
+
+    // Has the item been changed since the last `"change"` event?
+    _changed : false,
+
+    // The default name for the JSON `id` attribute is `"id"`. MongoDB and
+    // CouchDB users may want to set this to `"_id"`.
+    idAttribute : 'id',
+
+    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
+    // initialization logic.
+    initialize : function(){},
+
+    // Return a copy of the model's `attributes` object.
+    toJSON : function() {
+      return _.clone(this.attributes);
+    },
+
+    // Get the value of an attribute.
+    get : function(attr) {
+      return this.attributes[attr];
+    },
+
+    // Get the HTML-escaped value of an attribute.
+    escape : function(attr) {
+      var html;
+      if (html = this._escapedAttributes[attr]) return html;
+      var val = this.attributes[attr];
+      return this._escapedAttributes[attr] = escapeHTML(val == null ? '' : '' + val);
+    },
+
+    // Returns `true` if the attribute contains a value that is not null
+    // or undefined.
+    has : function(attr) {
+      return this.attributes[attr] != null;
+    },
+
+    // Set a hash of model attributes on the object, firing `"change"` unless you
+    // choose to silence it.
+    set : function(attrs, options) {
+
+      // Extract attributes and options.
+      options || (options = {});
+      if (!attrs) return this;
+      if (attrs.attributes) attrs = attrs.attributes;
+      var now = this.attributes, escaped = this._escapedAttributes;
+
+      // Run validation.
+      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(attrs, options)) return false;
+
+      // Check for changes of `id`.
+      if (this.idAttribute in attrs) this.id = attrs[this.idAttribute];
+
+      // We're about to start triggering change events.
+      var alreadyChanging = this._changing;
+      this._changing = true;
+
+      // Update attributes.
+      for (var attr in attrs) {
+        var val = attrs[attr];
+        if (!_.isEqual(now[attr], val)) {
+          now[attr] = val;
+          delete escaped[attr];
+          this._changed = true;
+          if (!options.silent) this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, val, options);
+        }
+      }
+
+      // Fire the `"change"` event, if the model has been changed.
+      if (!alreadyChanging && !options.silent && this._changed) this.change(options);
+      this._changing = false;
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Remove an attribute from the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
+    // to silence it. `unset` is a noop if the attribute doesn't exist.
+    unset : function(attr, options) {
+      if (!(attr in this.attributes)) return this;
+      options || (options = {});
+      var value = this.attributes[attr];
+
+      // Run validation.
+      var validObj = {};
+      validObj[attr] = void 0;
+      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(validObj, options)) return false;
+
+      // Remove the attribute.
+      delete this.attributes[attr];
+      delete this._escapedAttributes[attr];
+      if (attr == this.idAttribute) delete this.id;
+      this._changed = true;
+      if (!options.silent) {
+        this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, void 0, options);
+        this.change(options);
+      }
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Clear all attributes on the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
+    // to silence it.
+    clear : function(options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      var attr;
+      var old = this.attributes;
+
+      // Run validation.
+      var validObj = {};
+      for (attr in old) validObj[attr] = void 0;
+      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(validObj, options)) return false;
+
+      this.attributes = {};
+      this._escapedAttributes = {};
+      this._changed = true;
+      if (!options.silent) {
+        for (attr in old) {
+          this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, void 0, options);
+        }
+        this.change(options);
+      }
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Fetch the model from the server. If the server's representation of the
+    // model differs from its current attributes, they will be overriden,
+    // triggering a `"change"` event.
+    fetch : function(options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      var model = this;
+      var success = options.success;
+      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
+        if (!model.set(model.parse(resp, xhr), options)) return false;
+        if (success) success(model, resp);
+      };
+      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
+      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
+    },
+
+    // Set a hash of model attributes, and sync the model to the server.
+    // If the server returns an attributes hash that differs, the model's
+    // state will be `set` again.
+    save : function(attrs, options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      if (attrs && !this.set(attrs, options)) return false;
+      var model = this;
+      var success = options.success;
+      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
+        if (!model.set(model.parse(resp, xhr), options)) return false;
+        if (success) success(model, resp, xhr);
+      };
+      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
+      var method = this.isNew() ? 'create' : 'update';
+      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, method, this, options);
+    },
+
+    // Destroy this model on the server if it was already persisted. Upon success, the model is removed
+    // from its collection, if it has one.
+    destroy : function(options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      if (this.isNew()) return this.trigger('destroy', this, this.collection, options);
+      var model = this;
+      var success = options.success;
+      options.success = function(resp) {
+        model.trigger('destroy', model, model.collection, options);
+        if (success) success(model, resp);
+      };
+      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
+      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'delete', this, options);
+    },
+
+    // Default URL for the model's representation on the server -- if you're
+    // using Backbone's restful methods, override this to change the endpoint
+    // that will be called.
+    url : function() {
+      var base = getUrl(this.collection) || this.urlRoot || urlError();
+      if (this.isNew()) return base;
+      return base + (base.charAt(base.length - 1) == '/' ? '' : '/') + encodeURIComponent(this.id);
+    },
+
+    // **parse** converts a response into the hash of attributes to be `set` on
+    // the model. The default implementation is just to pass the response along.
+    parse : function(resp, xhr) {
+      return resp;
+    },
+
+    // Create a new model with identical attributes to this one.
+    clone : function() {
+      return new this.constructor(this);
+    },
+
+    // A model is new if it has never been saved to the server, and lacks an id.
+    isNew : function() {
+      return this.id == null;
+    },
+
+    // Call this method to manually fire a `change` event for this model.
+    // Calling this will cause all objects observing the model to update.
+    change : function(options) {
+      this.trigger('change', this, options);
+      this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
+      this._changed = false;
+    },
+
+    // Determine if the model has changed since the last `"change"` event.
+    // If you specify an attribute name, determine if that attribute has changed.
+    hasChanged : function(attr) {
+      if (attr) return this._previousAttributes[attr] != this.attributes[attr];
+      return this._changed;
+    },
+
+    // Return an object containing all the attributes that have changed, or false
+    // if there are no changed attributes. Useful for determining what parts of a
+    // view need to be updated and/or what attributes need to be persisted to
+    // the server.
+    changedAttributes : function(now) {
+      now || (now = this.attributes);
+      var old = this._previousAttributes;
+      var changed = false;
+      for (var attr in now) {
+        if (!_.isEqual(old[attr], now[attr])) {
+          changed = changed || {};
+          changed[attr] = now[attr];
+        }
+      }
+      return changed;
+    },
+
+    // Get the previous value of an attribute, recorded at the time the last
+    // `"change"` event was fired.
+    previous : function(attr) {
+      if (!attr || !this._previousAttributes) return null;
+      return this._previousAttributes[attr];
+    },
+
+    // Get all of the attributes of the model at the time of the previous
+    // `"change"` event.
+    previousAttributes : function() {
+      return _.clone(this._previousAttributes);
+    },
+
+    // Run validation against a set of incoming attributes, returning `true`
+    // if all is well. If a specific `error` callback has been passed,
+    // call that instead of firing the general `"error"` event.
+    _performValidation : function(attrs, options) {
+      var error = this.validate(attrs);
+      if (error) {
+        if (options.error) {
+          options.error(this, error, options);
+        } else {
+          this.trigger('error', this, error, options);
+        }
+        return false;
+      }
+      return true;
+    }
+
+  });
+
+  // Backbone.Collection
+  // -------------------
+
+  // Provides a standard collection class for our sets of models, ordered
+  // or unordered. If a `comparator` is specified, the Collection will maintain
+  // its models in sort order, as they're added and removed.
+  Backbone.Collection = function(models, options) {
+    options || (options = {});
+    if (options.comparator) this.comparator = options.comparator;
+    _.bindAll(this, '_onModelEvent', '_removeReference');
+    this._reset();
+    if (models) this.reset(models, {silent: true});
+    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
+  };
+
+  // Define the Collection's inheritable methods.
+  _.extend(Backbone.Collection.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+
+    // The default model for a collection is just a **Backbone.Model**.
+    // This should be overridden in most cases.
+    model : Backbone.Model,
+
+    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
+    // initialization logic.
+    initialize : function(){},
+
+    // The JSON representation of a Collection is an array of the
+    // models' attributes.
+    toJSON : function() {
+      return this.map(function(model){ return model.toJSON(); });
+    },
+
+    // Add a model, or list of models to the set. Pass **silent** to avoid
+    // firing the `added` event for every new model.
+    add : function(models, options) {
+      if (_.isArray(models)) {
+        for (var i = 0, l = models.length; i < l; i++) {
+          this._add(models[i], options);
+        }
+      } else {
+        this._add(models, options);
+      }
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Remove a model, or a list of models from the set. Pass silent to avoid
+    // firing the `removed` event for every model removed.
+    remove : function(models, options) {
+      if (_.isArray(models)) {
+        for (var i = 0, l = models.length; i < l; i++) {
+          this._remove(models[i], options);
+        }
+      } else {
+        this._remove(models, options);
+      }
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Get a model from the set by id.
+    get : function(id) {
+      if (id == null) return null;
+      return this._byId[id.id != null ? id.id : id];
+    },
+
+    // Get a model from the set by client id.
+    getByCid : function(cid) {
+      return cid && this._byCid[cid.cid || cid];
+    },
+
+    // Get the model at the given index.
+    at: function(index) {
+      return this.models[index];
+    },
+
+    // Force the collection to re-sort itself. You don't need to call this under normal
+    // circumstances, as the set will maintain sort order as each item is added.
+    sort : function(options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      if (!this.comparator) throw new Error('Cannot sort a set without a comparator');
+      this.models = this.sortBy(this.comparator);
+      if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Pluck an attribute from each model in the collection.
+    pluck : function(attr) {
+      return _.map(this.models, function(model){ return model.get(attr); });
+    },
+
+    // When you have more items than you want to add or remove individually,
+    // you can reset the entire set with a new list of models, without firing
+    // any `added` or `removed` events. Fires `reset` when finished.
+    reset : function(models, options) {
+      models  || (models = []);
+      options || (options = {});
+      this.each(this._removeReference);
+      this._reset();
+      this.add(models, {silent: true});
+      if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Fetch the default set of models for this collection, resetting the
+    // collection when they arrive. If `add: true` is passed, appends the
+    // models to the collection instead of resetting.
+    fetch : function(options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      var collection = this;
+      var success = options.success;
+      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
+        collection[options.add ? 'add' : 'reset'](collection.parse(resp, xhr), options);
+        if (success) success(collection, resp);
+      };
+      options.error = wrapError(options.error, collection, options);
+      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
+    },
+
+    // Create a new instance of a model in this collection. After the model
+    // has been created on the server, it will be added to the collection.
+    // Returns the model, or 'false' if validation on a new model fails.
+    create : function(model, options) {
+      var coll = this;
+      options || (options = {});
+      model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
+      if (!model) return false;
+      var success = options.success;
+      options.success = function(nextModel, resp, xhr) {
+        coll.add(nextModel, options);
+        if (success) success(nextModel, resp, xhr);
+      };
+      model.save(null, options);
+      return model;
+    },
+
+    // **parse** converts a response into a list of models to be added to the
+    // collection. The default implementation is just to pass it through.
+    parse : function(resp, xhr) {
+      return resp;
+    },
+
+    // Proxy to _'s chain. Can't be proxied the same way the rest of the
+    // underscore methods are proxied because it relies on the underscore
+    // constructor.
+    chain: function () {
+      return _(this.models).chain();
+    },
+
+    // Reset all internal state. Called when the collection is reset.
+    _reset : function(options) {
+      this.length = 0;
+      this.models = [];
+      this._byId  = {};
+      this._byCid = {};
+    },
+
+    // Prepare a model to be added to this collection
+    _prepareModel: function(model, options) {
+      if (!(model instanceof Backbone.Model)) {
+        var attrs = model;
+        model = new this.model(attrs, {collection: this});
+        if (model.validate && !model._performValidation(attrs, options)) model = false;
+      } else if (!model.collection) {
+        model.collection = this;
+      }
+      return model;
+    },
+
+    // Internal implementation of adding a single model to the set, updating
+    // hash indexes for `id` and `cid` lookups.
+    // Returns the model, or 'false' if validation on a new model fails.
+    _add : function(model, options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
+      if (!model) return false;
+      var already = this.getByCid(model);
+      if (already) throw new Error(["Can't add the same model to a set twice", already.id]);
+      this._byId[model.id] = model;
+      this._byCid[model.cid] = model;
+      var index = options.at != null ? options.at :
+                  this.comparator ? this.sortedIndex(model, this.comparator) :
+                  this.length;
+      this.models.splice(index, 0, model);
+      model.bind('all', this._onModelEvent);
+      this.length++;
+      if (!options.silent) model.trigger('add', model, this, options);
+      return model;
+    },
+
+    // Internal implementation of removing a single model from the set, updating
+    // hash indexes for `id` and `cid` lookups.
+    _remove : function(model, options) {
+      options || (options = {});
+      model = this.getByCid(model) || this.get(model);
+      if (!model) return null;
+      delete this._byId[model.id];
+      delete this._byCid[model.cid];
+      this.models.splice(this.indexOf(model), 1);
+      this.length--;
+      if (!options.silent) model.trigger('remove', model, this, options);
+      this._removeReference(model);
+      return model;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to remove a model's ties to a collection.
+    _removeReference : function(model) {
+      if (this == model.collection) {
+        delete model.collection;
+      }
+      model.unbind('all', this._onModelEvent);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method called every time a model in the set fires an event.
+    // Sets need to update their indexes when models change ids. All other
+    // events simply proxy through. "add" and "remove" events that originate
+    // in other collections are ignored.
+    _onModelEvent : function(ev, model, collection, options) {
+      if ((ev == 'add' || ev == 'remove') && collection != this) return;
+      if (ev == 'destroy') {
+        this._remove(model, options);
+      }
+      if (model && ev === 'change:' + model.idAttribute) {
+        delete this._byId[model.previous(model.idAttribute)];
+        this._byId[model.id] = model;
+      }
+      this.trigger.apply(this, arguments);
+    }
+
+  });
+
+  // Underscore methods that we want to implement on the Collection.
+  var methods = ['forEach', 'each', 'map', 'reduce', 'reduceRight', 'find', 'detect',
+    'filter', 'select', 'reject', 'every', 'all', 'some', 'any', 'include',
+    'contains', 'invoke', 'max', 'min', 'sortBy', 'sortedIndex', 'toArray', 'size',
+    'first', 'rest', 'last', 'without', 'indexOf', 'lastIndexOf', 'isEmpty', 'groupBy'];
+
+  // Mix in each Underscore method as a proxy to `Collection#models`.
+  _.each(methods, function(method) {
+    Backbone.Collection.prototype[method] = function() {
+      return _[method].apply(_, [this.models].concat(_.toArray(arguments)));
+    };
+  });
+
+  // Backbone.Router
+  // -------------------
+
+  // Routers map faux-URLs to actions, and fire events when routes are
+  // matched. Creating a new one sets its `routes` hash, if not set statically.
+  Backbone.Router = function(options) {
+    options || (options = {});
+    if (options.routes) this.routes = options.routes;
+    this._bindRoutes();
+    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
+  };
+
+  // Cached regular expressions for matching named param parts and splatted
+  // parts of route strings.
+  var namedParam    = /:([\w\d]+)/g;
+  var splatParam    = /\*([\w\d]+)/g;
+  var escapeRegExp  = /[-[\]{}()+?.,\\^$|#\s]/g;
+
+  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.Router** properties and methods.
+  _.extend(Backbone.Router.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+
+    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
+    // initialization logic.
+    initialize : function(){},
+
+    // Manually bind a single named route to a callback. For example:
+    //
+    //     this.route('search/:query/p:num', 'search', function(query, num) {
+    //       ...
+    //     });
+    //
+    route : function(route, name, callback) {
+      Backbone.history || (Backbone.history = new Backbone.History);
+      if (!_.isRegExp(route)) route = this._routeToRegExp(route);
+      Backbone.history.route(route, _.bind(function(fragment) {
+        var args = this._extractParameters(route, fragment);
+        callback.apply(this, args);
+        this.trigger.apply(this, ['route:' + name].concat(args));
+      }, this));
+    },
+
+    // Simple proxy to `Backbone.history` to save a fragment into the history.
+    navigate : function(fragment, triggerRoute) {
+      Backbone.history.navigate(fragment, triggerRoute);
+    },
+
+    // Bind all defined routes to `Backbone.history`. We have to reverse the
+    // order of the routes here to support behavior where the most general
+    // routes can be defined at the bottom of the route map.
+    _bindRoutes : function() {
+      if (!this.routes) return;
+      var routes = [];
+      for (var route in this.routes) {
+        routes.unshift([route, this.routes[route]]);
+      }
+      for (var i = 0, l = routes.length; i < l; i++) {
+        this.route(routes[i][0], routes[i][1], this[routes[i][1]]);
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Convert a route string into a regular expression, suitable for matching
+    // against the current location hash.
+    _routeToRegExp : function(route) {
+      route = route.replace(escapeRegExp, "\\$&")
+                   .replace(namedParam, "([^\/]*)")
+                   .replace(splatParam, "(.*?)");
+      return new RegExp('^' + route + '$');
+    },
+
+    // Given a route, and a URL fragment that it matches, return the array of
+    // extracted parameters.
+    _extractParameters : function(route, fragment) {
+      return route.exec(fragment).slice(1);
+    }
+
+  });
+
+  // Backbone.History
+  // ----------------
+
+  // Handles cross-browser history management, based on URL fragments. If the
+  // browser does not support `onhashchange`, falls back to polling.
+  Backbone.History = function() {
+    this.handlers = [];
+    _.bindAll(this, 'checkUrl');
+  };
+
+  // Cached regex for cleaning hashes.
+  var hashStrip = /^#*/;
+
+  // Cached regex for detecting MSIE.
+  var isExplorer = /msie [\w.]+/;
+
+  // Has the history handling already been started?
+  var historyStarted = false;
+
+  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.History** properties and methods.
+  _.extend(Backbone.History.prototype, {
+
+    // The default interval to poll for hash changes, if necessary, is
+    // twenty times a second.
+    interval: 50,
+
+    // Get the cross-browser normalized URL fragment, either from the URL,
+    // the hash, or the override.
+    getFragment : function(fragment, forcePushState) {
+      if (fragment == null) {
+        if (this._hasPushState || forcePushState) {
+          fragment = window.location.pathname;
+          var search = window.location.search;
+          if (search) fragment += search;
+          if (fragment.indexOf(this.options.root) == 0) fragment = fragment.substr(this.options.root.length);
+        } else {
+          fragment = window.location.hash;
+        }
+      }
+      return decodeURIComponent(fragment.replace(hashStrip, ''));
+    },
+
+    // Start the hash change handling, returning `true` if the current URL matches
+    // an existing route, and `false` otherwise.
+    start : function(options) {
+
+      // Figure out the initial configuration. Do we need an iframe?
+      // Is pushState desired ... is it available?
+      if (historyStarted) throw new Error("Backbone.history has already been started");
+      this.options          = _.extend({}, {root: '/'}, this.options, options);
+      this._wantsPushState  = !!this.options.pushState;
+      this._hasPushState    = !!(this.options.pushState && window.history && window.history.pushState);
+      var fragment          = this.getFragment();
+      var docMode           = document.documentMode;
+      var oldIE             = (isExplorer.exec(navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase()) && (!docMode || docMode <= 7));
+      if (oldIE) {
+        this.iframe = $('<iframe src="javascript:0" tabindex="-1" />').hide().appendTo('body')[0].contentWindow;
+        this.navigate(fragment);
+      }
+
+      // Depending on whether we're using pushState or hashes, and whether
+      // 'onhashchange' is supported, determine how we check the URL state.
+      if (this._hasPushState) {
+        $(window).bind('popstate', this.checkUrl);
+      } else if ('onhashchange' in window && !oldIE) {
+        $(window).bind('hashchange', this.checkUrl);
+      } else {
+        setInterval(this.checkUrl, this.interval);
+      }
+
+      // Determine if we need to change the base url, for a pushState link
+      // opened by a non-pushState browser.
+      this.fragment = fragment;
+      historyStarted = true;
+      var loc = window.location;
+      var atRoot  = loc.pathname == this.options.root;
+      if (this._wantsPushState && !this._hasPushState && !atRoot) {
+        this.fragment = this.getFragment(null, true);
+        window.location.replace(this.options.root + '#' + this.fragment);
+        // Return immediately as browser will do redirect to new url
+        return true;
+      } else if (this._wantsPushState && this._hasPushState && atRoot && loc.hash) {
+        this.fragment = loc.hash.replace(hashStrip, '');
+        window.history.replaceState({}, document.title, loc.protocol + '//' + loc.host + this.options.root + this.fragment);
+      }
+
+      if (!this.options.silent) {
+        return this.loadUrl();
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Add a route to be tested when the fragment changes. Routes added later may
+    // override previous routes.
+    route : function(route, callback) {
+      this.handlers.unshift({route : route, callback : callback});
+    },
+
+    // Checks the current URL to see if it has changed, and if it has,
+    // calls `loadUrl`, normalizing across the hidden iframe.
+    checkUrl : function(e) {
+      var current = this.getFragment();
+      if (current == this.fragment && this.iframe) current = this.getFragment(this.iframe.location.hash);
+      if (current == this.fragment || current == decodeURIComponent(this.fragment)) return false;
+      if (this.iframe) this.navigate(current);
+      this.loadUrl() || this.loadUrl(window.location.hash);
+    },
+
+    // Attempt to load the current URL fragment. If a route succeeds with a
+    // match, returns `true`. If no defined routes matches the fragment,
+    // returns `false`.
+    loadUrl : function(fragmentOverride) {
+      var fragment = this.fragment = this.getFragment(fragmentOverride);
+      var matched = _.any(this.handlers, function(handler) {
+        if (handler.route.test(fragment)) {
+          handler.callback(fragment);
+          return true;
+        }
+      });
+      return matched;
+    },
+
+    // Save a fragment into the hash history. You are responsible for properly
+    // URL-encoding the fragment in advance. This does not trigger
+    // a `hashchange` event.
+    navigate : function(fragment, triggerRoute) {
+      var frag = (fragment || '').replace(hashStrip, '');
+      if (this.fragment == frag || this.fragment == decodeURIComponent(frag)) return;
+      if (this._hasPushState) {
+        var loc = window.location;
+        if (frag.indexOf(this.options.root) != 0) frag = this.options.root + frag;
+        this.fragment = frag;
+        window.history.pushState({}, document.title, loc.protocol + '//' + loc.host + frag);
+      } else {
+        window.location.hash = this.fragment = frag;
+        if (this.iframe && (frag != this.getFragment(this.iframe.location.hash))) {
+          this.iframe.document.open().close();
+          this.iframe.location.hash = frag;
+        }
+      }
+      if (triggerRoute) this.loadUrl(fragment);
+    }
+
+  });
+
+  // Backbone.View
+  // -------------
+
+  // Creating a Backbone.View creates its initial element outside of the DOM,
+  // if an existing element is not provided...
+  Backbone.View = function(options) {
+    this.cid = _.uniqueId('view');
+    this._configure(options || {});
+    this._ensureElement();
+    this.delegateEvents();
+    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
+  };
+
+  // Element lookup, scoped to DOM elements within the current view.
+  // This should be prefered to global lookups, if you're dealing with
+  // a specific view.
+  var selectorDelegate = function(selector) {
+    return $(selector, this.el);
+  };
+
+  // Cached regex to split keys for `delegate`.
+  var eventSplitter = /^(\S+)\s*(.*)$/;
+
+  // List of view options to be merged as properties.
+  var viewOptions = ['model', 'collection', 'el', 'id', 'attributes', 'className', 'tagName'];
+
+  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.View** properties and methods.
+  _.extend(Backbone.View.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+
+    // The default `tagName` of a View's element is `"div"`.
+    tagName : 'div',
+
+    // Attach the `selectorDelegate` function as the `$` property.
+    $       : selectorDelegate,
+
+    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
+    // initialization logic.
+    initialize : function(){},
+
+    // **render** is the core function that your view should override, in order
+    // to populate its element (`this.el`), with the appropriate HTML. The
+    // convention is for **render** to always return `this`.
+    render : function() {
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Remove this view from the DOM. Note that the view isn't present in the
+    // DOM by default, so calling this method may be a no-op.
+    remove : function() {
+      $(this.el).remove();
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // For small amounts of DOM Elements, where a full-blown template isn't
+    // needed, use **make** to manufacture elements, one at a time.
+    //
+    //     var el = this.make('li', {'class': 'row'}, this.model.escape('title'));
+    //
+    make : function(tagName, attributes, content) {
+      var el = document.createElement(tagName);
+      if (attributes) $(el).attr(attributes);
+      if (content) $(el).html(content);
+      return el;
+    },
+
+    // Set callbacks, where `this.callbacks` is a hash of
+    //
+    // *{"event selector": "callback"}*
+    //
+    //     {
+    //       'mousedown .title':  'edit',
+    //       'click .button':     'save'
+    //     }
+    //
+    // pairs. Callbacks will be bound to the view, with `this` set properly.
+    // Uses event delegation for efficiency.
+    // Omitting the selector binds the event to `this.el`.
+    // This only works for delegate-able events: not `focus`, `blur`, and
+    // not `change`, `submit`, and `reset` in Internet Explorer.
+    delegateEvents : function(events) {
+      if (!(events || (events = this.events))) return;
+      if (_.isFunction(events)) events = events.call(this);
+      $(this.el).unbind('.delegateEvents' + this.cid);
+      for (var key in events) {
+        var method = this[events[key]];
+        if (!method) throw new Error('Event "' + events[key] + '" does not exist');
+        var match = key.match(eventSplitter);
+        var eventName = match[1], selector = match[2];
+        method = _.bind(method, this);
+        eventName += '.delegateEvents' + this.cid;
+        if (selector === '') {
+          $(this.el).bind(eventName, method);
+        } else {
+          $(this.el).delegate(selector, eventName, method);
+        }
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Performs the initial configuration of a View with a set of options.
+    // Keys with special meaning *(model, collection, id, className)*, are
+    // attached directly to the view.
+    _configure : function(options) {
+      if (this.options) options = _.extend({}, this.options, options);
+      for (var i = 0, l = viewOptions.length; i < l; i++) {
+        var attr = viewOptions[i];
+        if (options[attr]) this[attr] = options[attr];
+      }
+      this.options = options;
+    },
+
+    // Ensure that the View has a DOM element to render into.
+    // If `this.el` is a string, pass it through `$()`, take the first
+    // matching element, and re-assign it to `el`. Otherwise, create
+    // an element from the `id`, `className` and `tagName` proeprties.
+    _ensureElement : function() {
+      if (!this.el) {
+        var attrs = this.attributes || {};
+        if (this.id) attrs.id = this.id;
+        if (this.className) attrs['class'] = this.className;
+        this.el = this.make(this.tagName, attrs);
+      } else if (_.isString(this.el)) {
+        this.el = $(this.el).get(0);
+      }
+    }
+
+  });
+
+  // The self-propagating extend function that Backbone classes use.
+  var extend = function (protoProps, classProps) {
+    var child = inherits(this, protoProps, classProps);
+    child.extend = this.extend;
+    return child;
+  };
+
+  // Set up inheritance for the model, collection, and view.
+  Backbone.Model.extend = Backbone.Collection.extend =
+    Backbone.Router.extend = Backbone.View.extend = extend;
+
+  // Map from CRUD to HTTP for our default `Backbone.sync` implementation.
+  var methodMap = {
+    'create': 'POST',
+    'update': 'PUT',
+    'delete': 'DELETE',
+    'read'  : 'GET'
+  };
+
+  // Backbone.sync
+  // -------------
+
+  // Override this function to change the manner in which Backbone persists
+  // models to the server. You will be passed the type of request, and the
+  // model in question. By default, uses makes a RESTful Ajax request
+  // to the model's `url()`. Some possible customizations could be:
+  //
+  // * Use `setTimeout` to batch rapid-fire updates into a single request.
+  // * Send up the models as XML instead of JSON.
+  // * Persist models via WebSockets instead of Ajax.
+  //
+  // Turn on `Backbone.emulateHTTP` in order to send `PUT` and `DELETE` requests
+  // as `POST`, with a `_method` parameter containing the true HTTP method,
+  // as well as all requests with the body as `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` instead of
+  // `application/json` with the model in a param named `model`.
+  // Useful when interfacing with server-side languages like **PHP** that make
+  // it difficult to read the body of `PUT` requests.
+  Backbone.sync = function(method, model, options) {
+    var type = methodMap[method];
+
+    // Default JSON-request options.
+    var params = _.extend({
+      type:         type,
+      dataType:     'json'
+    }, options);
+
+    // Ensure that we have a URL.
+    if (!params.url) {
+      params.url = getUrl(model) || urlError();
+    }
+
+    // Ensure that we have the appropriate request data.
+    if (!params.data && model && (method == 'create' || method == 'update')) {
+      params.contentType = 'application/json';
+      params.data = JSON.stringify(model.toJSON());
+    }
+
+    // For older servers, emulate JSON by encoding the request into an HTML-form.
+    if (Backbone.emulateJSON) {
+      params.contentType = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';
+      params.data        = params.data ? {model : params.data} : {};
+    }
+
+    // For older servers, emulate HTTP by mimicking the HTTP method with `_method`
+    // And an `X-HTTP-Method-Override` header.
+    if (Backbone.emulateHTTP) {
+      if (type === 'PUT' || type === 'DELETE') {
+        if (Backbone.emulateJSON) params.data._method = type;
+        params.type = 'POST';
+        params.beforeSend = function(xhr) {
+          xhr.setRequestHeader('X-HTTP-Method-Override', type);
+        };
+      }
+    }
+
+    // Don't process data on a non-GET request.
+    if (params.type !== 'GET' && !Backbone.emulateJSON) {
+      params.processData = false;
+    }
+
+    // Make the request.
+    return $.ajax(params);
+  };
+
+  // Helpers
+  // -------
+
+  // Shared empty constructor function to aid in prototype-chain creation.
+  var ctor = function(){};
+
+  // Helper function to correctly set up the prototype chain, for subclasses.
+  // Similar to `goog.inherits`, but uses a hash of prototype properties and
+  // class properties to be extended.
+  var inherits = function(parent, protoProps, staticProps) {
+    var child;
+
+    // The constructor function for the new subclass is either defined by you
+    // (the "constructor" property in your `extend` definition), or defaulted
+    // by us to simply call `super()`.
+    if (protoProps && protoProps.hasOwnProperty('constructor')) {
+      child = protoProps.constructor;
+    } else {
+      child = function(){ return parent.apply(this, arguments); };
+    }
+
+    // Inherit class (static) properties from parent.
+    _.extend(child, parent);
+
+    // Set the prototype chain to inherit from `parent`, without calling
+    // `parent`'s constructor function.
+    ctor.prototype = parent.prototype;
+    child.prototype = new ctor();
+
+    // Add prototype properties (instance properties) to the subclass,
+    // if supplied.
+    if (protoProps) _.extend(child.prototype, protoProps);
+
+    // Add static properties to the constructor function, if supplied.
+    if (staticProps) _.extend(child, staticProps);
+
+    // Correctly set child's `prototype.constructor`.
+    child.prototype.constructor = child;
+
+    // Set a convenience property in case the parent's prototype is needed later.
+    child.__super__ = parent.prototype;
+
+    return child;
+  };
+
+  // Helper function to get a URL from a Model or Collection as a property
+  // or as a function.
+  var getUrl = function(object) {
+    if (!(object && object.url)) return null;
+    return _.isFunction(object.url) ? object.url() : object.url;
+  };
+
+  // Throw an error when a URL is needed, and none is supplied.
+  var urlError = function() {
+    throw new Error('A "url" property or function must be specified');
+  };
+
+  // Wrap an optional error callback with a fallback error event.
+  var wrapError = function(onError, model, options) {
+    return function(resp) {
+      if (onError) {
+        onError(model, resp, options);
+      } else {
+        model.trigger('error', model, resp, options);
+      }
+    };
+  };
+
+  // Helper function to escape a string for HTML rendering.
+  var escapeHTML = function(string) {
+    return string.replace(/&(?!\w+;|#\d+;|#x[\da-f]+;)/gi, '&amp;').replace(/</g, '&lt;').replace(/>/g, '&gt;').replace(/"/g, '&quot;').replace(/'/g, '&#x27;').replace(/\//g,'&#x2F;');
+  };
+
+}).call(this);