Source

ompi-svn-mirror / README

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
Copyright (c) 2004-2011 The Trustees of Indiana University and Indiana
                        University Research and Technology
                        Corporation.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2004-2011 The University of Tennessee and The University
                        of Tennessee Research Foundation.  All rights
                        reserved.
Copyright (c) 2004-2008 High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart, 
                        University of Stuttgart.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2004-2007 The Regents of the University of California.
                        All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2006-2011 Cisco Systems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2006-2007 Voltaire, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2006-2010 Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2007      Myricom, Inc.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2011      IBM Corporation.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2011      Oak Ridge National Labs.  All rights reserved.

$COPYRIGHT$

Additional copyrights may follow

$HEADER$
 
===========================================================================

When submitting questions and problems, be sure to include as much
extra information as possible.  This web page details all the
information that we request in order to provide assistance:

     http://www.open-mpi.org/community/help/

The best way to report bugs, send comments, or ask questions is to
sign up on the user's and/or developer's mailing list (for user-level
and developer-level questions; when in doubt, send to the user's
list):

        users@open-mpi.org
        devel@open-mpi.org

Because of spam, only subscribers are allowed to post to these lists
(ensure that you subscribe with and post from exactly the same e-mail
address -- joe@example.com is considered different than
joe@mycomputer.example.com!).  Visit these pages to subscribe to the
lists:

     http://www.open-mpi.org/mailman/listinfo.cgi/users
     http://www.open-mpi.org/mailman/listinfo.cgi/devel

Thanks for your time.

===========================================================================

Much, much more information is also available in the Open MPI FAQ:

    http://www.open-mpi.org/faq/

===========================================================================

Detailed Open MPI v1.3 / v1.4 Feature List:

  o Open MPI RunTime Environment (ORTE) improvements
    - General robustness improvements
    - Scalable job launch (we've seen ~16K processes in less than a
      minute in a highly-optimized configuration)
    - New process mappers
    - Support for Platform/LSF environments (v7.0.2 and later)
    - More flexible processing of host lists
    - new mpirun cmd line options and associated functionality

  o Fault-Tolerance Features
    - Asynchronous, transparent checkpoint/restart support
      - Fully coordinated checkpoint/restart coordination component
      - Support for the following checkpoint/restart services:
        - blcr: Berkeley Lab's Checkpoint/Restart
        - self: Application level callbacks
      - Support for the following interconnects:
        - tcp
        - mx
        - openib 
        - sm
        - self
    - Improved Message Logging

  o MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE support for point-to-point messaging in the
    following BTLs (note that only MPI point-to-point messaging API
    functions support MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE; other API functions likely
    do not):
    - tcp
    - sm
    - mx
    - elan
    - self

  o Point-to-point Messaging Layer (PML) improvements
    - Memory footprint reduction
    - Improved latency
    - Improved algorithm for multiple communication device
      ("multi-rail") support

  o Numerous Open Fabrics improvements/enhancements
    - Added iWARP support (including RDMA CM)
    - Memory footprint and performance improvements
      - "Bucket" SRQ support for better registered memory utilization
      - XRC/ConnectX support
      - Message coalescing
    - Improved error report mechanism with Asynchronous events
    - Automatic Path Migration (APM)
    - Improved processor/port binding
    - Infrastructure for additional wireup strategies
    - mpi_leave_pinned is now enabled by default

  o uDAPL BTL enhancements
    - Multi-rail support
    - Subnet checking
    - Interface include/exclude capabilities

  o  Processor affinity
    - Linux processor affinity improvements
    - Core/socket <--> process mappings

  o Collectives
    - Performance improvements
    - Support for hierarchical collectives (must be activated
      manually; see below)

  o Miscellaneous
    - MPI 2.1 compliant 
    - Sparse process groups and communicators
    - Support for Cray Compute Node Linux (CNL)
    - One-sided RDMA component (BTL-level based rather than PML-level
      based)
    - Aggregate MCA parameter sets
    - MPI handle debugging
    - Many small improvements to the MPI C++ bindings
    - Valgrind support
    - VampirTrace support
    - Updated ROMIO to the version from MPICH2 1.0.7
    - Removed the mVAPI IB stacks
    - Display most error messages only once (vs. once for each
      process)
    - Many other small improvements and bug fixes, too numerous to
      list here

Known issues
------------

  o There is a segfault that sometimes occurs on one of our x86_64 test
    clusters when using MPI onesided communications over Myrinet MX.
    Since no one else has reported this problem we are not holding
    up the 1.3 release.  See ticket #1757 for the details, and any
    possible workarounds.

  o MPI_REDUCE_SCATTER does not work with counts of 0.
    https://svn.open-mpi.org/trac/ompi/ticket/1559

  o Processes that were spawned via MPI_COMM_SPAWN[_MULTIPLE] cannot
    themselves invoke MPI_COMM_SPAWN[_MULTIPLE].  This has been fixed
    in the Open MPI v1.5 series.

  o Please also see the Open MPI bug tracker for bugs beyond this release.
    https://svn.open-mpi.org/trac/ompi/report

===========================================================================

The following abbreviated list of release notes applies to this code
base as of this writing (28 Apri 2011):

General notes
-------------

- Open MPI includes support for a wide variety of supplemental
  hardware and software package.  When configuring Open MPI, you may
  need to supply additional flags to the "configure" script in order
  to tell Open MPI where the header files, libraries, and any other
  required files are located.  As such, running "configure" by itself
  may not include support for all the devices (etc.) that you expect,
  especially if their support headers / libraries are installed in
  non-standard locations.  Network interconnects are an easy example
  to discuss -- Myrinet and OpenFabrics networks, for example, both
  have supplemental headers and libraries that must be found before
  Open MPI can build support for them.  You must specify where these
  files are with the appropriate options to configure.  See the
  listing of configure command-line switches, below, for more details.

- The majority of Open MPI's documentation is here in this file, the
  included man pages, and on the web site FAQ
  (http://www.open-mpi.org/).  This will eventually be supplemented
  with cohesive installation and user documentation files.

- Note that Open MPI documentation uses the word "component"
  frequently; the word "plugin" is probably more familiar to most
  users.  As such, end users can probably completely substitute the
  word "plugin" wherever you see "component" in our documentation.
  For what it's worth, we use the word "component" for historical
  reasons, mainly because it is part of our acronyms and internal API
  functionc calls.

- The run-time systems that are currently supported are:
  - rsh / ssh
  - LoadLeveler
  - PBS Pro, Open PBS, Torque
  - Platform LSF (v7.0.2 and later)
  - SLURM
  - Cray XT-3 and XT-4
  - Sun Grid Engine (SGE) 6.1, 6.2 and open source Grid Engine
  - Microsoft Windows CCP (Microsoft Windows server 2003 and 2008)

- Systems that have been tested are:
  - Linux (various flavors/distros), 32 bit, with gcc, and Sun Studio 12
  - Linux (various flavors/distros), 64 bit (x86), with gcc, Absoft,
    Intel, Portland, Pathscale, and Sun Studio 12 compilers (*)
  - OS X (10.4), 32 and 64 bit (i386, PPC, PPC64, x86_64), with gcc
    and Absoft compilers (*)
  - Solaris 10 update 2, 3 and 4, 32 and 64 bit (SPARC, i386, x86_64),
    with Sun Studio 10, 11 and 12

  (*) Be sure to read the Compiler Notes, below.

- Other systems have been lightly (but not fully tested):
  - Other 64 bit platforms (e.g., Linux on PPC64)
  - Microsoft Windows CCP (Microsoft Windows server 2003 and 2008);
    see the README.WINDOWS file.

Compiler Notes
--------------

- Mixing compilers from different vendors when building Open MPI
  (e.g., using the C/C++ compiler from one vendor and the F77/F90
  compiler from a different vendor) has been successfully employed by
  some Open MPI users (discussed on the Open MPI user's mailing list),
  but such configurations are not tested and not documented.  For
  example, such configurations may require additional compiler /
  linker flags to make Open MPI build properly.

- Open MPI does not support the Sparc v8 CPU target, which is the
  default on Sun Solaris.  The v8plus (32 bit) or v9 (64 bit)
  targets must be used to build Open MPI on Solaris.  This can be
  done by including a flag in CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, and FCFLAGS,
  -xarch=v8plus for the Sun compilers, -mcpu=v9 for GCC.

- At least some versions of the Intel 8.1 compiler seg fault while
  compiling certain Open MPI source code files.  As such, it is not
  supported.

- The Intel 9.0 v20051201 compiler on IA64 platforms seems to have a
  problem with optimizing the ptmalloc2 memory manager component (the
  generated code will segv).  As such, the ptmalloc2 component will
  automatically disable itself if it detects that it is on this
  platform/compiler combination.  The only effect that this should
  have is that the MCA parameter mpi_leave_pinned will be inoperative.

- Early versions of the Portland Group 6.0 compiler have problems
  creating the C++ MPI bindings as a shared library (e.g., v6.0-1).
  Tests with later versions show that this has been fixed (e.g.,
  v6.0-5).

- The Portland Group compilers prior to version 7.0 require the
  "-Msignextend" compiler flag to extend the sign bit when converting
  from a shorter to longer integer.  This is is different than other
  compilers (such as GNU).  When compiling Open MPI with the Portland
  compiler suite, the following flags should be passed to Open MPI's
  configure script:

  shell$ ./configure CFLAGS=-Msignextend CXXFLAGS=-Msignextend \
	--with-wrapper-cflags=-Msignextend \
	--with-wrapper-cxxflags=-Msignextend ...

  This will both compile Open MPI with the proper compile flags and
  also automatically add "-Msignextend" when the C and C++ MPI wrapper
  compilers are used to compile user MPI applications.

- Using the MPI C++ bindings with the Pathscale compiler is known
  to fail, possibly due to Pathscale compiler issues.

- Using the Absoft compiler to build the MPI Fortran bindings on Suse
  9.3 is known to fail due to a Libtool compatibility issue.

- Open MPI will build bindings suitable for all common forms of
  Fortran 77 compiler symbol mangling on platforms that support it
  (e.g., Linux).  On platforms that do not support weak symbols (e.g.,
  OS X), Open MPI will build Fortran 77 bindings just for the compiler
  that Open MPI was configured with.  

  Hence, on platforms that support it, if you configure Open MPI with
  a Fortran 77 compiler that uses one symbol mangling scheme, you can
  successfully compile and link MPI Fortran 77 applications with a
  Fortran 77 compiler that uses a different symbol mangling scheme.

  NOTE: For platforms that support the multi-Fortran-compiler bindings
  (i.e., weak symbols are supported), due to limitations in the MPI
  standard and in Fortran compilers, it is not possible to hide these
  differences in all cases.  Specifically, the following two cases may
  not be portable between different Fortran compilers:

  1. The C constants MPI_F_STATUS_IGNORE and MPI_F_STATUSES_IGNORE
     will only compare properly to Fortran applications that were
     created with Fortran compilers that that use the same
     name-mangling scheme as the Fortran compiler that Open MPI was
     configured with.

  2. Fortran compilers may have different values for the logical
     .TRUE. constant.  As such, any MPI function that uses the Fortran
     LOGICAL type may only get .TRUE. values back that correspond to
     the the .TRUE. value of the Fortran compiler that Open MPI was
     configured with.  Note that some Fortran compilers allow forcing
     .TRUE. to be 1 and .FALSE. to be 0.  For example, the Portland
     Group compilers provide the "-Munixlogical" option, and Intel
     compilers (version >= 8.) provide the "-fpscomp logicals" option.

  You can use the ompi_info command to see the Fortran compiler that
  Open MPI was configured with.

- The Fortran 90 MPI bindings can now be built in one of three sizes
  using --with-mpi-f90-size=SIZE (see description below).  These sizes
  reflect the number of MPI functions included in the "mpi" Fortran 90
  module and therefore which functions will be subject to strict type
  checking.  All functions not included in the Fortran 90 module can
  still be invoked from F90 applications, but will fall back to
  Fortran-77 style checking (i.e., little/none).

  - trivial: Only includes F90-specific functions from MPI-2.  This
    means overloaded versions of MPI_SIZEOF for all the MPI-supported
    F90 intrinsic types.

  - small (default): All the functions in "trivial" plus all MPI
    functions that take no choice buffers (meaning buffers that are
    specified by the user and are of type (void*) in the C bindings --
    generally buffers specified for message passing).  Hence,
    functions like MPI_COMM_RANK are included, but functions like
    MPI_SEND are not.

  - medium: All the functions in "small" plus all MPI functions that
    take one choice buffer (e.g., MPI_SEND, MPI_RECV, ...).  All
    one-choice-buffer functions have overloaded variants for each of
    the MPI-supported Fortran intrinsic types up to the number of
    dimensions specified by --with-f90-max-array-dim (default value is
    4).

  Increasing the size of the F90 module (in order from trivial, small,
  and medium) will generally increase the length of time required to
  compile user MPI applications.  Specifically, "trivial"- and
  "small"-sized F90 modules generally allow user MPI applications to
  be compiled fairly quickly but lose type safety for all MPI
  functions with choice buffers.  "medium"-sized F90 modules generally
  take longer to compile user applications but provide greater type
  safety for MPI functions.

  Note that MPI functions with two choice buffers (e.g., MPI_GATHER)
  are not currently included in Open MPI's F90 interface.  Calls to
  these functions will automatically fall through to Open MPI's F77
  interface.  A "large" size that includes the two choice buffer MPI
  functions is possible in future versions of Open MPI.


General Run-Time Support Notes
------------------------------

- The Open MPI installation must be in your PATH on all nodes (and
  potentially LD_LIBRARY_PATH, if libmpi is a shared library), unless
  using the --prefix or --enable-mpirun-prefix-by-default
  functionality (see below).

- LAM/MPI-like mpirun notation of "C" and "N" is not yet supported.

- The XGrid support is experimental - see the Open MPI FAQ and this
  post on the Open MPI user's mailing list for more information:

  http://www.open-mpi.org/community/lists/users/2006/01/0539.php

  *** NOTE: Open MPI's XGrid support is known to be broken in the 1.3
      and 1.4 series.  Are you an OS X developer?  We'd love to have
      someone join us to fix this stuff.

- Open MPI's run-time behavior can be customized via MCA ("MPI
  Component Architecture") parameters (see below for more information
  on how to get/set MCA parameter values).  Some MCA parameters can be
  set in a way that renders Open MPI inoperable (see notes about MCA
  parameters later in this file).  In particular, some parameters have
  required options that must be included.

  - If specified, the "btl" parameter must include the "self"
    component, or Open MPI will not be able to deliver messages to the
    same rank as the sender.  For example: "mpirun --mca btl tcp,self
    ..."
  - If specified, the "btl_tcp_if_exclude" paramater must include the
    loopback device ("lo" on many Linux platforms), or Open MPI will
    not be able to route MPI messages using the TCP BTL.  For example:
    "mpirun --mca btl_tcp_if_exclude lo,eth1 ..."

- Running on nodes with different endian and/or different datatype
  sizes within a single parallel job is supported in this release.
  However, Open MPI does not resize data when datatypes differ in size
  (for example, sending a 4 byte MPI_DOUBLE and receiving an 8 byte
  MPI_DOUBLE will fail).


MPI Functionality and Features
------------------------------

- All MPI-2.1 functionality is supported.

- MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE support is included, but is only lightly tested.
  It likely does not work for thread-intensive applications.  Note
  that *only* the MPI point-to-point communication functions for the
  BTL's listed above are considered thread safe.  Other support
  functions (e.g., MPI attributes) have not been certified as safe
  when simultaneously used by multiple threads.

  Note that Open MPI's thread support is in a fairly early stage; the
  above devices are likely to *work*, but the latency is likely to be
  fairly high.  Specifically, efforts so far have concentrated on
  *correctness*, not *performance* (yet).

- MPI_REAL16 and MPI_COMPLEX32 are only supported on platforms where a
  portable C datatype can be found that matches the Fortran type
  REAL*16, both in size and bit representation.

- Asynchronous message passing progress using threads can be turned on
  with the --enable-progress-threads option to configure.
  Asynchronous message passing progress is only supported with devices
  that support MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE, but is only very lightly tested
  (and may not provide very much performance benefit).


Collectives
-----------

- The "hierarch" coll component (i.e., an implementation of MPI
  collective operations) attempts to discover network layers of
  latency in order to segregate individual "local" and "global"
  operations as part of the overall collective operation.  In this
  way, network traffic can be reduced -- or possibly even minimized
  (similar to MagPIe).  The current "hierarch" component only
  separates MPI processes into on- and off-node groups.

  Hierarch has had sufficient correctness testing, but has not
  received much performance tuning.  As such, hierarch is not
  activated by default -- it must be enabled manually by setting its
  priority level to 100:

    mpirun --mca coll_hierarch_priority 100 ...

  We would appreciate feedback from the user community about how well
  hierarch works for your applications.


Network Support
---------------

- The OpenFabrics Enterprise Distribution (OFED) software package v1.0
  will not work properly with Open MPI v1.2 (and later) due to how its
  Mellanox InfiniBand plugin driver is created.  The problem is fixed
  OFED v1.1 (and later).

- Older mVAPI-based InfiniBand drivers (Mellanox VAPI) are no longer
  supported.  Please use an older version of Open MPI (1.2 series or
  earlier) if you need mVAPI support.

- The use of fork() with the openib BTL is only partially supported,
  and only on Linux kernels >= v2.6.15 with libibverbs v1.1 or later
  (first released as part of OFED v1.2), per restrictions imposed by
  the OFED network stack.

- There are three MPI network models available: "ob1", "csum", and
  "cm".  "ob1" and "csum" use BTL ("Byte Transfer Layer") components
  for each supported network.  "cm" uses MTL ("Matching Tranport
  Layer") components for each supported network.

  - "ob1" supports a variety of networks that can be used in
    combination with each other (per OS constraints; e.g., there are
    reports that the GM and OpenFabrics kernel drivers do not operate
    well together):
    - OpenFabrics: InfiniBand and iWARP
    - Loopback (send-to-self)
    - Myrinet: GM and MX (including Open-MX)
    - Portals
    - Quadrics Elan
    - Shared memory
    - TCP
    - SCTP
    - uDAPL

  - "csum" is exactly the same as "ob1", except that it performs
    additional data integrity checks to ensure that the received data
    is intact (vs. trusting the underlying network to deliver the data
    correctly).  csum supports all the same networks as ob1, but there
    is a performance penalty for the additional integrity checks.

  - "cm" supports a smaller number of networks (and they cannot be
    used together), but may provide better better overall MPI
    performance:
    - Myrinet MX (including Open-MX, but not GM)
    - InfiniPath PSM
    - Portals

  Open MPI will, by default, choose to use "cm" when the InfiniPath
  PSM MTL can be used.  Otherwise, "ob1" will be used and the
  corresponding BTLs will be selected.  "csum" will never be selected
  by default.  Users can force the use of ob1 or cm if desired by
  setting the "pml" MCA parameter at run-time:

    shell$ mpirun --mca pml ob1 ...
    or
    shell$ mpirun --mca pml csum ...
    or
    shell$ mpirun --mca pml cm ...

- Myrinet MX (and Open-MX) support is shared between the 2 internal
  devices, the MTL and the BTL.  The design of the BTL interface in
  Open MPI assumes that only naive one-sided communication
  capabilities are provided by the low level communication layers.
  However, modern communication layers such as Myrinet MX, InfiniPath
  PSM, or Portals, natively implement highly-optimized two-sided
  communication semantics.  To leverage these capabilities, Open MPI
  provides the "cm" PML and corresponding MTL components to transfer
  messages rather than bytes.  The MTL interface implements a shorter
  code path and lets the low-level network library decide which
  protocol to use (depending on issues such as message length,
  internal resources and other parameters specific to the underlying
  interconnect).  However, Open MPI cannot currently use multiple MTL
  modules at once.  In the case of the MX MTL, process loopback and
  on-node shared memory communications are provided by the MX library.
  Moreover, the current MX MTL does not support message pipelining
  resulting in lower performances in case of non-contiguous
  data-types.

  The "ob1" and "csum" PMLs and BTL components use Open MPI's internal
  on-node shared memory and process loopback devices for high
  performance.  The BTL interface allows multiple devices to be used
  simultaneously.  For the MX BTL it is recommended that the first
  segment (which is as a threshold between the eager and the
  rendezvous protocol) should always be at most 4KB, but there is no
  further restriction on the size of subsequent fragments.

  The MX MTL is recommended in the common case for best performance on
  10G hardware when most of the data transfers cover contiguous memory
  layouts.  The MX BTL is recommended in all other cases, such as when
  using multiple interconnects at the same time (including TCP), or
  transferring non contiguous data-types.


Shared library versioning support
---------------------------------

Open MPI started using GNU-Libtool recommended shared library
versioning with the v1.3.3 release (where all versions were set to
0:0:0) for the main MPI libraries: libmpi, libmpi_cxx, libmpi_f77, and
libmpi_f90.

Open MPI's other internal libraries are not [yet] versioned for deep
voodoo technical reasons.  Please see
https://svn.open-mpi.org/trac/ompi/ticket/2092 for more details.

===========================================================================

Building Open MPI
-----------------

Open MPI uses a traditional configure script paired with "make" to
build.  Typical installs can be of the pattern:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
shell$ ./configure [...options...]
shell$ make all install
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

There are many available configure options (see "./configure --help"
for a full list); a summary of the more commonly used ones follows:

--prefix=<directory>
  Install Open MPI into the base directory named <directory>.  Hence,
  Open MPI will place its executables in <directory>/bin, its header
  files in <directory>/include, its libraries in <directory>/lib, etc.

--with-elan=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the Quadrics Elan library and header
  files are located.  This option is generally only necessary if the
  Elan headers and libraries are not in default compiler/linker
  search paths.

  Elan is the support library for Quadrics-based networks.

--with-elan-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the Quadrics Elan libraries.  By default, Open
  MPI will look in <elan directory>/lib and <elan directory>/lib64,
  which covers most cases.  This option is only needed for special
  configurations.

--with-gm=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the GM libraries and header files are
  located.  This option is generally only necessary if the GM headers
  and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  GM is the support library for older Myrinet-based networks (GM has
  been obsoleted by MX).

--with-gm-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the GM libraries.  By default, Open MPI will
  look in <gm directory>/lib and <gm directory>/lib64, which covers
  most cases.  This option is only needed for special configurations.

--with-mx=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the MX libraries and header files are
  located.  This option is generally only necessary if the MX headers
  and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  MX is the support library for Myrinet-based networks.  An open
  source software package named Open-MX provides the same
  functionality on Ethernet-based clusters (Open-MX can provide
  MPI performance improvements compared to TCP messaging).

--with-mx-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the MX libraries.  By default, Open MPI will
  look in <mx directory>/lib and <mx directory>/lib64, which covers
  most cases.  This option is only needed for special configurations.

--with-openib=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the OpenFabrics (previously known as
  OpenIB) libraries and header files are located.  This option is
  generally only necessary if the OpenFabrics headers and libraries
  are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  "OpenFabrics" refers to iWARP- and InifiniBand-based networks.

--with-openib-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the OpenFabrics libraries.  By default, Open
  MPI will look in <openib directory>/lib and <openib
  directory>/lib64, which covers most cases.  This option is only
  needed for special configurations.

--with-portals=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the Portals libraries and header files
  are located.  This option is generally only necessary if the Portals
  headers and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search
  paths.

  Portals is the support library for Cray interconnects, but is also
  available on other platforms (e.g., there is a Portals library
  implemented over regular TCP).

--with-portals-config=<type>
  Configuration to use for Portals support. The following <type>
  values are possible: "utcp", "xt3", "xt3-modex" (default: utcp).

--with-portals-libs=<libs>
  Additional libraries to link with for Portals support.

--with-psm=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the QLogic InfiniPath PSM library and
  header files are located.  This option is generally only necessary
  if the InfiniPath headers and libraries are not in default
  compiler/linker search paths.

  PSM is the support library for QLogic InfiniPath network adapters.

--with-psm-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the PSM libraries.  By default, Open MPI will
  look in <psm directory>/lib and <psm directory>/lib64, which covers
  most cases.  This option is only needed for special configurations.

--with-sctp=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the SCTP libraries and header files are
  located.  This option is generally only necessary if the SCTP headers
  and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  SCTP is a special network stack over ethernet networks.

--with-sctp-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the SCTP libraries.  By default, Open MPI will
  look in <sctp directory>/lib and <sctp directory>/lib64, which covers
  most cases.  This option is only needed for special configurations.

--with-udapl=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the UDAPL libraries and header files are
  located.  Note that UDAPL support is disabled by default on Linux;
  the --with-udapl flag must be specified in order to enable it.
  Specifying the directory argument is generally only necessary if the
  UDAPL headers and libraries are not in default compiler/linker
  search paths.

  UDAPL is the support library for high performance networks in Sun
  HPC ClusterTools and on Linux OpenFabrics networks (although the
  "openib" options are preferred for Linux OpenFabrics networks, not
  UDAPL).

--with-udapl-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the UDAPL libraries.  By default, Open MPI
  will look in <udapl directory>/lib and <udapl directory>/lib64,
  which covers most cases.  This option is only needed for special
  configurations.

--with-lsf=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the LSF libraries and header files are
  located.  This option is generally only necessary if the LSF headers
  and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  LSF is a resource manager system, frequently used as a batch
  scheduler in HPC systems.

  NOTE: If you are using LSF version 7.0.5, you will need to add
        "LIBS=-ldl" to the configure command line.  For example:

            ./configure LIBS=-ldl --with-lsf ...

        This workaround should *only* be needed for LSF 7.0.5.

--with-lsf-libdir=<directory>
  Look in directory for the LSF libraries.  By default, Open MPI will
  look in <lsf directory>/lib and <lsf directory>/lib64, which covers
  most cases.  This option is only needed for special configurations.

--with-tm=<directory>
  Specify the directory where the TM libraries and header files are
  located.  This option is generally only necessary if the TM headers
  and libraries are not in default compiler/linker search paths.

  TM is the support library for the Torque and PBS Pro resource
  manager systems, both of which are frequently used as a batch
  scheduler in HPC systems.

--with-sge
  Specify to build support for the Sun Grid Engine (SGE) resource
  manager.  SGE support is disabled by default; this option must be
  specified to build OMPI's SGE support.

  The Sun Grid Engine (SGE) is a resource manager system, frequently
  used as a batch scheduler in HPC systems.

--with-mpi-param_check(=value)
  "value" can be one of: always, never, runtime.  If --with-mpi-param
  is not specified, "runtime" is the default.  If --with-mpi-param
  is specified with no value, "always" is used.  Using
  --without-mpi-param-check is equivalent to "never".

  - always: the parameters of MPI functions are always checked for
    errors 
  - never: the parameters of MPI functions are never checked for
    errors 
  - runtime: whether the parameters of MPI functions are checked
    depends on the value of the MCA parameter mpi_param_check
    (default: yes).

--with-threads=value
  Since thread support (both support for MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE and
  asynchronous progress) is only partially tested, it is disabled by
  default.  To enable threading, use "--with-threads=posix".  This is
  most useful when combined with --enable-mpi-threads and/or
  --enable-progress-threads.

--enable-mpi-threads
  Allows the MPI thread level MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE.  See
  --with-threads; this is currently disabled by default.

--enable-progress-threads
  Allows asynchronous progress in some transports.  See
  --with-threads; this is currently disabled by default.  See the
  above note about asynchronous progress.

--disable-mpi-cxx
  Disable building the C++ MPI bindings.  Note that this does *not*
  disable the C++ checks during configure; some of Open MPI's tools
  are written in C++ and therefore require a C++ compiler to be built.

--disable-mpi-cxx-seek
  Disable the MPI::SEEK_* constants.  Due to a problem with the MPI-2
  specification, these constants can conflict with system-level SEEK_*
  constants.  Open MPI attempts to work around this problem, but the
  workaround may fail in some esoteric situations.  The
  --disable-mpi-cxx-seek switch disables Open MPI's workarounds (and
  therefore the MPI::SEEK_* constants will be unavailable).

--disable-mpi-f77
  Disable building the Fortran 77 MPI bindings.

--disable-mpi-f90
  Disable building the Fortran 90 MPI bindings.  Also related to the
  --with-f90-max-array-dim and --with-mpi-f90-size options.

--with-mpi-f90-size=<SIZE>
  Three sizes of the MPI F90 module can be built: trivial (only a
  handful of MPI-2 F90-specific functions are included in the F90
  module), small (trivial + all MPI functions that take no choice
  buffers), and medium (small + all MPI functions that take 1 choice
  buffer).  This parameter is only used if the F90 bindings are
  enabled.

--with-f90-max-array-dim=<DIM>
  The F90 MPI bindings are strictly typed, even including the number of
  dimensions for arrays for MPI choice buffer parameters.  Open MPI
  generates these bindings at compile time with a maximum number of
  dimensions as specified by this parameter.  The default value is 4.

--enable-mpirun-prefix-by-default
  This option forces the "mpirun" command to always behave as if
  "--prefix $prefix" was present on the command line (where $prefix is
  the value given to the --prefix option to configure).  This prevents
  most rsh/ssh-based users from needing to modify their shell startup
  files to set the PATH and/or LD_LIBRARY_PATH for Open MPI on remote
  nodes.  Note, however, that such users may still desire to set PATH
  -- perhaps even in their shell startup files -- so that executables
  such as mpicc and mpirun can be found without needing to type long
  path names.  --enable-orterun-prefix-by-default is a synonym for
  this option.

--disable-shared
  By default, libmpi is built as a shared library, and all components
  are built as dynamic shared objects (DSOs).  This switch disables
  this default; it is really only useful when used with
  --enable-static.  Specifically, this option does *not* imply
  --enable-static; enabling static libraries and disabling shared
  libraries are two independent options.

--enable-static
  Build libmpi as a static library, and statically link in all
  components.  Note that this option does *not* imply
  --disable-shared; enabling static libraries and disabling shared
  libraries are two independent options.

--enable-sparse-groups
  Enable the usage of sparse groups. This would save memory
  significantly especially if you are creating large
  communicators. (Disabled by default)

--enable-peruse
  Enable the PERUSE MPI data analysis interface.

--enable-dlopen
  Build all of Open MPI's components as standalone Dynamic Shared
  Objects (DSO's) that are loaded at run-time.  The opposite of this
  option, --disable-dlopen, causes two things: 

  1. All of Open MPI's components will be built as part of Open MPI's
     normal libraries (e.g., libmpi).  
  2. Open MPI will not attempt to open any DSO's at run-time.

  Note that this option does *not* imply that OMPI's libraries will be
  built as static objects (e.g., libmpi.a).  It only specifies the
  location of OMPI's components: standalone DSOs or folded into the
  Open MPI libraries.  You can control whenther Open MPI's libraries
  are build as static or dynamic via --enable|disable-static and
  --enable|disable-shared.

--enable-heterogeneous
  Enable support for running on heterogeneous clusters (e.g., machines
  with different endian representations).  Heterogeneous support is
  disabled by default because it imposes a minor performance penalty.

--enable-ptmalloc2-internal
  ***NOTE: This option no longer exists.

  This option was introduced in Open MPI v1.3 and was then removed in
  Open MPI v1.3.2.  Open MPI fundamentally changed how it uses
  ptmalloc2 support in v1.3.2 such that the
  --enable-ptmalloc2-internal flag was no longer necessary.  It can
  still harmlessly be supplied to Open MPI's configure script, but a
  warning will appear about how it is an unrecognized option.

  In v1.3 and v1.3.1, Open MPI built the ptmalloc2 library as a
  standalone library that users could choose to link in or not (by
  adding -lopenmpi-malloc to their link command).  Using this option
  restored pre-v1.3 behavior of *always* forcing the user to use the
  ptmalloc2 memory manager (because it is part of libmpi).

  Starting with v1.3.2, ptmalloc2 is always built into Open MPI, but
  is only activated in certain scenarios.

--with-wrapper-cflags=<cflags>
--with-wrapper-cxxflags=<cxxflags>
--with-wrapper-fflags=<fflags>
--with-wrapper-fcflags=<fcflags>
--with-wrapper-ldflags=<ldflags>
--with-wrapper-libs=<libs>
  Add the specified flags to the default flags that used are in Open
  MPI's "wrapper" compilers (e.g., mpicc -- see below for more
  information about Open MPI's wrapper compilers).  By default, Open
  MPI's wrapper compilers use the same compilers used to build Open
  MPI and specify an absolute minimum set of additional flags that are
  necessary to compile/link MPI applications.  These configure options
  give system administrators the ability to embed additional flags in
  OMPI's wrapper compilers (which is a local policy decision).  The
  meanings of the different flags are:

  <cflags>: Flags passed by the mpicc wrapper to the C compiler
  <cxxflags>: Flags passed by the mpic++ wrapper to the C++ compiler
  <fflags>: Flags passed by the mpif77 wrapper to the F77 compiler
  <fcflags>: Flags passed by the mpif90 wrapper to the F90 compiler
  <ldflags>: Flags passed by all the wrappers to the linker
  <libs>: Flags passed by all the wrappers to the linker

  There are other ways to configure Open MPI's wrapper compiler
  behavior; see the Open MPI FAQ for more information.

There are many other options available -- see "./configure --help".

Changing the compilers that Open MPI uses to build itself uses the
standard Autoconf mechanism of setting special environment variables
either before invoking configure or on the configure command line.
The following environment variables are recognized by configure:

CC          - C compiler to use
CFLAGS      - Compile flags to pass to the C compiler
CPPFLAGS    - Preprocessor flags to pass to the C compiler

CXX         - C++ compiler to use
CXXFLAGS    - Compile flags to pass to the C++ compiler
CXXCPPFLAGS - Preprocessor flags to pass to the C++ compiler

F77         - Fortran 77 compiler to use
FFLAGS      - Compile flags to pass to the Fortran 77 compiler

FC          - Fortran 90 compiler to use
FCFLAGS     - Compile flags to pass to the Fortran 90 compiler

LDFLAGS     - Linker flags to pass to all compilers
LIBS        - Libraries to pass to all compilers (it is rarely
              necessary for users to need to specify additional LIBS)

For example:

shell$ ./configure CC=mycc CXX=myc++ F77=myf77 F90=myf90 ...

***Note: We generally suggest using the above command line form for
   setting different compilers (vs. setting environment variables and
   then invoking "./configure").  The above form will save all
   variables and values in the config.log file, which makes
   post-mortem analysis easier when problems occur.

Note that you may also want to ensure that the value of
LD_LIBRARY_PATH is set appropriately (or not at all) for your build
(or whatever environment variable is relevant for your operating
system).  For example, some users have been tripped up by setting to
use non-default Fortran compilers via FC / F77, but then failing to
set LD_LIBRARY_PATH to include the directory containing that
non-default Fortran compiler's support libraries.  This causes Open
MPI's configure script to fail when it tries to compile / link / run
simple Fortran programs.

It is required that the compilers specified be compile and link
compatible, meaning that object files created by one compiler must be
able to be linked with object files from the other compilers and
produce correctly functioning executables.

Open MPI supports all the "make" targets that are provided by GNU
Automake, such as:

all       - build the entire Open MPI package
install   - install Open MPI
uninstall - remove all traces of Open MPI from the $prefix
clean     - clean out the build tree

Once Open MPI has been built and installed, it is safe to run "make
clean" and/or remove the entire build tree.

VPATH and parallel builds are fully supported.

Generally speaking, the only thing that users need to do to use Open
MPI is ensure that <prefix>/bin is in their PATH and <prefix>/lib is
in their LD_LIBRARY_PATH.  Users may need to ensure to set the PATH
and LD_LIBRARY_PATH in their shell setup files (e.g., .bashrc, .cshrc)
so that non-interactive rsh/ssh-based logins will be able to find the
Open MPI executables.

===========================================================================

Open MPI Version Numbers and Binary Compatibility
-------------------------------------------------

Open MPI has two sets of version numbers that are likely of interest
to end users / system administrator:

    * Software version number
    * Shared library version numbers

Both are described below, followed by a discussion of application
binary interface (ABI) compatibility implications.

Software Version Number
-----------------------

Open MPI's version numbers are the union of several different values:
major, minor, release, and an optional quantifier.

  * Major: The major number is the first integer in the version string
    (e.g., v1.2.3). Changes in the major number typically indicate a
    significant change in the code base and/or end-user
    functionality. The major number is always included in the version
    number.

  * Minor: The minor number is the second integer in the version
    string (e.g., v1.2.3). Changes in the minor number typically
    indicate a incremental change in the code base and/or end-user
    functionality. The minor number is always included in the version
    number. Starting with Open MPI v1.3.0, the minor release number
    took on additional significance (see this wiki page for more
    details):

    o Even minor release numbers are part of "super-stable"
      release series (e.g., v1.4.0). Releases in super stable series
      are well-tested, time-tested, and mature. Such releases are
      recomended for production sites. Changes between subsequent
      releases in super stable series are expected to be fairly small.
    o Odd minor release numbers are part of "feature" release
      series (e.g., 1.3.7). Releases in feature releases are
      well-tested, but they are not necessarily time-tested or as
      mature as super stable releases. Changes between subsequent
      releases in feature series may be large.

  * Release: The release number is the third integer in the version
    string (e.g., v1.2.3). Changes in the release number typically
    indicate a bug fix in the code base and/or end-user
    functionality. If the release number is 0, it is omitted from the
    version number (e.g., v1.2 has a release number of 0).

  * Quantifier: Open MPI version numbers sometimes have an arbitrary
    string affixed to the end of the version number. Common strings
    include:

    o aX: Indicates an alpha release. X is an integer indicating
      the number of the alpha release (e.g., v1.2.3a5 indicates the
      5th alpha release of version 1.2.3).
    o bX: Indicates a beta release. X is an integer indicating
      the number of the beta release (e.g., v1.2.3b3 indicates the 3rd
      beta release of version 1.2.3).
    o rcX: Indicates a release candidate. X is an integer
      indicating the number of the release candidate (e.g., v1.2.3rc4
      indicates the 4th release candidate of version 1.2.3).
    o rV or hgV: Indicates the Subversion / Mercurial repository
      number string that the release was made from (V is usually an
      integer for Subversion releases and usually a string for
      Mercurial releases). Although all official Open MPI releases are
      tied to a single, specific Subversion or Mercurial repository
      number (which can be obtained from the ompi_info command), only
      some releases have the Subversion / Mercurial repository number
      in the version number. Development snapshot tarballs, for
      example, have the Subversion repository included in the version
      to reflect that they are a development snapshot of an upcoming
      release (e.g., v1.2.3r1234 indicates a development snapshot of
      version 1.2.3 corresponding to Subversion repository number
      1234). 

    Quantifiers may be mixed together -- for example v1.2.3rc7r2345
    indicates a development snapshot of an upcoming 7th release
    candidate for version 1.2.3 corresponding to Subversion repository
    number 2345.

Shared Library Version Number
-----------------------------

Open MPI started using the GNU Libtool shared library versioning
scheme with the release of v1.3.2.

NOTE: Only official releases of Open MPI adhere to this versioning
      scheme. "Beta" releases, release candidates, and nightly
      tarballs, developer snapshots, and Subversion/Mercurial snapshot
      tarballs likely will all have meaningless shared library version
      numbers.

The GNU Libtool official documentation details how the versioning
scheme works.  The quick version is that the shared library versions
are a triple of integers: (current,revision,age), or "c:r:a".  This
triple is not related to the Open MPI software version number.  There
are six simple rules for updating the values (taken almost verbatim
from the Libtool docs):

 1. Start with version information of "0:0:0" for each shared library.

 2. Update the version information only immediately before a public
    release of your software. More frequent updates are unnecessary,
    and only guarantee that the current interface number gets larger
    faster.

 3. If the library source code has changed at all since the last
    update, then increment revision ("c:r:a" becomes "c:r+1:a").

 4. If any interfaces have been added, removed, or changed since the
    last update, increment current, and set revision to 0.

 5. If any interfaces have been added since the last public release,
    then increment age.

 6. If any interfaces have been removed since the last public release,
    then set age to 0.

Here's how we apply those rules specifically to Open MPI:

 1. The above rules do not apply to MCA components (a.k.a. "plugins");
    MCA component .so versions stay unspecified.

 2. The above rules apply exactly as written to the following
    libraries starting with Open MPI version v1.5 (prior to v1.5,
    libopen-pal and libopen-rte were still at 0:0:0 for reasons
    discussed in bug ticket #2092
    https://svn.open-mpi.org/trac/ompi/ticket/2092):

    * libopen-rte
    * libopen-pal
    * libmca_common_*

 3. The following libraries use a slightly modified version of the
    above rules: rules 4, 5, and 6 only apply to the official MPI
    interfaces (functions, global variables).  The rationale for this
    decision is that the vast majority of our users only care about
    the official/public MPI interfaces; we therefore want the .so
    version number to reflect only changes to the official MPI API.
    Put simply: non-MPI API / internal changes to the
    MPI-application-facing libraries are irrelevant to pure MPI
    applications.

    * libmpi
    * libmpi_f77
    * libmpi_f90
    * libmpi_cxx

 4. Note, however, that libmpi.so can have its "revision" number
    incremented if libopen-rte or libopen-pal change (because these
    two libraries are wholly included in libmpi.so).  Specifically:
    the revision will change, but since we have defined that the only
    relevant API interface in libmpi.so is the official MPI API,
    updates to libopen-rte and libopen-pal do not change the "current"
    or "age" numbers of libmpi.so.

Application Binary Interface (ABI) Compatibility
------------------------------------------------

Open MPI provided forward application binary interface (ABI)
compatibility for MPI applications starting with v1.3.2.  Prior to
that version, no ABI guarantees were provided.  

NOTE: Prior to v1.3.2, subtle and strange failures are almost
      guaranteed to occur if applications were compiled and linked
      against shared libraries from one version of Open MPI and then
      run with another.  The Open MPI team strongly discourages making
      any ABI assumptions before v1.3.2.

Starting with v1.3.2, Open MPI provides forward ABI compatibility --
with respect to the MPI API only -- in all versions of a given feature
release series and its corresponding super stable series.  For
example, on a single platform, an MPI application linked against Open
MPI v1.3.2 shared libraries can be updated to point to the shared
libraries in any successive v1.3.x or v1.4 release and still work
properly (e.g., via the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable or other
operating system mechanism).

Note that in v1.4.4, a fix was applied to the "large" size of the "use
mpi" F90 MPI bindings module: two of MPI_SCATTERV's parameters had the
wrong type and were corrected.  Note that this fix *only* applies if
Open MPI was configured with a Fortran 90 compiler and the
--with-mpi-f90-size=large configure option.

However, in order to preserve ABI with all releases since v1.3.2, the
old/incorrect MPI_SCATTERV interface was preserved and a new/corrected
interface was added (note that Fortran 90 has function overloading,
similar to C++; hence, both the old and new interface can be accessed
via "call MPI_Scatterv(...)").

Applications that use the old/incorrect MPI_SCATTERV binding will
continue to compile/link just like they did with releases since
v1.3.2.  However, application developers are ***STRONGLY*** encouraged
to fix their applications to use the correct bindings for the
following reasons:

  - The parameter type mismatch may cause application crashes or
    silent data corruption.
  - An annoying message (which cannot be disabled) is sent to stdout
    warning the user that they are using an incorrect interface.
  - The old/incorrect interface will be removed in Open MPI v1.7
    (i.e., applications that use the old/incorrect binding will not
    compile with Open MPI v1.7).

Open MPI reserves the right to break ABI compatibility at new feature
release series.  For example, the same MPI application from above
(linked against Open MPI v1.3.2 shared libraries) will *not* work with
Open MPI v1.5 shared libraries.

===========================================================================

Checking Your Open MPI Installation
-----------------------------------

The "ompi_info" command can be used to check the status of your Open
MPI installation (located in <prefix>/bin/ompi_info).  Running it with
no arguments provides a summary of information about your Open MPI
installation.   

Note that the ompi_info command is extremely helpful in determining
which components are installed as well as listing all the run-time
settable parameters that are available in each component (as well as
their default values).

The following options may be helpful:

--all       Show a *lot* of information about your Open MPI
            installation. 
--parsable  Display all the information in an easily
            grep/cut/awk/sed-able format.
--param <framework> <component>
            A <framework> of "all" and a <component> of "all" will
            show all parameters to all components.  Otherwise, the
            parameters of all the components in a specific framework,
            or just the parameters of a specific component can be
            displayed by using an appropriate <framework> and/or
            <component> name.

Changing the values of these parameters is explained in the "The
Modular Component Architecture (MCA)" section, below.

===========================================================================

Compiling Open MPI Applications
-------------------------------

Open MPI provides "wrapper" compilers that should be used for
compiling MPI applications:

C:          mpicc
C++:        mpiCC (or mpic++ if your filesystem is case-insensitive)
Fortran 77: mpif77
Fortran 90: mpif90

For example:

shell$ mpicc hello_world_mpi.c -o hello_world_mpi -g
shell$

All the wrapper compilers do is add a variety of compiler and linker
flags to the command line and then invoke a back-end compiler.  To be
specific: the wrapper compilers do not parse source code at all; they
are solely command-line manipulators, and have nothing to do with the
actual compilation or linking of programs.  The end result is an MPI
executable that is properly linked to all the relevant libraries.

Customizing the behavior of the wrapper compilers is possible (e.g.,
changing the compiler [not recommended] or specifying additional
compiler/linker flags); see the Open MPI FAQ for more information.

===========================================================================

Running Open MPI Applications
-----------------------------

Open MPI supports both mpirun and mpiexec (they are exactly
equivalent).  For example:

shell$ mpirun -np 2 hello_world_mpi
or
shell$ mpiexec -np 1 hello_world_mpi : -np 1 hello_world_mpi

are equivalent.  Some of mpiexec's switches (such as -host and -arch)
are not yet functional, although they will not error if you try to use
them.  

The rsh launcher accepts a -hostfile parameter (the option
"-machinefile" is equivalent); you can specify a -hostfile parameter
indicating an standard mpirun-style hostfile (one hostname per line):

shell$ mpirun -hostfile my_hostfile -np 2 hello_world_mpi

If you intend to run more than one process on a node, the hostfile can
use the "slots" attribute.  If "slots" is not specified, a count of 1
is assumed.  For example, using the following hostfile:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
node1.example.com
node2.example.com
node3.example.com slots=2
node4.example.com slots=4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

shell$ mpirun -hostfile my_hostfile -np 8 hello_world_mpi

will launch MPI_COMM_WORLD rank 0 on node1, rank 1 on node2, ranks 2
and 3 on node3, and ranks 4 through 7 on node4.

Other starters, such as the resource manager / batch scheduling
environments, do not require hostfiles (and will ignore the hostfile
if it is supplied).  They will also launch as many processes as slots
have been allocated by the scheduler if no "-np" argument has been
provided.  For example, running a SLURM job with 8 processors:

shell$ salloc -n 8 mpirun a.out

The above command will reserve 8 processors and run 1 copy of mpirun,
which will, in turn, launch 8 copies of a.out in a single
MPI_COMM_WORLD on the processors that were allocated by SLURM.

Note that the values of component parameters can be changed on the
mpirun / mpiexec command line.  This is explained in the section
below, "The Modular Component Architecture (MCA)".

===========================================================================

The Modular Component Architecture (MCA)

The MCA is the backbone of Open MPI -- most services and functionality
are implemented through MCA components.  Here is a list of all the
component frameworks in Open MPI:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

MPI component frameworks:
-------------------------

allocator - Memory allocator
bml       - BTL management layer
btl       - MPI point-to-point Byte Transfer Layer, used for MPI
            point-to-point messages on some types of networks
coll      - MPI collective algorithms
crcp      - Checkpoint/restart coordination protocol
dpm       - MPI-2 dynamic process management
io        - MPI-2 I/O
mpool     - Memory pooling
mtl       - Matching transport layer, used for MPI point-to-point
            messages on some types of networks
osc       - MPI-2 one-sided communications
pml       - MPI point-to-point management layer
pubsub    - MPI-2 publish/subscribe management
rcache    - Memory registration cache
topo      - MPI topology routines

Back-end run-time environment component frameworks:
---------------------------------------------------

errmgr    - RTE error manager
ess       - RTE environment-specfic services
filem     - Remote file management
grpcomm   - RTE group communications
iof       - I/O forwarding
notifier  - System/network administrator noficiation system
odls      - OpenRTE daemon local launch subsystem
oob       - Out of band messaging
plm       - Process lifecycle management
ras       - Resource allocation system
rmaps     - Resource mapping system
rml       - RTE message layer
routed    - Routing table for the RML
snapc     - Snapshot coordination

Miscellaneous frameworks:
-------------------------

backtrace   - Debugging call stack backtrace support
carto       - Cartography (host/network mapping) support
crs         - Checkpoint and restart service
installdirs - Installation directory relocation services
maffinity   - Memory affinity
memchecker  - Run-time memory checking
memcpy      - Memopy copy support
memory      - Memory management hooks
paffinity   - Processor affinity
timer       - High-resolution timers

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Each framework typically has one or more components that are used at
run-time.  For example, the btl framework is used by the MPI layer to
send bytes across different types underlying networks.  The tcp btl,
for example, sends messages across TCP-based networks; the openib btl
sends messages across OpenFabrics-based networks; the MX btl sends
messages across Myrinet MX / Open-MX networks.

Each component typically has some tunable parameters that can be
changed at run-time.  Use the ompi_info command to check a component
to see what its tunable parameters are.  For example:

shell$ ompi_info --param btl tcp

shows all the parameters (and default values) for the tcp btl
component.

These values can be overridden at run-time in several ways.  At
run-time, the following locations are examined (in order) for new
values of parameters:

1. <prefix>/etc/openmpi-mca-params.conf

   This file is intended to set any system-wide default MCA parameter
   values -- it will apply, by default, to all users who use this Open
   MPI installation.  The default file that is installed contains many
   comments explaining its format.

2. $HOME/.openmpi/mca-params.conf

   If this file exists, it should be in the same format as
   <prefix>/etc/openmpi-mca-params.conf.  It is intended to provide
   per-user default parameter values.

3. environment variables of the form OMPI_MCA_<name> set equal to a
   <value>

   Where <name> is the name of the parameter.  For example, set the
   variable named OMPI_MCA_btl_tcp_frag_size to the value 65536
   (Bourne-style shells):

   shell$ OMPI_MCA_btl_tcp_frag_size=65536
   shell$ export OMPI_MCA_btl_tcp_frag_size

4. the mpirun command line: --mca <name> <value>
 
   Where <name> is the name of the parameter.  For example:

   shell$ mpirun --mca btl_tcp_frag_size 65536 -np 2 hello_world_mpi

These locations are checked in order.  For example, a parameter value
passed on the mpirun command line will override an environment
variable; an environment variable will override the system-wide
defaults.

===========================================================================

Common Questions
----------------

Many common questions about building and using Open MPI are answered
on the FAQ:

    http://www.open-mpi.org/faq/

===========================================================================

Got more questions?
-------------------

Found a bug?  Got a question?  Want to make a suggestion?  Want to
contribute to Open MPI?  Please let us know!

When submitting questions and problems, be sure to include as much
extra information as possible.  This web page details all the
information that we request in order to provide assistance:

     http://www.open-mpi.org/community/help/

User-level questions and comments should generally be sent to the
user's mailing list (users@open-mpi.org).  Because of spam, only
subscribers are allowed to post to this list (ensure that you
subscribe with and post from *exactly* the same e-mail address --
joe@example.com is considered different than
joe@mycomputer.example.com!).  Visit this page to subscribe to the
user's list:

     http://www.open-mpi.org/mailman/listinfo.cgi/users

Developer-level bug reports, questions, and comments should generally
be sent to the developer's mailing list (devel@open-mpi.org).  Please
do not post the same question to both lists.  As with the user's list,
only subscribers are allowed to post to the developer's list.  Visit
the following web page to subscribe:

     http://www.open-mpi.org/mailman/listinfo.cgi/devel

Make today an Open MPI day!
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.