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upgrading xwork docs

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docs/wikidocs/Basics.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Actions</h2></p>Actions are the basic unit of execution&#8230;<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> The Action Interface</h3></p>The basic interface which all XWork actions must implement. It provides several standard return values like SUCCESS and INPUT, and only contains one method:
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-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> execute() <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> Exception;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">In general, Actions should simply extend ActionSupport, which provides a default implementation for the most common actions.</p><h2 class="heading2"> ActionContext</h2><p class="paragraph">The ActionContext provides access to the execution environment in the form of named objects during an Action invocation. A new ActionContext is created for each invocation allowing developers to access/modify these properties in a thread safe manner. The ActionContext makes a number of properties available that are typically set to appropriate values by the framework. In WebWork 2 for example, the ActionContext session map wraps an underlying HttpSession object. This allows access to environment specific properties without tying the core framework to a specific execution environment.</p>The ActionContext is acquired through the static ActionContext.getContext() method. The ActionContext is a thread local variable and thus the properties of the ActionContext will be relative to the current request thread. The ActionContext has several methods for commonly used properties as well as get() and set() methods which can be used for application specific properties. 
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docs/wikidocs/Building a Validator.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">Validators implement the <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.Validator</b> interface</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">interface</span> Validator &#123;&#10;    void setDefaultMessage(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> message);&#10;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> getDefaultMessage();&#10;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> getMessage(<span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> object);&#10;&#10;    void setMessageKey(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> key);&#10;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> getMessageKey();&#10;&#10;    /&#42;&#42;&#10;     &#42; This method will be called before validate with a non&#45;<span class="java&#45;keyword">null</span> ValidatorContext.&#10;     &#42; &#64;param validatorContext&#10;     &#42;/&#10;    void setValidatorContext(ValidatorContext validatorContext);&#10;&#10;    ValidatorContext getValidatorContext();&#10;&#10;    /&#42;&#42;&#10;     &#42; The validation implementation must guarantee that setValidatorContext&#10;     &#42; will be called with a non&#45;<span class="java&#45;keyword">null</span> ValidatorContext before validate is called.&#10;     &#42; &#64;param object&#10;     &#42; &#64;<span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> ValidationException&#10;     &#42;/&#10;    void validate(<span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> object) <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> ValidationException;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">FieldValidators implement <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.FieldValidator</b>, which extends Validator:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">interface</span> FieldValidator <span class="java&#45;keyword">extends</span> Validator &#123;&#10;&#10;    /&#42;&#42;&#10;     &#42; Sets the field name to validate with <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span> FieldValidator&#10;     &#42; &#64;param fieldName&#10;     &#42;/&#10;    void setFieldName(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> fieldName);&#10;&#10;    /&#42;&#42;&#10;     &#42; &#64;<span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> the field name to be validated&#10;     &#42;/&#10;    <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> getFieldName();&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">If you want to be able to use the &quot;short-circuit&quot; attribute, you should also implement <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.ShortCircuitableValidator</b>.</p>Validators and FieldValidators can extend base classes <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.ValidatorSupport</b> and <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.FieldValidatorSupport</b> to get the base message and short-circuiting behavior, and will only need to implement validate(Action action). <p class="paragraph">The Support classes provide the functionality to use the message key and default message to get the localied message body and the parsing of the message body to provide for parameterized messages. Implementations of the Validator Interface which do not extend the Support base classes should provide this functionality as well for consistency.</p>The <b class="strong">ValidatorContext</b> set into the Validator is an interface which extends both <b class="strong">ValidationAware</b> and <b class="strong">LocaleAware</b> and is used for looking up message texts and settting errors. When validators are called from the ValidationInterceptor, a DelegatingValidatorContext is created which delegates these calls to the Action if it implements these interfaces. If the Action does not implement LocaleAware, a LocaleAwareSupport instance is created which uses the Action&#039;s class to look up resource bundle texts, if available. If the action does not implement ValidationAware, an implementation which simply logs the validation errors is created and delegated to. When calling the validation framework from outside the ValidationInterceptor, any ValidatorContext implementation can be passed in.<p class="paragraph">Validator classes may define any number of properties using the usual getX() setX() naming convention and have those properties set using &lt;param name=&quot;x&quot;&gt;foo&lt;/param&gt; elements below the &lt;validator&gt; element. The values of these properties may then be used in the validate() method to parameterize the validation. Validators which extend the Support classes may also use the</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> getFieldValue(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> name, Action action)</pre></div><p class="paragraph">method to get the field value of a named property from an Action.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Components.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Overview</h2></p><a href="XWork.html">XWork</a> provides the ComponentManager interface (and a corresponding implementation in the DefaultComponentManager class) to allow a design pattern known as <b class="strong">Inversion of Control</b> (or <b class="strong">IoC</b> for short) to be applied to your actions or other arbitrary objects. In a nutshell, the IoC pattern allows a parent object (in this case XWork&#039;s ComponentManager instance) to control a client object (usually an action, but it could be any object that implements the appropriate <em class="emphasis">enabler</em>).<p class="paragraph">You may also want to look at <a href="http://wiki.opensymphony.com//display/WW/Components">WW:Components</a> to see how WW2 uses XWork&#039;s IoC architecture.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Why IoC?</h2><p class="paragraph">So why is IoC useful? It means that you can develop components (generally services of some sort) in a top-down fashion, without the need to build a registry class that the client must then call to obtain the component instance.</p>Traditionally when implementing services you are probably used to following steps similar to these:<ol>
-<li> Write the component (eg an ExchangeRateService)</li>
-<li> Write the client class (eg an XWork action)</li>
-<li> Write a registry class that holds the component object (eg Registry)</li>
-<li> Write code that gives the component object to the registry (eg Registry.registerService(new MyExchangeRateService()))</li>
-<li> Use the registry to obtain the service from your client class (eg ExchangeRateService ers = Registry.getExchangeRateService())</li>
-<li> Make calls to the component from the client class (eg String baseCurrencyCode = ers.getBaseCurrency())</li>
-</ol><br/>
-Using IoC, the process is reduced to the following:<ol>
-<li> Write the component class (eg an ExchangeRateService)</li>
-<li> Register the component class with XWork (eg componentManager.addEnabler(MyExchangeRateService, ExchangeRateAware))</li>
-<li> Write the client class, making sure it implements the enabling interface (eg an XWork action that implements ExchangeRateAware)</li>
-<li> Access the component instance directly from your client action (eg String baseCurencyCode = ers.getBaseCurrency())</li>
-</ol><br/>
-XWork takes care of passing components through to enabled action classes or other components.<p class="paragraph">Some other benefits that IoC can provide include:
-<ul class="star">
-<li> A component describes itself. When you instantiate a component, you can easily determine what dependencies it requires without looking at the source or using trial and error.</li>
-<li> Dependencies can be discovered easily using reflection. This has many benefits ranging from diagram generation to runtime optimization (by determining in advance which components will be needed to fufill a request and preparing them asyncronously, for example).</li>
-<li> Avoids the super-uber-mega-factory pattern where all the components of the app are held together by a single class that is directly tied back to other domain specific classes, making it hard to &#039;just use that one class&#039;.</li>
-<li> Adheres to Law of Demeter. Some people think this is silly, but in practise I&#039;ve found it works much better. Each class is coupled to only what it actually uses (and it should never use too much) and no more. This encourages smaller responsibility specific classes which leads to cleaner design.</li>
-<li> Allows context to be isolated and explicitly passed around. ThreadLocals may be ok in a web-app, but they aren&#039;t well suited for high concurrency async applications (such as message driven applications).</li>
-</ul>
-<h2 class="heading2"> Configuration - xwork.xml</h2></p>The ComponentInterceptor class is used to apply the IoC pattern to XWork actions (ie, to supply components to actions). The ComponentInterceptor should be declared in the &lt;interceptors&gt; block of xwork.xml as follows:
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-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;interceptor name=&quot;component&quot;&#10;        class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.component.ComponentInterceptor&quot;/&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">You should ensure that any actions that are to be supplied with components have this interceptor applied. (See <a href="http://wiki.opensymphony.com//display/OS/XWork%2BInterceptors">OS:XWork Interceptors</a> for information on how to apply interceptors to actions.)</p>If you want to apply IoC to objects other than actions or other components, you will need to use the ComponentManager object directly.<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Writing Component Classes</h2></p>The actual component class can be virtually anything you like. The only constraints on it are that it must be a concrete class with a default constructor so that XWork can create instances of it as required. Optionally, a component may implement the Initializable and/or Disposable interfaces so it will receive lifecycle events just after it is created or before it is destroyed. Simply:
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-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class MyComponent <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Intializable, Disposable &#123;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void init () &#123;&#10;         //<span class="java&#45;keyword">do</span> initialization here&#10;    &#125;&#10;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void dispose() &#123;&#10;         //<span class="java&#45;keyword">do</span> any clean up necessary before garbage collection of <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span> component&#10;    &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Component Dependencies</h2></p>One feature that is not immediately obvious is that it is possible for components to depend on other components. For example if the ExchangeRateService described above depended on a Configuration component, XWork will pass the Configuration component through to the ExchangeRateService instance after ExchangeRateService is instantiated. Note that XWork automatically takes care of initializing the components in the correct order, so if A is an action or component that depends on B and C, and B depends on C and if A, B, and C have not been previously instantiated, the ComponentManager will in the following order:
-<ol>
-<li> Instantiate C and call it&#039;s init() method if it implements Initializable.</li>
-<li> Instantiate B, then using the enabler method, set C to be used by B</li>
-<li> Call B&#039;s init() method, if it implements Intitializable.</li>
-<li> Set B using B&#039;s enabler method to be used by A.</li>
-</ol><br/>
-And so on and so forth. Of course, if there are instances of B or C that would be reused in this case, those instances would be passed using the enabler method rather than a new instance.<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Writing Enablers</h2></p>An enabler should consist of just a single method that accepts a single parameter. The parameter class should either be the component class that is to be enabled, or one of the component&#039;s superclasses. XWork does not care what the name of the enabler&#039;s method is.<p class="paragraph">Here is an example of what the ExchangeRateAware enabler might look like:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">interface</span> ExchangeRateAware &#123;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setExchangeRateService(ExchangeRateService exchangeRateService);&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Note that typically an enabler would be an interface, however there is nothing to prevent you from using a class instead if you so choose.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Writing &quot;Enabler-aware&quot; Actions</h2><p class="paragraph">All an action needs to do is implement the relevant enabler interface. XWork will then call the action&#039;s enabler method just prior to the action&#039;s execution. As a simple example:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class MyAction <span class="java&#45;keyword">extends</span> ActionSupport <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> ExchangeRateAware &#123;&#10;    ExchangeRateService ers;&#10;    &#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setExchangeRateService(ExchangeRateService exchangeRateService) &#123;&#10;        ers = exchangeRateService;&#10;    &#125;&#10;    &#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> execute() <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> Exception &#123;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;object">System</span>.out.println(&quot;The base currency is &quot; &#43; ers.getBaseCurrency());&#10;    &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">If you have an object that is not an action or another component, you must explictly tell XWork to supply any enabled components to your object by calling componentManager.initializeObject(enabledObject);</p><h2 class="heading2"> Using an external reference resolver</h2><p class="paragraph">You can also use an external reference resolver in XWork, i.e., references that will be resolved not by XWork itself. One such example is using an external resolver to integrate XWork with the <span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.springframework.org">Spring Framework<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></p>You just need to write an external reference resolver and then tell XWork to use it in the package declaration:
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;package&#10;    name=&quot;default&quot;&#10;    externalReferenceResolver=&quot;com.atlassian.xwork.ext.SpringServletContextReferenceResolver&quot;&gt;</pre></div><br/>
-Now, to use external references you do something like this:
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;external&#45;ref name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;Foo&lt;/external&#45;ref&gt;</pre></div><br/>
-Where the name attribute is the setter method name and Foo is the reference to lookup.<p class="paragraph">For more details and sample code about this integration, take a look at the javadocs to the com.opensymphony.xwork.config.ExternalReferenceResolver class (unfortunately unavailable online) and at <span class="nobr"><a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/secure/ViewIssue.jspa?key=XW-122">XW-122<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></p>-Chris
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docs/wikidocs/Configuration.html

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-<li> xwork.xml</li>
-<li> <a href="Logging.html">Logging</a></li>
-</ul><p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> xwork.xml</h2></p><a name="Configuration-top" ></a><br/>
-XWork is configured through the use of a file named xwork.xml in the root of the classpath which conforms to the DTD.  This file defines the action, interceptor, and result configurations and mappings. The following is a sample xwork.xml file; it&#039;s a condensed version of the one used in the XWork test cases.  It&#039;s a long example, but it exhibits all the major configuration possibilites:
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-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;&#33;DOCTYPE xwork PUBLIC &quot;&#45;//OpenSymphony Group//XWork 1.0//EN&quot;&#10;  &quot;http&#58;//www.opensymphony.com/xwork/xwork&#45;1.0.dtd&quot;&gt;&#10;&#10;&lt;xwork&gt;&#10;  &lt;package name=&quot;default&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;result&#45;types&gt;&#10;      &lt;result&#45;type name=&quot;chain&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.ActionChainResult&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;/result&#45;types&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;interceptors&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;timer&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.TimerInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;logger&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.LoggingInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;chain&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;params&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;static&#45;params&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor name=&quot;test&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.TestInterceptor&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;expectedFoo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&gt;&#10;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;stack name=&quot;defaultStack&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;static&#45;params&quot;/&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;params&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;stack&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;stack name=&quot;debugStack&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;timer&quot;/&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;logger&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;stack&gt;&#10;    &lt;/interceptors&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;global&#45;results&gt;&#10;      &lt;result name=&quot;login&quot; type=&quot;chain&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;actionName&quot;&gt;login&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/result&gt;&#10;    &lt;/global&#45;results&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;Foo&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;17&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;param name=&quot;bar&quot;&gt;23&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;result name=&quot;success&quot; type=&quot;chain&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;actionName&quot;&gt;Bar&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/result&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;debugStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;defaultStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;Bar&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;17&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;param name=&quot;bar&quot;&gt;23&lt;/param&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;TestInterceptorParam&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expectedFoo&quot;&gt;expectedFoo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;ref&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;TestInterceptorParamOverride&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;foo123&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expectedFoo&quot;&gt;foo123&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;ref&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;  &lt;/package&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;package name=&quot;bar&quot; extends=&quot;default&quot; namespace=&quot;/foo/bar&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;interceptors&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;stack name=&quot;barDefaultStack&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;debugStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;defaultStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;stack&gt;&#10;    &lt;/interceptors&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;Bar&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;barDefaultStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;TestInterceptorParamInheritance&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expectedFoo&quot;&gt;expectedFoo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/interceptor&#45;ref&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;/package&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;package name=&quot;abstractPackage&quot; namespace=&quot;/abstract&quot; abstract=&quot;true&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;test&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;/&gt;&#10;  &lt;/package&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;package name=&quot;nonAbstractPackage&quot; extends=&quot;abstractPackage&quot; namespace=&quot;/nonAbstract&quot;/&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;package name=&quot;multipleInheritance&quot; extends=&quot;default,abstractPackage,bar&quot; namespace=&quot;multipleInheritance&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;action name=&quot;testMultipleInheritance&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;      &lt;result name=&quot;success&quot; type=&quot;chain&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;actionName&quot;&gt;foo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;      &lt;/result&gt;&#10;      &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;barDefaultStack&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;/action&gt;&#10;  &lt;/package&gt;&#10;&#10;  &lt;include file=&quot;includeTest.xml&quot;/&gt;&#10;&lt;/xwork&gt;</pre></div>
-<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> xwork.xml elements</h2></p><h3 class="heading3"> Package <a name="Configuration-Package" ></a></h3><p class="paragraph">The package element has one required attribute, &quot;name&quot;, which acts as the key to later reference this package. The &quot;extends&quot; attribute is optional and allows one package to inherit the configuration of one or more previous packages including all interceptor, interceptor-stack, and action configurations. Note that the configuration file is processed sequentially down the document, so the package referenced by an &quot;extends&quot; should be defined above the package which extends it. The &quot;abstract&quot; optional attribute allows you to make a package abstract, which will allow you to extend from it without the action configurations defined in the abstract package actually being available at runtime. (<a href="#Configuration-top">see above for example</a>)</p><table class="wikitable">
-<tr>
-<th> Attribute </th><th> Required </th><th> Description </th>
-</tr><tr>
-<td> name </td><td> <b class="strong">yes</b> </td><td> key to for other packages to reference </td>
-</tr><tr>
-<td> extends </td><td> no </td><td> inherits package behavior of the package it extends </td>
-</tr><tr>
-<td> namespace </td><td> no </td><td> see <a href="#Configuration-Namespace">Namespace</a> </td>
-</tr><tr>
-<td> abstract </td><td> no </td><td> declares package to be abstract (no action configurations required in package) </td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-<h4 class="heading4"> Namespace <a name="Configuration-Namespace" ></a></h4><p class="paragraph">The optional namespace attribute warrants its own discussion section. The namespace attribute allows you to segregate action configurations into namespaces, so that you may use the same action alias in more than one namespace with different classes, parameters, etc. This is in contrast to Webwork 1.x, where all action names and aliases were global and could not be re-used in an application. The default namespace, which is &quot;&quot; (an empty string) is used as a &quot;catch-all&quot; namespace, so if an action configuration is not found in a specified namespace, the default namespace will also be searched. This allows you to have global action configurations outside of the &quot;extends&quot; hierarchy, as well as to allow the previous Webwork 1.x behavior by not specifying namespaces. It is also intended that the namespace functionality can be used for security, for instance by having the path before the action name be used as the namespace by the Webwork 2.0 ServletDispatcher, thus allowing the use of J2EE declarative security on paths to be easily implemented and maintained. (<a href="#Configuration-top">see above for example</a>)
-<h3 class="heading3"> Result-Type</h3></p>Result types define classes and map them to names to be referred in the action configuration results. This serves as a shorthand name-value pair for these classes.
-<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Interceptors</h3></p>Interceptors also serve as a name-value pairing for referring to specific Interceptor classes by a shorthand name where we use interceptor-ref elements, such as in Interceptor stacks and action configurations.
-<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Interceptor-Stack</h3></p>The interceptor-stack element allows you to assign a name for later referencing via interceptor-ref to an ordered list of interceptors. This allows you to create standard groups of interceptors to be used in a certain order. The interceptor stack name/value pairs are stored in the same map as the interceptor definitions, so anywhere you use an interceptor-ref to refer to an interceptor you may also refer to an interceptor stack.
-<h3 class="heading3"> Interceptor Parameterization</h3><p class="paragraph">Interceptors are instantiated and stored at the ActionConfig level, i.e. there will be one instance per action configured in xwork.xml. These Interceptor instances may be parameterized at either the declaration level, where you map an Interceptor class to a name to be referenced later, like so:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;interceptor name=&quot;test&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.TestInterceptor&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;expectedFoo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;&lt;/interceptor&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">or at the interceptor-ref level, either inside an interceptor-stack or in an action declaration, like so:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;param name=&quot;expectedFoo&quot;&gt;expectedFoo&lt;/param&gt;&#10;&lt;/interceptor&#45;ref&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Although it is allowed by the DTD, parameters applied to interceptor-refs which refer to interceptor-stack elements will NOT be applied, and will cause a warning message.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Global-results</h3><p class="paragraph">The global results allows you to define result mappings which will be used as defaults for all action configurations and will be automatically inherited by all action configurations in this package and all packages which extend this package.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Action</h3><p class="paragraph">The action element allows the mapping of names to action classes. These names are used, along with the namespace described above, to retrieve the action config from the configuration. The action may also be parameterized by using the param elements, as above, which will set parameters into the Action at execution (with the help of the StaticParametersInterceptor).</p>The action may also have one or more results mapped to string return codes, such as &quot;success&quot;, &quot;error&quot;, or &quot;input&quot;, which are the default 3 return states for actions, although ANY return string may be used and mapped to a result. The result, which is mapped to a result class by the &quot;type&quot; attribute which refers to the result-type name defined above, may also be parameterized by using the param element. <p class="paragraph">There is one shortcut when defining results, as a lot of the time a result will have only one parameter (which is often a location to redirect to (when using XWork in the web sense)).</p>Here is the long form of a result with a single location parameter:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;result name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;param name=&quot;location&quot;&gt;foo.jsp&lt;/param&gt;&#10;&lt;/result&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">and this is the &#039;shortcut&#039; form:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;result name=&quot;test&quot;&gt;foo.jsp&lt;/result&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Note that this shortcut <b class="strong">only</b> works when there is a single parameter for the result and the result has defined what its default parameter is.</p>The action may also define one or more interceptor refs to either interceptors or interceptor stacks to be applied before and after the action execution (see the section on Interceptors below). The ordering of these interceptor refs determines the order in which they will be applied.<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Includes - using multiple configuration files</h3></p>The xwork.xml configuration file may be broken up into several files, each with its own set of package declarations, by using the &lt;include&gt; element zero or more times at the bottom of your xwork.xml file, like so:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;include file=&quot;includeTest.xml&quot;/&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">These files will be processed, in order, in the same manner as the main xwork.xml, thus may have all of the same structures, including the &lt;include&gt; element. Although it is, therefore, possible to have packages in configuration files listed later in an include element extend packages defined in an earlier included file, it is not recommended. It should be considered best practice, in the case of using multiple configuration files, to declare default packages meant to be extended in the xwork.xml and to have no dependencies between sub-configuration files.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Configuration Providers</h2><p class="paragraph">XWork configuration is handled through classes which implement the ConfigurationProvider interface.  The default implementation is the XmlConfigurationProvider class.  You can either create a new provider by implementing the ConfigurationProvider interface or you can extend the XmlConfigurationProvider class.  The XmlConfigurationProvider class includes a protected method called getInputStream() which is called to acquire the configuration InputStream which is expected to be an XML data stream.  The default implementation looks for a file called xwork.xml in the class path but by overriding the getInputStream() method you can pull configuration data from any source.</p>Custom configuration providers must be registered with the ConfigurationManager before they will be used to load configuration data.  If no custom configuration providers are registered then the default configuration provider is used.  If any custom configuration providers are registered then the default configuration provider will no longer be used (although you could add a new instance of it yourself to include it in the list of providers which is searched).  To add a configuration provider just call the ConfigurationManager.addConfigurationProvider() method with the custom configuration provider as the argument.
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docs/wikidocs/Core Concepts.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> XWork Core Concepts</h2></p>XWork is based on a number of core concepts that helps to explain how the framework works. The core concepts can be broken down into two parts: Architecture Concepts and Terminology.<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Architecture Concepts</h2><ul class="star">
-<li> Explain Command Driven Architecture (in general)</li>
-<li> Explain the implementation in XWork</li>
-</ul>
-<h2 class="heading2"> Terminology</h2></p><h3 class="heading3"> Actions</h3><p class="paragraph">Actions are classes that get invoked in response to a request, execute some code and return a Result. Actions implement at a minimum a single method, execute(), that defines the entry point called by the framework. This method allows developers to define a unit of work that will be executed each time the Action is called.</p><h3 class="heading3"> ActionContext</h3><p class="paragraph">The ActionContext provides access to the execution environment in the form of named objects during an Action invocation. A new ActionContext is created for each invocation allowing developers to access/modify these properties in a thread safe manner. The ActionContext makes a number of properties available that are typically set to appropriate values by the framework. In WebWork 2 for example, the ActionContext session map wraps an underlying HttpSession object. This allows access to environment specific properties without tying the core framework to a specific execution environment. For more information, see ActionContext in <a href="Basics.html">Basics</a>.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Interceptors</h3><p class="paragraph">In XWork, Interceptors are objects that dynamically intercept Action invocations. They provide the developer with the opportunity to define code that can be executed before and/or after the execution of an action. They also have the ability to prevent an action from executing. Interceptors provide developers a way to encapulate common functionality in a re-usable form that can be applied to one or more Actions. See <a href="Interceptors.html">Interceptors</a> for further details.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Stacks</h3><p class="paragraph">To handle the case where developers want to apply more than a single Interceptor to an Action, Stacks have been introduced. Stacks are an ordered list of Interceptors and/or other Stacks that get applied when an Action is invoked. Stacks centralize the declaration of Interceptors and provide a convenient way to configure mutiple actions.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Results</h3><p class="paragraph">Results are string constants that Actions return to indicate the status of an Action execution. A standard set of Results are defined by default: error, input, login, none and success.  Developers are, of course, free to create their own Results to indicate more application specific cases.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Result Types</h3><p class="paragraph">Result Types are classes that determine what happens after an Action executes and a Result is returned. Developers are free to create their own Result Types according to the needs of their application or environment. In WebWork 2 for example, Servlet and Velocity Result Types have been created to handle rendering views in web applications.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Packages</h3><p class="paragraph">Packages are a way to group Actions, Results, Result Types, Interceptors and Stacks into a logical unit that shares a common configuration. Packages are similiar to objects in that they can be extended and have individual parts overridden by &quot;sub&quot; packages.</p><h3 class="heading3"> ValueStack</h3><p class="paragraph">The ValueStack is a stack implementation built on top of an OGNL core. The OGNL expression language can be used to traverse the stack and retrieve the desired object. The OGNL expression language provides a number of additional features including: automatic type conversion, method invocation and object comparisons. For more information, see the <span class="nobr"><a href="http://ognl.org/">OGNL Website<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span>.</p><h3 class="heading3"> Components</h3><p class="paragraph">XWork provides the ComponentManager interface (and a corresponding implementation in the DefaultComponentManager class) to apply a design pattern known as <b class="strong">Inversion of Control</b> (or IoC for short). In a nutshell, the IoC pattern allows a parent object (in this case XWork&#039;s ComponentManager instance) to control a client object (usually an action, but it could be any object that implements the appropriate <em class="emphasis">enabler</em>). See <a href="Components.html">Components</a> for further details.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Dependencies.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">Dependencies are always an important issue for me. I like to know <em class="emphasis">exactly</em> what dependencies any module has.</p>Here are the dependencies for <a href="XWork.html">XWork</a>, split into runtime and compile time dependencies.<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Runtime Dependencies</h3>
-These are stored in CVS in the <b class="strong">lib/core</b> directory.</p><table class="wiki-table" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><th>JAR</th><th>Version</th><th>Link</th></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>commons-logging.jar</td><td>1.0</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging.html">&#104;ttp://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging.html<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>mail.jar</td><td><cite class="citation"></td><td></cite></td></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>ognl-2.6.5.jar</td><td>2.6.5</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.ognl.org">&#104;ttp://www.ognl.org<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>oscore-2.1.0.jar</td><td>2.1.0</td><td><a href="http://wiki.opensymphony.com//display/OS/OSCore">OS:OSCore</a></td></tr></table><p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Compile time dependencies</h3>
-These are stored in CVS in the <b class="strong">lib/build</b> directory.</p><table class="wiki-table" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><th>JAR</th><th>Version</th><th>Link</th></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>clover-1.0.jar</td><td>1.0</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.thecortex.net/clover">&#104;ttp://www.thecortex.net/clover<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>junit-3.8.1.jar</td><td>3.8.1</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.junit.org">&#104;ttp://www.junit.org<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>mockobjects-12-7-2002.jar</td><td>12-7-2002 snapshot</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.mockobjects.com">&#104;ttp://www.mockobjects.com<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>velocity.jar</td><td>??</td><td><span class="nobr"><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/velocity">&#104;ttp://jakarta.apache.org/velocity<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></td></tr></table>
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docs/wikidocs/Documentation.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Overview</h3><ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Introduction.html">Introduction</a><ul class="star">
-<li> What is Xwork?</li>
-<li> How does Webwork 2.0 relate to Xwork?</li>
-</ul></li>
-</ul>
-<h3 class="heading3"> XWork Versions</h3><ul class="star">
-<li> Current Release<ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Release Notes.html">Release Notes</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Dependencies.html">Dependencies</a></li>
-</ul></li>
-<li> Upgrading from previous versions<ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Upgrading from 1.0.html">Upgrading from 1.0</a></li>
-</ul></li>
-</ul>
-<h3 class="heading3"> Reference Guide</h3><ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Core Concepts.html">Core Concepts</a>: Terminology and an introduction to XWork</li>
-<li> <a href="Basics.html">Basics</a>: Actions, ActionSupport, ActionContext, and action lifecycles</li>
-<li> <a href="Configuration.html">Configuration</a>: xwork.xml</li>
-<li> <a href="Ognl.html">Ognl</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Localization.html">Localization</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Type Conversion.html">Type Conversion</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Interceptors.html">Interceptors</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Validation Framework.html">Validation Framework</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Components.html">Components</a>: Inversion of Control</li>
-</ul></p><h3 class="heading3">  Documentation Tasks Remaining</h3>
-<ul class="star">
-<li> Merge XWork specific docs from WebWork.  In particular:<ul class="star">
-<li> config docs</li>
-</ul></li>
-<li> Description for all interceptors</li>
-<li> Description for all validators</li>
-<li> Beef up <a href="Basics.html">Basics</a></li>
-<li> Make sure we document ActionChaining somewhere</li>
-</ul>
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docs/wikidocs/Expression Validators.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">The Expression validator extends the ValidatorSupport base class and has one parameter which should be set using:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;param name=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;any valid OGNL expression which returns a boolean&lt;/param&gt;.</pre></div><p class="paragraph">The <a href="Ognl.html">OGNL</a> expression will be evaluated against the ValueStack, allowing you to use any properties of the Action in comparisons, etc. This allows for very powerful cross-property validation expressions. Here is a simple example of the ExpressionValidator in a configuration:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;validator type=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;foo &gt; bar&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;message default=&quot;Foo must be greater than Bar. Foo = $&#123;foo&#125;, Bar = $&#123;bar&#125;.&quot;/&gt;&#10;&lt;/validator&gt;</pre></div>
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docs/wikidocs/Generic Object Validation.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">XWork&#039;s validation framework is not just limited to Actions.  It can be used to validate virtually any object.  Once you&#039;ve set up your validator config file (<b class="strong">validators.xml</b>) and your validation rules (<b class="strong">ClassName-validation.xml</b>), all it takes are a couple lines of code:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;object">String</span> context = <span class="java&#45;keyword">null</span>;&#10;ValidatorContext context = <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> DelegatingValidatorContext(objectToValidate);&#10;ActionValidatorManager.validate(objectToValidate, <span class="java&#45;keyword">null</span>, context);</pre></div><p class="paragraph">This will cause any errors to be logged (where it gets logged to depends on how commons-logging is configured).</p>Ideally, you would either implement your own ValidatorContext to handle how error messages are logged and evaluated, or have your objects that are to be evaluated implement ValidationAware, TextProvider and/or LocaleProvider.<p class="paragraph">Matthew Payne has a JUnit demo of this at <span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.sutternow.com/index.do?post=51fe0c00fc17aec500fc33f6bb8e006e">&#104;ttp://www.sutternow.com/index.do?post=51fe0c00fc17aec500fc33f6bb8e006e<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span>.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Interceptors.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Overview</h2></p>Interceptors allow you to define code to be executed before and/or after the execution of an action. They are defined outside the action class, yet have access to the action and the action execution environment at runtime, allowing you to encapsulate cross-cutting code and provide separation of concerns. <p class="paragraph">Interceptors are given the ActionInvocation object at runtime, and may do whatever processing needed, then forward processing to the rest of the ActionInvocation, which will either call the next Interceptor or the Action, if there are no more Interceptors, and do whatever post-processing needed.</p>Interceptors may also decide to short-circuit processing and return whatever result string desired WITHOUT forwarding processing, thus keeping the Action from executing. This ability should be used with caution, however, as any data loading or processing expected to be done by the Action will not happen. <p class="paragraph">Here is the invoke() method from ActionInvocation, which calls the Interceptors and the Action:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> invoke() <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> Exception &#123;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;keyword">if</span> (executed) &#123;&#10;            <span class="java&#45;keyword">throw</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> IllegalStateException(&quot;Action has already executed&quot;);&#10;        &#125;&#10;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;keyword">if</span> (interceptors.hasNext()) &#123;&#10;            Interceptor interceptor = (Interceptor) interceptors.next();&#10;            result = interceptor.intercept(<span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>);&#10;        &#125; <span class="java&#45;keyword">else</span> &#123;&#10;            result = action.execute();&#10;            executed = <span class="java&#45;keyword">true</span>;&#10;        &#125;&#10;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> result;&#10;    &#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">It may not be immediately apparent how the rest of the Interceptors and the Action come to be called from the code snippet. For this we need to look at the Interceptor implementation in *AroundInterceptor__:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> intercept(ActionInvocation invocation) <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> Exception &#123;&#10;        before(invocation);&#10;&#10;        result = invocation.invoke();&#10;        after(invocation);&#10;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> result;&#10;    &#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Here we can see that the Interceptor calls back into the ActionInvocation.invoke() to tell the ActionInvocation to continue down the chain and eventually executes the Action. It is here that the Interceptor can decide not to forward to the rest of the Interceptors and the Action, and choose instead to return a return code.</p>It is also important to know what the AroundInterceptor is doing when you extend it to implement your own Interceptors.<p class="paragraph">The AroundInterceptor defines a base class for interceptor implementations. It delegates calls to subclasses, which must implement the abstract methods before() and after(). The before() call is first called, then the rest of the ActionInvocation is called and the String result is saved (and is available to the Interceptor implementation during the after() method). Finally, the after() method is called and the result is returned.
-<h2 class="heading2"> <a name="Interceptors-Utility" ></a> Utility Interceptors</h2></p>The TimerInterceptor and LoggingInterceptor are provided as simple examples and utilities.
-<ul class="star">
-<li> The <b class="strong">LoggingInterceptor</b> simply logs before and after executing the rest of the ActionInvocation.</li>
-<li> The <b class="strong">TimerInterceptor</b> times the execution of the remainder of the ActionInvocation.<br/>
-The TimerInterceptor does not extend AroundInterceptor because it needs to keep some state (the start time) from before the rest of the execution. Interceptors must be stateless, so it is impossible to save this in an instance field. It is a good rule of thumb to say that if your interceptor needs to maintain information from the beginning to the end of the interceptor call, it should implement Interceptor directly, not subclass AroundInterceptor. Here is the code for <b class="strong">intercept()</b> in TimerInterceptor:
-</li>
-</ul>
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> intercept(ActionInvocation dispatcher) <span class="java&#45;keyword">throws</span> Exception &#123;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;object">long</span> startTime = <span class="java&#45;object">System</span>.currentTimeMillis();&#10;        <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> result = dispatcher.invoke();&#10;        <span class="java&#45;object">long</span> executionTime = <span class="java&#45;object">System</span>.currentTimeMillis() &#45; startTime;&#10;        log.info(&quot;Processed action &quot; &#43; dispatcher.getProxy().getActionName() &#43; &quot; in &quot; &#43; executionTime &#43; &quot;ms.&quot;);&#10;&#10;        <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> result;&#10;    &#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">It is important to remember to call <b class="strong">invoke()</b> on the ActionInvocation if you directly implement Interceptor, otherwise the rest of the Interceptors and the Action will not be executed.</p><h2 class="heading2"> <a name="Interceptors-Parameter" ></a> Parameter Interceptors - populating your Action</h2><p class="paragraph">The StaticParametersInterceptor and ParametersInterceptor populate your Action fields during the ActionInvocation execution.
-<ul class="star">
-<li> The <b class="strong">StaticParametersInterceptor</b> applies the parameters defined in the Action configuration with the &lt;param&gt; elements.</li>
-<li> The <b class="strong">ParametersInterceptor</b> populates the Action with the parameters passed in as part of the request.</li>
-</ul><br/>
-The StaticParametersInterceptor should be applied before the ParametersInterceptor so that the static parameters may be set as the defaults and overridden by the request parameters.</p><h2 class="heading2"> <a name="Interceptors-ModelDriven" ></a> ModelDrivenInterceptor - choosing your model</h2><p class="paragraph">Normally, the <b class="strong">StaticParameterInterceptor</b> and the <b class="strong">ParametersInterceptor</b> apply themselves directly to the Action.  Using the ModelDrivenInterceptor, you can specify an alternate object to have the parameters applied to instead.</p>Consider the following Action:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class AddContactAction <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Action &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> name;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> addr;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> city;&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setName(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> name) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.name = name ; &#125;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setAddr(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> addr) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.addr = addr ; &#125;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setCity(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> city) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.city = city ; &#125;&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> execute() &#123;&#10;     Contact contact = <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> Contact();&#10;     contact.setName(name);&#10;     contact.setAddr(addr);&#10;     contact.setCity(city);&#10;&#10;     // save contact information here&#10;  &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">We can see that our action will be populated with name, addr, and city parameters if they are passed in.  In the execute we copy these values to a contact object and save the contact.</p>Here&#039;s the ModelDriven interface:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">interface</span> ModelDriven &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> getModel();&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Let&#039;s apply the ModelDriven interface to Action above:</p><div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class AddContactAction <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Action, ModelDriven &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> Contact contact = <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> Contact();&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> getModel() &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.contact ; &#125;&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void execute() &#123;&#10;    // save the contact information&#10;  &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Now the ParametersInterceptor and the StaticParametersInterceptor will be applied directly to our Contact so when execute gets called, this.contact will already be populated with all the information we need.  Neat, huh?</p>Behavior similar to model driven can be achieved just using the parameter interceptor.  For example, rather than implementing ModelDriven, we could have written:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class AddContactAction <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Action &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> Contact contact = <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> Contact();&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> Contact getContact &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.contact ; &#125;&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void execute() &#123;&#10;    // save the contact information&#10;  &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">The difference between this Action and the previous ModelDriven action is twofold:
-<ul class="star">
-<li> Using the ModelDriven action, we can reference our parameters name, addr, and city.  Also, the Model (Contact) will be pushed onto the ValueStack so we&#039;ll have Contact and AddContactAction on the value stack</li>
-<li> When not using the ModelDriven action, we need to reference our parameters as contact.name, contact.addr, and contact.city.</li>
-</ul></p>One potential drawback when using ModelDriven actions is that if you need to access some parameters in order to load the model for the ModelDriven action, you will need to call the ParametersInterceptor and/or the StaticParametersInterceptor twice (before and after the ModelDrivenInterceptor).  The first time sets all parameters on the Action, the second time sets all parameters on the model.
-<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> <a name="Interceptors-Chaining" ></a> ChainingInterceptor</h2></p>The <b class="strong">ChainingInterceptor</b> populates the Action it is being applied to with the results of the previous action. When actions are chained together, the action being chained FROM is on the ValueStack when the next action is called. This means that when the next ActionProxy is executed, the action that is being chained TO will be placed onto the valuestack, but the old action will also be there, just down one level. This interceptor works by traversing the ValueStack to find the parameters of any objects there and sets them onto the final action.<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> <a name="Interceptors-DefaultWorkflow" ></a> DefaultWorkflowInterceptor</h2></p>The <b class="strong">DefaultWorkflowInterceptor</b> implements the workflow that was found in ActionSupport in WebWork 1.x. These workflow steps are applied before the rest of the Interceptors and the Action are executed, and may short-circuit their execution:
-<ol>
-<li> If the Action implements <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.Validateable__, the __validate()</b> method is called on it, to allow the Action to execute any validation logic coded into it.</li>
-<li> If the Action implements <b class="strong">com.opensymphony.xwork.ValidationAware</b> the <b class="strong">hasErrors()</b> method is called to check if the Action has any registered error messages (either Action-level or field-level). If the ValidationAware Action has any errors, <b class="strong">Action.INPUT</b> (&quot;input&quot;) is returned without executing the rest of the Interceptors or the Action.</li>
-<li> If the execution did not short-circuit in step 2 above, the rest of the Interceptors and the Action are executed by calling <b class="strong">invocation.invoke()</b></li>
-</ol>
-
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docs/wikidocs/Introduction.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Introduction</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
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-    <body>
-	    <table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
-		    <tr>
-			    <td valign="top" class="pagebody">
-
-				    <p class="paragraph">XWork is a generic command pattern framework.</p>The Purpose:<ul class="star">
-<li> To create a generic, reusable, and extensible command pattern framework not tied to any particular usage.</li>
-</ul><br/>
-Features:<ul class="star">
-<li> Flexible and customizable configuration based on a simple Configuration interface</li>
-<li> Core command pattern framework which can be customized and extended through the use of interceptors to fit any request / response environment</li>
-<li> Built in type conversion and action property validation using Ognl</li>
-<li> Powerful validation framework based on runtime attributes and a validation interceptor</li>
-</ul><br/>
-<b class="strong">How does XWork relate to Webwork</b><p class="paragraph">Webwork 2.0+ is built on top of XWork and provides web-specific features that allow you to quickly build web applications using XWork&#039;s command pattern and interceptor framework.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Localization.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Localization</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
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-    <body>
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-
-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> ActionSupport.getText() and LocalizedTextUtil</h2></p>The implementation of com.opensymphony.xwork.LocaleAware in com.opensymphony.xwork.ActionSupport uses com.opensymphony.xwork.util.LocalizedTextUtil to find localized message texts for message keys. LocalizedTextUtil uses a system of defaults for finding resource bundle property files for searching for the message text. If LocalizedTextUtil.findText(Class aClass, String aTextName, Locale locale) is called (or LocalizedTextUtil.findText(Class aClass, String aTextName), which just uses the Locale from ActionContext.getContext.getLocale()), the following search order is used:<ol>
-<li> The class name is used with the call
-<div class="code"><pre>ResourceBundle.getBundle(aBundleName, locale, <span class="java&#45;object">Thread</span>.currentThread().getContextClassLoader())</pre></div><br/>
-For a class named com.example.MyAction this will use a resource bundle name of &quot;com/example/MyAction&quot; which will load a set of properties files like:
-</li>
-<li><ul class="star">
-<li> com/example/MyAction.properties</li>
-</ul></li>
-<li><ul class="star">
-<li> com/example/MyAction_en.properties</li>
-</ul></li>
-<li><ul class="star">
-<li> com/example/MyAction_de.properties</li>
-</ul></li>
-<li><ul class="star">
-<li> etc.</li>
-</ul></li>
-<li> If the message text is not found, each parent class of the action is used as above until java.lang.Object is found</li>
-<li> If the message text has still not been found, findDefaultText(aTextName, locale) is called to search the default message bundles</li>
-</ol><br/>
-The findDefaultText(aTextName, locale) method searches named resource bundles which have been registered with LocalzedTextUtil in reverse order of their registration (i.e. the first resource bundle name registered is the last to be searched). By default, one default resource bundle name is registered with LocalizedTextUtil for search, &quot;com/opensymphony/xwork/xwork-messages&quot;, which is bundled with the jar file to provide system-level message texts.
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docs/wikidocs/Logging.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Logging</title>
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-    </head>
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-
-				    <p class="paragraph">Logging in XWork is handled by <span class="nobr"><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging">Commons-Logging<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span>.  If Log4J is present in the classpath, logging tasks will be passed through to Log4J.</p>The logger names are the class names.  The pattern used is:
-<div class="code"><pre>Log log = LogFactory.getLog(ThisClass.class);</pre></div><p class="paragraph">For details on configuring commons-logging, see <span class="nobr"><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging/guide.html#Configuration">&#104;ttp://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging/guide.html#Configuration<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span>.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Ognl.html

-<html>
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-        <title>Ognl</title>
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-				    <p class="paragraph">OGNL is the Object Graph Navigation Language - see <span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.ognl.org">&#104;ttp://www.ognl.org<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span> for the full documentation of OGNL. In this document we will only show the additional language features that are provided on top of the base OGNL EL.</p><h2 class="heading2"> XWork-specific language features</h2>
-The biggest addition that XWork provides on top of OGNL is the support for the ValueStack. While OGNL operates under the assumption there is only one &quot;root&quot;, XWork&#039;s ValueStack concept requires there be many &quot;roots&quot;. <p class="paragraph">For example, suppose we are using standard OGNL (not using XWork) and there are two objects in the OgnlContext map: &quot;foo&quot; -&gt; foo and &quot;bar&quot; -&gt; bar and that the foo object is also configured to be the single <b class="strong">root</b> object. The following code illustrates how OGNL deals with these three situations:</p><div class="code"><pre>#foo.blah // returns foo.getBlah()&#10;#bar.blah // returns bar.getBlah()&#10;blah      // returns foo.getBlah() because foo is the root</pre></div><p class="paragraph">What this means is that OGNL allows many objects in the context, but unless the object you are trying to access is the root, it must be prepended with a namespaces such as @bar. Now let&#039;s talk about how XWork is a little different&#8230;</p>In XWork, the entire ValueStack is the root object in the context. But rather than having your expressions get the object you want from the stack and then get properties from that (ie: peek().blah), XWork has a special OGNL PropertyAccessor that will automatically look at the all entries in the stack (from the top down) until it finds an object with the property you are looking for.<p class="paragraph">For example, suppose the stack contains two objects: Animal and Person. Both objects have a &quot;name&quot; property, Animal has a &quot;species&quot; property, and Person has a &quot;salary&quot; property. Animal is on the top of the stack, and Person is below it. The follow code fragments help you get an idea of what is going on here:</p><div class="code"><pre>species    // call to animal.getSpecies()&#10;salary     // call to person.getSalary()&#10;name       // call to animal.getName() because animal is on the top</pre></div><p class="paragraph">In the last example, there was a tie and so the animal&#039;s name was returned. Usually this is the desired effect, but sometimes you want the property of a lower-level object. To do this, XWork has added support for indexes on the ValueStack. All you have to do is:</p><div class="code"><pre>&#91;0&#93;.name   // call to animal.getName()&#10;&#91;1&#93;.name   // call to person.getName()</pre></div><p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Accessing static properties</h2></p>OGNL supports accessing static properties as well as static methods. As the OGNL docs point out, you can explicetly call statics by doing the following:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&#64;some.package.ClassName&#64;FOO&#95;PROPERTY&#10;&#64;some.package.ClassName&#64;someMethod()</pre></div><p class="paragraph">However, XWork allows you to avoid having to specify the full package name and call static properties and methods of your action classes using the &quot;vs&quot; prefix:</p><div class="code"><pre>&#64;vs&#64;FOO&#95;PROPERTY&#10;&#64;vs&#64;someMethod()&#10;&#10;&#64;vs1&#64;FOO&#95;PROPERTY&#10;&#64;vs1&#64;someMethod()&#10;&#10;&#64;vs2&#64;BAR&#95;PROPERTY&#10;&#64;vs2&#64;someOtherMethod()</pre></div><p class="paragraph">The important thing to note here is that if the class name you specify is just &quot;vs&quot;, the class for the object on the top of the stack is used. If you specify a number after the &quot;vs&quot; string, an object&#039;s class deeper in the stack is used instead.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Differences from the WebWork 1.x EL</h2>
-Besides the examples and descriptions given above, there are a few major changes in the EL since WebWork 1.x. The biggest one is that properties are no longer accessed with a forward slash &#40;/&#41; but with a dot (.). Also, rather than using &quot;..&quot; to traverse down the stack, we now use &quot;&#91;n&#93;&quot; where n is some positive number. Lastly, in WebWork 1.x one could access special named objects (the request scope attributes to be exact) by using &quot;@foo&quot;, but now special variables are accessed using &quot;#foo&quot;. However, it is important to note that &quot;#foo&quot; does NOT access the request attributes. Because XWork is not built only for the web, there is no concept of &quot;request attributes&quot;, and thus &quot;#foo&quot; is merely a request to another object in the OgnlContext other than the root.
-
-<table class="wiki-table" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><th>Old Expression</th><th>New Expression</th></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>foo/blah</td><td>foo.blah</td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>foo/someMethod()</td><td>foo.someMethod()</td></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>../bar/blah</td><td>&#91;1&#93;.bar.blah</td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>@baz</td><td>not directly supported, but #baz is similar</td></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>.</td><td>top or &#91;0&#93;</td></tr></table>
-<h2 class="heading2"> WebWork-specific named objects</h2>
-<table class="wiki-table" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border="0"><tr><th>name</th><th>value</th></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>parameters&#91;&#039;foo&#039;]</td><td>request parameter &#91;&#039;foo&#039;] (request.getParameter())</td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>request&#91;&#039;foo&#039;]</td><td>request attribute &#91;&#039;foo&#039;]  (request.getAttribute())</td></tr><tr class="table-odd"><td>session&#91;&#039;foo&#039;]</td><td>session attribute &#039;foo&#039;</td></tr><tr class="table-even"><td>application&#91;&#039;foo&#039;]</td><td>ServletContext attributes &#039;foo&#039;</td></tr></table>
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-    </body>
-</html>

docs/wikidocs/Release Notes.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Release Notes</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
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-				    <p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> XWork 1.0.1</h2></p><h3 class="heading3"> Key Changes</h3><ul class="star">
-<li> Introduction of an ObjectFactory that provides for easy integration to libraries like Spring and Pico</li>
-<li> Added actionMessages support &#8211; just like errorMessages but not counted as an error</li>
-<li> Major performance improvements with Ognl 2.6.5</li>
-</ul>
-<h3 class="heading3"> Changelog</h3><p class="paragraph"><p>
-    <table  width="100%" cellspacing="0" class="grid">
-        <tr>
-            <th colspan="3" style="text-align: left;">
-                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com">OpenSymphony JIRA</a>
-                <span class="smalltext">(17 issues)</span>
-            </th>
-        </tr>
-        <tr>
-                        <th style="text-align: left;">
-                T                                                                                                                                                                            </th>
-                        <th style="text-align: left;">
-                                Key                                                                                                                                                            </th>
-                        <th style="text-align: left;">
-                                                Summary                                                                                                                                            </th>
-                    </tr>
-                                            <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-188"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-188">XW-188</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-188">Correct logging level in DefaultActionInvocation.invokeAction(..)</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-167"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/bug.gif" alt="Bug" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-167">XW-167</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-167">XWorkBasicConverter conversion from Date to String is not localized</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-166"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-166">XW-166</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-166">[Patch] Improve support for ModelDriven interface</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-165"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/bug.gif" alt="Bug" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-165">XW-165</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-165">[PATCH] VisitorFieldValidator not setting fieldError correctly</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-164"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-164">XW-164</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-164">[PATCH] TypeConverter should check class hierarchy for conversion properties</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-163"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-163">XW-163</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-163">[PATCH] Added some javadocs to Interceptors</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-162"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/newfeature.gif" alt="New Feature" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-162">XW-162</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-162">TypeConverter created by ObjectFactory</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-161"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/newfeature.gif" alt="New Feature" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-161">XW-161</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-161">Replaceable ObjectFactory for creating framework objects to allow easier integration with IoC containers</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-160"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-160">XW-160</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-160">Add infinite recursion detection to the ChainingInterceptor</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-159"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/bug.gif" alt="Bug" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-159">XW-159</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-159">XWork build is broken</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-158"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/bug.gif" alt="Bug" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-158">XW-158</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-158">Email and URL Validators adding error messages for empty fields</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-157"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-157">XW-157</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-157">Further Optimize Validator Lookup in ActionValidatorManager</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-156"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/newfeature.gif" alt="New Feature" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-156">XW-156</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-156">add actionMessages support</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-155"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/bug.gif" alt="Bug" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-155">XW-155</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-155">NPE thrown when invalid method is looked up</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-117"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-117">XW-117</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-117">Additional methods to determine if errors using JSTL</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowAlternate">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-56"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-56">XW-56</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-56">Add localization support to XWorkConverter</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-                                    <tr class="rowNormal">
-                                                            <td nowrap="true">
-                                            <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-23"><img src="http://jira.opensymphony.com/images/icons/improvement.gif" alt="Improvement" border="0" /></a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            </td>
-                                <td nowrap="true">
-                                                                <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-23">XW-23</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        </td>
-                                <td >
-                                                                                    <a href="http://jira.opensymphony.com/browse/XW-23">Investigate using runtime attributes to configure interceptors</a>
-                                                                                                                                                                                                    </td>
-                            </tr>
-            </table>
-</p>
-</p>
-
-				    
-			    </td>
-		    </tr>
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docs/wikidocs/Type Conversion Error Handling.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Type Conversion Error Handling</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
-
-    <body>
-	    <table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
-		    <tr>
-			    <td valign="top" class="pagebody">
-
-				    <p class="paragraph">Type conversion errors are handled by the XWorkConverter whenever any Exception is thrown by a converter during converting a value. Type conversion errors are added to a Map stored in the ActionContext which is available via ActionContext.getContext().getConversionErrors(). This map is a map of field name to values which will allow you to access the original value which failed conversion. 
- 
-There are 2 ways of automatically populating field errors with the type conversion errors into the field errors of the Action. The first will populate all of the field errors from the conversion errors and is implemented as an Interceptor. There are actually 2 Interceptors, one in XWork and one in WebWork which extends the one in XWork. They differ in the implementation of the method 
- 
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">protected</span> <span class="java&#45;object">boolean</span> shouldAddError(<span class="java&#45;object">String</span> propertyName, <span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> value)</pre></div></p>The XWork version always returns true, whereas the WebWork Interceptor returns false for values of null, &quot;&quot;, and &#123;&quot;&quot;&#125;, preventing type conversion exceptions for these common empty values from propogating to the field errors of the Action. The WebWork version of this Interceptor has been added to the webwork-defaults.xml and to the defaultStack defined therein. 
- 
-If you choose not to use this Interceptor, you can choose to enable this on a per-field basis by using the Validation framework with the new field validator added for this, defined in the validators.xml file like this:
- 
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;validator name=&quot;conversion&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.ConversionErrorFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">This validator will look up the conversion errors and, if it finds a conversion error for the field it is applied to, it will add the appropriate error message to the Action. 
- 
-Both of these methods use the</p><div class="code"><pre>XWorkConverter.getConversionErrorMessage(propertyName, stack)</pre></div><p class="paragraph">which looks up the type conversion error message for the property name as was done previously, by looking for a message keyed by &quot;invalid.fieldvalue.propertyName&quot; and using a default value if it is not found.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Type Conversion.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Type Conversion</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
-
-    <body>
-	    <table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
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-
-				    <ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Type Conversion Error Handling.html">Type Conversion Error Handling</a></li>
-</ul><br/>
-Type conversion allows you to easily convert objects between on class to another.  As most of the conversion is for the web, this is usually to and from String classes.  The most common example is the conversion of date.  Let&#039;s suppose we have the following classs:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class Foo <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Action &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> Date date;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setDate(Date date) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.date = date ; &#125;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> execute() &#123;&#10;    // <span class="java&#45;keyword">do</span> work here&#10;  &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">XWork&#039;s type converter would allow us to pass in the String 07/08/2003 and have it be automatically converted to a Date object that&#039;s been set to July 8, 2003.</p>To define your own type converter, you&#039;ll need to perform the following steps:
-<ul class="star">
-<li> create your custom type converter object by extending ognl.DefaultTypeConverter</li>
-<li> map your type converter to your Action or model using a *-conversion.properties file</li>
-</ul><br/>
-To use the Contact example (where Contact is a persistence object), let&#039;s say we have the following Action:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class AddContactAction <span class="java&#45;keyword">implements</span> Action &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> Contact contact1;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">private</span> Contact contact2;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setContact1(Contact contact) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.contact1 = contact; &#125;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> void setContact2(Contact contact) &#123; <span class="java&#45;keyword">this</span>.contact2 = contact; &#125;&#10;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span> execute() &#123; &#8230; &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">What we&#039;re expecting from the UI is for contact to be &quot;1&quot;, the primary key of the contact.  We want the type converter to convert the string &quot;1&quot; to the Contact with a contactId of 1.  Likewise, we&#039;d like the converter to be able to reverse the operation.  When displayed, a Contact object should print out its contactId as a String.</p>The first step is to create our custom TypeConverter:
-
-<div class="code"><pre><span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> class ContactConverter <span class="java&#45;keyword">extends</span> ognl.DefaultTypeConverter &#123;&#10;  <span class="java&#45;keyword">public</span> <span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> convertValue(Map ognlContext, <span class="java&#45;object">Object</span> value, <span class="java&#45;object">Class</span> toType) &#123;&#10;    <span class="java&#45;keyword">if</span>( toType == <span class="java&#45;object">String</span>.class ) &#123;&#10;      Contact contact = (Contact)value;&#10;      <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> <span class="java&#45;object">String</span>(contact.getContactId());&#10;    &#125; <span class="java&#45;keyword">else</span> <span class="java&#45;keyword">if</span>( toType == Contact.class ) &#123;&#10;      <span class="java&#45;object">Integer</span> id = <span class="java&#45;keyword">new</span> <span class="java&#45;object">Integer</span>((<span class="java&#45;object">String</span>)value);&#10;      Session session = &#8230; // get a Hibernate Session&#10;      Contact contact = (Contact)session.load(Contact.class, id);&#10;      <span class="java&#45;keyword">return</span> contact;&#10;    &#125;&#10;  &#125;&#10;&#125;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">The next part is to bind our ContactConverter to the previous AddContactAction.  I&#039;ll bind the ContactConverter to the AddContactAction by creating a file called AddContactAction-conversion.properties that&#039;s in the same directory as the AddContactAction class.</p>I would then populate the properties file as follows:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>contact1 = com.acme.ContactConverter&#10;contact2 = com.acme.ContactConverter</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Now, when XWork attempts to populate your object from parameters, you&#039;ll be given the actual instances of Contact from your database.</p>Having said all that, I can&#039;t really recommend doing database lookups here as a best practice.  In fact, I&#039;d say it&#039;s not such a good idea, but it does illustrate type converters well <img src="./icons/emoticons/smile.gif" height="20" width="20" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"/>  Any exception thrown here will be handled as described in <a href="Type Conversion Error Handling.html">Type Conversion Error Handling</a>
-
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-</html>

docs/wikidocs/Upgrading from 1.0.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Upgrading from 1.0</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
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-    <body>
-	    <table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
-		    <tr>
-			    <td valign="top" class="pagebody">
-
-				    <p class="paragraph">Upgrading to XWork 1.0.1 from 1.0 involves very little work. All you need to do is copy over the new xwork-1.0.1.jar in replace of xwork-1.0.jar and make sure that the new <a href="Dependencies.html">Dependencies</a> are all in place.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Validation Framework.html

-<html>
-    <head>
-        <title>Validation Framework</title>
-	    <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/site.css" type="text/css" />
-    </head>
-
-    <body>
-	    <table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" bgcolor="#ffffff">
-		    <tr>
-			    <td valign="top" class="pagebody">
-
-				    <ul class="star">
-<li> Overview</li>
-<li> <a href="Building a Validator.html">Building a Validator</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Expression Validators.html">Expression Validators</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Visitor Field Validators.html">Visitor Field Validators</a></li>
-<li> <a href="Generic Object Validation.html">Generic Object Validation</a></li>
-</ul><p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Overview</h2></p>The validation framework in XWork is designed to help you apply simple validation rules to your Actions before they are executed. <p class="paragraph">At its core, the framework takes just about any object and a String context name for which to validate that object. This allows you to have different validation rules for the same class in different contexts. You can define default validation rules in the class-level validation file (<b class="strong">ClassName-validation.xml</b>), and then define validation rules which are added on top of these for a specific context (<b class="strong">ClassName-contextName-validation.xml</b>).  The validation rules are applied in the order they are listed in the validation files and error messages are saved into the Object (if it implements ValidationAware).</p>In the case of Action validation, which is what most XWork users will be doing, the class name is the Action class name and the context is the Action alias.
-
-<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Registering Validators</h2></p>Validation rules are handled by validators, which must be registered with the ValidatorFactory. This may either be done programmatically, using the registerValidator(String name, Class clazz) static method of the ValidatorFactory, or by adding a file named <b class="strong">validators.xml</b> to the root of the classpath that contains this information.  The syntax for <b class="strong">validators.xml</b> is:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;validators&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;required&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.RequiredFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;requiredstring&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.RequiredStringValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;int&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.IntRangeFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;date&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.DateRangeFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;expression&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.ExpressionValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;fieldexpression&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.FieldExpressionValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;email&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.EmailValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;url&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.URLValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;visitor&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.VisitorFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator name=&quot;conversion&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.validators.ConversionErrorFieldValidator&quot;/&gt;&#10;&lt;/validators&gt;</pre></div>
-
-<p class="paragraph"><h2 class="heading2"> Turning on Validation</h2></p>The process of applying validation rules to an Action before it is executed is handled by the ValidationInterceptor.  As such, all that is required to enable validation for an Action is to declare the ValidationInterceptor in your XWork config file and add an interceptor-ref to it for your Action.  See <a href="Configuration.html">XW:Configuration</a> for details on how to construct your XWork config file.  Here&#039;s a simple example:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;xwork&gt;&#10;    &lt;package name=&quot;example&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;interceptors&gt;&#10;            &lt;interceptor name=&quot;validator&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.validator.ValidationInterceptor&quot;/&gt;&#10;        &lt;/interceptors&gt;&#10;&#10;        &lt;action name=&quot;Foo&quot; class=&quot;com.opensymphony.xwork.SimpleAction&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;17&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;bar&quot;&gt;23&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;result name=&quot;success&quot; type=&quot;chain&quot;&gt;&#10;                &lt;param name=&quot;actionName&quot;&gt;Bar&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;/result&gt;&#10;            &lt;interceptor&#45;ref name=&quot;validator&quot;/&gt;&#10;        &lt;/action&gt;&#10;    &lt;/package&gt;&#10;&lt;xwork&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Bear in mind that the ValidationInterceptor only performs validation.  The Action will still be executed even if there are any validation errors.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Defining Validation Rules</h2><p class="paragraph">To define validation rules for an Action, create a file named <b class="strong">ActionName-validation.xml</b> in the same package as the Action. You may also create alias-specific validation rules which add to the default validation rules defined in <b class="strong">ActionName-validation.xml</b> by creating another file in the same directory named <b class="strong">ActionName-aliasName-validation.xml</b>.  In both cases,  <em class="emphasis">ActionName</em> is the name of the Action class, and <em class="emphasis">aliasName</em> is the name of the Action alias defined in the <b class="strong">xwork.xml</b> configuration for the Action.</p>The framework will also search up the inheritance tree of the Action to find validation rules for interfaces and parent classes of the Action.  This is particularly powerful when combined with ModelDriven Actions and the <a href="Visitor Field Validators.html">VisitorFieldValidator</a>.  Here&#039;s an example of how validation rules are discovered.  Given the following class structure:
-<ul class="star">
-<li> interface Animal;</li>
-<li> interface Quadraped extends Animal;</li>
-<li> class AnimalImpl implements Animal;</li>
-<li> class QuadrapedImpl extends AnimalImpl implements Quadraped;</li>
-<li> class Dog extends QuadrapedImpl;</li>
-</ul><br/>
-The framework method will look for the following config files if Dog is to be validated:
-<ol>
-<li> Animal</li>
-<li> Animal-aliasname</li>
-<li> AnimalImpl</li>
-<li> AnimalImpl-aliasname</li>
-<li> Quadraped</li>
-<li> Quadraped-aliasname</li>
-<li> QuadrapedImpl</li>
-<li> QuadrapedImpl-aliasname</li>
-<li> Dog</li>
-<li> Dog-aliasname</li>
-</ol><p class="paragraph">While this process is similar to what the <a href="Localization.html">XW:Localization</a> framework does when finding messages, there are some subtle differences.  The most important difference is that validation rules are discovered from the parent downwards.</p><h3 class="heading3">  Syntax for Validation Rules</h3><p class="paragraph">Here is a sample config file containing validation rules for SimpleAction from the Xwork test cases:</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;&#33;DOCTYPE validators PUBLIC &quot;&#45;//OpenSymphony Group//XWork Validator 1.0//EN&quot;&#10;        &quot;http&#58;//www.opensymphony.com/xwork/xwork&#45;validator&#45;1.0.dtd&quot;&gt;&#10;&lt;validators&gt;&#10;    &lt;field name=&quot;bar&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;required&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;You must enter a value for bar.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;int&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;min&quot;&gt;6&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;max&quot;&gt;10&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;bar must be between $&#123;min&#125; and $&#123;max&#125;, current value is $&#123;bar&#125;.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&gt;&#10;    &lt;field name=&quot;date&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;date&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;min&quot;&gt;12/22/2002&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;max&quot;&gt;12/25/2002&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;The date must be between 12&#45;22&#45;2002 and 12&#45;25&#45;2002.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&gt;&#10;    &lt;field name=&quot;foo&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;int&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;min&quot;&gt;0&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;param name=&quot;max&quot;&gt;100&lt;/param&gt;&#10;            &lt;message key=&quot;foo.range&quot;&gt;Could not find foo.range&#33;&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator type=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;foo &gt; bar&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;message&gt;Foo must be greater than Bar. Foo = $&#123;foo&#125;, Bar = $&#123;bar&#125;.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;    &lt;/validator&gt;&#10;&lt;/validators&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">All &lt;validator&gt; (and &lt;field-validator&gt;) elements must have a &quot;type&quot; attribute, which refers to a name of a Validator registered with the ValidatorFactory as described above.  These elements may also have &lt;param&gt; elements with name and value attributes to set arbitrary parameters into the Validator instance.</p>All &lt;validator&gt; (and &lt;field-validator&gt;) elements must also define one <b class="strong">message</b> subelement, which defines the message that should be added to the Action if the validator fails.  By default, the message will be that contained in the body of the message tag.  The <b class="strong">message</b> element also has one optional attribute, &quot;key,&quot; which specifies a message key to look up in the Action&#039;s ResourceBundles using getText() from LocaleAware if the Action implements that interface (as ActionSupport does). This provides for Localized messages based on the Locale of the user making the request (or whatever Locale you&#039;ve set into the LocaleAware Action).<p class="paragraph">If the validator fails, the validator is pushed onto the ValueStack and the message &#8211; either the default or the locale-specific one if the &quot;key&quot; attribute is defined (and such a message exists) &#8211; is parsed for \$&#123;...&#125; sections which are replaced with the evaluated value of the string between the \$&#123; and &#125;. This allows you to parameterize your messages with values from the validator, the Action, or both. Here is an example of a parameterized message:</p><div class="code"><pre>bar must be between &#92;$&#123;min&#125; and &#92;$&#123;max&#125;, current value is &#92;$&#123;bar&#125;.</pre></div><p class="paragraph">This will pull the min and max parameters from the IntRangeFieldValidator and the value of bar from the Action.</p><h4 class="heading4"> Validator vs. Field-Validator</h4><p class="paragraph">The &lt;field-validator&gt; elements are basically the same as the &lt;validator&gt; elements except that they inherit the &quot;fieldName&quot; attribute from its enclosing &lt;field&gt; element.  FieldValidators will have their &quot;fieldName&quot; automatically filled with the value of the parent &lt;field&gt; element&#039;s &quot;fieldName&quot; attribute.  The reason for this structure is to clearly group the validators for a particular field under one element, and because the &quot;fieldName&quot; attribute would otherwise always have to be set for all field validators.</p>That said, it&#039;s perfectly legal to only use validator elements without the field elements and set the &quot;fieldName&quot; attribute for each of them.  The following are effectively equal:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;field name=&quot;bar&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;required&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;message&gt;You must enter a value for bar.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;&lt;/field&gt;&#10;&#10;&lt;validator type=&quot;required&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;param name=&quot;fieldName&quot;&gt;bar&lt;/param&gt;&#10;    &lt;message&gt;You must enter a value for bar.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;&lt;/validator&gt;</pre></div>
-<p class="paragraph"><h3 class="heading3"> Short-circuiting Validators</h3></p>Beginning with WebWork 2.1, it is possible to short-circuit a stack of validators.  Here is another sample config file containing validation rules from the Xwork test cases:
-
-<div class="code"><pre>&lt;&#33;DOCTYPE validators PUBLIC &quot;&#45;//OpenSymphony Group//XWork Validator 1.0//EN&quot; &quot;http&#58;//www.opensymphony.com/xwork/xwork&#45;validator&#45;1.0.dtd&quot;&gt;&#10;&lt;validators&gt;&#10;    &lt;field name=&quot;email&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;required&quot; short&#45;circuit=&quot;true&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;You must enter a value for email.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;email&quot; short&#45;circuit=&quot;true&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;Not a valid e&#45;mail.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&gt;&#10;    &lt;field name=&quot;email2&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;required&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;You must enter a value for email2.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;        &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;email&quot;&gt;&#10;            &lt;message&gt;Not a valid e&#45;mail2.&lt;/message&gt;&#10;        &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator type=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;email.equals(email2)&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;message&gt;Email not the same as email2&lt;/message&gt;&#10;    &lt;/validator&gt;&#10;    &lt;validator type=&quot;expression&quot; short&#45;circuit=&quot;true&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;expression&quot;&gt;email.startsWith(&#039;mark&#039;)&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;message&gt;Email does not start with mark&lt;/message&gt;&#10;    &lt;/validator&gt;&#10;&lt;/validators&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">Notice that some of the &lt;field-validator&gt; and &lt;validator&gt; elements have the &quot;short-circuit&quot; attribute set to true.  Since validators are evaluated in the order they are declared, a validator with this attribute set to true will prevent the evaluation of subsequent validators if the validator fails, where failure is determined by the addition of an error (action or field error depending on the type of validator) to the ValidationContext of the object being validated.</p>A field-validator that gets short-circuited will only prevent other field-validators for the same field from being evaluated.  A non field-validator that gets short-circuited will completely break out of the validation stack &#8211; no other validators will be evaluated.<p class="paragraph">As mentioned above,  the framework will also search up the inheritance tree of the action to find default validations for interfaces and parent classes of the Action.  If you are using the &quot;short-circuit&quot; attribute and relying on default validators higher up in the inheritance tree, make sure you don&#039;t accidentally short-circuit things higher in the tree that you really want!</p>
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docs/wikidocs/Visitor Field Validators.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">The VisitorFieldValidator allows you to forward validation to object properties of your action using the objects own validation files. This allows you to use the ModelDriven development pattern and manage your validations for your models in one place, where they belong, next to your model classes. The VisitorFieldValidator can handle either simple Object properties, Collections of Objects, or Arrays.</p><h2 class="heading2"> Applying the VisitorFieldValidator</h2><p class="paragraph">The VisitorFieldValidator is applied like any other field validator in a validation.xml file (see <a href="Validation Framework.html">XW:Validation Framework</a>).</p><div class="code"><pre>&lt;field name=&quot;bean&quot;&gt;&#10;    &lt;field&#45;validator type=&quot;visitor&quot;&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;context&quot;&gt;anotherContext&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;param name=&quot;appendPrefix&quot;&gt;<span class="java&#45;keyword">false</span>&lt;/param&gt;&#10;        &lt;message&gt;bean&#58; &lt;/message&gt;&#10;    &lt;/field&#45;validator&gt;&#10;&lt;/field&gt;</pre></div><p class="paragraph">The <b class="strong">context</b> attribute determines the context to use for validating the Object property. If not defined, the context of the Action validation is propogated to the Object property validation.  In the case of Action validation, this context is the Action alias. Here we see the context being overridden in the validator mapping, so the action alias context will not be propogated.</p>The <b class="strong">appendPrefix</b> attribute determines whether the field name of this field validator should be prepended to the field name of the visited field to determine the full field name when an error occurs.  The default value is true.  For example, suppose that the bean being validated with the VisitorFieldValidator in this case has a name property.  If <b class="strong">appendPrefix</b> is true, then the field error will be stored under the field &quot;bean.name&quot;.  If <b class="strong">appendPrefix</b> is false, then the field error will be stored under the field &quot;name&quot;.<p class="paragraph">The <b class="strong">message</b> for the VisitorFieldValidator gives a String which will be appended in front of validation messages added by the validations for the Object message.</p>
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docs/wikidocs/XWork.html

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-				    <p class="paragraph">XWork is a generic command pattern framework. It was split out of WebWork 1.x and forms the core of <a href="http://wiki.opensymphony.com//display/WW/WebWork">WW:WebWork</a> 2.0. It features:
-<ul class="star">
-<li> Flexible and customizable configuration based on a simple Configuration interface, allowing you to use XML , programmatic, or even product-integrated configuration</li>
-<li> Core command pattern framework which can be customized and extended through the use of interceptors to fit any request / response environment</li>
-<li> Built in type conversion and action property validation using <span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.ognl.org">OGNL<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></li>
-<li> Powerful validation framework based on runtime attributes and a validation interceptor</li>
-</ul><br/>
-Useful links:<ul class="star">
-<li> <a href="Documentation.html">Documentation</a><ul class="star">
-<li> <span class="nobr"><a href="http://www.opensymphony.com/xwork/api">API Javadocs<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></li>
-</ul></li>
-<li> <span class="nobr"><a href="https://xwork.dev.java.net/servlets/ProjectDocumentList">Download Binaries<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></li>
-<li> <span class="nobr"><a href="https://xwork.dev.java.net/servlets/ProjectSource">CVS<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></li>
-</ul><br/>
-In addition to the documentation, it might be useful to see <a href="http://wiki.opensymphony.com//display/XW/RickardXWorkThoughts">Rickard Oberg&#039;s thoughts</a> on the future directions of XWork, especially as it relates to Portal development</p><h3 class="heading3"> XWork-Optional</h3><p class="paragraph">XWork optional is a repository where optional modules for XWork may be created. Just about anyone can get developers access to this repository and is encouraged to use this area as a staging zone for developing projects based upon XWork. Currently a mail dispatcher project is there which uses a mail folder to dispatch actions for processing the emails.  For download instuctions code go to  <span class="nobr"><a href="https://xwork-optional.dev.java.net/servlets/ProjectSource">&#104;ttps://xwork-optional.dev.java.net/servlets/ProjectSource<sup><img src="./icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt="&gt;&gt;" border="0"/></sup></a></span></p>
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-							<td>XW</td>
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-								<b>Name:</b>
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-							<td>XWork</td>
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-								<b>Description:</b>
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+    background-color: #ffcccc;
+}
+
+.license-eval b, .license-none b {
+    color: #990000
+}
+
+.license-nonprofit {
+    background-color: #ffffff;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The shadow at the bottom of the page between the main content and the
+ * "powered by" section.
+ */
+.bottomshadow {
+    height: 12px;
+    background-image: url("$req.contextPath/images/border/border_bottom.gif");
+    background-repeat: repeat-x;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Styling of the operations box
+ */
+.navmenu .operations li, .navmenu .operations ul {
+    list-style: none;
+    margin-left: 0;
+    padding-left: 0;
+}
+
+.navmenu .operations ul {
+    margin-bottom: 9px;
+}
+
+.navmenu .label {
+    font-weight: inherit;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Styling of ops as a toolbar
+ */
+.toolbar div {
+    display: none;
+}
+
+.toolbar .label {
+    display: none;
+}
+
+.toolbar .operations {
+    display: block;
+}
+
+.toolbar .operations ul {
+    display: inline;
+    list-style: none;
+    margin-left: 10px;
+    padding-left: 0;
+}
+
+.toolbar .operations li {
+    list-style: none;
+    display: inline;
+}
+
+/* list page navigational tabs */
+#foldertab {
+padding: 3px 0;
+margin-left: 0;
+border-bottom: 1px solid #99CCFF;
+font: bold 12px Verdana, sans-serif;
+}
+
+#foldertab li {
+list-style: none;
+margin: 0;
+display: inline;
+}
+
+#foldertab li a {
+padding: 3px 0.5em;
+margin-left: 3px;
+border: 1px solid #99CCFF;
+border-bottom: none;
+background: #99CCFF;
+text-decoration: none;
+}
+
+#foldertab li a:link { color: white; }
+#foldertab li a:visited { color: white; }
+
+#foldertab li a:hover {
+color: #dedede;
+background: #669900;
+border-color: #669900;
+}
+
+#foldertab li a#current {
+background: white;
+border-bottom: 1px solid white;
+color: black;
+}
+
+/* alphabet list */
+ul#squaretab {
+margin-left: 0;
+padding-left: 0;
+white-space: nowrap;
+font: bold 8px Verdana, sans-serif;
+}
+
+#squaretab li {
+display: inline;
+list-style-type: none;
+}
+
+#squaretab a {
+padding: 2px 6px;
+border: 1px solid #99CCFF;
+}
+
+#squaretab a:link, #squaretab a:visited {
+color: #fff;
+background-color: #99CCFF;
+text-decoration: none;
+}
+
+#squaretab a:hover {
+color: #dedede;
+background-color: #669900;
+border-color: #669900;
+text-decoration: none;
+}
+
+#squaretab li a#current {
+background: white;
+color: black;
+}
+
+.blogcalendar * {
+    font-family:verdana, arial, sans-serif;
+    font-size:x-small;
+    font-weight:normal;
+    line-height:140%;
+    padding:2px;
+}
+
+.blogcalendar caption {
+    font-family:palatino, georgia, times new roman, serif;
+    font-size:small;
+    font-weight:bold;
+    padding:2px;
+    letter-spacing: .3em;
+    text-transform:uppercase;
+}
+
+.searchGroup { padding: 0 0 10px 0; background: #f0f0f0; }
+.searchGroupHeading { font-size: 10px; font-weight: bold; color: #ffffff; background-color: #99CCFF; padding: 2px 4px 1px 4px; }
+.searchItem { padding: 1px 4px 1px 4px; }
+.searchItemSelected { padding: 1px 4px 1px 4px; font-weight: bold; background: #ddd; }
+
+/* permissions page styles */
+.permissionHeading {
+    border-bottom: #bbb; border-width: 0 0 1px 0; border-style: solid; font-size: 16px; text-align: left;
+}
+.permissionTab {
+    border-width: 0 0 0 1px; border-style: solid; background: #3c78b5; color: white;
+}
+.permissionCell {
+    border-left: #bbb; border-width: 0 0 0 1px; border-style: solid;
+}
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