Applications such as web search and social networking have been moving from centralized to decentralized cloud architectures to improve their scalability. MapReduce, a programming framework for processing large amounts of data using thousands of machines in a single cloud, also needs to be scaled out to multiple clouds to adapt to this evolution. The challenge of building a multi-cloud distributed architecture is substantial. Notwithstanding, the ability to deal with the new types of faults introduced by such setting, such as the outage of a whole datacenter or an arbitrary fault caused by a malicious cloud insider, increases the endeavor considerably.

Medusa is a platform that allows MapReduce computations to scale out to multiple clouds and tolerate several types of faults.

Our solution fulfills four objectives: First, it is transparent to the user, who writes her typical MapReduce application without modification. Second, it does not require any modification to the widely used Hadoop framework. Third, the proposed system goes well beyond the fault-tolerance offered by MapReduce to tolerate arbitrary faults, cloud outages, and even malicious faults caused by corrupt cloud insiders. Fourth, it achieves this increased level of fault tolerance at reasonable cost.

In the following sections I show my small notes. Some of them are hard to understand.

Installation of the Proxy

The emulab-install.sh script install all the packages in a clean state OS. These packages are Hadoop MR, python2.7 and java.

hadoop-coc-1:~/Programs/medusa-1.0# ./config-scripts/emulab-install.sh

To install all necessary python plugins in the virtualenv do this:

hadoop-coc-1:~/Programs/medusa-1.0# source medusa-env/bin/activate
(medusa-env)hadoop-coc-1:~/Programs/medusa-1.0# ./config-scripts/pip-plugins.sh

Configuration of MapReduce

To configure Hadoop MR configuration files you need to set the slaves in the Hadoop runtime. E.g.:

hadoop-coc-1:~/Programs/medusa-1.0# cat ~/Programs/hadoop/etc/hadoop/slaves

If you still need to set the SSH password, you need to import them so that SSH became passwordless. E.g.:

hadoop-coc-1# cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh sheena@host10 'cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys'

Then you must configure Hadoop MR files. E.g.:

hadoop-coc-1:~/Programs/medusa-1.0# ./config-scripts/onfigure-files.sh hadoop00

Verify if the /etc/hosts have the correct hostnames. E.g.:

hadoop-coc-1:~# cat /etc/hosts
(...)    hadoop-coc-1    hadoop-coc-2    hadoop-coc-3    hadoop-coc-4

Then you need to format the HDFS before starting Hadoop MR:

hadoop-coc-1:~# hadoop namenode -format
hadoop-coc-1:~# start-all.sh

Creating python environment

This tool has the purpose to control the execution of the mapreduce job in several clusters. We tested the proxy in python 2.7, and fabric 1.6.0. It is preferable that you install using a isolated Python environment using virtualenv.

Here it is an example of creating an virtualenv environment.

virtualenv ENV (e.g.$ virtualenv python-2.7) 

All the clusters must be connected to an Rabbit MQ server. All the clusters must know each other and added to authorized keys to allow ssh passwordless connections (The clusters that I am using know already)

You can install the python plugins that are set in pip-plugins.sh

Hadoop MapReduce

To run Hadoop MR, you need it to configure it first. If you need help to install MapReduce, you can this link 1. I also have set the .bashrc with some environment variables.

# User specific aliases and functions
export HADOOP_HOME=/home/pcosta/Programs/hadoop
export HADOOP_CONF_DIR=$HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop
export YARN_CONF_DIR=$HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop
export HADOOP_MAPREDUCE=~/Programs/hadoop-1.0.4

If the hosts are behind a firewall and need to transfer HDFS data in he web, in is necessary to configure HDFS to use the protocol HFFPFS. Follow this link 3.

Rabbit MQ

You need also to install RabbitMQ with sudo apt-get install rabbitmq-server, or install it in the $HOME path.

I show below a small and extremely lightweight demo of using Celery for distributed computation. It is necessary to configure some environment variables in RabbitMQ as root before running it.

$ rabbitmqctl add_user celeryuser celery
$ rabbitmqctl add_vhost celeryvhost
$ rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p celeryvhost celeryuser ".*" ".*" ".*"
$ rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management (guest/guest)
(Note: the user/password configuration here must match celeryconfig.py.)

To starting RabbitMQ, run this command rabbitmq-server.

Each celery instance is connected to the RabbitMQ using queues. Each host must have their own queue, and in this use case, 2 hosts are connected to the same broker. The addresses of the hosts are:


It is necessary to configure celeryconfig.py. An example is provided below.

Example of configuration of the celeryconfig.py

import os
import sys

# add hadoop python to the env, just for the running

# broker configuration
BROKER_URL = "amqp://celeryuser:celery@"


# for debug

# module loaded
CELERY_IMPORTS = ("manager.mergedirs", "manager.system", "manager.utility", "manager.pingdaemon", "manager.hdfs")

The settings are defined in a json file

  "config": {
    "localhome": "/home/xeon",
    "hadoophome": "/home/xeon/Programs/hadoop",
    "javahome": "/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.6.0-openjdk",
    "hadoopmanager": "/repositories/git/medusa-1.0",
    "namenode": "localhost:9000"

To run the unit tests:

The unit tests were run in setup environments and in distinct conditions. No integration tests were made. Even though, you still want to run all tests install nose.

pip install nose

Now you can run tests for your project:

cd path/to/project

To run the tests it is necessary to set configuration parameters, like HADOOP_HOME. They are defined in settings.py.

Run everything

Before you run everything, you need to create several symbolic links.

~/Programs/medusa-1.0/manager/manager$ ln -s server_settings.py settings.py

To configure the prediction algorithm it is necessary to install and run some programs.

  1. Run ./config-scripts/configure-server.sh
  2. Run iperf in the server and the client side.
  3. iperf-server.sh - server side
  4. iperf-client.sh Node01-4 Node01-0 400; iperf-client.sh Node01-4 Node01-0 800; iperf-client.sh Node01-4 Node01-0 1200
  5. check if exist the files $MANAGER_HOME/temp/{ clusters.json, Node01-4-Node01-0-1200.csv, networkork_data, Node01-4-Node01-0-400.csv, Node01-0-Node01-4-800.csv, job_log.json, prediction.json }
  6. Create the link to the settings file. ~/repositories/git/medusa-1.0/manager/manager$ ln -s client_settings.py settings.py
  7. You need to set CLUSTERS variable in the settings.py
  8. You can test if the celery is running properly running the testHello.py.


To check if everything is running, run the test testHello.py and check if the output are the hostnames that are connected to the Rabbit MQ server.


1. I have problems initializing celery

If you have problems initializing ./bin/celery-debug.sh, check the log less ~/Programs/rabbitmq_server-3.1.0/var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit@adminuser-VirtualBox-073n.log.

    $ rabbitmqctl add_user celeryuser celery
    $ rabbitmqctl add_vhost celeryvhost
    $ rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p celeryvhost celeryuser ".*" ".*" ".*"

2. I have the node down

If you have the error that indicates that the node is down,

Status of node 'rabbit@xxx' ...
Error: unable to connect to node 'rabbit@xxx': nodedown
- nodes and their ports on xxx: [{rabbitmqctl,...}]
- current node: 'rabbitmqctlxxx@xxx'
- current node home dir: [...]
- current node cookie hash: [...]

verify that .erlang.cookie from the rabbitmq_server-3.1.0 is the same as the one in the $HOME. E.g.,

rabbitmq_server-3.1.0]$ ln -s ~/.erlang.cookie .

3. How to configure rabbitMQ in Amazon EC2?

To configure rabbitMQ in Amazon EC2, set

ubuntu@ip-10-170-74-198:~$ cat /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-env.conf

DNS translates names into IP addresses. means "listen on all network interfaces", so whatever IP address public DNS resolves to, is used. In fact, there's only one IP address per instance most of the time.

Due to the private and public DNS, the queues/channels assume the private DNS, despite the host is configured to access the public DNS. E.g.,

Host EU: BROKER_HOST = ""<- broker public DNS
Client: CLUSTERS=["ip-10-210-130-219"]<- Host EU private DNS

4. How to configure HTTPFS?

To configure the HTTPFS in the clusters, the following was added in the core-site.xml (http://hadoop.apache.org/docs/current/hadoop-hdfs-httpfs/ServerSetup.html) and restart hadoop.

<property> <name>hadoop.proxyuser.ubuntu.hosts</name> <value>host-ec2.eu-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com</value> </property>
<property> <name>hadoop.proxyuser.ubuntu.groups</name> <value>\*</value> </property>

If you have this error, verify that you have this in core-site.xml 1 "ubuntu cannot impersionate ubuntu". You need to restart hadoop.

<property> <name>hadoop.proxyuser.ubuntu.hosts</name> <value>\*</value> </property>

13/07/28 14:26:29 ERROR tools.DistCp: Exception encountered 
org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException(org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException): User: ubuntu is not allowed to impersonate ubuntu
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.JsonUtil.toRemoteException(JsonUtil.java:169)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem.validateResponse(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:283)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem.access$500(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:91)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem$Runner.getResponse(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:549)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem$Runner.run(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:470)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem.run(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:403)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem.getHdfsFileStatus(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:570)
    at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.web.WebHdfsFileSystem.getFileStatus(WebHdfsFileSystem.java:581)
    at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.isFile(FileSystem.java:1371)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.SimpleCopyListing.validatePaths(SimpleCopyListing.java:67)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.CopyListing.buildListing(CopyListing.java:79)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.GlobbedCopyListing.doBuildListing(GlobbedCopyListing.java:90)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.CopyListing.buildListing(CopyListing.java:80)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.DistCp.createInputFileListing(DistCp.java:326)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.DistCp.execute(DistCp.java:151)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.DistCp.run(DistCp.java:118)
    at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:70)
    at org.apache.hadoop.tools.DistCp.main(DistCp.java:374)

##### 5. How to set internal ip address in ExoGeni?

In ExoGeni, NEuca service sets the loopback address to the hostname. Thus, we cannot assign the internal ip to the hostname. See this link

by default, the NEuca writes a loopback address to the hostname[1]. For me this is a problem because, I would like to assign the ip address to the hostname, but now I can't. Is there a workaroud to assign ip to the hostname?


$ cat /etc/hosts   localhost   ubuntu

### BEGIN NEuca loopback modifications - DO NOT EDIT BETWEEN THESE LINES. ###   NodeGroup0-0
### END NEuca loopback modifications - DO NOT EDIT BETWEEN THESE LINES. ###


Take a look in the following configuration file /etc/neuca/config, and you will find a section that looks like this:

## Set the node name in /etc/hosts to a value in the loopback space.
## Value can be "true" or "false"
#set-loopback-hostname = true
## The address that should be added to /etc/hosts if "set-loopback-hostname" is "true"
## This address *must* be in the space; any other value will result in an error.
#loopback-address =

You can disable setting the hostname to loopback, if you like, by uncommenting the appropriate configuration item, and altering it to taste. After you have done so, restart the neuca daemon thus /etc/init.d/neuca restart Afterward, you can edit the /etc/hosts file to your heart’s content.

6. Can I run celery as root?

Don’t Run Celery as the Root User. Check this link

7. How to set JAVA_HOME for hadoop?

Despite all the configuration, when we start mapreduce, we can get a problem in the JAVA_HOME, we can set the variable in ./etc/hadoop/yarn-site.sh and ./etc/hadoop/hadoop-env.sh.

Error: JAVA_HOME is not set and could not be found.